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How to write contingency plan section of a proposal template

How to write a contingency plan section in a proposal template.

A contingency plan is a crucial part of any proposal, ensuring that you are prepared for unexpected events or changes in your project. In this article, we will guide you through the process of writing a contingency plan section in a proposal template.

Type of Proposal Templates : – Project proposals – Business proposals – Event proposals – Research proposals – Grant proposals

Q: What should be included in a contingency plan section? A: A contingency plan section should outline potential risks and their impact on the project, as well as the specific actions that will be taken to mitigate these risks.

Q: How detailed should the contingency plan be? A: The contingency plan should be thorough, addressing potential risks and providing specific steps to address each one. However, it should also be concise and focused on the most critical risks.

Q: Who should be involved in writing the contingency plan section? A: It is important to involve key stakeholders , project managers, and subject matter experts in the development of the contingency plan section to ensure that all potential risks are identified and addressed.

Identify Potential Risks: Start by identifying potential risks that could impact the success of your project. These could include financial, technical, environmental, or human resources risks.

Assess the Impact: Once you have identified potential risks, assess their potential impact on the project. Consider the likelihood of each risk occurring and the severity of its impact.

Develop Mitigation Strategies: For each identified risk, develop specific mitigation strategies. These could include alternative approaches, resource reallocation, or contingency funds.

Communicate the Plan: Ensure that the contingency plan is communicated effectively to all relevant stakeholders. This could include project team members , sponsors, and clients.

Relevant Information for the End User

When writing the contingency plan section in a proposal template, it is essential to provide clear and actionable information. This should include a concise overview of potential risks, their impact, and the specific actions that will be taken to address them.

In conclusion, writing a contingency plan section in a proposal template is a critical step in ensuring the success of your project. By following these guidelines and involving key stakeholders, you can create a comprehensive and effective contingency plan that will help you navigate any unexpected challenges.

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What Is Contingency Planning? Creating a Contingency Plan


Table of Contents

What is contingency planning, what is a contingency plan, contingency plan example, how to create a contingency plan, business contingency plans, project contingency plans.

Contingency plans are used by smart managers who are aware that there are always risks that can sideline any project or business. Without having a contingency plan in place, your organization won’t be well prepared for risk management .

The term contingency planning refers to the process of preparing a plan to respond to any risks or unexpected events that might affect an organization. Contingency planning starts with a thorough risk assessment to identify any risks and then develop a contingency plan to resolve them or at least mitigate their negative impact.

Contingency planning takes many shapes as it’s used for helping businesses and projects across industries. Even governments use contingency plans to prepare for disaster recovery or economic disruption, such as those caused by natural disasters.

A contingency plan is an action plan that’s meant to help organizations mitigate the negative effects of risks. In simple terms, a contingency plan is an action plan that organizations should execute when things don’t go as expected.

contingency plan in research proposal

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Action Plan Template

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Now that we’ve briefly defined what contingency planning is, let’s take a look at a contingency plan example involving a manufacturing project.

Let’s imagine a business that’s planning to manufacture a batch of products for an important client. Both parties have signed a contract that requires the manufacturer to deliver the products at a certain date or there may be negative consequences as stated on the purchase agreement. To avoid this, the business leaders of this manufacturing company start building a contingency plan.

To keep this project contingency plan example simple, let’s focus on three key risks this company should prepare for.

  • Supply chain shortages: The supply chain is one of the most important business processes for this manufacturing company. Therefore, one of the most impactful risks is a raw material shortage which may occur if their main supplier is unable to deliver the materials they need on time. To prepare a contingency action for this risk, the business owners decide to reach out to other suppliers and place standing purchase orders which give them the opportunity to ask for a certain quantity of materials at some point in the future. If the risk of a supply chain shortage occurs, they’ll have multiple sources of raw materials available in case their main supplier can’t keep up with their demand levels.
  • Machinery breakdown: Another risk that might halt production is the malfunction of machinery. To prepare for this, business leaders hire extra maintenance personnel and order spare parts for their production line machinery as part of their contingency plan. If the risk of machinery breakdown becomes a reality, the organization will have the labor and resources that are needed to mitigate it.
  • The team is not meeting the schedule: If the manufacturing team members are failing to meet their goals on time for whatever reason, the manufacturing business will need to allocate more resources such as extra labor and equipment to complete the work faster. However, this contingency action will generate additional costs and reduce the profitability of the project.

ProjectManager has everything you need to build contingency plans to ensure your organization can respond effectively to risks. Use multiple planning tools such as Gantt charts, kanban boards and project calendars to assign work to your team and collaborate in real time. Plus, dashboards and reports let you track progress, costs and timelines. Get started today for free.

ProjectManager's Gantt chart

Like a project plan , a contingency plan requires a great deal of research and brainstorming. And like any good plan, there are steps to take to make sure you’re doing it right.

1. Identify Key Business Processes and Resources

To create an effective contingency plan you should first identify what are the key processes and resources that allow your organization to reach its business goals. This will help you understand what risks could be the most impactful to your organization. Research your company and list its crucial processes such as supply chain management or production planning as well as key resources, such as teams, tools, facilities, etc., then prioritize that list from most important to least important.

2. Identify the Risks

Now, identify all the risks that might affect your organization based on the processes and resources you’ve previously identified. Figure out where you’re vulnerable by brainstorming with employees, executives and stakeholders to get a full picture of what events could compromise your key business processes and resources; hire an outside consultant, if necessary. Once you’ve identified all the risks, you should use a risk log to track them later.

3. Analyze Risks Using a Risk Matrix

Once you’ve identified all the risks that might affect your processes and resources, you’ll need to establish the likelihood and level of impact for each of those risks by using a risk assessment matrix . This allows you to determine which risks should be prioritized.

4. Think About Risk Mitigation Strategies

Now, write a risk mitigation strategy for each risk that you identified in the above steps. Start with the risks that have a higher probability and higher impact, as those are the most critical to your business. As time permits you can create a plan for everything on your list.

5. Draft a Contingency Plan

Contingency plans should be simple and easy to understand for the different members of your audience, such as employees, executives and any other internal stakeholder. The main goal of a contingency plan is to ensure your team members know how to proceed if project risks occur so they can resume normal business operations.

6. Share the Plan

When you’ve written the contingency plan and it’s been approved, the next step is to ensure everyone in the organization has a copy. A contingency plan, no matter how thorough, isn’t effective if it hasn’t been properly communicated .

7. Revisit the Plan

A contingency plan isn’t chiseled in stone. It must be revisited, revised and maintained to reflect changes to the organization. As new employees, technologies and resources enter the picture, the contingency plan must be updated to handle them.

Contingency Plan Template

We’ve created an action plan template for Excel to help you as you go through the contingency planning process. With this template, you can list down tasks, resources, costs, due dates among other important details of your contingency plan.

contingency plan in research proposal

A business contingency plan is an action plan that is used to respond to future events that might or might not affect a company in the future. In most cases, a contingency plan is devised to respond to a negative event that can tarnish a company’s reputation or even its business continuity. However, there are positive contingency plans, such as what to do if the organization receives an unexpected sum of money or other project resources .

The contingency plan is a proactive strategy, different from a risk response plan , which is more of a reaction to a risk event. A business contingency plan is set up to account for those disruptive events, so you’re prepared if and when they arrive.

While any organization is going to plan for its product or service to work successfully in the marketplace, that marketplace is anything but stable. That’s why every company needs a business contingency plan to be ready for both positive and negative risk management.

In project management, contingency planning is often part of risk management. Any project manager knows that a project plan is only an outline. Sometimes, unexpected changes and risks cause projects to extend beyond those lines. The more a manager can prepare for those risks, the more effective his project will be.

But risk management isn’t the same as contingency planning. Risk management is a project management knowledge area that consists of a set of tools and techniques that are used by project managers to create a risk management plan.

A risk management plan is a comprehensive document that covers everything about identifying, assessing, avoiding and mitigating risks.

On the other hand, a contingency plan is about developing risk management strategies to take when an actual issue occurs, similar to a risk response plan. Creating a contingency plan in project management can be as simple as asking, “What if…?” and then outlining the steps to your plan as you answer that question.

Using ProjectManager to Create a Contingency Plan

ProjectManager has the project planning and risk management tools you need to make a reliable contingency plan that can quickly be executed in a dire situation.

Use Task Lists to Outline the Elements

Use our task list feature to outline all the elements of a contingency plan. Since a contingency plan likely wouldn’t have any hard deadlines at first, this is a good way to list all the necessary tasks and resources. You can add comments and files to each task, so everyone will know what to do when the time comes.

Task list in ProjectManager

Reference Dashboards to Monitor the Contingency Plan

Our dashboard gives you a bird’s eye view of all of the critical project metrics. It displays live data so you’re getting a real-time look at how your project is progressing. This live information can help you spot issues and resolve them to make sure that your contingency plan is a success. Which, given that it’s your plan B, is tantamount.

ProjectManager’s dashboard view, which shows six key metrics on a project

If you’re planning a project, include a contingency plan, and if you’re working on a contingency plan then have the right tools to get it done right. ProjectManager is online project management software that helps you create a shareable contingency plan, and then, if you need to, execute it, track its progress and make certain to resolve whatever problems it’s addressing. You can do this all in real time! What are you waiting for? Check out ProjectManager with this free 30-day trial today!

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  • How to Write a Research Proposal | Examples & Templates

How to Write a Research Proposal | Examples & Templates

Published on October 12, 2022 by Shona McCombes and Tegan George. Revised on November 21, 2023.

Structure of a research proposal

A research proposal describes what you will investigate, why it’s important, and how you will conduct your research.

The format of a research proposal varies between fields, but most proposals will contain at least these elements:


Literature review.

  • Research design

Reference list

While the sections may vary, the overall objective is always the same. A research proposal serves as a blueprint and guide for your research plan, helping you get organized and feel confident in the path forward you choose to take.

Table of contents

Research proposal purpose, research proposal examples, research design and methods, contribution to knowledge, research schedule, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about research proposals.

Academics often have to write research proposals to get funding for their projects. As a student, you might have to write a research proposal as part of a grad school application , or prior to starting your thesis or dissertation .

In addition to helping you figure out what your research can look like, a proposal can also serve to demonstrate why your project is worth pursuing to a funder, educational institution, or supervisor.

Research proposal length

The length of a research proposal can vary quite a bit. A bachelor’s or master’s thesis proposal can be just a few pages, while proposals for PhD dissertations or research funding are usually much longer and more detailed. Your supervisor can help you determine the best length for your work.

One trick to get started is to think of your proposal’s structure as a shorter version of your thesis or dissertation , only without the results , conclusion and discussion sections.

Download our research proposal template

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contingency plan in research proposal

Writing a research proposal can be quite challenging, but a good starting point could be to look at some examples. We’ve included a few for you below.

  • Example research proposal #1: “A Conceptual Framework for Scheduling Constraint Management”
  • Example research proposal #2: “Medical Students as Mediators of Change in Tobacco Use”

Like your dissertation or thesis, the proposal will usually have a title page that includes:

  • The proposed title of your project
  • Your supervisor’s name
  • Your institution and department

The first part of your proposal is the initial pitch for your project. Make sure it succinctly explains what you want to do and why.

Your introduction should:

  • Introduce your topic
  • Give necessary background and context
  • Outline your  problem statement  and research questions

To guide your introduction , include information about:

  • Who could have an interest in the topic (e.g., scientists, policymakers)
  • How much is already known about the topic
  • What is missing from this current knowledge
  • What new insights your research will contribute
  • Why you believe this research is worth doing

As you get started, it’s important to demonstrate that you’re familiar with the most important research on your topic. A strong literature review  shows your reader that your project has a solid foundation in existing knowledge or theory. It also shows that you’re not simply repeating what other people have already done or said, but rather using existing research as a jumping-off point for your own.

