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“Are Filipinos Aging Well?”: Determinants of Subjective Well-Being among Senior Citizens of the Community-Based ENGAGE Study

Rogie royce carandang.

1 Department of Community and Global Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan; moc.liamg@amunabihs (A.S.); pj.ca.oykot-u.m@abmijm (M.J.)

Akira Shibanuma

Edward asis.

2 Department of Global Studies, Faculty of Liberal Arts, Sophia University, Tokyo 102-8554, Japan; [email protected]

Dominga Carolina Chavez

3 Office for Senior Citizens Affairs-Muntinlupa, Muntinlupa City 1770, Philippines; moc.oohay@caniloracagnimod

Maria Teresa Tuliao

4 City Health Office-Muntinlupa, Muntinlupa City 1770, Philippines; moc.liamg@36oailutaseretam

Masamine Jimba

As people age, they are expected to experience adverse life conditions and major life events. These circumstances might have a significant impact on their subjective well-being. This study investigated the factors associated with subjective well-being among community-dwelling Filipino senior citizens. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 1021 senior citizens (68.5% women) aged 60 and above and identified the factors independently associated with their subjective well-being using multiple linear regression analysis. We also used hierarchical regression analysis for model prediction. In the hierarchical regression analysis, psychological resilience was found as the most powerful predictor of subjective well-being. Loneliness, however, was the only psychosocial factor not associated with it. Both men and women with positive self-rated health and had higher psychological resilience and perceived social support showed a higher level of subjective well-being. Women who were separated and received pension and men who were uneducated showed a lower level of subjective well-being. Psychological resilience, positive self-rated health, and perceived social support might be protective factors for low subjective well-being. To improve the subjective well-being of Filipino senior citizens, we should build psychological resilience and social support networks in the community.

1. Introduction

The study of subjective well-being seeks to understand individuals’ assessment of their lives. It refers not only to the absence of mental disorders but to the individual’s positive evaluation of their experience and psychological functioning [ 1 ]. Subjective well-being has two aspects. First, the “hedonic or experiential well-being” refers to the pursuit of happiness and pleasant life. It also refers to the extent to which people experience positive effects (e.g., calmness or happiness) and negative effects (e.g., worry, sadness, or anger) in their daily lives [ 2 , 3 , 4 ]. Secondly, “eudaimonic or evaluative well-being” refers to human development and a meaningful life. It comprises the cognitive evaluations that people make about their life satisfaction [ 5 , 6 ]. Despite the distinction, subjective well-being is considered a multidimensional construct [ 7 , 8 , 9 ], and such multidimensionality has led to a different and confusing research base.

Previous studies have tried to ascertain whether there are life-course effects on subjective well-being at the population level. Mixed results were obtained accounting for differences across the studies in terms of design, sampled population, and data analysis. Some studies showed that subjective well-being is stable or increasing well into old age [ 10 , 11 ]. For instance, according to a review of large-scale international studies of individuals aged 20–80+, subjective well-being showed no decline with age in most societies [ 10 ]. On the other hand, other studies showed that subjective well-being is U-shaped through the life cycle in Western countries with a minimum level of subjective well-being occurring around midlife [ 12 , 13 ]. They have also seen a hill-shaped relationship between mental disorders (e.g., depression and anxiety) and age [ 12 ]. Thus, middle-aged individuals were vulnerable to low subjective well-being and mental disorders. However, with increasing age, people are expected to experience accumulation of adverse life conditions (e.g., disease and disability) and major life events (e.g., loss of companionship) [ 14 , 15 ]. These circumstances might have a significant impact on their subjective well-being. One longitudinal study supported this hypothesis and showed that subjective well-being decreased only after the age of 70 [ 16 ]. Hence, the challenge lies within understanding the factors that may affect the subjective well-being of the aging population.

The determinants of subjective well-being among senior citizens include socioeconomic status [ 17 ], psychological resources [ 18 ], social capital [ 19 ], and social relationships [ 20 ]. In a systematic review conducted among senior citizens in Europe, a lower socioeconomic status was associated with poorer subjective well-being [ 21 ]. Socially meaningful relations were positively associated with subjective well-being and quality of life among senior citizens in the United States [ 22 , 23 ]. Evidence suggests that living with a partner or being married can positively impact life satisfaction [ 24 ] and is associated with higher subjective well-being among older Europeans [ 25 ]. However, the differences in societies and gender have not been explored yet. This focus is essential, given that the aging experience may differ between societies [ 26 ] and the different role trajectories of men and women [ 27 ]. For instance, people in individualistic societies (e.g., United States, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Germany) tend to focus on their own living conditions. In contrast, people in collectivistic societies (e.g., Japan, South Korea, China, and Thailand) tend to consider their family’s well-being when they evaluate their subjective well-being [ 28 , 29 ]. Women also typically live longer than men, and older women tend to become widowed or spousal caregivers to men. This situation may have affected women’s subjective well-being [ 15 ]. As most of the relevant literature on subjective well-being was extracted from Western social-cultural backgrounds, more studies are awaited in Eastern societies.

In the Philippines, research on the mental health of senior citizens appears to be limited. Recently, mental disorder among Filipinos has been increasing, affecting around 17–20% of adults and 10–15% of children [ 30 ]. So far, we have examined the determinants of depressive symptoms among Filipino senior citizens in the Embracing and Nurturing Global Ageing (ENGAGE) research project [ 31 ]. In this population, psychological well-being might be a protective factor against depressive symptoms [ 31 ]. We also explored the unmet needs and coping mechanisms of Filipino senior citizens and identified their unmet needs, such as healthcare services, financial security, family support, and age-friendly environment [ 32 ]. Men and women cope differently to maintain their subjective well-being as they experience declining health and social support resources [ 32 ]. We hypothesized that there are gender differences in the factors associated with subjective well-being among Filipino senior citizens. Therefore, using the dataset of ENGAGE, this study aimed to examine the factors associated with subjective well-being between senior men and women living in a community in the Philippines.

2.1. Study Design and Setting

We conducted a cross-sectional study as part of a situational analysis of the Embracing and Nurturing Global Ageing (ENGAGE) research project. The project ENGAGE was conducted in Muntinlupa City from 2017 to 2018. This action research project aimed to improve the psychological well-being of senior citizens living in the community. The research project was created in collaboration between the University of Tokyo and two institutions in the city: The Office for Senior Citizens Affairs (OSCA) and the City Health Office. The research project had three phases: situational analysis, peer counseling and leadership training, and an open, nonrandomized trial. Details about the training and trial have been reported elsewhere [ 33 , 34 ].

Muntinlupa City is located in the southernmost part of the National Capital Region (Metropolitan Manila). It is classified as a first-class, highly urbanized city. The city has a poverty incidence of 1.9% as of 2012 [ 35 ], and 5.6% of its total population (504,509) was comprised of senior citizens. Muntinlupa City is divided into two districts and had a total of nine barangays. In the Philippines, a “barangay” refers to a community or village with at least 2000 residents. The average household size in the city is 4.2 persons per household.

2.2. Study Participants

In this study, participants were community-dwelling senior citizens in Muntinlupa City. From October to December 2017, we conducted a face-to-face survey interview among senior citizens. Participants had to be 60 years old and above and have a valid senior citizen identification (ID) card to be eligible in the study. The senior ID refers to the card issued by the OSCA office of the municipality or city where the participant lives. This locally issued ID is honored nationwide and serves as a proof of being a senior citizen [ 36 ]. We excluded in the study senior citizens who live in the nursing homes, with moderate/severe dementia, or with severe/life-threatening illnesses. We also excluded senior citizens who have problems in communication and suffering from impaired hearing. This study targeted only senior citizens living in the community and capable of answering the survey interview.

2.3. Data Collection

We held a two-day training for data collection. Fifteen barangay health workers (BHWs) participated in the training. We explained the recruitment and data collection procedures, which include informed consent communication and ethical considerations. We also emphasized the importance of consistent interview methods. In all, two experienced researchers and 15 trained BHWs conducted the data collection using a structured questionnaire.

We could not obtain the complete list of senior citizens living in Muntinlupa City. In this case, we used the list of senior citizens available in the barangay. The trained BHWs and experienced researchers recruited the senior citizens purposively by visiting their houses. The purposive sampling took into account the percentage of senior citizens per barangay. All senior citizens who were approached through home visits met the inclusion criteria and participated in the survey. Overall, we recruited 1021 senior citizens, and the duration of each survey interview was about 30 min.

2.4. Variables and Measurements

We described the instruments used in this study based on previous research [ 31 , 37 ]. For the translation and adaptation of instruments, we followed the guideline from the World Health Organization (WHO) [ 38 ].

2.4.1. Outcome: Subjective Well-Being

The 5-item WHO well-being index is a short and generic global rating scale that measures subjective well-being. We used the WHO-5 to measure senior citizens’ subjective well-being. The scale reflected both the experiential (hedonic) and evaluative (eudaimonic) aspects of subjective well-being [ 39 ]. Senior citizens were asked to rate how well each of the five positive statements applied to them within the last 14 days. The five statements included having felt cheerful and in good spirits, active and vigorous, calm and relaxed, daily life filled with interesting things, and woke up feeling fresh and rested. Each of the five items was scored from not present (0) to always present (5). The total WHO-5 score was the sum of the five items, and the higher the score, the higher was the level of subjective well-being. The scale has high clinimetric validity and high sensitivity and specificity [ 39 ]. It has been used as a generic scale for subjective well-being and a screening tool for clinical depression worldwide [ 39 ]. The Cronbach’s α of the WHO-5 for this study was 0.88.

2.4.2. Exposure: Socio-Demographic and Health Characteristics

We collected the socio-demographic and health characteristics of senior citizens that were likely to affect their subjective well-being based on previous research [ 15 , 31 , 37 ]. These characteristics included socio-demographics, such as age, marital status, education, pension, monthly income, and living arrangement. For the health characteristics, we included self-rated health, the presence of chronic diseases, drinking, and smoking habits.

