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Content related to english exams and courses., |celta-012| assignment 3: language skills-related task.

Hello Exam Seekers,

there’s been a while since I post something about the CELTA , so I decided that today I would give you some more hints about the assignments.

I’ve already given you tips on how to write your Assignment 1: Focus on the Learner and Assignment 2: Language Related Task . We are in April, May is almost there, so I believe that for those taking the part-time CELTA, assignment 3 will be required very soon. Therefore here are some tips for it.


youtube: watch?v=krZkDTxutdk

Well, differently from assignment 2 which focuses on an analysis of the language (grammar, pronunciation, and form), the Language Skills-Related is much simpler.

You are expected to write an assignment divided into four parts using 750–1,000 words. According to Cambridge, the design of the assignment includes :

  • evidence of the candidate’s background reading in the topic area
  • identification of the receptive language skills and/or subskills that could be  practiced and developed using coursebook material or authentic text
  • identification of productive language skills that could be practiced and developed in relation to that text
  • task design in relation to the text with a brief rationale

Candidates can demonstrate their learning by:

  • correctly using terminology that relates to language skills and subskills
  • relating task design to language skills development
  • finding, selecting and referencing information from one or more sources using written language that is clear, accurate and appropriate to the task

I’m going to dive this assignment into steps so that you can follow it properly.

Choose one of the CELTA groups that you are teaching and provide a class profile  which includes names, age range, professional and educational backgrounds, linguistic strengths and development needs, interests and reasons for studying English.

Keep in mind that you don’t have many words to write a profile on all of your CELTA students, só try and choose around 6 students and write something like that:

This is a pre-intermediate heterogeneous group of volunteer students in the CELTA course at _____. We follow Total English Pre-Intermediate as a course book, and sometimes we use authentic and supplementary materials.

Regular attendees

Chose a type of material to provide them (a text or an audio/video) and justify why you have chosen this text for this particular class based on the class profile.

According to my class profile, most of my students are retired and they like to travel, so I chose a video about traveling tips and I rationalized my choice:

I’ve chosen a video called Travel Tips: Real Discounts on Airfare Found!!! ( appendix1 ) because I think it’ll be interesting for this group of students since most of them love traveling abroad: Angelina loves England and every year she goes there. This year she is taking Maria Ester with her. (…) As Harmer(1988:84) says, adults “often have a clear understanding of why they are learning and what they want to get out of it”. Therefore, I believe they would all profit on having some tips about discounts on airfares.

The video contains a large range of vocabulary on the topic, and grammar points (present tenses, giving instructions) which they’ll have the opportunity to recognize in an authentic context.

This was just a snippet of my assignment part 2 rational. As you could see, I provided the video source (you should attach it to the appendix) and I explained why I chose that video relating my choice to my students’ likings and to a reference.

After having chosen the text/video, you should d esign and submit a reading/listening for gist and for detail tasks for practicing these skills and provide answers to these tasks . Don’t forget that you have to provide reference all the way long. “According to….”, “this author believes that…”, by doing that, you show that you are making conscious choices and not random.

The length and content of this video make it ideal for students to practice listening for gist and detail, because the topic matches the students’ interests and the vocabulary and structures match the pre-required knowledge for pre-intermediate students.

It would be a good idea to have a skimming task of this video, for students to be more aware of the general idea, they’d be “trying to extract a mostly general understanding of what, superficially, the audio […] is all about”(HARMER,2005:271). In this case, understand that the video is about discounts on airfares .

Task 1 (Reading for Gist)

1) Watch the video and circle the best title for it:

  • Travel Tips: Real Discounts on Airfare Found!
  • Flight Tips: How to book your flight?
  • Watch out: What makes a flight expensive?

  Answer key:  a.

As you can see in my example, I explained why it would be interesting for students to have a gist and detailed activity based on the video, and why that specific task. I provided the task and the answer key.

This was the gist task, the example of one of the exercises, remember that you have to provide at least two, okay?

Do you remember that a lesson plan should provide 4-5 tasks? Warm up/Lead in , Read/Listen for gist/detail, and follow up. Well, part 3 was focused on receptive skills, now part 4 is focused on productive skill. So at this part, you should say which productive skills could be practiced in relation to this text in a follow-up activity. Design and submit the follow-up tasks with the rationale.

As this group of students would benefit from further development of speaking skills and given their general interest in travels and tips for trips, for productive skills, I have devised some questions for the students. They have some questions related to the context (trips, tips, and pre-traveling suggestions) as exercise 3 on their exercise sheets, which they should discuss in pairs and exchange information. They would do this activity with more than one pair so that they would practice speaking and exchange personal information several times and later on expose to the class their peers’ answers as feedback and conclude the productive stage.

1) Discuss the questions below about trips and tips :

  • Do you like traveling? How often do you travel?
  • When you travel, do you use any search engine to book flights?
  • Do you think it is cheaper to book a flight online or in person? Why?
  • What was the price of the cheapest and the most expensive flight in your life?
  • Do you think that Sonia Gil’s tips were good? Why?
  • Do you think you might use her tips in the future?

Extra steps:

These extra steps are the basics: REFERENCE and APPENDIX.

At the end of your assignment include the reference to your background reading and include at least two methodology sources in your list of references. Make sure these references are cited in the body the assignment.

 Mine was like that:


  • GIL, Sonia (2014). Travel Tips: Real Discounts on Airfare Found!!!. Available at: < https://www . youtube.com/watch?v=jgbrVzEMolA>. Access on: 24 Jan. 2015
  • HARMER, Jeremy (2005). The practice of English Language Teaching. e. Pearson.
  • HOGAN, Jonathan T., IGREJA, José Roberto (2004). Phrasal Verbs.
  • SCRIVENER, Jim (2005). Learning Teaching. e. Macmillan.

And since you had an authentic material (a text/video/audio) from which you created your gist/detailed task, you should also provide it in your appendix. Since mine was a video, my appendix was like that:


By the way, this youtube channel ( Sonia Travels ), is fantastic for you to use as authentic material for classes based on trips and travels.

I hope that this text was really helpful for you to write your assignment. If you still have questions don’t forget to send us a message. Leave a comment in the comment section below or on our social media:

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Don’t forget to follow us!!!