In this section, share exactly how your project will contribute to ongoing conversations in the field by:

  • Comparing and contrasting the main theories, methods, and debates
  • Examining the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches
  • Explaining how will you build on, challenge, or synthesize prior scholarship

Following the literature review, restate your main  objectives . This brings the focus back to your own project. Next, your research design or methodology section will describe your overall approach, and the practical steps you will take to answer your research questions.

To finish your proposal on a strong note, explore the potential implications of your research for your field. Emphasize again what you aim to contribute and why it matters.

For example, your results might have implications for:

  • Improving best practices
  • Informing policymaking decisions
  • Strengthening a theory or model
  • Challenging popular or scientific beliefs
  • Creating a basis for future research

Last but not least, your research proposal must include correct citations for every source you have used, compiled in a reference list . To create citations quickly and easily, you can use our free APA citation generator .

Some institutions or funders require a detailed timeline of the project, asking you to forecast what you will do at each stage and how long it may take. While not always required, be sure to check the requirements of your project.

Here’s an example schedule to help you get started. You can also download a template at the button below.

Download our research schedule template

If you are applying for research funding, chances are you will have to include a detailed budget. This shows your estimates of how much each part of your project will cost.

Make sure to check what type of costs the funding body will agree to cover. For each item, include:

  • Cost : exactly how much money do you need?
  • Justification : why is this cost necessary to complete the research?
  • Source : how did you calculate the amount?

To determine your budget, think about:

  • Travel costs : do you need to go somewhere to collect your data? How will you get there, and how much time will you need? What will you do there (e.g., interviews, archival research)?
  • Materials : do you need access to any tools or technologies?
  • Help : do you need to hire any research assistants for the project? What will they do, and how much will you pay them?

If you want to know more about the research process , methodology , research bias , or statistics , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.


  • Sampling methods
  • Simple random sampling
  • Stratified sampling
  • Cluster sampling
  • Likert scales
  • Reproducibility


  • Null hypothesis
  • Statistical power
  • Probability distribution
  • Effect size
  • Poisson distribution

Research bias

  • Optimism bias
  • Cognitive bias
  • Implicit bias
  • Hawthorne effect
  • Anchoring bias
  • Explicit bias

Once you’ve decided on your research objectives , you need to explain them in your paper, at the end of your problem statement .

Keep your research objectives clear and concise, and use appropriate verbs to accurately convey the work that you will carry out for each one.

I will compare …

A research aim is a broad statement indicating the general purpose of your research project. It should appear in your introduction at the end of your problem statement , before your research objectives.

Research objectives are more specific than your research aim. They indicate the specific ways you’ll address the overarching aim.

A PhD, which is short for philosophiae doctor (doctor of philosophy in Latin), is the highest university degree that can be obtained. In a PhD, students spend 3–5 years writing a dissertation , which aims to make a significant, original contribution to current knowledge.

A PhD is intended to prepare students for a career as a researcher, whether that be in academia, the public sector, or the private sector.

A master’s is a 1- or 2-year graduate degree that can prepare you for a variety of careers.

All master’s involve graduate-level coursework. Some are research-intensive and intend to prepare students for further study in a PhD; these usually require their students to write a master’s thesis . Others focus on professional training for a specific career.

Critical thinking refers to the ability to evaluate information and to be aware of biases or assumptions, including your own.

Like information literacy , it involves evaluating arguments, identifying and solving problems in an objective and systematic way, and clearly communicating your ideas.

The best way to remember the difference between a research plan and a research proposal is that they have fundamentally different audiences. A research plan helps you, the researcher, organize your thoughts. On the other hand, a dissertation proposal or research proposal aims to convince others (e.g., a supervisor, a funding body, or a dissertation committee) that your research topic is relevant and worthy of being conducted.

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If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

McCombes, S. & George, T. (2023, November 21). How to Write a Research Proposal | Examples & Templates. Scribbr. Retrieved April 15, 2024, from

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Contingency planning in the clinical laboratory: lessons learned amidst COVID-19

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j1 Department of Pathology, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA

j2 Department of Pathology, Los Angeles County + University of Southern California (LAC+USC) Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA

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A practical guide to creating a contingency plan

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The vast majority of failed projects and bankrupt companies had a plan and followed it. So why do these projects and companies end up failing?

Unexpected things happen that companies don’t plan for, and many fail to adapt in time.

The key: having a sound contingency plan. A contingency plan is all about expecting the unexpected and preparing to deal with worst-case scenarios ahead of time. This article will cover why you need a contingency plan, and walk you through step-by-step instructions for creating one. We’ll also provide a contingency planning template you can implement and use on immediately.

What is a contingency plan?

A contingency plan is a predefined set of actions that you will implement in response to specific future events that put your project or business at risk.

A simple example of a contingency plan is to back up all your website data. That way, if your website gets hacked, it will be easy to restore the data after regaining access and changing passwords.

Without that backup, the team might have to recreate the entire website from memory or build a website from scratch . That’s a significant expense and can mean several extra days (or weeks!) of downtime.

A contingency plan is about managing and lowering risk and setting yourself up for speedy disaster recovery.

What are the two types of contingencies in project management? makes budget contingency planning visual

There are two types of contingencies that you should plan for: budget contingency & schedule contingency.

  • Budget contingency is an additional amount of money that you allocate to your budget, so you can cover extra costs that might come up as the project progresses. If you don’t have a contingency budget, you might run into an unexpected cost that could send you over budget and risk the profit margin of your project.
  • Schedule contingency is an additional amount of time that you bake into your project schedule, to allow for any unexpected delays or hiccups in your project progress. Without schedule contingency, you risk running over your project deadlines and disappointing stakeholders.

Contingency plan examples

Here are a few examples of how contingency planning could help save the day, no matter what happens:

Project contingency plan

Imagine that a key team member unexpectedly leaves the project. If you were contingency planning for this scenario, you might outline the following steps you could follow if you lost a key project team member:

  • Identify who will take over the tasks of the departing team member, and what tasks still need doing
  • Assess if any additional resources will be needed (such as an additional part-time project member from another team)
  • Provide training sessions for other team members to ensure they can step in effectively
  • Notify any stakeholders about the change and how it will be managed to minimize disruption and offer reassurance.

Business continuity plan

How about if a natural disaster disrupted operations at your primary office location? Could your business cope? With a continuity plan in place, you’ll turn things around quickly:

  • Make sure all your employees have access to the necessary tools and systems so that they can work remotely if necessary
  • Regularly back up all essential data to the cloud, and have a data recovery plan in place, in the event of loss of the hardware in your primary office
  • Identify backup office space or plan for remote work options if the primary location becomes inaccessible
  • Define communication channels that you’ll use in the event of a major disruption so that you can reach your employees to provide updates and instructions on how to proceed

Supply chain contingency plan

Do all your logistics depend on a few key suppliers? Then you should have a supply chain contingency plan in place, in case of unexpected production or shipping delays.

  • Have more than one supplier for critical components, so this becomes less of a business risk.
  • Maintain a buffer stock of your essential components, so that production won’t be held up by supplier delays
  • Find a shipping company that offers expedited shipping options in case you have an urgent need
  • Update your supplier contract to include penalties for delays and a procedure for resolving any disputes

Why contingency planning is important

contingency planning is easier with boards

Murphy’s Law specifies that anything that can go wrong will go wrong. And any experienced project planner knows how true that is! Contingency planning can make or break your business:

It helps mitigate risk.

Contingency planning helps to identify potential risks and get ahead of them with a proactive plan. That way, even when things go wrong, you can minimize the disruption to operations and reduce your financial losses.

It makes your business more resilient.

Having a contingency plan in place enables you to respond to the unforeseen more effectively, adapt to changing conditions, and recover from setbacks more efficiently.

It keeps you compliant.

In many industries, contingency planning is mandated by regulatory requirements, so you’ll need these plans in place to avoid penalties and maintain good legal standing.

It increases customer trust.

Customers trust businesses that handle disruptions effectively. The ability to respond quickly and effectively when things go wrong will help build your reputation for great customer service.

Looking for a tool to make contingency planning easier? With, you can store all your contingency plans in a central location, communicate changes with stakeholders, and create automated workflows in response to unexpected events.

What are the characteristics of a good contingency plan?

Your contingency plan should include the following components:

List of risks

Begin by making a thorough identification of potential risks that could realistically occur. Depending on what kind of contingency plan you’re putting together, these could be all the risks that could impact your business, or the risks that could delay or disrupt a specific project or product.

For example, in terms of business-level contingency planning, you could list out:

  • Natural disasters
  • Technological failures
  • Economic downturns
  • Supply chain disruptions
  • Sudden market changes

Response options

Your plan should then outline various responses that you could choose between, for each risk you’ve identified. These might be:

  • Actions to mitigate the risk
  • Ways to transfer the risk to another party (e.g. by buying insurance)
  • Ways to accept and manage the risk

Plan of action

For each risk and response option, you should then add in a plan of action, including:

  • Steps to take
  • Who is responsible for each step
  • Any resources you’ll need
  • Any need to coordinate with other stakeholders or third parties

Communication management protocols

You’ll also want to make sure that you have a plan in place to communicate effectively with all stakeholders, including:

  • Who needs to be notified
  • The channels you’ll use for communication
  • How often you’ll send out updates
  • Any useful templates to use for messages

Trigger points

Decide in advance when you’ll activate a specific contingency response. For instance, you might have a particular threshold beyond which you’ll move to a contingency plan — such as the severity level of a natural disaster. You should also define who has the authority to make these decisions, and how the decision will be made (by committee or by chain of command, for instance.)

Testing and review

To keep your plan up to date, you should schedule regular tests and reviews. For instance, for a natural disaster contingency plan, you might want to run a drill once a year, to practice your response procedures and make sure that everything works as it should.

How to create a contingency plan

Let’s cover the basic contingency planning process and detail how to get yours up and running.

1. Map out essential processes.

What processes are essential to your business and safely delivering your product or service to customers?

If you’re a manufacturing company that ships directly to consumers, a simplified process list might look something like this:

  • Getting raw materials from suppliers
  • Manufacturing process
  • Freight and shipping
  • Packaging and warehousing
  • Last-mile delivery

Looking at this list, you can see how vulnerable it is to natural disasters or even minor human errors.

Create an overview of every crucial process in your organization.

2. Create a list of risks for each process.

Once the process list is created, consider what might disrupt business continuity.

What can go wrong with each of these critical processes?

Let’s look at an example of what could go wrong with “last-mile delivery” …

  • The driver can deliver single or multiple packages to the wrong address.
  • The package can be damaged during delivery.
  • The package could get lost at a distribution center.
  • A truck full of packages could be involved in an accident.
  • A flood could cripple the road system in a specific area.
  • The driver could get delayed because a moose wants to lick salt splatter off the car (seriously, it’s a thing ).

And that’s only a preliminary list. Once you start thinking about it, you’ll realize how many things you rely on to avoid going wrong, even for fundamental processes.

Every business process is vulnerable to some sort of emergency or human error and requires a solid risk management process .

3. Evaluate the potential impact and likelihood of each risk.

Once the risks are identified, it’s essential to determine how they could impact your business.

Are they likely to happen? How large will the impact on your business if they do occur?

Most companies use “qualitative risk assessment” to do this.

PMI uses the following risk exposure assessment table — also called the probability impact matrix — to evaluate … the probability and impact of potential risks.

Risk impact probability table from PMI

( Image Source )

First, rate the severity of the impact on a scale from 1–100. Then, multiply with a percentage based on how likely it is to occur.

4. Calculate costs and contingency reserves, and identify issues to mitigate.

The quantitative risk assessment approach is less common — but more practical — to assess the potential cost of each risk.

How much would each risk potentially cost your business? To get a better overview, add these 4 columns to the risk register template :

  • Full potential loss from the event
  • Expected loss from the event
  • Cost of response (post-event)
  • Cost of mitigation (pre-event)

Quantitative risk register example in monday UI

This means you can make an educated decision when budgeting contingency reserves into project plans and yearly budgets.