We treated age as a continuous variable. For marital status, we categorized senior citizens into married, never married, separated, and widowed. Educational attainment was grouped into no education, attended elementary school, high school, and college. Concerning pension, we asked whether they are receiving it or not. We also asked their monthly income and grouped them into good, average, poor, or no income. We assessed their living arrangement by asking them whether they lived with others or lived alone. We also asked them about the presence of chronic diseases and how they assess their general health status from very bad to very good. Concerning lifestyle, we classified their smoking habits as a non-smoker, ex-smoker, and current smoker. In contrast, drinking habits were grouped as non-drinker, occasional, or daily drinker.

2.4.3. Exposure: Psychosocial Factors

Psychological resilience.

The Resilience Appraisal Scale (RAS) contains 12 items that measure the individual’s ability to cope with emotions, gain social support, and solve problems [ 40 ]. We used this scale to assess senior citizens’ psychological resilience. Senior citizens rated their responses on a five-point Likert scale from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5). We obtained the total RAS-12 score by adding the raw scores. The possible total score ranged from 12 to 60. Senior citizens who obtained a higher score indicated a higher level of psychological resilience. For this study, the Cronbach’s α of the RAS-12 was 0.93.

Perceived Social Support

The Duke Social Support Index (DSSI) measures social support that an individual received from others. In this study, we used the 10-item DSSI to measure senior citizens’ perceived social support. DSSI-10 has two subscales: social satisfaction and social interaction [ 41 ]. The social interaction subscale asked about the number of social interactions the senior citizen had within the past week. The social satisfaction subscale, on the other hand, asked about the quality of those social interactions [ 41 ]. Hence, the DSSI-10 is the sum of these two subscales, with a possible score from 10 to 30. The higher the score, the higher the level of social support among senior citizens. The Cronbach’s α of the DSSI-10 for this study was 0.82.

In this study, we used the short-form UCLA Loneliness scale. It contains eight items (ULS-8) to assess senior citizens’ level of loneliness [ 42 ]. Senior citizens were asked to rate how each statement described their current situation. Each of the eight items is scored from never (1) to always (4), and the total ULS-8 score ranged from 8 to 32. Before summing up the scores, we reverse coded the response to the statements, “I can find companionship whenever I want” and “I am an outgoing person”. There is no cut-off score to define loneliness; however, the higher the ULS-8 score, the higher the level of loneliness. For this study, the Cronbach’s α of the ULS-8 was 0.82.

2.5. Data Analysis

We summarized the senior citizens’ socio-demographic and health characteristics using descriptive statistics and showed their distribution by cross-tabulation. Then, we calculated the overall scores of the scales used in this study (WHO-5, DSSI-10, RAS-12, and ULS-8). We stratified the analysis by gender to see gender differences in the factors affecting senior citizens’ subjective well-being. We used t -tests or one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the bivariate analyses.

To identify the factors associated with subjective well-being, we performed multiple linear regression analysis. We included all the exposure variables in the regression model. Multicollinearity is not a concern in the model because we obtained variance inflation factor (VIF) values less than 2.0. It also met the multiple linear regression assumptions, including homoscedasticity, normal distribution of residuals, and the linear relationship between the outcome and exposure variables. After that, to ascertain the predictors of subjective well-being, we performed a hierarchical regression analysis. We created six models for this analysis. For Model 1, we adjusted for demographic variables, including the senior citizens’ age, sex, educational attainment, living alone, and marital status. Then, we added the economic variables (pension and monthly income) in Model 2. As for Model 3, we included health characteristics, such as chronic diseases, self-rated health, drinking, and smoking habits. To see the independent association of loneliness and perceived social support with subjective well-being, we created Model 4 (without social support) and Model 5 (without loneliness), respectively. Finally, we further adjusted Model 6 (full model) for all the psychosocial variables, including psychological resilience, perceived social support, and loneliness. All statistical analyses were conducted using Stata 13.1 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA), and the level of significance was set to 0.05 (two-tailed).

2.6. Ethical Considerations

This study was approved by the Graduate School of Medicine’s Research Ethics Committee, The University of Tokyo (SN 11641), and the University of the Philippines-Manila Research Ethics Board (UPMREB 2017-312-01). We ensured the respondents’ confidentiality and privacy as no personally identifiable information was included in the study. All senior citizens participated voluntarily and were free to withdraw from the study without harm or penalty. Before conducting face-to-face interviews, we secured written informed consent from the senior citizens and their legal guardians when necessary. We also obtained all required approvals and permits, such as a Memorandum of Understanding between the University of Tokyo and Muntinlupa City.

3.1. Characteristics of Participants

Table 1 shows the general characteristics of the senior citizens. Of the 1021 senior citizens, 699 (68.5%) were women, and their mean age was 67.9 years (standard deviation (SD) 6.2). One-third of the senior citizens were men, and their mean age was 67.3 (SD 5.9). Regarding marital status, women were more likely to be widowed (43.6% versus 11.5%). Almost half of them (337, 48.2%) attended high school/college. Moreover, women were more likely to have no income (72.6% versus 61.5%) and had chronic diseases (84.8% versus 76.7%). For their living arrangement, the majority of senior citizens (92.1%) lived with others. Concerning their lifestyle habits, men were more likely to be ex/current smokers (59.9% versus 7.5%) and occasional/daily drinkers (47.5% versus 6.3%).

Characteristics of the community-dwelling Filipino senior citizens.

SD—standard deviation; RAS-12—12-item Resilience Appraisal Scale; DSSI-10—10-item Duke Social Support Index; ULS-8—8-item UCLA Loneliness Scale.

3.2. Factors Associated with Subjective Well-Being of Filipino Senior Citizens

Table 2 shows the factors associated with Filipino senior citizens’ subjective well-being stratified by gender. Among women, those who were separated (β = −0.07; 95% CI = −3.4, −0.7) and received pension (β = −0.07; 95% CI = −1.2, −0.0) were negatively associated with a higher level of subjective well-being; whereas, among men, those who had no education were negatively associated with a higher level of subjective well-being (β = −0.05; 95% CI = −3.9, −0.2), as compared with those who had a high school/college education. Both men and women who had “good/very good” self-rated health (men: β = 0.23; 95% CI = 1.3, 3.3; women: β = 0.17; 95% CI = 1.0, 2.4), had higher psychological resilience (men: β = 0.30; 95% CI = 0.1, 0.3; women: β = 0.26; 95% CI = 0.2, 0.3), and had higher perceived social support (men: β = 0.14; 95% CI = 0.0, 0.4; women: β = 0.19; 95% CI = 0.1, 0.4) was positively associated with a higher level of subjective well-being.

Factors associated with subjective well-being of community-dwelling Filipino senior citizens stratified by gender.

CI—confidence interval.

Table 3 shows the results of the hierarchical regression analysis. As shown in Models 4 and 5, loneliness (β = −0.11, p < 0.001) and perceived social support (β = 0.21, p < 0.001) were independently associated with subjective well-being. However, the association of loneliness with subjective well-being (β = −0.05, p = 0.070) became insignificant in Model 6 (the full model), which suggested that loneliness was greatly influenced by perceived social support. Model 6 explained a total of 29.7% of the variance of subjective well-being. Those who had a “good/very good” self-rated health were positively associated with a higher level of subjective well-being (β = 0.19, p < 0.001) compared with those with a “fair” self-rated health. In contrast, those who had “bad/very bad” self-rated health showed the opposite results (β = −0.09, p = 0.003). Among the psychosocial factors, psychological resilience had the strongest association with subjective well-being (β = 0.27, p < 0.001), followed by perceived social support (β = 0.19, p < 0.001). Loneliness did not show any statistically significant association with subjective well-being in the final model (β = −0.05, p = 0.070).

Hierarchical regression analysis predicting the subjective well-being of community-dwelling Filipino senior citizens ( n = 1021).

RAS-12—12-item Resilience Appraisal Scale; DSSI-10—10-item Duke Social Support Index; ULS-8—8-item UCLA Loneliness Scale; R 2 —variance; Δ R 2 —change in variance. Values are presented as standardized beta (β). Statistical significance indicated by * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001.

4. Discussion

In this study, self-rated health, psychological resilience, and perceived social support were associated with Filipino senior citizens’ subjective well-being. Psychological resilience was the most powerful predictor of their subjective well-being. Loneliness, however, was the only psychosocial factor not associated with subjective well-being.

As shown in the hierarchical regression analysis, the influence of socioeconomic factors (e.g., education, income, and pension) wanes after introducing the psychosocial factors in the final model. This result might imply that psychosocial, rather than socioeconomic factors, greatly influenced Filipino senior citizens’ subjective well-being. Of all the psychosocial factors, psychological resilience was the most powerful predictor of subjective well-being, followed by perceived social support. Of all the health-related variables, positive self-rated health was the strongest predictor of subjective well-being. In this study, both men and women who had higher psychological resilience and had “good/ very good” self-rated health showed a higher level of subjective well-being. According to a literature review, higher resilience is associated with a higher quality of life and better mental health among senior citizens [ 43 ]. A positive health perception also increased the life satisfaction among senior citizens in Germany and Spain [ 44 , 45 ]. Our findings demonstrate the importance of psychological resilience and positive health perception in improving Filipino senior citizens’ subjective well-being, where resources are limited compared with these European countries.

Another important finding was that loneliness was the only psychosocial factor not associated with subjective well-being. This means that loneliness may not affect subjective well-being. This finding must be interpreted with caution because the association of loneliness with subjective well-being was greatly influenced by perceived social support, as shown in this study. This result is new and warrants further investigation because there could be reverse causality between loneliness and perceived social support. There is also a lack of empirical evidence that includes prospective studies to discern the relationship between loneliness and perceived social support and subjective well-being. Despite the lack of evidence, the English Longitudinal Study of Aging reported that loneliness was not associated with the rate of change in hedonic well-being, but social isolation does [ 20 ]. However, we did not measure social isolation in this study.