Have a great weekend, Patty

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SRT Assignment - example

Hi everyone! Here is a skeleton example of a SRT assignment . It should give you an idea of how to structure it and the sort of rationale you need to provide for the choice of text and the tasks you've designed. A few tips: 1) Make sure you provide justification for your choice of text in terms of language level and interest for your learners. Put a copy of the text, or a transcript if it's a listening, in the appendices. 2) Describe the tasks for the lead-in, receptive skills and productive skills in the body of the assignment then put the actual worksheets that the learners would use as an appendix to your assignment. Make sure the tasks really genuinely do match the specified sub-skills. 3) In the example, I've blanked out the references so you will need to do the background reading and include your own references. When you reference your sources, please put the author's last name, the year the source was published and the page number in the body of the assignment. Then in the bibliography, follow the format in the assignment. 4) The lesson plan should just be a skeleton procedure page summarising the tasks you have described in your assignment. Let Karla or me know if there are any questions! Good luck! Lizzy


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CELTA Skills Related Tasks Assignment

For more tips and advice about CELTA, click here. CELTA Skills Related Tasks Assignment Join my telegram channel for teachers. Click here The skills related task is usually the third assignment on the CELTA. By this point, you have hopefully already had two assignments back with a pass (if you’re Read more…

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Home › CELTA tips › CELTA tip: the language skills assignment

CELTA tip: the language skills assignment

By Pete on April 28, 2015 • ( 16 )

I think the language skills topic on the CELTA is incredibly useful. As someone who rarely uses textbooks, I’m always searching for authentic reading and listening materials to use in class. Topic 3 on the CELTA gave me a solid overview of how to plan a receptive skills lesson, and the basics I learnt from this module still underpin my practice.

I’ve written an overview of the assignment and a few tips below. Here is a copy of my assignment , and here is a link to the authentic text on the BBC website.

What do I have to do?

Basically this, as the CELTA syllabus states:

celta assignment 3

That’s a snippet from the CELTA handbook . It only mentions the criteria for reading lessons, but there’s a breakdown for the other skills too. You’ll find this on page 8, and further info on page 17.

So, you have to prove you can do all of the above in a written assignment. This means designing your own lesson based on an authentic text (reading or listening). You must include opportunities in your lesson for students to also practise their productive skills (speaking or writing).

The assignment outline I was given was something like this:

Total words: 1000

Task: Choose one authentic text from the options your tutor will give you

  • Consider your students needs, ability, etc.
  • Don’t adapt or grade the text – if you do then it’s not authentic

Part 1: justify your choice of text (150 words)

  • Why is it suitable for your learners? Reference your background reading (Harmer, Scrivener, etc.)

Part 2: Receptive skill task design (550 words)

  • Talk about how you will introduce the text topic
  • Design an initial reading task for the students (e.g. a gist task)
  • Talk about any vocabulary that you need to pre-teach
  • Design a task where students read for specific detail
  • Explain what the tasks achieve and why they are suitable/useful. Mention background reading when you do this

Part 3: Productive skill task design (300 words)

  • Think of a follow-up task based on the text. This should be either a speaking or a writing activity
  • Write a little rationale on why you’ve chosen this task, how it exploits the text, why is it good for your learners, etc.

That’s an abridged version of the assignment, you’ll no doubt get more detailed info from your tutor, but that is pretty much it.

Tips for task design

My lesson was for upper-intermediate learners.

Part 2 : for a lead-in, get the students to talk about the topic. My text was about crazy things that people do while they are sleepwalking. What better way to get students interested in the text than having them discuss that very thing?

What crazy things might people do while they sleepwalk?

I got their ideas up on the board

celta assignment three

If you do something like this then you have the basis of your first task.

You have 2 minutes to read the text. Does the text mention any of your ideas on the board?

Students scan the text for relevant information, but also they read for general meaning (gist) as the topics above may appear in the text but worded differently.

I find this is a great initial task for reading/listening texts. Using student ideas gives them a bit of investment in the text too. I use this all the time:

(Another CELTA lesson based on a listening text about New Zealand)

Lead-in: what do you know about New Zealand? (elicit and board responses)

Orientate students to text

Gist Task: Are any of your ideas mentioned in the text?

(A lesson I made last year on a listening text about biscuits injuring people)

Lead-in: what injuries might you get from biscuits (elicit and board responses)

You can find another example in my lesson about Boudica

Detail task:

True or False questions are generally a good idea for a detail task. I won’t go into much detail here as you’ll get plenty of input about this on your course, but what I would say is this. T/F questions don’t always need a clear answer – you can manipulate your questions in such a way that will provoke discussion among students. By making the answer to a question slightly ambiguous, students may express their opinions, and in doing so they

a) might show a deeper understanding of the text

b) engage more in the text and topic

c) practise more English!

You can see an example of this in my assignment. Another idea is to include a question which may involve your pre-taught vocabulary . This is a good way to check that they really did understand it!

Part 3: On reflection, I think my productive skills task was a bit rubbish to be honest. You could do better I’m sure. However, whether it’s good or not, you can still get a good mark if you justify WHY you chose that task. My task involved creativity, my students were very creative, so…

a) it was relevant to the learners

b) it showed I learnt a bit about my learners in previous classes

c) it showed that I used what I learnt to inform my practice

So, I guess my main tip for this assignment is to justify everything you do. Think carefully about what you’re doing and why you’re doing it. Mention your learners throughout the assignment – think about what they gain from the tasks you’ve set. Get a few quotes in the assignment from experts but don’t go overboard – 1000 words isn’t much. Finally, remember what you do in this assignment as it’s extremely useful when you’re starting out!

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Categories: CELTA tips

Tags: CELTA , efl , elt , IH Budapest , language skills , language skills assignment , reading for gist , receptive skills lesson , teacher training , tefl

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What an interesting post. I love the online article that you chose about sleepwalking and this must have led to lots of laughter in class and made for a highly enjoyable lesson during which the students would have been motivated to fully engage.

In your CELTA assignment you mention the tendency for learners to take a top down approach and I agree that by upper Int stage, they will have usually developed the confidence and ability to do this, aware of the advantage of first skimming a text to evaluate it’s worth, then to scan for specific detail before reading as a whole in more depth.An essential skill for exams in fact!

However, I am currently working with low-level level ESOL learners and It is quite difficult for them to ‘let go’ of their need to translate most, if not all, unfamiliar vocabulary making reading a real chore.This ‘bottom- up’ approach can really dampen their enthusiasm for reading reducing reading to just a way of learning lists of new vocabulary.. Finding suitable authentic texts is a challenge but even in the article you used, there are certain paragraphs I could take out and use.

For low level learners, one source of simple authentic material might be the ‘Good Deed Feed’ in the Metro newspaper found in railway stations. There are lovely succinct ‘thank you’ messages which are great for past forms and vocabulary.