During the risk analysis , estimate the potential costs of the adverse event.

EXAMPLE: if your online store goes down, multiply the average online sales revenue per hour with expected downtime. Make one pessimistic and one realistic estimate.

Your hosting service may also have a flat fee for restoring sites, which would be your response cost. If these costs are unreasonably high and the event is likely, estimate the costs of a mitigation effort. In this case, it could be a firewall and extra procedures, like 2-factor authentication, an important security system , for all employees.

Budget in those costs. An accurate budget is the first part of emergency response and prevention. Without enough cash, your team won’t be able to put any response plans into action.

5. Create a response plan for prioritized events.

Create a response plan for events by exploring the following questions:

  • What can be done ahead of time to minimize any adverse effects on the event? For example, backing up data, carrying extra stock, or having more employees on call.
  • What can be done immediately after the event to minimize the impact? For example, ordering more from a secondary supplier, rerouting another vehicle, or bringing in on-call staff.

The specifics depend on your company’s unique processes and situation.

6. Share the contingency plan.

A contingency plan only works if it’s used when things go wrong—and that means that everyone in your organization knows to reach for the plan in times of trouble. To make sure that happens:

  • Identify who needs to be aware of and involved in contingency planning.
  • Choose appropriate communication methods for each stakeholder group. For instance, department heads may need specific meetings to focus on their section of the plan. Key employees might need a training session.
  • Create the plan in an accessible, centralized location, such as a board. That way, everyone involved can access the plan, and you can keep it updated at all times.
  • Encourage feedback on the plan, such as running an employee survey to check understanding and seek ideas for changes and improvements.
  • Post reminders and updates on your shared internal communication channels.

7. Monitor and review the contingency plan.

If you want your contingency plans to protect your business, you have to keep them up to date. That means you’ll need to schedule regular reviews of the plan to check that it’s still relevant and aligned with your changing business.

Remember to communicate updates or revisions to all relevant stakeholders, and provide opportunities for additional training if needed.

Manage your contingency planning process with

Having your business contingency plan on paper is an excellent place to start. But it won’t translate to how your entire company will tackle a crisis.

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Use our pre-built contingency plan template to get you started 

Make sure that no employee is left clueless during a crisis. Our contingency plan template has everything you need to start the planning process.

With our pre-built template, you can feel confident you’re following best practice contingency planning, so your business will run smoothly even in the case of unexpected events.

Use integrations to notify someone of an event automatically 

use automation to keep stakeholders up to date on your contingency plan

With’s powerful integrations and automations, you can respond to unfavorable events more quickly.

For example, you can immediately create and assign a work item whenever a customer submits a bug report.

This approach helps avoid another potential problem: customer service failing to report bug reports to your development team.

Monitor project status at all times in dashboards to avoid bottlenecks and domino effects.

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The best time to start acting is before a catastrophic event that puts your entire project or business at risk.

To do that, your management team needs a clear understanding of the project’s status at all times.

Use the 30,000-foot view every manager needs to avoid predictable project delays and failures and check that project controls are working properly.

Contingency plans are a must-have.

When starting a project or business, most people plan according to the status quo. Unfortunately, that’s a best-case scenario and not helpful in the real world.

A contingency plan helps you prepare for worst-case scenarios and keep your project afloat, should anything go wrong.

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Enterprises are often defined by how they deal with events that are out of their control. For example, how you react to a disruptive technology or cope with a sudden change in the markets can be the difference between success and failure.

Contingency planning is the art of preparing for the unexpected. But where do you start and how do you separate the threats that could do real harm to your business from the ones that aren’t as critical?

Here are some important definitions, best practices and strong examples to help you build contingency plans for whatever your business faces.

What is a contingency plan?

Business contingency plans, also known as “business continuity plans” or “emergency response plans” are action plans to help organizations resume normal business operations after an unintended interruption. Organizations build contingency plans to help them face a variety of threats, including natural disasters, unplanned downtime, data loss, network breaches and sudden shifts in customer demand.

A good place to start is with a series of “what if” questions that propose various worst-case scenarios you’ll need to have a plan for. For example:

  • What if a critical asset breaks down, causing delays in production?
  • What if your top three engineers all quit at the same time?
  • What if the country where your microprocessors are built was suddenly invaded?

Good contingency plans prioritize the risks an organization faces, delegate responsibility to members of the response teams and increase the likelihood that the company will make a full recovery after a negative event.

Five steps to build a strong contingency plan

1. make a list of risks and prioritize them according to likelihood and severity..

In the first stage of the contingency planning process, stakeholders brainstorm a list of potential risks the company faces and conduct risk analysis on each one. Team members discuss possible risks, analyze the risk impact of each one and propose courses of action to increase their overall preparedness. You don’t need to create a risk management plan for every threat your company faces, just the ones your decision-makers assess as both highly likely and with a potential impact on normal business processes.

2. Create a business impact analysis (BIA) report

Business impact analysis (BIA) is a crucial step in understanding how the different business functions of an enterprise will respond to unexpected events. One way to do this is to look at how much company revenue is being generated by the business unit at risk. If the BIA indicates that it’s a high percentage, the company will most likely want to prioritize creating a contingency plan for this business risk.

3. Make a plan

For each potential threat your company faces that has both a high likelihood of occurring and a high potential impact on business operations, you can follow these three simple steps to create a plan:

  • Identify triggers that will set a plan into action: For example, if a hurricane is approaching, when does the storm trigger your course of action? When it’s 50 miles away? 100 miles? Your teams will need clear guidance so they will know when to start executing the actions they’ve been assigned.
  • Design an appropriate response: The threat your organization prepared for has arrived and teams are springing into action. Everyone involved will need clear, accessible instructions, protocols that are easy to follow and a way to communicate with other stakeholders.
  • Delegate responsibility clearly and fairly: Like any other initiative, contingency planning requires effective project management to succeed. One proven way to address this is to create a RACI chart . RACI stands for responsible, accountable, consulted and informed, and it is widely used in crisis management to help teams and individuals delegate responsibility and react to crises in real time.

4. Get buy-in from the entire organization—and be realistic about cost

Sometimes it can be hard to justify the importance of putting resources into preparing for something that might never happen. But if the events of these past few years have taught us anything, it’s that having strong contingency plans is invaluable.

Think of the supply chain problems and critical shortages wreaked by the pandemic or the chaos to global supply chains brought about by Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. When it comes to convincing business leaders of the value of having a strong Plan B in place, it’s important to look at the big picture—not just the cost of the plan but the potential costs incurred if no plan is put in place.

5. Test and reassess your plans regularly

Markets and industries are constantly shifting, so the reality that a contingency plan faces when it is triggered might be very different than the one it was created for. Plans should be tested at least once annually, and new risk assessments performed.

Contingency plan examples

Here are some model scenarios that demonstrate how different kinds of businesses would prepare to face risks. The three-step process outlined here can be used to create contingency plans templates for whatever threats your organization faces.

A network provider facing a massive outage

What if your core business was so critical to your customers that downtime of even just a few hours could result in millions of dollars in lost revenue? Many internet and cellular networks face this challenge every year. Here’s an example of a contingency plan that would help them prepare to face this problem:

  • Assess the severity and likelihood of the risk: A recent study by Open Gear showed that only 9% of global organizations avoid network outages in an average quarter. Coupled with what is known about these attacks—that they can cause millions of dollars in damage and take an immeasurable toll on business reputation—this risk would have to be considered both highly likely and highly severe in terms of the potential damage it could do to the company.
  • Identify the trigger that will set your plan in action: In this example, what signs should decision-makers have watched for to know when a likely outage was beginning? These might include security breaches, looming natural disasters or any other event that has preceded outages in the past.
  • Create the right response: The organization’s leaders will want to determine a reasonable recovery time objective (RTO) and recovery point objective (RPO) for each service and data category their company faces. RTO is usually measured with a simple time metric, such as days, hours or minutes. RPO is a bit more complicated as it involves determining the minimum/maximum age of files that can be recovered quickly from backup systems in order to restore the network to normal operations.  

A food distribution company coping with an unexpected shortage

If your core business has complex supply chains that run through different regions and countries, monitoring geopolitical conditions in those places will be critical to maintaining the health of your business operations. In this example, we’ll look at a food distributor preparing to face a shortage of a much-needed ingredient due to volatility in a region that’s critical to its supply chain:

  • Assess the severity and likelihood of the risk: The company’s leaders have been following the news in the region where they source the ingredient and are concerned about the possibility of political unrest. Since they need this ingredient to make one of their best-selling products, both the likelihood and potential severity of this risk are rated as high.
  • Identify the trigger that will set your plan in action: War breaks out in the region, shutting down all ports of entry/exit and severely restricting transport within the country via air, roads and railroads. Transportation of their ingredient will be challenging until stability returns to the region.
  • Create the right response: The company’s business leaders create a two-pronged contingency plan to help them face this problem. First, they proactively search for alternate suppliers of this ingredient in regions that aren’t so prone to volatility. These suppliers may cost more and take time to switch to, but when the overall cost of a general production disruption that would come about in the event of war is factored in, the cost is worth it. Second, they look for an alternative to this ingredient that they can use in their product.

A social network experiencing a customer data breach

The managers of a large social network know of a cybersecurity risk in their app that they are working to fix. In the event that they’re hacked before they fix it, they are likely to lose confidential customer data:

  • Assess the severity and likelihood of risk: They rate the likelihood of this event as high , since, as a social network, they are a frequent target of attacks. They also rate the potential severity of damage to the company as high since any loss of confidential customer data will expose them to lawsuits.
  • Identify the trigger that will set your plan in action: Engineers make the social network’s leadership aware that an attack has been detected and that their customer’s confidential information has been compromised.
  • Create the right response: The network contracts with a special response team to come to their aid in the event of an attack and help them secure their information systems and restore app functionality. They also change their IT infrastructure to make customer data more secure. Lastly, they work with a reputable PR firm to prepare a plan for outreach and messaging to reassure customers in the event that their personal information is compromised.

The value of contingency planning 

When business operations are disrupted by a negative event, good contingency planning gives an organization’s response structure and discipline. During a crisis, decision-makers and employees often feel overwhelmed by the pile-up of events beyond their control, and having a thorough backup plan helps reestablish confidence and return operations to normal.  

Here are a few benefits organizations can expect from strong contingency plans:

  • Improved recovery times: Businesses with good plans in place recover faster from a disruptive event than companies that haven’t prepared.  
  • Reduced costs—financial and reputational: Good contingency plans minimize both financial and reputational damage to a company. For example, while a data breach at a social network that compromises customer information could result in lawsuits, it could also cause long-term damage if customers decide to leave the network because they no longer trust the company to keep their personal information safe.
  • Greater confidence and morale: Many organizations use contingency plans to show employees, shareholders and customers that they’ve thought through every possible eventuality that might befall their company, giving them confidence that the company has their interests in mind.

Contingency plan solutions

IBM Maximo Application Suite is an integrated cloud-based solution that helps businesses respond quickly to changing conditions. By combining the power of artificial intelligence (AI) , Internet of Things (IoT) and advanced analytics, it enables organizations to maximize the performance of their most valuable assets, lengthen their lifespans and minimize costs and downtime.