Both men and women who had higher perceived social support were positively associated with a higher level of subjective well-being. This finding illustrates that a social network or social exchange was a significant predictor of subjective well-being, consistent with other studies [ 17 , 22 , 23 , 46 , 47 ]. For instance, among senior citizens in the United States, having socially meaningful relations were positively associated with their subjective well-being and quality of life [ 22 , 23 ]; also, the influence of the social network on subjective well-being was higher for women than men. Pinquart and Sörensen [ 17 ] have previously confirmed this finding in their meta-analysis, too.

However, women who were separated and received pension reported a lower level of subjective well-being. Separated women in this study might have lost a supportive and intimate relationship, which can help in dealing with life stress. According to the British Household Panel Survey, women seemed more adversely affected by multiple partnership transitions and take longer to recover from partnership splits than men [ 48 ]. This result highlighted the positive effect of marriage or living with a partner on life satisfaction and subjective well-being [ 24 , 25 ]. As for the pension, women might have put more value on social contacts than on financial resources, as previously stated. Financial assets were more strongly related to men’s subjective well-being than women [ 49 , 50 , 51 ].

As for men, those who were uneducated had a lower subjective well-being than those with a high school/college education. Being uneducated among men might result in considerable internal conflict regarding gender roles, which might harm their mental health. This finding is the same as Lai et al., where they reported that senior citizens in Hong Kong who had a lower level of education are more likely to suffer from low subjective well-being [ 52 ]. Previous studies reported that higher education was associated with better subjective well-being across numerous settings [ 53 , 54 ]. Among older Americans, higher education may lead to more positive psychological states, which in turn contribute to good health [ 55 ]. Hence, our findings indicate the importance of a higher level of education to improve the subjective well-being of male Filipino senior citizens.

This study has several limitations. First, due to the study’s cross-sectional nature, the factors only suggest but do not confirm a causal relationship. We could not rule out reverse causality between psychological resilience and subjective well-being. For instance, those who have a low subjective well-being may have low psychological resilience. Secondly, there might be other factors that were not covered in the study, such as frailty and physical activity, which might also affect senior citizens’ subjective well-being [ 56 , 57 ]. It will be interesting to include these factors in future studies. Thirdly, we used convenience sampling to recruit senior citizens. As we could not obtain the complete list of senior citizens in the city, our sampling procedure was based on senior citizens’ percentage per barangay. Fourthly, we conducted the study in one urban city, so we cannot generalize the results for all Filipino senior citizens. Data collection from other subgroups located in the province will provide more information. Finally, some of the instruments we used in this study (e.g., DSSI-10, RAS-12, and ULS-8) were adapted from previous research [ 37 , 58 , 59 ] and have not been validated in the Philippine context. To overcome this issue, we did forward and back translation meticulously, performed face-validity testing by asking the experts (gerontologist and psychologists), pretested the questionnaires, and confirmed their reliability. Notwithstanding these limitations, the findings of this study have strengths and implications for policymaking and future interventions. This study is the first step in highlighting the subjective well-being of Filipino senior citizens.

5. Conclusions

This study underscored the essential factors associated with subjective well-being among community-dwelling senior citizens in the Philippines. Psychological resilience, positive self-rated health, and perceived social support might be protective factors for low subjective well-being. To improve their subjective well-being, we should build psychological resilience and social support networks in the community. Therefore, the local government may conduct community-based resilience programs and promote active participation among senior citizens.

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to express their gratitude to all the senior citizens who participated voluntarily in this study. They also want to show appreciation to their local collaborators, including administrators, health providers, and barangay health workers.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, R.R.C. and M.J.; methodology, R.R.C. and M.J.; software, A.S.; validation, R.R.C., A.S. and E.A.; formal analysis, R.R.C. and A.S.; investigation, R.R.C., E.A., D.C.C. and M.T.T.; resources, D.C.C. and M.T.T.; data curation, A.S. and M.J.; writing—original draft preparation, R.R.C.; writing—review and editing, A.S., E.A., D.C.C., M.T.T. and M.J.; visualization, R.R.C. and A.S.; supervision, M.J.; project administration, R.R.C.; funding acquisition, R.R.C., A.S. and M.J. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 20K18875.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest. The funders had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, or in the decision to publish the results.

Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

PHILO-notes

Free Online Learning Materials

How to Write the Background of the Study in Research (Part 1)

Background of the Study in Research: Definition and the Core Elements it Contains

Before we embark on a detailed discussion on how to write the background of the study of your proposed research or thesis, it is important to first discuss its meaning and the core elements that it should contain. This is obviously because understanding the nature of the background of the study in research and knowing exactly what to include in it allow us to have both greater control and clear direction of the writing process.

So, what really is the background of the study and what are the core elements that it should contain?

The background of the study, which usually forms the first section of the introduction to a research paper or thesis, provides the overview of the study. In other words, it is that section of the research paper or thesis that establishes the context of the study. Its main function is to explain why the proposed research is important and essential to understanding the main aspects of the study.

The background of the study, therefore, is the section of the research paper or thesis that identifies the problem or gap of the study that needs to addressed and justifies the need for conducting the study. It also articulates the main goal of the study and the thesis statement, that is, the main claim or argument of the paper.

Given this brief understanding of the background of the study, we can anticipate what readers or thesis committee members expect from it. As we can see, the background of the study should contain the following major points:

1) brief discussion on what is known about the topic under investigation; 2) An articulation of the research gap or problem that needs to be addressed; 3) What the researcher would like to do or aim to achieve in the study ( research goal); 4) The thesis statement, that is, the main argument or contention of the paper (which also serves as the reason why the researcher would want to pursue the study); 5) The major significance or contribution of the study to a particular discipline; and 6) Depending on the nature of the study, an articulation of the hypothesis of the study.

Thus, when writing the background of the study, you should plan and structure it based on the major points just mentioned. With this, you will have a clear picture of the flow of the tasks that need to be completed in writing this section of your research or thesis proposal.

Now, how do you go about writing the background of the study in your proposed research or thesis?

The next lessons will address this question.

How to Write the Opening Paragraphs of the Background of the Study?

To begin with, let us assume that you already have conducted a preliminary research on your chosen topic, that is, you already have read a lot of literature and gathered relevant information for writing the background of your study. Let us also assume that you already have identified the gap of your proposed research and have already developed the research questions and thesis statement. If you have not yet identified the gap in your proposed research, you might as well go back to our lesson on how to identify a research gap.

So, we will just put together everything that you have researched into a background of the study (assuming, again, that you already have the necessary information). But in this lesson, let’s just focus on writing the opening paragraphs.

It is important to note at this point that there are different styles of writing the background of the study. Hence, what I will be sharing with you here is not just “the” only way of writing the background of the study. As a matter of fact, there is no “one-size-fits-all” style of writing this part of the research or thesis. At the end of the day, you are free to develop your own. However, whatever style it would be, it always starts with a plan which structures the writing process into stages or steps. The steps that I will share with below are just some of the most effective ways of writing the background of the study in research.

So, let’s begin.

It is always a good idea to begin the background of your study by giving an overview of your research topic. This may include providing a definition of the key concepts of your research or highlighting the main developments of the research topic.

Let us suppose that the topic of your study is the “lived experiences of students with mathematical anxiety”.

Here, you may start the background of your study with a discussion on the meaning, nature, and dynamics of the term “mathematical anxiety”. The reason for this is too obvious: “mathematical anxiety” is a highly technical term that is specific to mathematics. Hence, this term is not readily understandable to non-specialists in this field.

So, you may write the opening paragraph of your background of the study with this:

“Mathematical anxiety refers to the individual’s unpleasant emotional mood responses when confronted with a mathematical situation.”

Since you do not invent the definition of the term “mathematical anxiety”, then you need to provide a citation to the source of the material from which you are quoting. For example, you may now say:

“Mathematical anxiety refers to the individual’s unpleasant emotional mood responses when confronted with a mathematical situation (Eliot, 2020).”

And then you may proceed with the discussion on the nature and dynamics of the term “mathematical anxiety”. You may say:

“Lou (2019) specifically identifies some of the manifestations of this type of anxiety, which include, but not limited to, depression, helplessness, nervousness and fearfulness in doing mathematical and numerical tasks.”

After explaining to your readers the meaning, nature, and dynamics (as well as some historical development if you wish to) of the term “mathematical anxiety”, you may now proceed to showing the problem or gap of the study. As you may already know, the research gap is the problem that needs to be addressed in the study. This is important because no research activity is possible without the research gap.

Let us suppose that your research problem or gap is: “Mathematical anxiety can negatively affect not just the academic achievement of the students but also their future career plans and total well-being. Also, there are no known studies that deal with the mathematical anxiety of junior high school students in New Zealand.” With this, you may say:

“If left unchecked, as Shapiro (2019) claims, this problem will expand and create a total avoidance pattern on the part of the students, which can be expressed most visibly in the form of cutting classes and habitual absenteeism. As we can see, this will negatively affect the performance of students in mathematics. In fact, the study conducted by Luttenberger and Wimmer (2018) revealed that the outcomes of mathematical anxiety do not only negatively affect the students’ performance in math-related situations but also their future career as professionals. Without a doubt, therefore, mathematical anxiety is a recurring problem for many individuals which will negatively affect the academic success and future career of the student.”

Now that you already have both explained the meaning, nature, and dynamics of the term “mathematical anxiety” and articulated the gap of your proposed research, you may now state the main goal of your study. You may say:

“Hence, it is precisely in this context that the researcher aims to determine the lived experiences of those students with mathematical anxiety. In particular, this proposed thesis aims to determine the lived experiences of the junior high school students in New Zealand and identify the factors that caused them to become disinterested in mathematics.”