Another thing I’ve used is the ‘Tiny Texts’ website https://tinytexts.wordpress.com/ , but as this is written or compiled specifically for learners of English, it can’t really be described as ‘authentic’ in the strict sense of the word. And for that matter what about graded readers and adult Quick Reads which are abridged texts? I think they pay an important role in making a wider range of literature available to learners.

You’ve reminded me of and reinforced my belief in the value and importance of authentic material whenever possible. Thank you!

Like Liked by 2 people

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Thanks so much for the comment Peter, you’ve got me thinking about authentic reading tasks for lower level learners. Rather than ramble on here, I’ll send you an email with something that might help… I really like the tinytexts link – you’re right though about it not being strictly authentic. I don’t know exactly where I stand on the ‘all texts in class must be authentic’ viewpoint which seems to have been drummed into me on my recent course. Very interesting to think about though, authentic texts are undoubtedly valuable but giving low-level learners access to them is often both difficult and time consuming!

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I remember reading an article years ago on text choice and student level. There’s a theory that you can use almost any text with any level. It’s the TASK that is designed to the student level. The article also suggested that if you are aiming to use authentic texts with learners, begin with gist tasks for a while. This raises confidence that students CAN identify purpose, origin, where important information might be in a text and the importance of layout, visuals and graphics in identifying meaning. I used some texts from Grellet ‘Developing Reading Skills’ (1981) for a ,it of my ideas and texts.

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I really love this lesson plan and article and your blog in general is fantastic! Thank you so much for sharing. I love it so much that I’ve chosen to use this article as a basis for my CELTA course final teaching practice (with credit to your blog of course). Would you have any suggestions for using this article as the basis for a speaking activity? Or any other ideas how I could exploit this text? I have 60 mins. to fill and not sure how I’m going to do it. Thank you so much again for the wonderful blog. It’s been very helpful to me during my CELTA.

Like Liked by 1 person

Hi, cheers for visiting my blog. Hope the CELTA is going well. A speaking task… hmmm. What about giving students a prompt about something crazy they’ve done in their sleep (e.g. ‘fed a lion’ or something). Give them time to write notes about how this might have happened (I don’t know, they were on safari or something, or they live next to a zoo and they climbed the fence). They then share their stories with each other, and their partner asks questions to get more info. Then they feed back about which story was most believable, crazy, etc… That’s off the top of my head – I’m sure you could think of a better idea though! Good luck with the course 🙂

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Thank you! Your blog has been one of my favorites of the many I have visited. Not too much longer now for my CELTA course now thankfully. 🙂

I’m revisiting this post because my trainees are about to do this assignment. I thought I’d add a couple of things-

The choice of text: 1.If you have to find your own text, it helps to choose something that the students will have some personal response to. For example, something from the local area, something that’s in the news, etc.

2.Choose a text with clear headings and subheadings, pictures or other visual clues. This will add to the context and maybe you can mix up the sub-headings and pictures so students have to match them correctly- A Gist task.

3.Don’t choose something just because it appeals to you without thinking about it’s more general appeal. Things that work- Tourist Information, leaflets about local events, articles that compare or present lists (the 10 most/best/worst of something), articles about ceremonies like weddings or cultural events like Christmas. These are rich for students talking about comparisons after they have read.

The following task: In the assignment, you will need to follow the receptive skills tasks with productive skills tasks (speaking or writing).

1.Remember the receptive skills work (reading or listening) needs to be followed by a speaking or writing task in the assignment. The texts in 3 above will all give students something to talk or write about.

2.Tasks that allow students to use the text as a model or a prompt for their speaking or writing, will work well.

Would you say that’s useful Pete?

yeah really useful! Anything else to add? We could make that into a separate post if you want. Much better to have input from an actual CELTA trainer than just my take on things…

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Thanks Nicky, very useful tips to add to my assignment task.

I think your outline was really helpful Pete.

The assignment will be slightly different depending on the centre. At our place, we provide a choice of either a reading or a listening text for trainees to choose from, but most centres ask trainees to find texts themselves.

We could helpfully make this into a separate post if you like- so one post doesn’t deal with all aspects of the assignment. Yours deals with the assessment criteria and this one deals with the choice of text.

Another post my provide ideas for the productive skills part of th assignment- often the weakest part of the assignment.

Thanks a million for sharing, its an amazing blog and very useful tips for my CELTA assignment which is due in 2 weeks. I have chosen an article on ‘Why Hydration is so important?’ for my assignment. Will definitely follow your step by step guideline.

Thanks once again for sharing.

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thank you very much for this, extremely helpful! Was this a pass or did you have to resubmit? I imagine a straight pass!

Hey, this was a pass. I got a pass A overall but I don’t know if this assignment was worth that much, probably not.

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Hi peter, thanks it was quite helpful. I am doing CELTA and finding it hard to find authentic material. I managed to find a text but it seems a bit too long, my question is can we use half of article to design some material? thanks

Hi, thanks for reading and commenting. Regarding the text, I think a lot depends on what you are using it for and whether half a text fits that purpose. For example, if you are practicing some kind of reading skill like scanning you might not need a full text. It’s hard to say and I’m not a tutor. My advice would be to show the article to your tutor and see what they think. They probably would tell you directly yes or no, but they’ll guide your thinking on how to choose appropriate texts. Best of luck 🙂

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CELTA Assignment 2: Language Related Tasks – Clear Guide


This post intends to give an overview of CELTA assignment 2 and what is expected. It uses a generic example to work through answers so please be aware that not all centres would give exactly the same question but there should be many similarities.

Included in this post are the following points with comments and explanations:

  • Learning objectives for this CELTA assignment
  • Assignment guidelines and rubric from Cambridge
  • Main points to note
  • One for a point of grammar
  • followed by one for an item of lexis

After reading this article, you should have a clear idea of how best to answer the points in this assignment.

Please refer to your centre or tutors in case of any doubts about the points made in this article if they are different to what you have been told on your course.

As a rule, always go with what they say as they are the ones who are going to mark your work!

One a further point to note is that links in this article are affiliate links. This means no difference in price to you but clicking through these links means a small commission for CELTA Helper to keep the site running. If you do not wish to use these links, you can easily find the books online.

This assignment usually comes after the Focus on the Learner assignment .

The key to completing this ‘Language Related Tasks’ assignment successfully is by thinking about it as if you were preparing to teach the points that come up.

If you write with students in mind, you will stay focused on the task and should have clear and precise answers as a result.

What you have to do for CELTA Assignment 2: Main Idea

For CELTA Assignment 2, you will need to focus on  language skills and awareness .