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Open Access


Research Article

Dengue Contingency Planning: From Research to Policy and Practice

* E-mail: [email protected]

Affiliations Institute of Public Health, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany, Special Programme for Research and Training WHO-TDR, Geneva, Switzerland

Affiliations Special Programme for Research and Training WHO-TDR, Geneva, Switzerland, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Affiliation Special Programme for Research and Training WHO-TDR, Geneva, Switzerland

Affiliation Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Affiliation Ministry of Health, Mexico City, Mexico

Affiliation Public Health Consultant, San Diego, California, United States of America

Affiliation Ministry of Health, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Affiliation Institute of Public Health, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany

Affiliation Ministry of Health, Brasilia, Brazil

  • Silvia Runge-Ranzinger, 
  • Axel Kroeger, 
  • Piero Olliaro, 
  • Philip J. McCall, 
  • Gustavo Sánchez Tejeda, 
  • Linda S. Lloyd, 
  • Lokman Hakim, 
  • Leigh R. Bowman, 
  • Olaf Horstick, 
  • Giovanini Coelho


  • Published: September 21, 2016
  • Reader Comments

Fig 1

Dengue is an increasingly incident disease across many parts of the world. In response, an evidence-based handbook to translate research into policy and practice was developed. This handbook facilitates contingency planning as well as the development and use of early warning and response systems for dengue fever epidemics, by identifying decision-making processes that contribute to the success or failure of dengue surveillance, as well as triggers that initiate effective responses to incipient outbreaks.

Methodology/Principal findings

Available evidence was evaluated using a step-wise process that included systematic literature reviews, policymaker and stakeholder interviews, a study to assess dengue contingency planning and outbreak management in 10 countries, and a retrospective logistic regression analysis to identify alarm signals for an outbreak warning system using datasets from five dengue endemic countries. Best practices for managing a dengue outbreak are provided for key elements of a dengue contingency plan including timely contingency planning, the importance of a detailed, context-specific dengue contingency plan that clearly distinguishes between routine and outbreak interventions, surveillance systems for outbreak preparedness, outbreak definitions, alert algorithms, managerial capacity, vector control capacity, and clinical management of large caseloads. Additionally, a computer-assisted early warning system, which enables countries to identify and respond to context-specific variables that predict forthcoming dengue outbreaks, has been developed.


Most countries do not have comprehensive, detailed contingency plans for dengue outbreaks. Countries tend to rely on intensified vector control as their outbreak response, with minimal focus on integrated management of clinical care, epidemiological, laboratory and vector surveillance, and risk communication. The Technical Handbook for Surveillance , Dengue Outbreak Prediction/ Detection and Outbreak Response seeks to provide countries with evidence-based best practices to justify the declaration of an outbreak and the mobilization of the resources required to implement an effective dengue contingency plan.

Author Summary

An evidence-based handbook was generated to facilitate deployment of dengue surveillance and response systems for timely and effective management of outbreaks, and to identify the factors required for success. Evidence was evaluated using literature reviews, policymaker and stakeholder interviews, assessment of dengue contingency planning and outbreak management in ten endemic countries, and a statistical analysis to identify outbreak early warning signs in five countries. Best practices for managing dengue outbreaks included timely and context-specific dengue contingency plans that distinguished between routine practices and outbreak interventions, surveillance systems, outbreak definitions, alert algorithms, and managerial, clinical and vector control capacity. A computer-assisted early warning system was developed to enable each locality to develop its own context-specific scheme. Today, most countries do not have comprehensive, detailed contingency plans for dengue outbreaks, responding simply by intensifying vector control, with minimal focus on integrated management of clinical care, epidemiological, laboratory and vector surveillance, and risk communication. To rectify this, our handbook provides countries with evidence-based best practices to justify the declaration of an outbreak and for the mobilization and management of appropriate resources required to implement a dengue contingency plan.

Citation: Runge-Ranzinger S, Kroeger A, Olliaro P, McCall PJ, Sánchez Tejeda G, Lloyd LS, et al. (2016) Dengue Contingency Planning: From Research to Policy and Practice. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10(9): e0004916.

Editor: Duane J. Gubler, Duke-NUS GMS, SINGAPORE

Received: March 7, 2016; Accepted: July 21, 2016; Published: September 21, 2016

Copyright: © 2016 Runge-Ranzinger et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: This study was partially funded by EU grant FP7-21803 IDAMS ( ) and is designated with IDAMS publication reference number IDAMS 36. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.


Responding to the rapidly increasing public health importance of dengue, the 2002 World Health Assembly Resolution WHA55.17 urged greater commitment to dengue among Member States and throughout the World Health Organisation (WHO). One response of particular significance was the Revision of the International Health Regulations (WHA58.3) in 2005, where dengue was included as an example of a disease that would constitute a public health emergency of international concern. It was against this background that the World Health Organization’s Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (WHO/TDR) initiated a Dengue Scientific Working Group (SWG) of 60 experts from 20 countries, which met in October 2006 to review existing knowledge on dengue and establish priorities for future dengue research [ 1 ]. The research priorities identified were organized into four major research streams and those for dengue surveillance and outbreak response included the following primary recommendations:

  • ➢. Development and utilization of early warning and response systems;
  • ➢. Identification of triggers that initiate effective response to incipient epidemics;
  • ➢. Decision-making processes that result in a declaration of a state of emergency;
  • ➢. Analysis of the factors that contribute to the success or failure of national programs in the context of dengue surveillance and outbreak management.

At the same time, a discussion began that was centred on the need for an evidence base to better inform policy recommendations. The WHO Dengue Guidelines for Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control [ 2 ] was followed by the WHO Handbook for Guideline Development [ 3 ], which stressed specifically the need for high-level evidence when developing guidelines, particularly through systematic literature reviews. The importance of systematic reviews for linking research and practice was also highlighted by others [ 4 ], with one [ 5 ] stating “policymakers need systematic reviews that are policy relevant, rigorous, and translatable to their local context, actionable, timely and well communicated”. With this in mind, WHO/TDR together with the WHO/NTD (Department for Neglected Tropical Diseases) and WHO Regional Offices set out to develop an evidence-based handbook [ 6 ] for early dengue outbreak detection and response. The project was financially supported by a grant from the European Commission (grant number m281803) to the IDAMS network ( ) within the 7th Framework Programme and by TDR/WHO.

Accordingly, this handbook is not intended to be a direct implementation guideline but a framework for developing a national plan, requiring local adaptations to acknowledge fine-scale programme components. The latter point takes into account that contingency response planning requires consideration and incorporation of numerous contextual details such as recognition of the structure of the health and vector control services, available infrastructure and budget, human resources, willingness of staff to cooperate, and many others. Here we present an outline of the handbook, summarizing the main components of a national contingency plan for dengue outbreaks and indicating the key elements that are evidence-based and those that require further research efforts.

The development of this evidence-based handbook for dengue contingency planning used a step-wise approach. The first step established an overview by identifying knowledge gaps and commissioning new systematic literature reviews covering the following topic areas: a) dengue vector control [ 7 – 16 ] b) outbreak response [ 17 ]; c) dengue disease surveillance [ 18 , 19 ] and dengue vector surveillance [ 20 ]; and d) economic aspects [ 21 ].

In a second step, mixed (qualitative and quantitative) research methods were used to identify a) factors leading to the success or failure of national dengue control programmes, b) decision-making that resulted in the declaration of a state of emergency, c) stakeholders`perceptions of their contingency plans, and d) gaps regarding the practical application of contingency plans. These studies were conducted in Bolivia, Brazil, Cambodia, Indonesia and Thailand [ 22 ] and were complemented by a comparative analysis of dengue contingency plans from 13 countries [ 23 ]. Finally, a multi-country study was conducted that assessed dengue contingency planning and outbreak management in 10 countries [ 24 ]. The country selection process varied from study to study based on the dengue burden, information available for the information searched, willingness to participate or a history of recent dengue outbreaks, where appropriate.

In the third step, a retrospective analysis of the predictive ability of variables to warn of forthcoming outbreaks was conducted. Epidemiological and meteorological variables were analysed using datasets from Brazil, Dominican Republic, Malaysia, Mexico and Vietnam [ 25 ]. These were selected based on dengue endemicity, dengue burden and those countries with a recent history of dengue outbreaks. In common with the existing scientific literature, the model identified a number of variables that could be used to predict dengue outbreaks with sufficient sensitivity and relatively few false alarms. This model is currently being evaluated in a prospective feasibility and cost-effectiveness study in Brazil, Malaysia and Mexico, as part of an evaluation of a staged response system, designed to gradually implement timely interventions in response to weak or stronger alert signals.

In a last step, we developed a computer-assisted early warning system designed to run on a wide variety of platforms such as Microsoft Excel, STATA, R and SPSS. Such software was developed to build capacity in countries that currently lack the resources to implement predictive dengue technologies. A user-guide was prepared to describe and explain the early warning system, how to use it to identify potential alarm signals at the district level, and how programme managers might use these indicators to provide timely evidence-based alerts to subsequent dengue outbreaks. These developments can equip regional epidemiologists with the technical capacity to rapidly obtain the information required to formulate timely outbreak response.

NB: A formal assessment of quality of evidence of the included literature was not performed in this paper—this article describes the developmental process of the handbook. The material used for the development of the handbook, however, included the highest available evidence for each subsection: a) Guidelines and Handbooks (2,3,26 and 27), b) Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (7–22), c) RCTs/cRCTs (28), d) Cohort Studies (29–32), e) Mixed-Method Study Designs (22–24,33 and 34), f) Others (primary research–non controlled and reviews-non systematic) (4,5, 25, 34, 40-67), and g) Reports (1,68–70).

Successful outbreak detection (the term “outbreak” is used here synonymously with “epidemic”) and response is reliant on a representative and timely surveillance system reflecting the transmission of disease; that is, an effective alert mechanism linking surveillance data to the best possible evidence-based and cost-effective response strategies. The main purposes of a surveillance system are to a) monitor and document disease trends and b) detect outbreaks at an early stage. A contingency plan links these elements together and describes additionally the timing and response actions to be taken when an outbreak is imminent or has begun. In the following sections, we highlight different aspects of contingency planning and provide detailed information on each component.

Timely contingency planning

In a comparison of existing practices in 10 countries in Asia and Latin America [ 24 ], outbreak response plans varied in quality and comprehensiveness, particularly regarding early response measures as well as detailed specifications of actions to be taken. Harrington et al. [ 23 ] compared 13 country contingency plans for dengue from Asia, Latin America and Australia, and one international plan by the World Health Organization. The authors found that outbreak governance was weak, in part due to a lack of clarity of the roles of stakeholders, poor surveillance contributed to delays in response, there was a lack of combining routine data with additional alerts, and the absence of triggers to initiate an early response. Frequently, an outbreak was undefined and early response mechanisms based on alert signals were neglected. Therefore it was concluded that a model contingency plan for dengue outbreak prediction, detection and response, including resource planning, training, monitoring and evaluation, could help national disease control authorities to develop their own more detailed and functional context-specific plans. Badurdeen et al. [ 24 ] also found that information on dengue was based on compulsory notification and reporting (“passive surveillance”), coupled with laboratory confirmation (in all participating Latin American countries and some Asian countries) or by using a clinical syndromic definition. Seven countries [ 24 ] had sentinel sites with active dengue reporting, and some also had virological surveillance. Six countries had a formal definition for dengue outbreaks, distinguishing them from seasonal incident peaks. Countries collected data on a range of warning signs that could identify outbreaks early, but none had developed a systematic approach to identify and respond to the early stages of an outbreak. Through discussions at an expert meeting, suggestions were made for the development of a more standardised approach in the form of a model contingency plan, together with agreed upon outbreak definitions and country-specific risk assessment schemes, in order to initiate timely response activities [ 24 ].

Surveillance systems for outbreak preparedness

Surveillance systems and contingency plans..

The main components of a dengue surveillance system are summarised in Fig 1 . The evidence for their relative value and usefulness is discussed below. Runge-Ranzinger et al. [ 18 , 19 ] systematically reviewed the usefulness of dengue disease surveillance for outbreak detection and programme planning. Four cohort-based studies [ 29 – 32 ] revealed remarkably high levels of under-reporting in the surveillance systems by calculating “expansion factors” (e.g., how many more cases exist in addition to reported cases). Such high levels of underestimated caseloads hamper the prediction of outbreaks and several studies [ 35 – 40 ] demonstrated that enhancement methods such as laboratory support, sentinel reporting and staff motivation contributed to improvements in dengue reporting, and thus to a more precise, real-time picture of dengue expansion. Alert signals used for syndromic surveillance that are potentially useful in an early warning system are described below under point Four.