Please note that you should not end the first paragraph of your background of the study with the articulation of the research goal. You also need to articulate the “thesis statement”, which usually comes after the research goal. As is well known, the thesis statement is the statement of your argument or contention in the study. It is more of a personal argument or claim of the researcher, which specifically highlights the possible contribution of the study. For example, you may say:

“The researcher argues that there is a need to determine the lived experiences of these students with mathematical anxiety because knowing and understanding the difficulties and challenges that they have encountered will put the researcher in the best position to offer some alternatives to the problem. Indeed, it is only when we have performed some kind of a ‘diagnosis’ that we can offer practicable solutions to the problem. And in the case of the junior high school students in New Zealand who are having mathematical anxiety, determining their lived experiences as well as identifying the factors that caused them to become disinterested in mathematics are the very first steps in addressing the problem.”

If we combine the bits and pieces that we have written above, we can now come up with the opening paragraphs of your background of the study, which reads:

background of the study in filipino research

As we can see, we can find in the first paragraph 5 essential elements that must be articulated in the background of the study, namely:

1) A brief discussion on what is known about the topic under investigation; 2) An articulation of the research gap or problem that needs to be addressed; 3) What the researcher would like to do or aim to achieve in the study (research goal); 4) The thesis statement , that is, the main argument or claim of the paper; and 5) The major significance or contribution of the study to a particular discipline. So, that’s how you write the opening paragraphs of your background of the study. The next lesson will talk about writing the body of the background of the study.

How to Write the Body of the Background of the Study?

If we liken the background of the study to a sitting cat, then the opening paragraphs that we have completed in the previous lesson would just represent the head of the cat.

background of the study in filipino research

This means we still have to write the body (body of the cat) and the conclusion (tail). But how do we write the body of the background of the study? What should be its content?

Truly, this is one of the most difficult challenges that fledgling scholars faced. Because they are inexperienced researchers and didn’t know what to do next, they just wrote whatever they wished to write. Fortunately, this is relatively easy if they know the technique.

One of the best ways to write the body of the background of the study is to attack it from the vantage point of the research gap. If you recall, when we articulated the research gap in the opening paragraphs, we made a bold claim there, that is, there are junior high school students in New Zealand who are experiencing mathematical anxiety. Now, you have to remember that a “statement” remains an assumption until you can provide concrete proofs to it. This is what we call the “epistemological” aspect of research. As we may already know, epistemology is a specific branch of philosophy that deals with the validity of knowledge. And to validate knowledge is to provide concrete proofs to our statements. Hence, the reason why we need to provide proofs to our claim that there are indeed junior high school students in New Zealand who are experiencing mathematical anxiety is the obvious fact that if there are none, then we cannot proceed with our study. We have no one to interview with in the first. In short, we don’t have respondents.

The body of the background of the study, therefore, should be a presentation and articulation of the proofs to our claim that indeed there are junior high school students in New Zealand who are experiencing mathematical anxiety. Please note, however, that this idea is true only if you follow the style of writing the background of the study that I introduced in this course.

So, how do we do this?

One of the best ways to do this is to look for literature on mathematical anxiety among junior high school students in New Zealand and cite them here. However, if there are not enough literature on this topic in New Zealand, then we need to conduct initial interviews with these students or make actual classroom observations and record instances of mathematical anxiety among these students. But it is always a good idea if we combine literature review with interviews and actual observations.

Assuming you already have the data, then you may now proceed with the writing of the body of your background of the study. For example, you may say:

“According to records and based on the researcher’s firsthand experience with students in some junior high schools in New Zealand, indeed, there are students who lost interest in mathematics. For one, while checking the daily attendance and monitoring of the students, it was observed that some of them are not always attending classes in mathematics but are regularly attending the rest of the required subjects.”

After this sentence, you may insert some literature that will support this position. For example, you may say:

“As a matter of fact, this phenomenon is also observed in the work of Estonanto. In his study titled ‘Impact of Math Anxiety on Academic Performance in Pre-Calculus of Senior High School’, Estonanto (2019) found out that, inter alia, students with mathematical anxiety have the tendency to intentionally prioritize other subjects and commit habitual tardiness and absences.”

Then you may proceed saying:

“With this initial knowledge in mind, the researcher conducted initial interviews with some of these students. The researcher learned that one student did not regularly attend his math subject because he believed that he is not good in math and no matter how he listens to the topic he will not learn.”

Then you may say:

“Another student also mentioned that she was influenced by her friends’ perception that mathematics is hard; hence, she avoids the subject. Indeed, these are concrete proofs that there are some junior high school students in New Zealand who have mathematical anxiety. As already hinted, “disinterest” or the loss of interest in mathematics is one of the manifestations of a mathematical anxiety.”

If we combine what we have just written above, then we can have the first two paragraphs of the body of our background of the study. It reads:

“According to records and based on the researcher’s firsthand experience with students in some junior high schools in New Zealand, indeed there are students who lost interest in mathematics. For one, while checking the daily attendance and monitoring of the students, it was observed that some of them are not always attending classes in mathematics but are regularly attending the rest of the required subjects. As a matter of fact, this phenomenon is also observed in the work of Estonanto. In his study titled ‘Impact of Math Anxiety on Academic Performance in Pre-Calculus of Senior High School’, Estonanto (2019) found out that, inter alia, students with mathematical anxiety have the tendency to intentionally prioritize other subjects and commit habitual tardiness and absences.

With this initial knowledge in mind, the researcher conducted initial interviews with some of these students. The researcher learned that one student did not regularly attend his math subject because he believed that he is not good in math and no matter how he listens to the topic he will not learn. Another student also mentioned that she was influenced by her friends’ perception that mathematics is hard; hence, she avoids the subject. Indeed, these are concrete proofs that there are some junior high school students in New Zealand who have mathematical anxiety. As already hinted, “disinterest” or the loss of interest in mathematics is one of the manifestations of a mathematical anxiety.”

And then you need validate this observation by conducting another round of interview and observation in other schools. So, you may continue writing the body of the background of the study with this:

“To validate the information gathered from the initial interviews and observations, the researcher conducted another round of interview and observation with other junior high school students in New Zealand.”

“On the one hand, the researcher found out that during mathematics time some students felt uneasy; in fact, they showed a feeling of being tensed or anxious while working with numbers and mathematical problems. Some were even afraid to seat in front, while some students at the back were secretly playing with their mobile phones. These students also show remarkable apprehension during board works like trembling hands, nervous laughter, and the like.”

Then provide some literature that will support your position. You may say:

“As Finlayson (2017) corroborates, emotional symptoms of mathematical anxiety involve feeling of helplessness, lack of confidence, and being nervous for being put on the spot. It must be noted that these occasionally extreme emotional reactions are not triggered by provocative procedures. As a matter of fact, there are no personally sensitive questions or intentional manipulations of stress. The teacher simply asked a very simple question, like identifying the parts of a circle. Certainly, this observation also conforms with the study of Ashcraft (2016) when he mentions that students with mathematical anxiety show a negative attitude towards math and hold self-perceptions about their mathematical abilities.”

And then you proceed:

“On the other hand, when the class had their other subjects, the students show a feeling of excitement. They even hurried to seat in front and attentively participating in the class discussion without hesitation and without the feeling of being tensed or anxious. For sure, this is another concrete proof that there are junior high school students in New Zealand who have mathematical anxiety.”

To further prove the point that there indeed junior high school students in New Zealand who have mathematical anxiety, you may solicit observations from other math teachers. For instance, you may say:

“The researcher further verified if the problem is also happening in other sections and whether other mathematics teachers experienced the same observation that the researcher had. This validation or verification is important in establishing credibility of the claim (Buchbinder, 2016) and ensuring reliability and validity of the assertion (Morse et al., 2002). In this regard, the researcher attempted to open up the issue of math anxiety during the Departmentalized Learning Action Cell (LAC), a group discussion of educators per quarter, with the objective of ‘Teaching Strategies to Develop Critical Thinking of the Students’. During the session, one teacher corroborates the researcher’s observation that there are indeed junior high school students in New Zealand who have mathematical anxiety. The teacher pointed out that truly there were students who showed no extra effort in mathematics class in addition to the fact that some students really avoided the subject. In addition, another math teacher expressed her frustrations about these students who have mathematical anxiety. She quipped: “How can a teacher develop the critical thinking skills or ability of the students if in the first place these students show avoidance and disinterest in the subject?’.”

Again, if we combine what we have just written above, then we can now have the remaining parts of the body of the background of the study. It reads:

background of the study in filipino research

So, that’s how we write the body of the background of the study in research . Of course, you may add any relevant points which you think might amplify your content. What is important at this point is that you now have a clear idea of how to write the body of the background of the study.

How to Write the Concluding Part of the Background of the Study?

Since we have already completed the body of our background of the study in the previous lesson, we may now write the concluding paragraph (the tail of the cat). This is important because one of the rules of thumb in writing is that we always put a close to what we have started.

It is important to note that the conclusion of the background of the study is just a rehashing of the research gap and main goal of the study stated in the introductory paragraph, but framed differently. The purpose of this is just to emphasize, after presenting the justifications, what the study aims to attain and why it wants to do it. The conclusion, therefore, will look just like this:

“Given the above discussion, it is evident that there are indeed junior high school students in New Zealand who are experiencing mathematical anxiety. And as we can see, mathematical anxiety can negatively affect not just the academic achievement of the students but also their future career plans and total well-being. Again, it is for this reason that the researcher attempts to determine the lived experiences of those junior high school students in New Zealand who are experiencing a mathematical anxiety.”

If we combine all that we have written from the very beginning, the entire background of the study would now read:

background of the study in filipino research

If we analyze the background of the study that we have just completed, we can observe that in addition to the important elements that it should contain, it has also addressed other important elements that readers or thesis committee members expect from it.