To complete this assignment, you will likely be given a short text with examples of language to ana lyse .

These examples are usually pre-selected for students

The texts shown in example versions of this assignment which are available online are often from pre-intermediate or elementary coursebooks.

These extracts focus on simple parts of grammar and vocabulary. 

However, you will still need to explain these points clearly and succinctly to get a good score on this assignment!

You will usually have to analyse the following points:

  • two items of grammar
  • two items of lexis (which relates to vocabulary)

Instructions for the Language Related Tasks in CELTA Assignment 2

Below are some points to help you get familiar with the instructions/rubric for CELTA Assignment 2 , as appearing in the CELTA Syllabus  document:

Word count for the ‘Language Related Tasks’ assignment

Length: 750–1,000 words

This might seem like a lot of words, but answering all of the points for all of the questions needs this amount of  words!

My advice is to focus on answering each question thoroughly and systematically and not to worry about the words until the end.

Make sure you answer each part in enough detail and it will be fine.

However, if you often write too much, think of it as 4 different sections, with no more than 250 words per sectiswon.

Counting words per section should therefore help you to stay on task.

Learning Objectives for CELTA Assignment 2

The learning objectives from the Cambridge CELTA syllabus for CELTA assignment 2 are as follows:

Candidates can demonstrate their learning by:

a. analysing language correctly for teaching purposes b. correctly using terminology relating to form, meaning and phonology when analysing language c. accessing reference materials and referencing information they have learned about language to an appropriate source d. using written language that is clear, accurate and appropriate to the task

With this in mind, you will therefore need to focus on correct identification and analysis of the language items you select.

You will also need to use terminology in the right way and from relevant books like:

  • Swan’s Practical English Usage
  • or Parrott’s Grammar for English Language Teachers

These books, among others, can also be used as references in your assignment, which you have to include, as stated above.

You can place references to these books at the end of the document, or perhaps at the end of a relevant section. Ask your tutors for their preferred way to do this.

For help with referencing, see the relevant section in a previous post to help you save time on your CELTA assignments .

The last thing to think about is using clear, concise language.

You can write in short sentences for this assignment, which are often clearest for the reader.

Now that you have an idea of what you need to produce, let’s look at how to answer the questions for the language related tasks assignment .

Answering Each Part of CELTA Assignment 2

You will likely have to explain the following aspects for the examples of language you are analysing:

Meaning Form Pronunciation Appropriacy (in parts)  Anticipate problems learners might have Note all reference materials you have used

Let’s deal with each of these points using two examples, first for a point of grammar, and then for a point of lexis.

Example of a Grammar Point for Analysis

Let’s say one of your example sentences for grammar analysis is the following:

She’s just been to the shop

(I know, it’s a very short and simple sentence, but it should help to clarify things!)

The meaning answer needs to show a clear understanding of the key grammar point.

e.g. “In this example, “‘s just been” is used to show a recently completed past action.

One sentence should be fine here. Just make sure you summarise the main point of grammar and you will be fine!

Think of this as building blocks of language (which is the way I like to teach it when drawing it on the whiteboard!)

       have/has + just + been + to + place She has (or ‘s) just  been to the shop

You could write something like the following to answer this (but please also follow what your CELTA tutors tell you – they might have differing opinions on the styles and how to do this!):

  • This structure is called the present perfect (simple) tense.
  • The verb ‘have’ is always needed as an auxiliary verb for this tense.
  • ‘has’ is the 3rd person singular form of the auxiliary verb for the subject ‘She’.
  • It is then followed by a past participle of the relevant verb, which is ‘been’ in the example sentence.
  • This is then followed by the preposition ‘to’ to describe the place visited.
  • The contracted form of the ‘has’ is ”s’, which is common in spoken English.
  • The word ‘just’ here shows that it is a recently completed action in the past. 

It’s unlikely you would have enough words available to write all of the sentences above for one point, but it gives you an idea of how to do it.

And that’s all for the meaning section!

3. Pronunciation

There are 3 main parts to think about here:

Part 1: Phonemic transcription of the words to show ‘how’ they are spoken

Part 2: stressed words in the sentence.

  • Part 3: Connected speech

You do not have to write the pronunciation using phonemic transcriptions but you should get extra marks for using this correctly.

She’s been to the shop /ʃiːz ʤəst biːn tə ðə ʃɒp/

You might only need to transcribe the relevant parts of the present perfect tense – check with your tutor!

This may look difficult or confusing, but it actually only took me a few seconds. Here’s how I did it (start the video at 3m20s ):

You can also copy and paste individual words from the Cambridge online dictionary, if you like.

You could show the stressed words above the sentence as big circles and little cirlces (as I have done below), or as arrows/a line which shows upward and movement with the stress – hard to do on here but hopefully you get the idea!

O       O       o     O

She’s just been to the shop /ʃiːz ʤəst biːn tə ðə ʃɒp/

Part 3: Connected Speech

This is simply when we connect words in a sentence when speaking and pronounce them slightly differently to when they are said on their own. 

Looking again at our example sentence, we can see that the word ‘to’ is pronounced differently to saying it on its own, as follows:

You can see that ‘to’ in the sentence uses a schwa (/ə/) and is pronounced as /tə/.

By contrast, if saying ‘to’ on its own in an English lesson, or perhaps for emphasis, we would say it more like / tu :/.

Try to be aware of these small differences when planing a lesson as well!

4. Appropriacy (in parts)

For the appropriacy aspect of the assignment, you can think about two key points:

  • formal language
  • informal language

So if we look back at our example sentence She’s been to the shop,  we can see it has a contraction (the apostrophe before the ‘s’) so we know it’s not appropriate for formal written language.

This is because all words should be written in full.

From there, you can add a sentence like the following:

This sentence is informal and would likely be used in spoken English only as it has a contracted form.

5. Anticipate problems learners might have

You only have to consider this where relevant – it should be clear when/where this is the case.

You should give a clear solution for each problem you identify. Concept checking questions (CCQs) are also very helpful here.

You can find examples of CCQs in Scrivener’s Teaching English Grammar book for each relevant grammar point.

All that is left for you to do is adapt the example CCQs in Scrivener’s book slightly and make them relevant for your assignment.

You can then also add this book to your reference list, showing that you’ve done reading and that you’ve got your ideas from a reliable source. Win win.