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In addition to these findings, qualitative research on dengue surveillance and control programs [ 22 , 33 , 68 ] identified several issues that resulted in low sensitivity of case detection, including relying on only a clinical assessment for dengue diagnosis, low patient demand for services, low specificity of the DF/ DHF/ DSS case classification, limited acceptability of the monitoring system at all levels, and case reporting limited to the public sector, to certain age groups, or to in-patient cases. Recommendations from the authors suggest that timeliness in reporting could be improved by: 1) establishing a common understanding on the purpose and objectives of surveillance across all stakeholders; 2) using simplified and standardized case definitions and improving dengue case classifications; 3) improving feedback of reported data to stakeholders; 4) ensuring consistent data flow and clear reporting channels; 5) creating additional active, sentinel and syndromic surveillance based on a clear rationale; 6) using data from virological and serological surveillance; 7) conducting research on appropriate thresholds/ alert indicators or risk assessment tools for dengue outbreak detection, and 8) ensuring that surveillance data, alert mechanisms and evidence-based response are linked and embedded in proper contingency planning.

Information about the circulating serotype/genotype should be documented and used for surveillance purposes. According to Harrington et al. [ 23 ], a national contingency plan should state precisely how laboratory surveillance would function during an outbreak. For example, will laboratory surveillance just be used to confirm an outbreak or will it be performed continuously throughout an outbreak? What tests should be used and to whom should the results be sent? Details of laboratory-specific issues to be considered in country dengue contingency plans are: 1) laboratory confirmation of reported cases, 2) how to report positive results directly to the surveillance system, 3) details for viral isolation, PCR, NS-1, ELISA, serological confirmation by IgM and IgG, use of rapid diagnostic tests, storage and transport of samples as appropriate (see WHO [ 2 ]), 4) purpose of tests, test results and their interpretation, 5) a flowchart describing the timing of tests and destination of samples, 6) laboratory-specific processes of outbreak investigation and confirmation, 7) quality control, training and capacity building, and 8) prevention of stock-outs.

Definition of a dengue case.

For early detection of dengue outbreaks, the definition and classification of a dengue case is important. However, clinical diagnosis of a dengue case leading to the diagnosis of “probable dengue” is almost impossible because of a number of similar febrile conditions. The 2009 WHO [ 2 ] case classification suggests a case definition that can be used with or without laboratory parameters. It also suggests a distinction between dengue and severe dengue, which is important for clinical management but also for epidemic preparedness. This allows a rough estimate of the clinical services necessary to cope with a large-scale dengue outbreak and facilitate triage processes. Horstick et al. [ 8 ] compared the 1997 and 2009 WHO dengue case classifications in a systematic review. The authors found that use of the 2009 WHO dengue case classification resulted in determination of severe dengue with a sensitivity between 59–98% (88–98% within the four prospective studies) and a specificity of 41–99% (99% in the four prospective studies) comparing to the 1997 WHO classification: sensitivity 24.8% - 89.9% (24.8%/74%: prospective studies), specificity: 25%/100% (100%: prospective study). It was concluded that the 2009 WHO classification had clear performance advantages for clinical and epidemiological use when compared with the 1997 classification.

Vector surveillance.

A systematic review by Bowman et al. [ 20 ] investigated the usefulness of entomological indicators as outbreak predictors. Eleven of eighteen studies included in the review generated Stegomyia indices from combined larval and pupal data while only three studies reported adult vector data. Of thirteen studies that investigated associations between vector indices and dengue cases, four reported positive correlations, four found no correlation and five reported ambiguous or inconclusive associations. Additionally, six of seven studies that measured Breteau indices reported dengue transmission at levels below the widely accepted threshold of 5. Bowman et al. [ 20 ] found there was little evidence of any quantifiable association between vector indices and dengue transmission that could be used reliably for outbreak prediction and that single values of the Breteau or other indices were not reliable universal dengue transmission thresholds. The authors recommended further studies using more appropriate study designs, e.g., standardized sampling protocols that adequately consider dengue spatial heterogeneity, and less reliance on universal thresholds; historic localised vector abundance metrics are considered a more reliable indicator of fluctuation and risk. Additionally, the authors found that operational issues of routine vector surveillance were often hampered by a lack of resources, lack of involvement of local level personnel in decision-making, limitations in supervision, increasing vector resistance to insecticides, and difficulty in the interpretation of entomological indices [ 24 ].

Outbreak definition

Among the systematic reviews performed to date, considerable variation was observed in the number and application of outbreak definitions, and definitions have been numerous, non-standardised and inconsistently applied [ 24 ]. In order to ensure that an early warning system for dengue outbreaks is effective, efficient and timely, outbreak definitions must be able to distinguish between true outbreaks and seasonal increases in dengue. Therefore, outbreaks were defined as caseloads of an order much larger than would otherwise be expected during the respective season and/ or occurring in unexpected locations. This task is complex but has been somewhat simplified by the use of the Endemic Channel. Outbreak definitions defined using the Endemic Channel often base thresholds on 2 standard deviations (SD) above the mean number of historic dengue cases, which closely reflects the 1.96 SDs used in confidence estimates to capture 95% of the variation about the mean. However, such values are often applied across large spatial dimensions, resulting in the loss of information that may be reflective of the localised transmission dynamics inherent to dengue [ 25 ]. Considering this, models need to be parameterised according to the context [ 41 ]. In support of this evidence, Bowman et al. [ 25 ] also found that the multiplier of the standard deviation may be context-dependent and reported that 1.25SD could be used as an efficient multiplier. Brady et al. [ 34 ] modelled five approaches to define an outbreak using different summary statistics (i.e., recent mean, monthly mean, moving mean, cumulative mean, and fixed incidence threshold). The authors reconfirmed that outbreaks remain highly heterogeneous, in part due to location-specific transmission factors but also due to the methodologies used to define the outbreaks.

In summary, outbreak definitions may need to be spatially stratified, with consideration given to available contextual data and summary statistics, and include operational perspectives to best identify the most important stages of an outbreak in order to ensure a timely response. Until consensus is reached on the most appropriate method to define outbreaks, definitions using simple approaches such as the Endemic Channel should not be discounted. Although outbreak definitions require further empirical work, they remain accessible to both programme managers and regional epidemiologists alike, and if applied at relatively fine scales offer a useful tool for outbreak detection, planning and response [ 25 ].

Alarm signals for outbreaks

Syndromic surveillance [ 69 ] may contribute important data on alarm signals in early warning systems for dengue outbreaks. A number of variables that provide predictive warning have been identified and include the rate of school absenteeism [ 42 – 44 ], the volume of internet-based health inquiries [ 45 ], the malaria negative rate in fever patients [ 46 , 47 ], non-specific laboratory requests (as malaria negativity rates or as thrombocytes requested), and fever alerts or use of clinical syndromic definitions [ 48 – 51 ] and the proportion of virologically confirmed cases [ 52 , 53 ]. Runge-Ranzinger et al. [ 19 ] also found six studies [ 52 , 54 – 58 ] that showed serotype changes were positively correlated with the number of reported cases or with dengue incidence, with lag times of up to 6 months, indicating that a change in serotype may be a predictor (alarm signal) for dengue outbreaks. Three studies [ 59 – 61 ] found that data on Internet searches and event-based surveillance correlated well with the epidemic curve derived from surveillance data, suggesting that this method may be useful to predict outbreaks. Other approaches such as the use of socioeconomic indicators (presence of water and trash collection services) or environmental parameters (e.g., presence of tire repair shops, rainfall, relative humidity) for risk assessment [ 62 ]. Modelling tools [ 63 ] also have potential, although at this stage they remain either context-dependent or under evaluation.

In order to develop a dengue outbreak alert model, several potential alarm signals were evaluated retrospectively [ 25 ]. A simple approach combining the Shewhart method and Endemic Channel was used to identify alarm signals that could predict dengue outbreaks. Five country datasets were compiled by epidemiological week over the years 2007–2013 and these data were split to form a historic period (2007–2011) and evaluation period (2012–2013). To parameterise the model, associations between alarm signals and outbreaks were analysed using logistic regression during the historic period. Thereafter, these associations were combined with alarm variable data during the evaluation period to predict dengue. Subsequently, model performance was described using sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) (the proportion of false alarms). Across Mexico and Dominican Republic, an increase in probable cases predicted outbreaks of hospitalised cases with sensitivities and PPVs of 93%/ 83% and 97%/ 86% respectively. In addition, an increase in mean temperature in Mexico and Brazil predicted outbreaks of hospitalised cases, with sensitivities and PPVs of 79%/ 73% and 81%/ 46% respectively. These results were particularly promising as these variables were broadly predictive of dengue outbreaks across different countries, despite the varied surveillance systems, case definitions and localised variation in transmission potential often associated with dengue [ 25 ]. Clearly, routine surveillance can underestimate the true burden of disease, however the prediction of cases was not hindered, as the case definition remained consistent throughout the historic and evaluation periods and the systems were accurately reflecting the burden of disease.

Managerial capacity

Documented effective outbreak interventions and evidence gaps were analysed in a systematic review by Pilger et al. [ 17 ]. Different strategies in the organization of outbreak response were identified, showing that control activities for a dengue outbreak need to be multi-sectoral, multidisciplinary and multilevel; they also require environmental, political, social and medical inputs for coordination so that successful activities of one sector are not weakened by the lack of commitment from another. Risk communication is a fundamental element of managing a public health threat by encouraging positive behavioural change and maintaining public trust [ 26 ]. Outbreaks can be highly charged political and social events whereby “outbreak declaration and transparency from expert to audience is surrounded by political and economic overtones” [ 64 ]. Therefore it is critical that risk communication plans are prepared prior to an event and that individuals serving as spokespersons are provided with training in public speaking and risk communication in order to proactively manage the outbreak response, along with political or other issues that may arise [ 26 ].

The logistics of outbreak response activities are challenging. It is important to assess the additional human resources that will be required, both for clinical management of cases and vector control. This includes redistribution of staff, increased staffing levels and extension of work shifts [ 24 , 70 ]. Overwork and subsequent demotivation of health staff have been identified as likely problems, often caused by increased demands by politicians and the community [ 7 ]. Therefore, staff training and preparation for an outbreak in the inter-epidemic period and supportive supervision during the outbreak can help staff cope with excessive challenges during the outbreak [ 17 ]. Investment in human resources must come prior to the outbreak, thus outbreak response planning requires a section documenting the activities to be performed in the inter-epidemic period in preparation for an outbreak, as opposed to preventative control. The contingency plan has also to include the “stopping rules”, i.e., when and how to declare the end of the outbreak, halting the outbreak response and continuing with routine interventions.

Vector control

Horstick et al. [ 7 ] undertook an analysis of vector services with two methods: a systematic literature review and case studies that included stakeholder interviews and completion of questionnaires in Brazil, Guatemala, The Philippines, and Vietnam. In the systematic literature review, staffing levels, capacity building, management and organization, funding, and community engagement were found to be insufficient. The case studies confirmed most of these findings, with stakeholders reporting: 1) lack of personnel (entomologists, social scientists and operational vector control staff); 2) lack of technical expertise at decentralized levels of services; 3) insufficient budgets; 4) inadequate geographical coverage; 5) interventions that rely mostly on insecticides; 6) difficulties engaging communities; 7) little capacity building; and 8) minimal monitoring and evaluation. Stakeholders’ doubts about service effectiveness were widespread, but interventions were assumed to be potentially effective with increased resources. The authors highlighted the need for operational standards; evidence-based selection/ delivery of combinations of interventions; development/ application of monitoring and evaluation tools; and needs-driven capacity building. These recommendations are in line with those from Pilger et al. [ 17 ], who reported that combining interventions that involved vector control (elimination of larval habitats with community involvement; appropriate use of insecticides in and around houses) and capacity training of medical personnel, in combination with laboratory support, were crucial for the successful control of outbreaks.