On the one hand, it provides the researcher with a clear direction in the conduct of the study. As we can see, the background of the study that we have just completed enables us to move in the right direction with a strong focus as it has set clear goals and the reasons why we want to do it. Indeed, we now exactly know what to do next and how to write the rest of the research paper or thesis.

On the other hand, most researchers start their research with scattered ideas and usually get stuck with how to proceed further. But with a well-written background of the study, just as the one above, we have decluttered and organized our thoughts. We have also become aware of what have and have not been done in our area of study, as well as what we can significantly contribute in the already existing body of knowledge in this area of study.

Please note, however, as I already mentioned previously, that the model that I have just presented is only one of the many models available in textbooks and other sources. You are, of course, free to choose your own style of writing the background of the study. You may also consult your thesis supervisor for some guidance on how to attack the writing of your background of the study.

Lastly, and as you may already know, universities around the world have their own thesis formats. Hence, you should follow your university’s rules on the format and style in writing your research or thesis. What is important is that with the lessons that you learned in this course, you can now easily write the introductory part of your thesis, such as the background of the study.

How to Write the Background of the Study in Research

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Background of The Study – Examples and Writing Guide

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Background of The Study

Background of The Study

Definition:

Background of the study refers to the context, circumstances, and history that led to the research problem or topic being studied. It provides the reader with a comprehensive understanding of the subject matter and the significance of the study.

The background of the study usually includes a discussion of the relevant literature, the gap in knowledge or understanding, and the research questions or hypotheses to be addressed. It also highlights the importance of the research topic and its potential contributions to the field. A well-written background of the study sets the stage for the research and helps the reader to appreciate the need for the study and its potential significance.

How to Write Background of The Study

Here are some steps to help you write the background of the study:

Identify the Research Problem

Start by identifying the research problem you are trying to address. This problem should be significant and relevant to your field of study.

Provide Context

Once you have identified the research problem, provide some context. This could include the historical, social, or political context of the problem.

Review Literature

Conduct a thorough review of the existing literature on the topic. This will help you understand what has been studied and what gaps exist in the current research.

Identify Research Gap

Based on your literature review, identify the gap in knowledge or understanding that your research aims to address. This gap will be the focus of your research question or hypothesis.

State Objectives

Clearly state the objectives of your research . These should be specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART).

Discuss Significance

Explain the significance of your research. This could include its potential impact on theory , practice, policy, or society.

Finally, summarize the key points of the background of the study. This will help the reader understand the research problem, its context, and its significance.

How to Write Background of The Study in Proposal

The background of the study is an essential part of any proposal as it sets the stage for the research project and provides the context and justification for why the research is needed. Here are the steps to write a compelling background of the study in your proposal:

  • Identify the problem: Clearly state the research problem or gap in the current knowledge that you intend to address through your research.
  • Provide context: Provide a brief overview of the research area and highlight its significance in the field.
  • Review literature: Summarize the relevant literature related to the research problem and provide a critical evaluation of the current state of knowledge.
  • Identify gaps : Identify the gaps or limitations in the existing literature and explain how your research will contribute to filling these gaps.
  • Justify the study : Explain why your research is important and what practical or theoretical contributions it can make to the field.
  • Highlight objectives: Clearly state the objectives of the study and how they relate to the research problem.
  • Discuss methodology: Provide an overview of the methodology you will use to collect and analyze data, and explain why it is appropriate for the research problem.
  • Conclude : Summarize the key points of the background of the study and explain how they support your research proposal.

How to Write Background of The Study In Thesis

The background of the study is a critical component of a thesis as it provides context for the research problem, rationale for conducting the study, and the significance of the research. Here are some steps to help you write a strong background of the study:

  • Identify the research problem : Start by identifying the research problem that your thesis is addressing. What is the issue that you are trying to solve or explore? Be specific and concise in your problem statement.
  • Review the literature: Conduct a thorough review of the relevant literature on the topic. This should include scholarly articles, books, and other sources that are directly related to your research question.
  • I dentify gaps in the literature: After reviewing the literature, identify any gaps in the existing research. What questions remain unanswered? What areas have not been explored? This will help you to establish the need for your research.
  • Establish the significance of the research: Clearly state the significance of your research. Why is it important to address this research problem? What are the potential implications of your research? How will it contribute to the field?
  • Provide an overview of the research design: Provide an overview of the research design and methodology that you will be using in your study. This should include a brief explanation of the research approach, data collection methods, and data analysis techniques.
  • State the research objectives and research questions: Clearly state the research objectives and research questions that your study aims to answer. These should be specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound.
  • Summarize the chapter: Summarize the chapter by highlighting the key points and linking them back to the research problem, significance of the study, and research questions.

How to Write Background of The Study in Research Paper

Here are the steps to write the background of the study in a research paper:

  • Identify the research problem: Start by identifying the research problem that your study aims to address. This can be a particular issue, a gap in the literature, or a need for further investigation.
  • Conduct a literature review: Conduct a thorough literature review to gather information on the topic, identify existing studies, and understand the current state of research. This will help you identify the gap in the literature that your study aims to fill.
  • Explain the significance of the study: Explain why your study is important and why it is necessary. This can include the potential impact on the field, the importance to society, or the need to address a particular issue.
  • Provide context: Provide context for the research problem by discussing the broader social, economic, or political context that the study is situated in. This can help the reader understand the relevance of the study and its potential implications.
  • State the research questions and objectives: State the research questions and objectives that your study aims to address. This will help the reader understand the scope of the study and its purpose.
  • Summarize the methodology : Briefly summarize the methodology you used to conduct the study, including the data collection and analysis methods. This can help the reader understand how the study was conducted and its reliability.

Examples of Background of The Study

Here are some examples of the background of the study:

Problem : The prevalence of obesity among children in the United States has reached alarming levels, with nearly one in five children classified as obese.

Significance : Obesity in childhood is associated with numerous negative health outcomes, including increased risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain cancers.

Gap in knowledge : Despite efforts to address the obesity epidemic, rates continue to rise. There is a need for effective interventions that target the unique needs of children and their families.

Problem : The use of antibiotics in agriculture has contributed to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which poses a significant threat to human health.

Significance : Antibiotic-resistant infections are responsible for thousands of deaths each year and are a major public health concern.

Gap in knowledge: While there is a growing body of research on the use of antibiotics in agriculture, there is still much to be learned about the mechanisms of resistance and the most effective strategies for reducing antibiotic use.

Edxample 3:

Problem : Many low-income communities lack access to healthy food options, leading to high rates of food insecurity and diet-related diseases.

Significance : Poor nutrition is a major contributor to chronic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Gap in knowledge : While there have been efforts to address food insecurity, there is a need for more research on the barriers to accessing healthy food in low-income communities and effective strategies for increasing access.

Examples of Background of The Study In Research

Here are some real-life examples of how the background of the study can be written in different fields of study:

Example 1 : “There has been a significant increase in the incidence of diabetes in recent years. This has led to an increased demand for effective diabetes management strategies. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a new diabetes management program in improving patient outcomes.”

Example 2 : “The use of social media has become increasingly prevalent in modern society. Despite its popularity, little is known about the effects of social media use on mental health. This study aims to investigate the relationship between social media use and mental health in young adults.”

Example 3: “Despite significant advancements in cancer treatment, the survival rate for patients with pancreatic cancer remains low. The purpose of this study is to identify potential biomarkers that can be used to improve early detection and treatment of pancreatic cancer.”

Examples of Background of The Study in Proposal

Here are some real-time examples of the background of the study in a proposal:

Example 1 : The prevalence of mental health issues among university students has been increasing over the past decade. This study aims to investigate the causes and impacts of mental health issues on academic performance and wellbeing.

Example 2 : Climate change is a global issue that has significant implications for agriculture in developing countries. This study aims to examine the adaptive capacity of smallholder farmers to climate change and identify effective strategies to enhance their resilience.

Example 3 : The use of social media in political campaigns has become increasingly common in recent years. This study aims to analyze the effectiveness of social media campaigns in mobilizing young voters and influencing their voting behavior.

Example 4 : Employee turnover is a major challenge for organizations, especially in the service sector. This study aims to identify the key factors that influence employee turnover in the hospitality industry and explore effective strategies for reducing turnover rates.

Examples of Background of The Study in Thesis

Here are some real-time examples of the background of the study in the thesis:

Example 1 : “Women’s participation in the workforce has increased significantly over the past few decades. However, women continue to be underrepresented in leadership positions, particularly in male-dominated industries such as technology. This study aims to examine the factors that contribute to the underrepresentation of women in leadership roles in the technology industry, with a focus on organizational culture and gender bias.”

Example 2 : “Mental health is a critical component of overall health and well-being. Despite increased awareness of the importance of mental health, there are still significant gaps in access to mental health services, particularly in low-income and rural communities. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based mental health intervention in improving mental health outcomes in underserved populations.”

Example 3: “The use of technology in education has become increasingly widespread, with many schools adopting online learning platforms and digital resources. However, there is limited research on the impact of technology on student learning outcomes and engagement. This study aims to explore the relationship between technology use and academic achievement among middle school students, as well as the factors that mediate this relationship.”

Examples of Background of The Study in Research Paper

Here are some examples of how the background of the study can be written in various fields:

Example 1: The prevalence of obesity has been on the rise globally, with the World Health Organization reporting that approximately 650 million adults were obese in 2016. Obesity is a major risk factor for several chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. In recent years, several interventions have been proposed to address this issue, including lifestyle changes, pharmacotherapy, and bariatric surgery. However, there is a lack of consensus on the most effective intervention for obesity management. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of different interventions for obesity management and identify the most effective one.

Example 2: Antibiotic resistance has become a major public health threat worldwide. Infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria are associated with longer hospital stays, higher healthcare costs, and increased mortality. The inappropriate use of antibiotics is one of the main factors contributing to the development of antibiotic resistance. Despite numerous efforts to promote the rational use of antibiotics, studies have shown that many healthcare providers continue to prescribe antibiotics inappropriately. This study aims to explore the factors influencing healthcare providers’ prescribing behavior and identify strategies to improve antibiotic prescribing practices.