Let’s have a look at an example of each type of problem below:

She’s been to the shop

Meaning Problem: Students might not understand that this person has recently ‘been to the shop’. Solution : Ask two CCQs  to elicit this from students. For example:    1. Question: Did she go to the shop today?        Answer: Yes    2. Question: Is she at the shop now?        Answer: No     3. Question: When did she come back from the shop?     Answer: recently / just now / 5 mninutes ago / etc. (anything which converys  recent past )

There are many ways you could approach this – it depends what you want the students to get from it (think lesson aims/objectives here) but you should be able to ask 1-2 clear CCQs to get the students to focus on what you want.

Problem: With the contraction, students might not realise that the apostrophe ‘s’ + been shows that this must be a present perfect sentence and is short for ‘has’ (this is because ‘She is been’ is not grammatically possible).

Solution: Ask students 2 x CCQs about this apostrophe + ‘s’ combination before revealing what the word is during the lesson. For example:

  • Question: (Point to the apostrophe ‘s’ on the board and ask) What is this word? (Not the letter – the word!)

          Answer: ‘has’

      2. Question: How do you know it is ‘has’?

          Answer: because there is ‘been’ / a past participle after it / it is the present perfect tense / etc.


Problem: Students might try to pronounce the contracted form of ‘has’ in the long form i.e. by saying ‘She has been’

Solution: Perform drilling with students when the sentence is on the board. Start with choral drilling, then choose paris/individuals, then back to choral drilling. Remind students that this should always be pronounced as it is written.


Problem: Students might think that they can use this contracted form in writing.

Solution : Ask them for context about when they could use this. For instance:

  • Question: When can you use this ? (point to contraction). [hint – Yes or no: when you are speaking?]

           Answer: Yes

2.  Question: (continued from Q1 above) Yes or no: when you are writing (hint – in an exam/test)?

          Answer: No

Then explain that all words should be written in full – for speaking it is fine to shorten them with contractions.

For problems with students who have specific native languages (or an ‘L1’), check out Swan and Smith’s Learner English book .

Note all reference materials you have used

Now, from the above, I have not used any reference materials directly. However, you will need to include references whenever you use them.

This is not as big of a problem as you might think.

For example, if you are using APA style referencing (which is quite common), you simply need to enter the author’s surname and year of publication after the point you have paraphrased from their work i.e. (Harmer, 2012).

At the end of the section, put a heading like ‘Reference list’ (APA style).  You can see more on how to do it, check my article on time-saving for CELTA assignments here .

Summary of Grammar Point

And that’s it for the grammar item! From there, let’s move on to the example lexis item for analysis.

Example of a Lexis Item for Analysis

This time, we will use the following item of lexis for analysis:

“It is the best way to prevent more accidents in the future”

An example answer for ‘prevent’ would be something like the following:

“To do something that stops an action from happening in future”

This sounds a little awkward but as you can probably see, it is quite hard to describe ‘prevent’ succinctly without using the word itself!

This is a common problem in ELT so try to get used to explaining things like this succinctly and clearly.

Here you can write something like this:

  • “‘Prevent’ is the infinitive verb form.
  • It is used as the full infinitive in the sentence because it comes after ‘to’
  • It is a transitive verb therefore it requires an object, which is the ‘more accidents in the future’ in the example sentence

If you are not sure about transitive/intransitive verbs, all good (online) dictionaries should display this – I recommend Cambridge dictionary for the CELTA course for this reason.

See the ‘[T]’ in the screenshot below from the entry for the word ‘prevent’; this shows that it is a transitive verb. 

You can also view the list of abbreviations used on the Cambridge dictionary website here (this is also quite useful as a general grammar reference – perhaps one for the reference list on this assignment, too)


Part 1: phonemic transcription.

Using Cambridge dictionary, we can copy and paste the phonetic transcription for the word into our assignment, as follows:

prevent /prɪˈvent/

Part 2: Word stress

To add to this, you can make points about the syllables and word stress. For instance:

  • There are 2 syallables in the word ‘prevent’
  • The second syllable is stressed.

That should be fine here!

NB – ‘Part 3’ for connected speech is likely not relevant here so has been skipped.

However, if you think it is relevant, in that the given word is likely to be pronounced in a connected way, then cover it in the same way as we did in the grammar point. If not skip it in your assignment, too.

As it states that this is only needed where relevant in the examples of this task online, you could probably skip this section.

The only point of note might be that it is acceptable as a formal/academic word.

Even so, that would only really be worth including if you are struggling to find other things to write about in the other sections of this lexis answer.

As such, let’s save our word count and move on to the next section.

Anticipated Problems and Solutions:

There will likely be fewer aspects to cover here than in the grammar section, but you will still need to be thorough.

Problem: Students may not realise this focuses on doing something before an event.

Solution: The following CCQ could help here:

CCQ: If you want to ‘prevent’ an accident, when do you take action? (Before)

(hint – you can say ‘Before something happens or after the accident?’)

It is unlikely that there will be an issue with the form here because this is an infinitive. You don’t have to answer every aspect so you could probably skip this section for this example.

NB – you will probably be given an adjective, noun or adverb as these will likely have more depth in terms of teaching than a regular verb.

If you are given a verb then it would likely be an irregular verb.

Because there wasn’t an obvious problem/solution for the form section above, you can make up for that by including 2 x pronunciation issues here.

Problem 1: Students might pronounce the first syllable as a long vowel sound as with words like ‘pre-sessional’ or ‘preach’ (this syllable would be transcribed phonetically as /pri:/).

Solution: When teaching the word, focus on the word stress and demonstrate this clearly both with hand gestures and by drawing syllable stress on board with word as below:

 o   O Prevent

You could also use the phonetic transcription here if you think the students will know it. If you are not sure, don’t use it.

Teaching students the correct stress should avoid (or ‘prevent’!) this problem.

Problem 2: Students might struggle to pronounce the ‘t’ (or /t/) at the end and simply leave it silent.

Solution: Take in a printed copy of the phonemic chart and point to each sound when working through it. Write the transcription on the board below the word and tap on /t/ if difficulty.

 o   O Prevent /prɪˈvent/

This /t/ sound could be practised through  drilling on its own to confirm the importance of it.

The above should be enough for your problems and solutions.

Summary of Lexis Item

And that’s all for your lexis item for analysis, and for your analysis in general!

Once broken down, it’s not as difficult as it first seems.

Just be thorough and remember it will take longer than you think so don’t leave this until close to the deadline!

Examples of CELTA Assignment 2 Available Online

Here are some examples of CELTA assignment 2 available for free online.

Before you look at them please note that they do not often show the grade received and they vary in quality.

Some websites might also ask you to sign up or sign in, or even pay for downloading them.