For single vector control interventions, systematic reviews are available on peridomestic space spraying [ 12 ], Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (BTI) [ 9 ], temephos [ 16 ], copepods [ 13 ] and larvivorous fish [ 15 ]. Horstick and Runge-Ranzinger [ 65 ] found that: 1) vector control could be effective, but implementation and coverage remained an issue; 2) single interventions were probably not useful; 3) combinations of interventions had mixed results; 4) careful implementation of vector control measures may be most important; and 5) outbreak interventions were often applied with questionable effectiveness.

A systematic review and meta-analysis found that community-based multiple interventions (such as environmental management or clean up campaigns, refuse collection, the formation of community working groups, social mobilization strategies, water covers, and larviciding) can signficiantly reduce vector densities [ 14 ]. Results from a cluster randomised controlled trial in Latin America [ 28 ] reported reductions in dengue cases following similar interventions. Bowman et al. [ 14 ] also reported that house screens on external doors and windows could be protective against dengue transmission, but that there was insufficient evidence from randomized controlled trials to determine whether or not insecticide space-spraying or fogging could impact dengue transmission. Best practices in vector control remain to be defined for any setting (i.e., which tools or methods the community should employ), as well as what constitutes adequate or sufficient coverage in order to impact the vector population and virus transmission. This includes operational aspects, quality of delivery and best combination of interventions for successful vector control during outbreaks.

Bowman et al. [ 14 ] also found no evidence that interventions such as mosquito coils, repellents, bed nets, or mosquito traps could reduce dengue incidence. Finally, indoor residual insecticide spraying and approaches involving the use of genetically modified (GM) mosquitoes or the intracellular symbiont Wolbachia [ 66 ] have considerable potential for dengue vector control, but have not yet been evaluated sufficiently to draw conclusions about their effectiveness.

Clinical services

Good clinical case management during an outbreak has been crucial in reducing the case fatality of dengue from 10–20% to less than 1% in many countries over the past two decades [ 67 ]. The training of health professionals in diagnosis and management, as well as robust laboratory facilities must be prioritized, as this will effectively dictate case management and influence mortality rates. The best ways to achieve successful training may be through hands-on training during ward rounds and case conferences [ 17 ]. The importance of emergency resources and funding for outbreak response including clinical supplies has been highlighted as an important element of preparedness and response planning [ 2 , 24 ]. Badurdeen et al. [ 24 ] found that the surge capacity of hospitals with recent dengue outbreaks varied. Hospital outbreak management plans were present in 9 of 22 participating hospitals in Latin America and 8 of 20 participating hospitals in Asia, also highlighting the need for contingency planning. Further information on triage systems, case management and referrals are available elsewhere [ 27 ].

Preparedness planning starts in the inter-epidemic phase and success is dependent on the combination of year-round routine activities, often established in a National Dengue Prevention and Control Plan, up-scaling of routine vector control interventions and communication activities, and timely and systematically initiated additional measures during an outbreak. The proposed handbook suggests seven areas for contingency planning which can either be integrated into the existing national plan or developed as a separate add on. A summary of the recommendations for dengue surveillance, outbreak alert and response are given below in Fig 2 .


With respect to timely contingency planning, it is crucial to ensure that a context-specific dengue contingency plan has detailed instructions that allow managers to distinguish between routine interventions required during inter-epidemic periods and those needed during outbreak interventions (i.e., up-scaling of preventive interventions before the start of the “dengue season” vs specific outbreak procedures). The contingency plan should ensure continuity between timely surveillance (including multiple signals), outbreak alerts, and outbreak confirmation based on a clear definition, outbreak declaration, and finally implementation of contingency responses. A key first step is to identify the person/ unit/ agency/ institution responsible for specific activities, to define the roles and responsibilities of each person involved, to ensure the regulatory framework exists to support and facilitate the contingency response, and to ensure that the means and capacity exist to implement the full set of specified contingency activities. This initial planning also takes into consideration the need for human resource preparedness planning for all sectors including distribution of the plan to all stakeholders, instructions for training, and a detailed plan for monitoring and evaluation of preparedness activities and response.

In order to optimize surveillance, a focus on reducing under-reporting and improving reporting timeliness should strengthen routine surveillance systems. It is important to establish a common understanding across all stakeholders on the purpose and objectives of surveillance, to improve feedback of reported data and to provide a clear—ideally electronic—data flow. Enhancement strategies such as sentinel-based reporting, staff motivation, syndromic surveillance, and monitoring additional alarm signals, e.g., virological, serological surveillance, should be included along with use of the simplified and standardized WHO 2009 [ 2 ] case classification.

With respect to laboratory support, reporting available laboratory confirmation of cases to the surveillance system is recommended along with information about the circulating serotype/genotype. The laboratory section of the national contingency plan should include details on virus isolation, PCR, NS-1, ELISA, serological confirmation by IgM and IgG, appropriate use of rapid diagnostic tests, storage of samples, and cold chain logistics (see WHO [ 2 ]). The purpose of laboratory tests, test results and their interpretation should be described and accompanied by a flowchart that visually depicts the timing of various tests and destinations of samples provided. Laboratory-specific processes of outbreak investigation and confirmation should be defined, including quality control, capacity building, prevention of stock-outs, and the role of different levels of laboratories within the national laboratory network.

The outbreak definition in a national dengue contingency plan should be context-specific and based on the threshold of local historical disease data reported through the national surveillance system. For example, countries may use the Endemic Channel where the threshold is based on z standard deviations (SD) above the mean number of historic dengue cases (currently often z = 2, or according to recent evidence z = 1.25, which is close to the 3rd percentile above the median). Efforts should be made to distinguish between standardized definitions of an outbreak and the local/ national threshold used to initiate outbreak response, considering that large spatial dimensions will result in the loss of information of localised transmission dynamics. In addition to those mentioned herein, additional predictive variables, such as meteorological variables, in particular mean daytime weekly temperature, may be of use in local contexts.

It is crucial to define an alert algorithm based on different alarm signals (epidemiological thresholds plus the use of meteorological data, syndromic surveillance data, laboratory results or perhaps entomological metrics (although there is currently little evidence of quantifiable associations between vector indices)) to increase sensitivity and specificity for predicting forthcoming outbreaks. The outbreak response should be staged in accordance with the identified level of risk (i.e., Initial Response, Early Response, Emergency Response) to ensure that resources are used efficiently and proportionately.

From a managerial aspect, the organization of multidisciplinary response teams, details of logistic/ operational considerations, including standard operating procedures, stopping rules, monitoring and evaluation, staff training prior to an epidemic, resource mobilisation and financial management, legal framework, and recruitment of additional staff during outbreak response, are all important issues for consideration. This includes the training of management personnel in risk communication to ensure timely and appropriate communication within and without the health sector and throughout the broader population. The process of outbreak declaration and risk communication should be well defined and described, so that community engagement and stakeholder involvement contribute to a successful outbreak response at the local level.

With respect to vector control interventions, the focus should be on quality and coverage of vector interventions, as these remain key issues. The involvement of communities in vector control activities, for example “search and eliminate”, increases the likelihood that expanded coverage will be achieved; notably, community-based interventions can impact vector indices, and some evidence exists for an impact on dengue incidence. House screening has demonstrated an impact on dengue incidence and may be an effective intervention against dengue where the context is appropriate. While limited evidence demonstrates a reduction in vector indices following outdoor fogging, there is no evidence yet for an impact on dengue incidence.

With respect to clinical case management, timely alert of clinicians and a hospital outbreak management plan that includes planning for additional beds and staff are essential. Ensuring triage systems for case management, referrals [ 27 ] and mortality reviews will improve case management. Disease transmission control in hospitals as well as regular and timely training of hospital personnel must also be considered.

While gaps in knowledge and evidence still remain, much has been accomplished over the past decade that provides a solid basis for evidence-based contingency planning. With the WHO 2009 [ 2 ] dengue case classification, improved diagnostic tests and increased national laboratory capacity, stronger national surveillance systems, and ongoing research to develop algorithms that can be used in an operational setting, countries are in a better position to create a dengue contingency plan that reflects their national and local contexts and optimizes available resources for outbreak response.

Author Contributions

  • Conceived and designed the experiments: SRR AK PO.
  • Performed the experiments: SRR AK PO PJM GST LH LRB GC.
  • Analyzed the data: SRR AK PJM GST LH LRB GC.
  • Wrote the paper: SRR PJM LSL LRB OH.
  • 1. WHO. Scientific Working Group Report on Dengue: Meeting Report, 1–5 October 2006. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2007. Available: .
  • 2. WHO. Dengue, Prevention, Treatment and Control, New Edition. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2009. Available:
  • 3. WHO. WHO Handbook for Guidelines Development. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2012. Available: .
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  • 6. Technical handbook for dengue surveillance, dengue outbreak prediction/detection and outbreak response (“model contingency plan”), World Health Organization. ISBN 978 92 4 154973 8
  • 17. Pilger D, De Maesschalck M, Horstick O, San Martin JL. Dengue outbreak response: documented effective interventions and evidence gaps. TropIKA Reviews, [serial on the Internet]. 2010; 1(1). Available: .
  • 22. Runge-Ranzinger S. Is dengue disease surveillance able to predict or detect outbreaks and initiate timely response? Assessment of National Dengue Control Programmes in Thailand and Cambodia. Doctorate Dissertation, The University of Heidelberg. 2010. Available:
  • 26. CDC. Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication. Atlanta:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); 2012. Available: .
  • 27. WHO. Handbook on dengue clinical management. Geneva: World Health Organisation; 2013. Available:
  • 33. Abdulla AA. An Evaluation of the Surveillance System for Dengue Virus Infections in Maldives. Master of Clinical Epidemiology Thesis, The University of Newcastle. 2011. doi: . Available:
  • 51. Flamand C, Quenel P, Ardillon V, Carvalho L, Bringay S, Teisseire M. The Epidemiologic Surveillance of Dengue-Fever in French Guiana: When Achievements Trigger Higher Goals. In: Moen A, Andersen SK, Aarts J, Hurlen P, editors. User Centred Networked Health Care: Proceedings of MIE 2011. Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2011. (Studies in Health Technology and Informatics; No. 169); pp. 629–633. Available: .

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How To Create A Smart Contingency Plan For High-Risk Projects

Contingency plans ensure projects go as smoothly as possible and maximize the chances of project success. Learn how to build one for your next project.

contingency plan in research proposal

Sam Barnes,   Digital Delivery and Leadership Expert

  • project planning

Every seasoned project manager knows from experience that projects rarely go exactly to plan. I learned the need for a solid contingency plan the hard way. 

Early in my career, I would plan out a project on paper and would be convinced that I had all bases covered. But sometimes, the first unexpected challenge would rear its head from the starting gates—my perfect plan was ruined already. Then I would scramble around with the project team to deal with the fire as best we could.

This type of work invariably takes the focus off of the work that should be happening on a project, and risks you losing the trust of clients and stakeholders early on.

Enter contingency plans.

What is a contingency plan?

Contingency plans spell out actions that should be taken if an identified risk becomes reality.

Contingency plans are typically created at the start of a project —but not necessarily. A project manager will work with the team to develop step-by-step action plans for the most impactful risks identified and then do the same if new risks are identified as the project progresses.

Contingency plans also come in less formal guises. For example, when releasing a new big feature on a software platform, it’s wise to have developed a rollback plan. This means that if any problems arise from the release deemed too impactful to stay in place for any time, the team can quickly revert the platform to its pre-release state. In this case, the rollback plan is a type of contingency plan item.