Example 3: Social media has become an integral part of modern communication, with millions of people worldwide using platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. Social media has several advantages, including facilitating communication, connecting people, and disseminating information. However, social media use has also been associated with several negative outcomes, including cyberbullying, addiction, and mental health problems. This study aims to investigate the impact of social media use on mental health and identify the factors that mediate this relationship.

Purpose of Background of The Study

The primary purpose of the background of the study is to help the reader understand the rationale for the research by presenting the historical, theoretical, and empirical background of the problem.

More specifically, the background of the study aims to:

  • Provide a clear understanding of the research problem and its context.
  • Identify the gap in knowledge that the study intends to fill.
  • Establish the significance of the research problem and its potential contribution to the field.
  • Highlight the key concepts, theories, and research findings related to the problem.
  • Provide a rationale for the research questions or hypotheses and the research design.
  • Identify the limitations and scope of the study.

When to Write Background of The Study

The background of the study should be written early on in the research process, ideally before the research design is finalized and data collection begins. This allows the researcher to clearly articulate the rationale for the study and establish a strong foundation for the research.

The background of the study typically comes after the introduction but before the literature review section. It should provide an overview of the research problem and its context, and also introduce the key concepts, theories, and research findings related to the problem.

Writing the background of the study early on in the research process also helps to identify potential gaps in knowledge and areas for further investigation, which can guide the development of the research questions or hypotheses and the research design. By establishing the significance of the research problem and its potential contribution to the field, the background of the study can also help to justify the research and secure funding or support from stakeholders.

Advantage of Background of The Study

The background of the study has several advantages, including:

  • Provides context: The background of the study provides context for the research problem by highlighting the historical, theoretical, and empirical background of the problem. This allows the reader to understand the research problem in its broader context and appreciate its significance.
  • Identifies gaps in knowledge: By reviewing the existing literature related to the research problem, the background of the study can identify gaps in knowledge that the study intends to fill. This helps to establish the novelty and originality of the research and its potential contribution to the field.
  • Justifies the research : The background of the study helps to justify the research by demonstrating its significance and potential impact. This can be useful in securing funding or support for the research.
  • Guides the research design: The background of the study can guide the development of the research questions or hypotheses and the research design by identifying key concepts, theories, and research findings related to the problem. This ensures that the research is grounded in existing knowledge and is designed to address the research problem effectively.
  • Establishes credibility: By demonstrating the researcher’s knowledge of the field and the research problem, the background of the study can establish the researcher’s credibility and expertise, which can enhance the trustworthiness and validity of the research.

Disadvantages of Background of The Study

Some Disadvantages of Background of The Study are as follows:

  • Time-consuming : Writing a comprehensive background of the study can be time-consuming, especially if the research problem is complex and multifaceted. This can delay the research process and impact the timeline for completing the study.
  • Repetitive: The background of the study can sometimes be repetitive, as it often involves summarizing existing research and theories related to the research problem. This can be tedious for the reader and may make the section less engaging.
  • Limitations of existing research: The background of the study can reveal the limitations of existing research related to the problem. This can create challenges for the researcher in developing research questions or hypotheses that address the gaps in knowledge identified in the background of the study.
  • Bias : The researcher’s biases and perspectives can influence the content and tone of the background of the study. This can impact the reader’s perception of the research problem and may influence the validity of the research.
  • Accessibility: Accessing and reviewing the literature related to the research problem can be challenging, especially if the researcher does not have access to a comprehensive database or if the literature is not available in the researcher’s language. This can limit the depth and scope of the background of the study.

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The Medium of Instruction The most pervasive issue in regard with enhancing Filipino’s competence in English, as a second language, and Filipino, the adopted national language, is about the MOI to use especially in public schools. As a multilingual country, criticisms opposed bilingual education when the linguistic minorities argued that using Filipino is only favorable to Tagalogs and Manilans (Gonzales, 1990 in Madrunio, et al., 2016), whereas English is good only for those areas with rich resources (Licuanan, 2007 in Madrunio, et al., 2016). Moreover, the usage of the mother-tongue the MOI in grades 1-3 in the 2013 EBEC is also being criticized by parents who favor enhancing their children’s English literacy at early stages, especially in Manila and Tagalog-speaking provinces. Nonetheless with the institutionalization of Mother Tongue-Based Multi-lingual Education in 2009 and strengthened in 2012, similar problems remain unsolved. The teachers in Baguio City, for example, are struggling in its implementation due to “absence of books written in mother tongue, lack of vocabulary, and lack of teacher training” (Lartec, et al., 2014). Until sufficient materials are produced or translated in different languages across the archipelago, language teaching and the implementation of MTBMLE will remain a consistent topic for argumentations in the succeeding years. The Focus of English Language Education in Basic Education Curriculum With the 2002 Revised Basic Education Curriculum and 2010 curriculum anchored on Understanding by Design, ELE is viewed Integrated English Language Arts in basic education level, which mainly focused on literature (Plata, 2010 in Madrunio, et al., 2016). Apparently, being literature-based deviates from the goal of our educational system for Filipino learners to “achieve a desired level of competence in listening, speaking, reading, [and] writing” (2002 RBEC) and viewing. To exemplify, literature competencies as “identifying elements of a specific genre and expressing appreciation for sensory images used” (2013 K-12 English) do not necessarily require the development of the five macro skills nor introduce to the students the functional skills that will better help them survive life in the 21st century. Assessment practices, as well, before the implementation of the 2010 EBEC were arguable. O’ Connor (2009) stated that teachers shouldn't rely on grading instruments that fail to meet standards or with no clear descriptions of achievement expectations. Notwithstanding, some teachers nowadays are resistant to this change, stipulated in DO 8, s. 2016, for they “feel they are compelled to grade” (Crouch, 2014) all activities being rendered such as textbook exercises, homework, recitation, and even diagnostic assessments as being practiced before, insisting that these tests help them meet the specified number of items and that parents and pupils also rely on these parent-mediated assignments to improve grades. Thus, an extensive effort of explaining to them the role of formative assessments for learning rather than of leaning is just necessary for them to understand that grades actually “distance learners further [from us] and from our curriculum” (Guskey, 2010), which makes one debatable topic in the K-12 grading system. Furthermore, the shift from traditional grading to performance-based assessments is inconsistent among institutions, especially when standardized tests issued by the colleges and schools to determine students’ academic levels, strengths and weaknesses, and even the National Achievement Test administered to grade 7 students in July, 2016 employ a highly objective selective-response test format whose yielded results are understandably the most quantifiable and comparable to previous records and to other countries’. For this reason, Plata (2007 in Madrunio et al., 2016) argues that the department contradicts its own DO in preparing [model] tests that are mostly “fixed-alternative items on reading, grammar, and vocabulary” (p. 150). Nevertheless, a performance-based assessment for a perennial standardized testing can be the most disputable and controversial action, yet it can hardly be considered in the Philippine setting. The Implementation of the K-12 Basic Education Curriculum The Enhanced K-12 Basic Education bill has been implemented in the country when President Benigno Aquino III signed it into law on May 15, 2013 to purposively focus on lifelong learning competencies or skills to produce graduates who are qualified and capable to work. Despite “rousing mixed reactions from various sectors in the country” (K12philippines.com), strong objections of parents and students for the 12-year program, and insufficient materials, the Department of Education pushed its implementation for learners to master and absorb basic competencies, as reading comprehension, oral language, viewing comprehension, literature, listening comprehension, vocabulary development, writing and composition, and grammar awareness in English language education. Revolutionizing ELE in the Philippines, Effective Language Arts and Multiliteracies Curriculum (LAMC) has been developed in the K-12 “to produce graduates who apply the language conventions, principles, strategies and skills” (2013 LAMC) needed in the 21st century. However, the lack in resources and accessibility to technology in numerous marginalized sectors and rural areas hinders the ultimate success of the program, which includes the achievement of desired listening and viewing skills. Many barrios, as in Oriental Mindoro, are not exposed to any form of media, even television, and the effects of “natives’ non-exposure [to television] requires more in-depth studies” (Alviz, et al. cited in Alipasa, et al., 2014). Thus, the 2013 LAMC macro competencies as comprehending literary, informational, and auditory texts, and “demonstrating critical understanding and interpretation of visual media” (p. 15) can neither be functional nor feasible without further support and extensive efforts of the government, researchers, and publishers, authors, and school owners to address these needs. Also, the top-down processing commonly used in CLT is deemed ineffective in developing our second language learners’ fluency and automaticity, particularly in comprehending and utilizing reading, listening and viewing instructional materials from foreign authors and publishers in Manila, without the development and distribution of localized IM’s and textbooks suitable to a specific group of learners’ context and culture. Lastly, the reduction of poverty and unemployment through the addition of two years in basic education with the integration of life-long learning skills in the curriculum is still one of the greatest questions that the country has to unfold in 2018; thus, it makes a highly argumentative topic for debates and discussions in schools, government sectors, and societies in the Philippines in the present.