This is up to you but all these links will show you at least a part of the assignment to give you a clearer idea of how it looks.

So here goes:

  • you will see that this blog post follows a very similar outline to the link above, but not all centres give the exact same assignment!)
  • From academia.edu: Assignment 2 (750-1000 words) LRT -Language Related Tasks (skip to page 2 for answers)
  • From scribd.com: CELTA Language Analysis Assignment
  • CELTA Assignment 2: Languag …  on Scribd
  • From academia.edu: Assignment: Language Related Task  (this example makes use of some nice timelines – which are a great visual way to explain points to students)
  • This is a template file with questions only.

You will see that these examples vary greatly but have similar types of questions to complete.  

CELTA Assignment 2 Summary Points

To round up, here are a few key points:

  • Listen to your tutors – they will tell you how they like these assignment questions to be answered
  • The word count will easily be filled if you cover each point in depth
  • Remember that you can be far more creative than the ‘solutions’ suggested above in my worked examples.
  • Things like pictures, gestures, mimes, timelines and physical objects can all help to explain a point clearly and easily.

If you follow all of the above points, you should be fine when completing the ‘ language related tasks’ in this assignment!

One general piece of advice on the CELTA is to always keep your tutors happy.

Some of what they tell you to do may feel wrong at times at times but you will get through the course with less stress and resistance by following their advice. And you will likely get a better grade.

Useful Links for CELTA Assignment 2: Language Related Tasks

  • For an overview of the key points: CELTA Course Assignments
  • Writing style for the CELTA assignments: How to Write CELTA Assignments: Easy Guide
  • Quick tips to get through quicker: 10 Ways to Save Time On Your CELTA Assignments
  • CELTA Assignment 1 Guide: Focus on the Learner Assignment: Detailed Guide with Real Examples
  • More general tips to get your through your course: CELTA Course: Tech Tips and Tricks for Lessons and Assignments

Check out more CELTA Helper TV videos on YouTube here!

Best Books for CELTA Assignment 2

Some good books to help you here will be:

  • For clear grammar explanations and examples of concept checking questions (CCQs), Scrivener’s Teaching English Grammar
  • For clear grammar explanations, Swan’s Practical English Usage
  • For more good grammar explanations, Parrott’s Grammar for English Language Teachers
  • This will help to give context to the grammar point you are looking at

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CELTA written assignment: focus on the learner(s)


The purpose of the assignment

The CELTA handbook (5th edition) explains that this assignment allows you to demonstrate that you can:

  • show awareness of how a learner’s/learners’ background(s), previous learning experience and learning preferences affect learning
  • identify the learner’s/learners’ language and/or skills needs
  • correctly use terminology relating to the description of language systems and/or language skills
  • select appropriate material and/or resources to aid the learner’s/learners’ language and/or skills development
  • provide a rationale for using specific activities with a learner/learners
  • find, select and reference information from one or more sources
  • use written language that is clear, accurate and appropriate to the task

That's a lot to cover in 1000 words so you need to be concise and stay focused.  This is not the place to discuss general approaches to teaching.

Most centres choose one of two ways to set this assignment:

  • You may be asked to focus on a specific learner from one of the teaching practice classes or
  • You may be asked to focus on the whole of a teaching practice class.

You may even be given a choice.

Whichever assignment you are set, the considerations are the same but, obviously, more depth will be required in 1. than in 2.

This is in the genre of an Information Report and it has three parts:

  • A brief introduction stating the basic information about the learner or the class.  Say what you are doing and who the subject of the investigation is.
  • An area-by-area report giving the data you have gathered, noting strengths, weaknesses and needs as you go along.
  • sources for language and/or skills development and, if it's needed, personal support
  • ideas for language and/or skill focused activities Link this section carefully to the data you have gathered, explaining why you think the ideas will help.

You can combine the second and third areas if that makes sense to you so two structures are possible:

Choose one structure or the other.  Do not mix them up or you'll be incoherent.


  • An example of the learner's writing.  The neatest way to get this is to write a short note to the learner saying who you are, giving a bit of background (age, background, personal details etc.) and asking the learner to respond in like manner.  That way, you get the personal stuff you need and an example of how well they can handle the simple language needed to give some personal data (name, age, occupation etc.).
  • reasons for learning English
  • language learning background
  • student’s opinion of their strengths and weaknesses in English
  • preferred class and activity types
  • You can, of course, gather some of this data by designing a questionnaire.  See the guide to needs analysis to get some ideas.  There is an example of a basic needs analysis form here.
  • Record the interview and listen to it again, making notes of consistent errors and the learner's communicative effectiveness.  You can provide a tapescript of some important parts of the interview to exemplify the areas you think need work in the assignment.  You will need the person's permission to do this, of course.
  • If recording is not an option, make as many notes as you can on the learner's use of English as you go along.
  • Learning style.  The new edition of the handbook (the 5th) has removed any explicit reference to learning styles because the theories that underlie such things have been comprehensibly debunked.  The syllabus now contains reference to learning preferences.  However, for reasons which are slightly obscure, some CELTA centres and tutors are wedded to the idea of learning styles.  Many will let you have a copy of something called a VARK questionnaire to give to the subject.  There is, of course, a guide to learning styles on this site but you should treat the area with great scepticism.  See also the article attempting to debunk the whole concept .


  • You need to set out some information about the people in the class: ages, occupations, reasons for learning etc.  See the table above.  The only sensible way to do this with a group of people is via a questionnaire needs analysis.  See the guide to needs analysis to get some ideas.  There is an example of a basic needs analysis form here.
  • You can investigate learning preferences but will have to identify from the data any commonalities in the class rather than details of each learner.  See point f., above.
  • For the final section of the assignment where you make suggestions, you'll need to be a bit more generalised and identify common aims and needs rather than individual ones. One approach is to identify the two weakest and the two strongest students and identify appropriate activities, resources and aims for them.  That should also cover everyone in between.


  • The student is studying English for no apparent  purpose at the moment.  He or she may need the language in the future for some purpose but at the moment that is not clear.  The student may also need the language as part of a general education, for access to English-language websites and for travel and tourism. This student needs General English (a GE learner).
  • This student need English to settle and integrate in an English-speaking culture for an indefinite time. This student needs English as a Second or Other Language (an ESOL learner)
  • This student needs English for business and commercial purposes either because his/her professional setting demands it or because she/he is intending to study Business and/or Management. This student needs Business English (a BE learner).
  • This student intends to study in an English-medium institution such as a university or college. This student needs English for Academic Purposes (an EAP learner).
  • This student needs English for a narrow area of concern such as access to written scientific texts, to work in a particular occupation such as the hospitality industry, air traffic control, the merchant marine, the transport industry etc. This student needs English for a Specific Purpose (an ESP learner).
  • All of the above can be subdivided into a bewildering range of acronyms including, e.g., EGOP (English for General Occupational Purposes), EGPP (English for General Professional Purposes), ELF (English as a Lingua-Franca, for communication between non-native speakers of English worldwide), English in the Workplace (EiW), English for Professional Purposes (EPP) and so on.