Contingency plan vs. mitigation plan

As we mentioned, contingency plans are reactive—they’re meant to lay a plan for responding to an anticipated issue. 

On the other hand, a mitigation plan is proactive and more about minimizing the chances of risks becoming issues in the first place.

However, the two are closely linked, and contingency plans in larger project management environments are directly related to risk plans.

Why do you need contingency planning in project management?

Put simply, you need contingency planning in project management to ensure projects go as smoothly as possible and to maximize the chances of project success. 

Without a contingency, when things go wrong (which they almost certainly will), time, money, quality, morale, and trust are lost in the process of fixing things.

Contingency plans are most needed on high-risk, larger projects. Larger projects have more moving parts and are, by definition, more complex. Thus, there is a high chance of something happening that would have a high negative impact. Having a clear plan of action for big risks that turn into issues can be the difference between project failure and success.

Conversely, if you’re working on a very small project that you have done many times before with a client and technology you know well, you probably don’t need to develop a contingency plan. In this case, risk is low, and spending time on a contingency plan would probably be wasted time and money.

Plan and estimate projects in Float

Whether big or small, you can plan project work in Float. Monitor your team's schedule, set budgets with five different models, and compare estimates vs. actuals all in one place.

5 steps to create and manage an effective contingency plan

1. assess the identified risks for high impact.

Review the risk register you have created, and select the risks that need to be included in a contingency plan. You can do this by assessing risks based on likelihood, impact, and severity. 

While you ideally want to include all risks, start with the most impactful ones and work down the priority order. This is because often contingency planning can take a back seat in the haze of a busy project, so it’s wise to focus on the most important risks first.

2. Create the contingency steps

Work with your team and stakeholders to play a series of ‘what if’ scenario games for each risk register item selected. This is best completed as part of a focused workshop, so you can have everyone’s full attention. It’s important to get people in the zone of contingency thinking.

Here are some actions to take in this workshop:

  • Create a row on a whiteboard or virtual whiteboard that starts with a risk
  • Ask the team to imagine that the risk has become a reality. 
  • Note down the triggers that would invoke a contingency plan needing to go into action, in a separate column.
  • Discuss with the group how they would react and what steps must be taken to resolve the issue. 
  • Note the key steps, sequence, and owners in a separate column next to each risk.
  • Play back the contingency steps and confirm with the group that there are no steps missing, then move on to the next risk.

It’s important to involve a wide array of stakeholders, as each will know how particular issues should be resolved. Never underestimate who you need to develop contingency plans with.

3. Get approval from senior stakeholders and clients

Once a contingency plan is complete and you have team consensus, the next step is to seek approval from the senior stakeholders and clients. These are the folks who ultimately are the arbiters of risk tolerance for any project.

Set up a dedicated session to take them through the plan. This is important because when contingency plan overviews are tacked onto the end of another meeting, they can be skimmed over too quickly due to lack of time or, quite frankly, interest. 

Make sure to communicate the importance of running through the plan for approval and make the session happen.

4. Circulate and socialize the contingency plans 

Once approved, make sure to circulate the contingency plans to everyone involved in the project. Do your best to ensure that everyone is acutely aware of this plan, knows where to find it and what each of their responsibilities are for any given issue. 

A slightly annoying but effective way to check that you’ve socialized the plan enough is to gamify spot checks so that people know the risks and plans. For example, create a project game with a leaderboard where you randomly ask a project team member to name the top three risks on the risk register and what the contingency plan is. You can award points to those who answer best and keep score, awarding a small fun prize to the most accurate people. 

It sounds corny, but a common issue with contingency plans is that they are forgotten once created, approved and circulated. A good project manager will ensure they’re not.

5. Treat contingency plans as living documents

Contingency plans are mostly created at the start of projects, but it’s a mistake to consider them complete once the first version is created. As with risk registers, contingency plans should be classed as living documents that are constantly reviewed and updated as projects progress.

For longer projects, it’s wise to set up monthly risks and contingency plan review sessions with the project team. You will run through the current risks and contingency plans and determine if the assessment and details are still accurate or if anything needs tweaking, adding, or even removing.

When any changes are made, re-approval should be sought from senior stakeholders and clients, documented in writing.

Contingency plans are critical

Contingency plans are a critical element for large high-risk projects. They allow project teams to think about worst-case scenarios for identified risks and develop a plan that will enable them to resolve any issues as effectively and efficiently as possible.

Make contingency plans a staple for your high-risk projects. Even if you don’t need to deploy them, you can sleep soundly at night knowing that a plan is in place. 

If you do end up deploying a contingency plan, you will be sure that you’re resolving issues in the most timely and comprehensive manner, in a way that your stakeholders and clients approve of and maximizing the chance of keeping your project on time and on budget.

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Contingency Planning in the Clinical Laboratory: Lessons Learned Amidst COVID-19

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Allison B Chambliss, Nicole V Tolan, Contingency Planning in the Clinical Laboratory: Lessons Learned Amidst COVID-19, The Journal of Applied Laboratory Medicine , Volume 5, Issue 4, July 2020, Pages 832–836,

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Global transmission of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has faced clinical laboratories with many challenges in continuing to offer critical services. Round-the-clock laboratory testing remains essential to support patient care, both those with and without 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19). This pandemic is leading to an influx of hospitalized patients, while simultaneously yielding virus exposures and self-quarantines for the laboratory workforce. Thus, laboratories should prepare to operate with limited staff and may need to prioritize laboratory tests according to clinical necessity.

All laboratories will recognize the need to pay particular attention to those sections involved in SARS-CoV-2 viral testing: upstaffing areas that receive, test, or send out samples, and report/call-back results. However, the laboratory should consider various staffing models to maintain healthy workers, such as altering shift hours, or even alternating staffing groups ( 1 ) . Preemptive scaling back of laboratory staff and enabling them to work from home will allow for creation of a reserve labor pool that can be engaged as staff are required to quarantine with exposure. This is only possible when laboratory testing volumes for tests not relevant to COVID-19 precipitously decrease as hospitals cancel all non-emergent and elective procedures that would otherwise require maintaining higher volumes of comprehensive testing.

The laboratory should begin contingency planning by assessing baseline operational status, which benches can be offered less frequently (batched as sample stability allows), which can be closed altogether, and the resultant minimum number of staff required to support emergent testing (Fig. 1 ). In order to do so effectively, the laboratory should define which tests are required to support emergent care and inpatient testing. Some resources are available to determine this emergent test menu, such as the World Health Organization’s Model List of Essential In Vitro Diagnostics ( 2 , ) and the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute’s Planning for Laboratory Operations During a Disaster ( 3 ) . However, these resources are not specific to COVID-19, and laboratories should work with medical leadership to ensure that laboratory offerings are aligned with expected testing practices.

Tests that will need to be maintained include complete blood counts, metabolic panels, routine coagulation, troponin, liver function tests, blood gases, and inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, and procalcitonin ( 4 , 5 ) . With laboratory automation, it may be best to prioritize full-time equivalents (FTEs) by assay bench or analyzer, as prioritization of individual tests would require additional work of scrutinizing and separating orders, and sorting, storing, and re-running a large number of samples. It may be most efficient to simply allow an automation line to run the complete battery of tests ordered unless analyte-specific technical issues arise. In times of particularly critical shortages of staff and/or reagents, with proper agreement of hospital leadership and use of mass notification mechanisms, non-emergent tests could be temporarily masked from providers in the test ordering system and eliminate the laboratory from receiving them in the first place.

The laboratory should also evaluate reagent and supply inventory and consider increasing supplies on-hand in preparation for higher test volumes and/or possible lapses in vendor supplies or delivery mechanisms. This will need to be considered in relation to the number of tests anticipated in both critical care and general care patient populations ( ) and the likelihood of filling COVID-19 expansion beds as part of surge planning ( Fig. 2 ). The lab should prepare for an increased number of mechanically ventilated patients. Hospital leadership can provide details about the plans to expand patient care areas for COVID-19 patients and the expected testing volumes. It may also be valuable to preemptively evaluate the potential benefit of increased point-of-care testing to ease the burden of samples sent to the laboratory. However, it is essential to consider the entire workflow, including interface work that may be required for new tests.

Example contingency planning FTE assignment tool. Using the Chemistry section as an example, a similar contingency planning tool can be used across core clinical lab specialties to assess benches/testing that can be performed depending upon available staffing. Its design affords managers to use this tool daily to assign benches, considering priority of assays and specimen stability for assays that are batched. Notably, increased risks of staffing concerns are seen on off-shifts (weekend days, evenings, and nights) and may be addressed by identifying staff who would volunteer to be on-call to cover these shifts as needed. A similar tool can be used to automate communication within the department and help reallocate staffing where it is needed, while also providing updates to clinical care teams. Data for the Chemistry section are offered as an example of information to collect, which is dependent on testing volumes, breadth of testing offered, as well other lab-specific needs. Lab Control/Receiving, Hematology, and Lab Management sections are provided as a place holder, with blank, shaded cells indicating additional data to be entered. A downloadable Excel file of this table is available as Supplemental Table 1. FTE: baseline full-time equivalent (FTE) staff number; DS: preemptive down-staffing to create alternating labor pools; Min: minimum number of FTE required to support only emergent testing; %Min: minimum percentage of full staffing capacity to perform testing; Float: no dedicated staff, staff from other benches to cover as able; d/c: discard and cancel; 1+: requires supervisor review and sign-off.

Example contingency planning FTE assignment tool. Using the Chemistry section as an example, a similar contingency planning tool can be used across core clinical lab specialties to assess benches/testing that can be performed depending upon available staffing. Its design affords managers to use this tool daily to assign benches, considering priority of assays and specimen stability for assays that are batched. Notably, increased risks of staffing concerns are seen on off-shifts (weekend days, evenings, and nights) and may be addressed by identifying staff who would volunteer to be on-call to cover these shifts as needed. A similar tool can be used to automate communication within the department and help reallocate staffing where it is needed, while also providing updates to clinical care teams. Data for the Chemistry section are offered as an example of information to collect, which is dependent on testing volumes, breadth of testing offered, as well other lab-specific needs. Lab Control/Receiving, Hematology, and Lab Management sections are provided as a place holder, with blank, shaded cells indicating additional data to be entered. A downloadable Excel file of this table is available as Supplemental Table 1 . FTE: baseline full-time equivalent (FTE) staff number; DS: preemptive down-staffing to create alternating labor pools; Min: minimum number of FTE required to support only emergent testing; %Min: minimum percentage of full staffing capacity to perform testing; Float: no dedicated staff, staff from other benches to cover as able; d/c: discard and cancel; 1+: requires supervisor review and sign-off.

Sample surge planning tool for emergent laboratory testing. Using a surge planning model of 670 general care and 280 intensive care unit (ICU) beds, the anticipated volume of laboratory testing during an anticipated surge can be estimated following testing protocols outlined by the institution (e.g., A downloadable Excel file of this table is available as Supplemental Table 2. GC, general care unit; ICU, intensive/critical care unit; SCT, stem sell transplant; ABG/VBG, arterial/venous blood gas; CK, creatinine kinase; LFT, liver function tests; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; CRP, C-reactive peptide; PT/INR, prothrombin time/international normalized ratio; +, additional testing expected, unpredictable volumes.

Sample surge planning tool for emergent laboratory testing. Using a surge planning model of 670 general care and 280 intensive care unit (ICU) beds, the anticipated volume of laboratory testing during an anticipated surge can be estimated following testing protocols outlined by the institution (e.g., ). A downloadable Excel file of this table is available as Supplemental Table 2 . GC, general care unit; ICU, intensive/critical care unit; SCT, stem sell transplant; ABG/VBG, arterial/venous blood gas; CK, creatinine kinase; LFT, liver function tests; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; CRP, C-reactive peptide; PT/INR, prothrombin time/international normalized ratio; +, additional testing expected, unpredictable volumes.