Randwick International of Education and Linguistics Science Journal

Learning a second language is one thing. Learning a second language through reading a text is another thing. This study aims to show the acquisition of Filipino as Second Language of the respondents who are reading novels. The researcher utilized the Descriptive Method of research with the questionnaire as the main data-gathering instrument since this study focused on Reading Filipino Novels in Acquiring Filipino as Second Language; Basis in Designing a Guide to Enhance Filipino Proficiency. Engaging children in reading novels have some effects on how they acquire new language. The improvement of a child is not only about himself but also there are some factors concerning it.This study aims to show the acquisition of Filipino as Second Language of the respondents who are reading novels. Those respondents who are fond of reading such novels will acquire something

Kelsey Cristuta

This learning resource was collaboratively developed and reviewed by educators from public and private schools, colleges, and/or universities. We encourage teachers and other education stakeholders to email their feedback, comments, and recommendations to the Department of Education at [email protected]. We value your feedback and recommendations. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means-electronic or mechanical including photocopying-without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2016

Benjamin Paner

Karlo Antonio Galay-David

The present thesis aimed to explore the possibilities of using Davao Filipino, the variety of Filipino spoken in the Mindanao areas of Kidapawan and Davao, as a literary medium, and of the implications to using it in this manner. Specifically, it aimed to determine: how DF could be linguistically described; how DF can be used as a literary language; and in what communicative contexts, as replicated in fiction and plays, DF can be used. The discussion of existing literature relating to the subject medium, the production of literary works, and the discussion of these same works provide answers to these questions. It was determined that Davao Filipino is the result of the linguistic diversity in Mindanao and serves as a potent tool for the de-Tagalization of Filipino. Furthermore, it was defined as the Tagalog based inadvertent language contact spoken on a first language basis in Davao and Kidapawan, and features borrowings that are predictable. It was further determined that writing in DF presents both difficulties and advantages: the fact that it is a primarily spoken medium means there is a need to grow more accustomed to using it in writing, but the variety’s nature as language contact provided for elegant variation and terminological precision, allowed for preservation of idiom and figure of speech authentic to the locale, and its colloquial origins allow for free indirect speech in third person narration. The expressive limitations of DF’s colloquial origins could also be taken advantage of in first person narration, stream of consciousness, and in dialogue. Its social implications, vis-à-vis the other languages—and other forms of language contact—spoken in its locale can also be used to authentically represent social backgrounds. Translating in DF—particularly for third person limited narration—made the narration more intimate because of DF’s predominant usage in speech. Moreover, DF could be used in a wide array of communicative contexts, ranging from casual conversations, to expressions of fear, love, and hatred. Its usage as a third person omniscient narration medium or as medium for stage instructions was not impossible, although this study pointed out the novelty in such usages. But its usage in formal public speaking contexts was observed to be problematic owing to the conventions of that field, which favoured the standard Tagalog. Five short stories and seven plays written by the researcher are included in the study.

Isabel Pefianco Martin

In this paper, I argue that the Three Circles Model of Kachru, a profoundly influential and instructive model for approaching the varieties of Englishes across the world, might be re-examined in the context of the Philippines, in order to better capture the sociolinguistic realities of Outer Circle speakers of English. Using the Philippines as an example, I hope to demonstrate that within the Outer Circle that is the Philippines, there are circles of English as well. While some educated Filipino scholars have rejected the dominance of American English in the Philippines, others remain ambivalent about the place of Philippine English in such domains such as English language teaching. And for a majority of the Filipinos, to whom English of whatever variety remains elusive and inaccessible, English is irrelevant. Thus, the situation for the Philippines is that there is an Inner Circle, an Outer Circle, and an Expanding circle of English. By presenting the Philippine experience of English through this framework of ‘circles within circles,’ I hope to offer a more nuanced position on the acceptability of Philippine English among Filipino users of the language.

THERY BEORD

We propose in this article to analyze the linguistic representations associated with the two official languages of the Philippines: Filipino and English –both at the heart of the educational system. Referring to the systems of values and affects attached to languages, the concept of linguistic representation – or social representations of languages – has been adopted by sociolinguists and educational specialists in so far as it plays a key role in the process of identity construction as well as in the transmission of language. A collective interview organized in one of the most prominent university in Manila has allowed us to bring forward the social representations of Filipino and English among students before measuring their respective importance through the administration of a questionnaire. The study of these representations among socially privileged Filipino will bring us to question the language configuration and more specifically the place of English in the social structure of this former US colony marked by the permanency of extreme social inequalities. We will see that the medium of instruction and its representations are a tool to analyze neocolonial issues.

International Journal of Research Studies in Language Learning

Jeffrey Ancheta

Martin, Isabel Pefianco. 2007. The Literature Filipino Students Do Not Read. In David Prescott, Andy Kirkpatrick, Azirah Hashim, and Isabel Pefianco Martin. (eds.) English in Southeast Asia: literacies, literatures and varieties. UK:Cambridge Scholars Press, 290-318

This chapter presents a study about the literature young Filipinos read today. The first part briefly reviews the literary canon, curriculum, and teaching practices during the American colonial period. The second part details the study which specifically addresses the following questions: (1) What literary texts are required by high school teachers in the literature classrooms? (2) What literary texts are read by Filipino high school students on their own? (3) Is the Anglo- American literary canon, introduced through the American public school system about a hundred years ago, still being used in Filipino literature course today? (4) To what extent does Philippine literature in English occupy the Filipino students’ literature education? More than a hundred years after American soldiers first taught English to Filipino schoolchildren, Philippine literature education today continues to privilege texts of American and European origins.

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Implementation and Assessment of the HIV Enhanced Access Testing in the Emergency Department (HEATED) Program in Nairobi, Kenya: A Quasi-Experimental Prospective Study

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Background Persons seeking emergency injury care are often from underserved key populations (KPs) and priority populations (PPs) for HIV programming. While facility-based HIV Testing Services (HTS) in Kenya are effective, emergency department (ED) delivery is limited, despite the potential to reach underserved persons.

Methods This quasi-experimental prospective study evaluated implementation of the HIV Enhanced Access Testing in Emergency Departments (HEATED) at Kenyatta National Hospital ED in Nairobi, Kenya. The HEATED program was designed using setting specific data and utilizes resource reorganization, services integration and HIV sensitization to promote ED-HTS. KPs included sex workers, gay men, men who have sex with men, transgender persons and persons who inject drugs. PPs included young persons (18-24 years), victims of interpersonal violence, persons with hazardous alcohol use and those never previously HIV tested. Data were obtained from systems-level records, enrolled injured patient participants and healthcare providers. Systems and patient-level data were collected during a pre-implementation period (6 March - 16 April 2023) and post-implementation (period 1, 1 May - 26 June 2023). Additional, systems-level data were collected during a second post-implementation (period 2, 27 June – 20 August 2023). Evaluation analyses were completed across reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation and maintenance framework domains.

Results All 151 clinical staff were reached through trainings and sensitizations on the HEATED program. Systems-level ED-HTS increased from 16.7% pre-implementation to 23.0% post-implementation periods 1 and 2 (RR=1.31, 95% CI:1.21-1.43; p<0.001) with a 62.9% relative increase in HIV self-test kit provision. Among 605 patient participants, facilities-based HTS increased from 5.7% pre-implementation to 62.3% post-implementation period 1 (RR=11.2, 95%CI:6.9-18.1; p<0.001). There were 440 (72.7%) patient participants identified as KPs (5.6%) and/or PPs (65.3%). For enrolled KPs/PPs, HTS increased from 4.6% pre-implementation to 72.3% post-implementation period 1 (RR=13.8, 95%CI:5.5-28.7, p<0.001). Systems and participant level data demonstrated successful adoption and implementation of the HEATED program. Through 16-weeks post-implementation a significant increase in ED-HTS delivery was maintained as compared to pre-implementation.

Conclusions The HEATED program increased ED-HTS and augmented delivery to KPs/PPs, suggesting that broader implementation could improve HIV services for underserved persons, already in contact with health systems.

Competing Interest Statement

The authors have declared no competing interest.

Funding Statement

This study was funded by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (grant number: K23AI145411)

Author Declarations

I confirm all relevant ethical guidelines have been followed, and any necessary IRB and/or ethics committee approvals have been obtained.

The details of the IRB/oversight body that provided approval or exemption for the research described are given below:

The study was approved by the University of Nairobi ethics and research committee (P667/08/2022) and the institutional review board of Rhode Island Hospital (1953237-1). All enrolled participants provided written informed consent.

I confirm that all necessary patient/participant consent has been obtained and the appropriate institutional forms have been archived, and that any patient/participant/sample identifiers included were not known to anyone (e.g., hospital staff, patients or participants themselves) outside the research group so cannot be used to identify individuals.

I understand that all clinical trials and any other prospective interventional studies must be registered with an ICMJE-approved registry, such as ClinicalTrials.gov. I confirm that any such study reported in the manuscript has been registered and the trial registration ID is provided (note: if posting a prospective study registered retrospectively, please provide a statement in the trial ID field explaining why the study was not registered in advance).

I have followed all appropriate research reporting guidelines, such as any relevant EQUATOR Network research reporting checklist(s) and other pertinent material, if applicable.

Data availability statement

Deidentified data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.

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Worldwide Prostate Cancer Cases Will Double By 2040, New Study Predicts—Here’s Why

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The number of annual prostate cancer diagnoses is expected to roughly double by 2040, according to a study published Thursday in The Lancet medical journal, with the number of annual deaths attributable to the disease expected to rise by 85% in the same amount of time—an increase driven by lower-income countries.

The Institute of Cancer Research on Nov. 4, 2019.

Scientists at the London Institute of Cancer Research predict there will be 2.9 million annual cases of prostate cancer around the world by 2040, more than twice as many as the 1.4 million cases seen in 2020, with the increase expected to be most prominent among men in low- and middle-income countries.

Subsequently, researchers estimate deaths due to the disease will rise to almost 700,000 per year in 2040, up from the 375,000 in 2020.

While prostate cancer deaths have declined in most high-income countries over the last 30 years, mortality rates and the number of cases continue to rise in low- and middle-income countries, particularly those without access to early blood detection screening called PSA testing.

The study suggests that even in high-income countries, men at high risk—like those with family history, those of African descent and those with the BRACA2 gene mutation—be screened for the cancer early using PSA testing and MRI scans.

Researchers warn lifestyle changes and public health interventions will do little to stop the rise in cases as the main risk factors for the disease—being a man over 50 and having a family history of prostate cancer—are unavoidable.

Crucial Quote

“As more and more men around the world live to middle and old age, there will be an inevitable rise in the number of prostate cancer cases," lead author Dr. Nick James said in a statement. "We know this surge in cases is coming, so we need to start planning and take action now."