  • "I want to learn English to fit into an English-speaking culture and work and socialise." This student has Integrative Motivation (to integrate into a cultural milieu).
  • "I want to learn English to use the language in business meetings / to study a subject at university." This student has Instrumental Motivation (using the language as a tool to do other things).
  • "I love the language and enjoy learning it and speaking it." This student has Intrinsic Motivation (the pressure to learn comes from within).
  • "I have been told to learn English by my employer / parents / sponsor." This student has Extrinsic Motivation (the pressure to learn comes from outside).

Be careful not to be too dogmatic here.  People are complicated and their motivations are often obscure, even to themselves, so try to avoid statements such as

This learner is extrinsically motivated.

Prefer, instead, something a bit more careful such as:

From the data supplied in the short questionnaire, it seems that this learners is aware of the need to learn enough English to be able to function in the workplace but is also keen to access English-speaking websites and understand something of the cultures of English-speaking societies.  She has, therefore, a mix of instrumental and integrative motivation and needs English as a tool as well as for cultural access.

There is a guide to motivation on this site but you do not need all the detail now.  If you would like a simpler guide to motivation which still gives more data than here, there is one in the TKT course materials (new tabs).

Obviously, the suggestions you make will be determined by what you have discovered about the learner(s).

  • Why do you suggest it?
  • What's its target?
  • How will it help?
  • Include both ideas for activities and ideas for materials to use and topics to focus on.
  • Identify both language structure and skills needs. For example, From the data summarised in point xxx above, I would argue that a priority for this learner / these learners is to enhance his / her / their reading skills because they / he / she identify it as a weakness and this is supported by my observations.  Good reading skills are needed for study in the UK and the majority of these EAP students / this EAP student will be going on to university in the next few months.  Therefore, I suggest using xxxx in class and starting a reading club using xxxx books and resources.  The student(s) will also benefit from a specific focus on both reading for gist and reading intensively so I suggest the following activities will be helpful... or Another area of weakness I have identified in point yyyy above is the student(s)' lack of vocabulary . Therefore, I suggest a specific focus on general academic vocabulary including using yyyy as a resource and spending at least one lesson per day focusing on common academic collocations (such as reasonable to argue, arising from the data, developing the point further etc.).  This will improve the learner(s)' ability to be precise in terms of meaning and use conventional language in academic essays. The class / student will also benefit from work on cohesive devices such as therefore, firstly, finally, because, furthermore etc. as his / her / their writing shows that they avoid or misuse these structures in general (see appendix 2, and the comments in point z).  This will make the learner(s)' writing in particular more accessible, better organised and fluent.

Do not repeat yourself here.  It's not necessary and you don't have enough words to play with. What you do need to do here is identify the main facts and the most important suggestions.  In other words, prioritise .

Before you submit your assignment, here's a quick checklist.  You can have this as a PDF file by clicking here or you can mentally tick things off on the screen.

  • learning preferences
  • the questionnaire and a summary of the results
  • samples of work
  • I have identified at least 5 language problems the learner(s) have / has
  • I have given examples
  • general future work
  • specific ideas to deal with the problems I identified

Now assess yourself against the criteria for the assignment.  Here they are again.  Have you been able to:

Your tutors will maintain a record of the work you have done on the written assignments and will grade each of the criteria as follows: NS (Not to Standard), S (at Standard) or S+ (above Standard). You need to aim consistently for S or S+ grades, naturally.

If you have managed to tick all the items, well done.  Submit the assignment and move on.

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The Ultimate Guide to CELTA

The Ultimate Guide to CELTA

Written Assignments

Written Assignments: What they are and how to pass them!

CELTA Written Assignments – Language Related Tasks (LRT)

CELTA Written Assignments – Language Skills Related Tasks (LSRT)

CELTA Written Assignments – Focus on the Learner (FL)

CELTA Written Assignments – Lessons from the Classroom (LC)

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CELTA Assignment 3 - Language Skills Related Tasks

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Background and summary The framework for task-based learning as described in this paper was developed over a period of time in the 1980s, working with students aged 14 and upwards in both multilingual and mono-lingual classes in a number of teaching environments. It is illustrated in more detail in 'A Framework for Task-based Learning' first published in 1996 but now out of print and available as an e-book from http://www.intrinsicbooks.co.uk/title_by_title/framework.html This paper explores the rationale behind task-based learning, defining and giving examples of tasks and their outcomes. It explains the stages in a typical task cycle which focus on using language to exchange meanings, then looks at the importance of a subsequent study of language forms in the context of the task. It shows how the stages in the framework generate optimum conditions for language learning Finally it reports the reactions and findings of novice teacher trainees trying out task-based teaching for the first time. Note: This is a revised version of the paper written originally in 1995 for inclusion in the collection 'Challenge and Change in Language Teaching' (now out of print) alongside a paper on Consciousness-raising activities in TBL, for which see http://www.willis-elt.co.uk/articles/ This Task-based Learning (TBL) framework has since been adapted for use by teachers in many countries round the world – and their experiences are reported in 'Doing Task-based Teaching' Willis and Willis, 2007. For a summary and sample TBL lessons, see http://ihjournal.com/doing-task-based-teaching-2 Sample TBL lesson plans are available free from www.willis-elt.co.uk Introduction We began to experiment with task-based learning in the early eighties, frustrated by the limitations of methodologies that prioritized form-focused language teaching, even when supplemented with`skills' lessons. The Presentation, Practice, Production (PPP) model, which focused on accurate use of the grammatical forms taught at the Presentation stage, was in common use at the time. But very few students who finished their English courses were able to use their English to communicate adequately with others. We were encouraged by the success of Prabhu's Communicational Teaching Project in primary and secondary schools in Bangalore (Prabhu 1987), where the focus throughout was almost entirely on meaning rather than grammatical forms. We felt supported by recent research findings in the field of Second Language Acquisition such as those reported by Ellis (1993) and summarized by Skehan (1996) earlier in this volume. This task-based framework differs from a PPP cycle because the focus on language form comes at the e nd. The communication task itself is central to the framework. Such a task may involve student production of language and/or may be linked to a spoken or written text. A single task would normally involve both productive skills, eg speaking and note-taking, and receptive skills, eg listening and often reading. Learners begin by carrying out a communication task, using the language they have learnt from previous lessons or from other sources. They then talk or write about how they did the task and compare fi ndings. At some point they might listen to recordings of other people doing the same task, or read something related to the theme of the task, again relating this to their own experience of doing the task. Only after that is their attention directed towards specific features of language form-features that occur naturally in the recordings they have heard or the texts they have read. In other words, learners begin with a holistic experience of language in use. They end with a closer look at some of the features naturally occurring in that language. By that point, the learners will have worked with the language and processed it for meaning. It is then that the focus turns to the surface forms that have carried the meanings.


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Celta: Assignment 3: Skills-Related

Celta: Assignment 3: Skills-Related

For this Skills-related assignment, my choice of authentic reading material is “Few Places with Better Stories” from Asian Geographic magazine (no 78 issue 1/2011, pages 30 and 35). As this magazine is widely read and it is also a popular TV channel, the students will be able to relate to it easily. I decided to use this article as I think it is appropriate for English Language learners at the Intermediate level. The article deals with photography which can be a hobby or passion for many adult learners and hence they can identify with the author. It is also biographical, as the author narrates his experiences, thus the reader can bond with the narrator. This topic has a universal appeal and is not culturally biased. The article also has contemporary relevance as the author blends photography with nature, as the world is desperate to conserve it. “One test for useful reading might be to check how far tasks reflect real-life uses of the same text. If a text is used in class in ways that are reasonably similar to real life, the task will likely be effective” (Learning Teaching, Third edition 2011, Jims Scrivener, Macmillan) But, most of all, this entire article is perfect for a reading activity, as the topic enables great discussions/productive skill extensions.

Part 2: Receptive skill task design

I think a good starting point for this lesson would be playing a clip of underwater life from the National Geographic archive http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JSlFsbrUz2Q

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Students are familiar with underwater life and the clip will help to set the context and situation. Students could first discuss with partners how they feel about underwater photography. After eliciting some opinions and feelings, ask some additional, personalized questions like:

  • “Have you seen the underwater world at Sentosa?”
  • “Would you like to be an underwater photographer?”
  • “Would you like to go on an underwater expedition with the National Geographic team?”

The teacher elicits responses to set the context further. Although there are plenty of new vocabulary items in the article, I think students would not have any significant difficulties in grasping the overall meaning of the text. I agree with Jeremy Harmer about pre-teaching: “by giving them some or all those words we deny them (a chance to practice tackling authentic texts)” (Harmer -203). In my perspective, students learn new words about context which will enable them to grasp the word well. In this article, I would pre-teach key vocabulary, such as:

  • photo-journalist
  • to fall in love

I would convey the meaning of the above words with the help of visuals, and CCQs. The rest of the vocabulary issues (which do not impede the set tasks) can be dealt with by matching words with meaning or synonyms at the pre-reading stage. I would use this article to practice skim reading. Though the article is lengthy, the first paragraph throws enough insight into the author. This enables a gist reading. The gist reading task – 30 seconds: Appendix B

I would remind the students that gist reading is a skill that requires quick reading and the ability to choose important information. “Skimming=Reading quickly for the gist of a passage. A typical skimming task would be a general question from the teacher…” (Learning Teaching, Third edition 2011, Jims Scrivener, Macmillan) Feedback: 1minute

A lesson without feedback “is teaching that proceeds forward without reference to what impact this is having on the learner’…” (Learning Teaching, Third edition 2011, Jims Scrivener, Macmillan) For specific reading task or scanning skills, I would use a simple set of questions- 5 minutes (reading and answering): Appendix B. “You probably want tasks that encourage students to search for specific small sections of text which they can read more carefully to find a required piece of information. Students doing this will be reading the material in a similar way to how people might read it in everyday life.” (Learning Teaching, Third edition 2011, Jims Scrivener, Macmillan) For both the scan and skim reading activities, students would do a pair check of their answers before the teacher does feedback. The teacher flashes the answers for the gist reading on the screen (OHP) and for the scanning task, individual students could volunteer to discuss the answers. At this stage, the teacher can feedback on how the students located the answers (sequence of information in the paragraphs, lead words, context, etc). “A common scanning activity is searching for information….Although scanning is involved with finding individual points from the text….the way the reader finds the information involves some degree of processing of the overall shape and structure of the text…” (Learning Teaching, Third edition 2011, Jims Scrivener, Macmillan)

Part 3: Productive skill task design

I would use a writing task for productive skills. As the students have read about underwater life, I would set a guided task to write about the topic: “Your thoughts and feelings of the underwater world” (Students are expected to write five sentences)

Photos and pictures of marine life will be pasted around the classroom. Each picture/photo will carry a description/keywords. Students will do a gallery walk, with a pen and paper, to note the details and description they would like to use. They will return to their seats to write five sentences about underwater life and their feeling/sentiments. This task is for 15 minutes

At the end of the task, the writing from students will be pasted on the whiteboard and the students can read each other’s and vote for the best.

“Writing involves a different kind of mental process. There is more time to think, to reflect, to prepare, to rehearse, to make mistakes and to find alternative and better solutions” …” (Learning Teaching, Third edition 2011, Jims Scrivener, Macmillan). I would like to use writing activity because “ The need for long formal written work seems to have lessened over the years, and this is reflected in many classrooms where writing activities are perhaps less often found than those for other skills” …” (Learning Teaching, Third edition 2011, Jims Scrivener, Macmillan).

  • A copy of the authentic task- appendix A
  • The tasks you have designed- appendix B
  • The answers to the task- appendix C

The gist reading task – 30 seconds: Answer the following questions with a “yes” or “no”.

  • Is this passage about a photographer?
  • Is this passage about underwater life?
  • Is this passage about a school teacher?
  • Para 1: When did the author fall in love with the sea?
  • Para 1: Why did the author become an underwater photographer and a photojournalist?
  • Para 1: What brings the greatest joy to the author?
  • Para 2: According to the author, is the ocean dying?
  • Para 3: What motivates the author most?
  • Para 4: Did the author swim with underwater animals?

Answers key Gist activity (skimming)

Specific reading (scanning)

  • He loved telling stories with pictures.
  • Photographs of nature.


  • Learning Teaching, Third Edition, Jim Scrivener, Macmillan, 2011 Harmer, J.The Practise of English Language Teaching, 3rd Edition, Longman, 2001

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