Key Background

Prostate cancer is already responsible for 15% of all male cancers, and is the most common form of cancer in men in more than half of countries around the world, the Lancet study said. It is possible for women to be diagnosed with prostate cancer, but studies have suggested as few as 0.003% of cases are found in women. There is no cure for metastatic prostate cancer, but many cases are treatable and, if discovered early, it's not uncommon for patients to outlive the disease. Those diagnosed within the first three stages are likely to be cancer-free after five years, according to John Hopkins Medicine , but there is little that can be medically done for the cancer in late stage . Johns Hopkins estimates 80 to 85% of all prostate cancers are found early, but cases found late have an average five-year survival rate of only 28%. Because of the importance of early detection, countries with less access to screenings have a higher rate of prostate cancer and deaths among residents. While prostate cancer rates are highest in countries including Ireland, Sweden and France, deaths rates from the disease are highest in the lower-income and predominantly Black nations of Zimbabwe, Barbados, Haiti and Zambia, according to the World Cancer Research Fund . Most prostate cancer research, however, is done on white men, the Lancet study reports, while also placing an emphasis on the need for more research involving patients of different ethnicities, especially those of West African descent.

A number of high-profile celebrities have publicly shared their journeys with prostate cancer. British actor Sir Ian McKellen , now 84, said he was given an early stage prostate cancer diagnosis in 2005 or 2006. Robert De Niro , now 80, was diagnosed with prostate cancer in 2003 at age 60 and went on to make a full recovery. Other public figures who've shared their diagnosis include former Secretary of State John Kerry, former New York City Mayor Rudy Giuliani , actor Ben Stiller and billionaire Warren Buffet . Buckingham Palace has confirmed that King Charles of England does not have prostate cancer, but has not shared what type of cancer he was diagnosed with earlier this year. The health discovery came after the monarch was treated for an enlarged prostate. His daughter-in-law and the future Queen, Kate Middleton , also shared she has been diagnosed with cancer, but did not specify a type.

Further Reading

Mary Whitfill Roeloffs

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April 4, 2024, tick bites and alpha-gal syndrome focus of $3.5m research grant.

Vanderbilt’s Scott Smith, MD, PhD, has been awarded a five-year, $3.5 million grant from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health, to study the human immune response to tick bites and its role in preventing tick-borne illnesses.

(courtesy of the CDC)

Scott Smith , MD, PhD, associate professor of Medicine in the Division of Infectious Diseases, has been awarded a five-year, $3.5 million grant from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health, to study the human immune response to tick bites and its role in preventing tick-borne illnesses.

Scott Smith, MD, PhD

The research aims to shed light on the phenomenon of acquired tick resistance and its implications for diseases like alpha-gal syndrome, an acquired meat allergy associated with past exposure to certain tick bites. (According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in the five years from 2017 through 2022, some 90,000 suspected cases of alpha-gal syndrome were identified in the United States.)

The study will focus on tick-bite defenses as mounted by immunoglobulin E (IgE), an antibody involved in allergic reactions. The team will generate IgE monoclonal antibodies from individuals with alpha-gal syndrome or a history of numerous tick bites, identify the specific tick salivary proteins targeted by these antibodies, and characterize the role of IgE in immunity to tick bites using mouse models.

Smith and his team have preliminary data suggesting that repeated exposure to tick bites triggers the production of IgE antibodies targeting tick salivary proteins, potentially resulting in protection from subsequent bites.

Along with contributing to the development of strategies to prevent tick-borne illnesses, which have become an increasing public health concern in recent years, findings from the study could provide new insights into the adaptive immune system.     

“This work will have implications in studies of pathogenesis and immunity of tick-borne diseases,” Smith said. “By understanding the dominant immune targets that could allow for interruption of tick feeding, we can begin to establish correlates of protection against tick bites. And there’s also reason to believe this new understanding could have implications for the transmission of infectious pathogens and disease more generally.”

The study is supported by NIH grant R01AI182247.

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background of the study in filipino research

April 12, 2018

Alpha-gal found to be both a medication and red meat allergy.

Alpha-gal allergy has commonly been referred to as “the red meat” allergy, but doctors at the Vanderbilt Asthma, Sinus and Allergy Program (ASAP) helped uncover that not only red meat, but some medications, can contain alpha-gal.

April 13, 2023

Children’s mystery symptoms may be alpha-gal syndrome.

A Vanderbilt study found that some children with mystery digestive symptoms may actually have undiagnosed alpha-gal syndrome, commonly known as the red meat allergy linked to tick bites.

By Nancy Humphrey

background of the study in filipino research

June 28, 2022

Enjoy burgers better use tick repellent..

The lone star tick continues to be common across a wide swath of this region, and a bite can give you an allergy to red meat.

By Wayne Wood

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  10. (PDF) Coping Mechanism and Academic Performance Among Filipino

    Coping Mechanism and Academic Performance Among Filipino Undergraduate Students. June 2018. KnE Social Sciences 3 (6):30. DOI: 10.18502/kss.v3i6.2372. Authors: Alberto D. Yazon. Laguna State ...

  11. (PDF) Historical Background of Philippine Linguistics: A Review of

    Other dissertations were on more applied linguistic topics, such as an analysis of Hokkien Chinese borrowings in Tagalog, a sociolinguistic study of Bahasa Indonesia, the elaboration of a technical lexicon for Pilipino, a composite dictionary of Philippine Creole Spanish, and the developing of a model of a Filipino's bilingual competence ...

  12. Background of The Study

    Here are the steps to write the background of the study in a research paper: Identify the research problem: Start by identifying the research problem that your study aims to address. This can be a particular issue, a gap in the literature, or a need for further investigation. Conduct a literature review: Conduct a thorough literature review to ...

  13. How to make Research Background Filipino Tutorial

    Observation method- https://youtu.be/cvo8k3dYJXg Interview Method- https://youtu.be/3NIRYO2rB-8 Qualitative and Quantitative Research- https://youtu.be/uZwoO...

  14. The study of Filipino subject in High school students of DCA

    The title of this research is "The Study of Filipino Subject in High School of Diadem Christian Academy". As a part of the research, the researcher must conduct a survey that will lead as a basis to know how the student of Diadem Christian Academy define Filipino subject. We hope that you would answer properly and honestly.

  15. Explicating the culinary heritage significance of Filipino kakanin

    Section snippets Selection and study site. The subject of the research is Filipino kakanin in the Philippines. Polistico (2016, p. 157) defined kakanin as "native rice cake/native rice and root crop delicacies." Each region in the Philippines has its kakanin to offer. Filipinos consume this kakanin daily since its ingredients are accessible (Besa and Dorotan, 2014).

  16. PDF Correlates of Filipino Students' Perspectives on ...

    This descriptive-correlational research involved randomly selected 367 college students at the National University. The impetus for the study is the exclusion of Filipino language subjects in the tertiary levels on the onset of K-12 program. According to the results of the study, using Filipino language as a

  17. Research

    The findings of this study will be used for further studies regarding the students' well-being and their behavior when it comes to the lack of attention from familial matters and etc. Scope and Delimitation. The scope of this study focuses on the coping mechanisms of students who have parents working as overseas Filipino workers (OFWs).

  18. Social Determinants of Cardiovascular Risk Factors Among Asian American

    A 2014 study found that Filipino and South Asian populations have an increased risk of coronary heart disease compared with all other major Asian ethnic subgroups in the United States. 8 Furthermore, death certificate data show that Asian Indian women and men had the highest age‐standardized mortality rates due to ischemic heart disease among ...

  19. (PDF) The Philippine Education Today and Its Way Forward ...

    Abstract. The Philippines is concerned about the number of students attending schools, the quality of education. they receive, and the state of the learning environment. Solvi ng the education ...

  20. Explicating the culinary heritage significance of Filipino kakanin

    Filipino kakanin are local rice or root crop delicacies included in the daily consumption of Filipinos as snacks in between meals; however, the traditional methods and ingredients utilized with this kakanin are gradually fading away because of modernization. All things considered, as a starting point to look at Filipino rice-based kakanin recipes. This research aimed to explicate the culinary ...

  21. Writing THE Background OF THE Study

    What is a background of the study? This is the first part of a study's introduction. This part gives information about your chosen topic, why it is a problem and why a research should be done about it. To write an effective background of the study, the following should be considered:

  22. Implementation and Assessment of the HIV Enhanced Access Testing in the

    Background: Persons seeking emergency injury care are often from underserved key populations (KPs) and priority populations (PPs) for HIV programming. While facility-based HIV Testing Services (HTS) in Kenya are effective, emergency department (ED) delivery is limited, despite the potential to reach underserved persons. Methods: This quasi-experimental prospective study evaluated ...

  23. Vaping Nicotine May Increase Heart Failure Risk By Almost 20%, Study

    Topline. Vapes containing nicotine may increase the risk of heart failure, according to a new study, adding on to previous research that found vaping may increase the risk of heart disease, worsen ...

  24. Research on Philippine Literature: Foundation of Literature in the

    Philippine literature refers to the literature produced in the Philippines, a country with a. rich cultural and historical heritage. It encompasses various literary forms and genres, including ...

  25. Prostate Cancer Cases, Deaths Will Rise Sharply By 2040, Study ...

    Key Background. Prostate cancer is already responsible for 15% of all male cancers, and is the most common form of cancer in men in more than half of countries around the world, the Lancet study said.

  26. Tick bites and alpha-gal syndrome focus of $3.5m research grant

    Vanderbilt's Scott Smith, MD, PhD, has been awarded a five-year, $3.5 million grant from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health, to study the human immune response to tick bites and its role in preventing tick-borne illnesses. Scott Smith, MD, PhD, associate professor of Medicine ...

  27. (PDF) The Philippine Culture

    Abstract and Figures. The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. It is situated in the western Pacific Ocean and consists of around ...