As elective surgical procedures are postponed, staff across the department may be available to provide support and back-up to the essential functions of the lab, particularly on off-shifts. Cross-training amongst the various core laboratory areas, ideally in advance of significant absenteeism, will yield flexibility of assignments. As universities are increasingly scaling back research operations, other able-bodied personnel such as research scientists, medical students, or Pathology residents may help the clinical laboratory as long as institutional policies and regulatory requirements are met. Noncertified personnel may assist the laboratory with, for example, internal specimen courier services, specimen accessioning, inventory, or the assembly of COVID-19 test collection kits.

Finally, open and continuous communication, both among the laboratory department and healthcare providers, should be maintained with regards to the status of laboratory services. Electronic ‘daily huddles’ can help with assessing the number of staff available, the benches that will operate each day, and where additional staff can be relocated to support intradepartmental needs. Daily assessment and communication can be automated via e-mail templates to inform the hospital of real-time lab staffing capacity and tests that will be unavailable or delayed.

In summary, there are a number of steps the laboratory can preemptively take as part of disaster planning that involve cross-specialty collaboration within laboratory medicine and with the support of hospital leadership ( Table 1 ).

Strategies for contingency planning in the clinical laboratory amidst the COVID-19 pandemic.

Supplemental material is available at The Journal of Applied Laboratory Medicine online.

COVID-19, coronavirus disease 2019; SARS-CoV-2, novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; FTE, full-time equivalent.

All authors confirmed they have contributed to the intellectual content of this paper and have met the following 4 requirements: (a) significant contributions to the conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; (b) drafting or revising the article for intellectual content; (c) final approval of the published article; and (d) agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the article thus ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the article are appropriately investigated and resolved.

Authors’ Disclosures or Potential Conflicts of Interest:   Upon manuscript submission, all authors completed the author disclosure form. Disclosures and/or potential conflicts of interest:   Employment or Leadership: A.B. Chambliss, The Journal of Applied Laboratory Medicine , AACC; N.V. Tolan, The Journal of Applied Laboratory Medicine , AACC. Consultant or Advisory Role: None declared. Stock Ownership: None declared. Honoraria: None declared. Research Funding: None declared. Expert Testimony: None declared. Patents: None declared.

Lippi G , Plebani M. The critical role of laboratory medicine during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and other viral outbreaks . Clin Chem Lab Med 2020 . doi: 10.1515/cclm-2020-0240.

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CLSI. Planning for laboratory operations during a disaster; approved guideline. CLSI document GP36-A . Wayne (PA ): Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute , 2014 .

Guan W , Ni Z , Hu Y , Liang W , Ou C , He J , et al.  Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China . N Engl J Med 2020 ; doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2002032

World Health Organization. Clinical management of severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) when COVID-19 disease is suspected. Interim guidance, 13 March 2020, World Health Organization; 2019 . (Accessed March 2020) .

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Contingency plan: what it is and why do you need it.

As much as you won’t want it to happen, sometimes your first plan can go awry. But when that happens, you need a strong backup plan you can quickly put into place. 


A proactive strategy helps you manage unfavourable circumstances and guarantee business continuity planning. It allows you to respond to unforeseen occurrences and resume your plans as soon as it’s workable.

But what exactly is a contingency plan? And why is it so important?

Read on as we explain what a contingency plan is, how to create one, and answer some of your questions.

Table of Contents

What Is a Contingency Plan?

How to create a contingency plan: 6 steps, contingency plan examples, importance of contingency planning, key takeaways.

Frequently Asked Questions

A contingency plan is a practical plan you must put in place if a foreseeable risk materialises. It serves as a “Plan B” for when things don’t turn out as predicted. 

A business contingency plan can reduce risk and help you return to normal operations.

Contingency plans help in responding to natural disasters. Corporations develop them for disaster recovery following floods, earthquakes, or tornadoes.

Backup strategies are crucial for businesses to use when things go wrong. A contingency plan could, for instance, spell out what you’ll do if your chief rivals merge or how you’ll change course if you lose a significant client. 

It could even cover less damaging, but impactful situations, such as your office power going out during the workday.

Raise a Hand If You Know Which Projects Are Profitable

The contingency planning process may go something like this:

1. Create a List of Your Integral Processes

What procedures are crucial to your company’s operation and the secure delivery of your goods or service to customers? If you were a tech manufacturer, then your list of processes may include:

  • Getting materials from suppliers
  • Manufacturing
  • Warehousing and packaging
  • Distribution

It’s clear to see that there is a lot of potential for risk in this list of processes. And as the company is in the tech industry, the chances are that the material will be expensive to replace. 

2. For Each of Your Processes, Create a List of Possible Key Risks

Once you list your processes, think about company continuity. What might impede these vital procedures? What could go wrong?

Take distribution, for example:

  • The driver may deliver one or more packages to the incorrect address.
  • Delivery mistakes might cause package damage.
  • A package could go missing at the distribution facility.
  • A package truck might get into an accident.
  • A flood could make the local road network unusable.

This step analyses the vulnerabilities and the financial and operational consequences. It considers the impact, severity, and risk of recurrence for the company.

3. Figure Out How Likely Each Risk Is and the Potential Impact 

After identifying the risks, it is crucial to determine how they might affect your company.

How likely are they to occur? How much of an influence would they have on your company? Most businesses do this using a risk assessment.

A risk assessment can identify important hazards and address them using response and prevention. This is part of best practice contingency planning.

4. Create Individual Contingency Plans for Your Highest Risks

Make a backup plan for each danger you’ve determined to be significant. Create a brainstorming session with your team to come up with a plan of action in case the danger materialises as part of that contingency plan. Each strategy should outline all the actions you must take to resume regular operations.

Information about the following should be in your contingency plan:

  • The unexpected events that will bring about this strategy
  • What the immediate response should be
  • Who needs to be informed and involved

5. Calculate the Cost of Issues

Now that you have your list of risks, and you know how likely each risk is thanks to your risk assessment, you need to look at the potential costs. What possible financial loss might each risk cause to your company?

There are several ways to do this process. Although it will depend on what sector your business is in and what your processes are. It may be simple, like taking the cost of your at-risk materials and calculating the monetary damage. This allows you to make informed choices when making project plans and annual budgets.

Calculate the expenses of the unfavourable occurrence during the risk analysis.

Doing this means that you can weigh up the cost of preventing the risk vs the risk actually happening. For example, you wouldn’t take out expensive yearly insurance for a product that would be cheap to replace. But you would want to take out insurance on high-priced assets such as machinery. 

6. Make People at Your Business Aware of Your Plans

Share your backup plans as soon as you have them written. Make sure everyone is aware of your plan so that you can respond quickly and effectively when the time comes. Keep your backup plans in one location so that, in case of an emergency, everyone can immediately access them.

Create a project on a workflow platform so that everyone has an instruction manual for executing it.

Here are two examples of a type of contingency plan:

Natural Disaster Contingency Plan

Despite the rarity of large earthquakes, it could be disastrous if you are unprepared when they hit. This is why backup plans are so important.

But things such as flash floods or electric storms causing a power outage are more common. So it’s important to have a plan in case disaster strikes. 

The following could be part of a government earthquake contingency plan:

  • The details of the individuals assigned to undertake swift and effective responsibilities.
  • Methods for instructing the populace on how to react in the event of an earthquake.
  • A schedule for first responders.

Hardware Contingency Plan

It is crucial to ensure the safety and security of your information systems if, for instance, your organisation relies heavily on data. Have an emergency plan in place in case something goes wrong, such as a power surge damaging your servers or a hacker trying to access your network.

A company’s backup plans for a data breach may include:

  • Steps to follow to get the data properly secured again.
  • Contact details of whom to contact about the implications of the data breach and how to protect their investment.
  • A schedule to record the steps being taken to remedy the breach and how to prevent future data breaches.

Having a contingency plan is essential for risk management. 

Any contingency plan should help to resume regular business operations as soon as possible in the wake of an unexpected event. A backup plan protects resources, identifies personnel, and designates tasks to help with recovery.

Have a backup plan in place for every department in your organisation. It should address environmental risks, like floods, outages, and leaks. It should also outline obligations for carrying out those tasks in the event of an incident.

Contingency plans give an organisation a framework for evaluating disruptive occurrences. Plus, the steps needed to recover from them. The less harm to the company and its employees, the quicker the recovery is. Maintaining a company’s finances, competitive position, and reputation requires quick recovery.

Track Dollars And Sense

A contingency plan is beneficial if something goes wrong. It identifies potential issues, instructions on what to do in the event of an emergency, and prevention strategies. A proper risk management plan can prepare anyone to handle issues that may arise. This is true even if the person with primary responsibility isn’t present.

Design a strategy for identifying and resolving any problems that may occur. It could be a mitigating factor in the event of prosecution, and failing to have one could lead to a higher fine, as shown by recent convictions.

FAQs on Contingency Plan

What is a risk contingency plan.

It is a thorough plan for protecting your company from hazards and emergencies from the outside, such as natural disasters.

What Are the Components of a Contingency Plan?

A contingency plan comprises 3 things:

  • An analysis of what could occur
  • A strategy based on the analysis
  • The activities that prepare for the best outcome

What Is the Purpose of a Contingency Plan?

A contingency plan enables a company to resume regular business operations as soon as workable in the wake of an unexpected incident.

What Is a Good Contingency Plan?

A strong contingency plan should include every scenario that could interfere with operations.


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It is the policy of the University of New Hampshire (UNH) to maintain a safe environment for its students, academic appointees, staff, and visitors in an atmosphere that encourages those individuals to communicate on occupational and environmental health and safety matters without fear of reprisal. Based on recognized principles and published standards of environmental protection, academic excellence, fiscal responsibility, and public service, UNH will promote comprehensive life safety and injury prevention and effective Hazardous Material Communication, Emergency Preparedness, and Environmental Management Programs. UNH operations shall be conducted in conformance with applicable laws, regulations, and relevant published standards and practices for health, safety, and environmental protection.

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The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) of 1986 establishes requirements for Federal, State and local governments and industry regarding emergency planning and "Community Right-to-Know" reporting on hazardous and toxic chemicals. This law builds on numerous Federal, State and local programs aimed at helping communities to better meet their responsibilities in regard to potential chemical emergencies. The Right-to-Know provisions help to increase the public's knowledge and access to information on the presence of hazardous chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the environment. Through this mechanism States and communities, working with facilities, will be better able to improve chemical safety and protect public health and the environment.

Among the key provisions of EPCRA, Sections 311 and 312 require annual submission of chemical inventory data (known as Tier II reports) by facilities to state and local planning officials for incorporation into ongoing emergency planning. Tier II data is available to the public through local emergency planning committees (LEPCs).

Although EPCRA is a federal requirement, its output--development of comprehensive emergency plans and availability of chemical inventory and release data--is largely implemented at the state and local level, notably those provisions dealing with emergency planning.  UNH submits its Tier II report annually to the State of New Hampshire’s Department of Safety and the Town of Durham.

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contingency plan in research proposal

Planning a Destination Proposal: Tips for Making Your Dream Proposal a Reality

P roposing marriage marks a profound milestone in one’s life, and understandably, the desire for perfection accompanies this momentous occasion. For numerous couples, the notion of a destination proposal introduces an enchanting allure, elevating the romance to new heights. Yet, orchestrating such an affair may seem daunting at first glance. Between selecting the ideal locale and meticulously coordinating every detail, the task appears formidable. Nevertheless, fret not! With meticulous planning and a keen eye for detail, transforming your vision of a dream destination proposal into reality is entirely achievable.

Choose the Perfect Location

The first step in planning a destination proposal is choosing the perfect location. Consider places that hold special meaning for both you and your partner. It could be the city where you first met, a beach where you shared a memorable vacation, or a picturesque mountain peak. Think about the atmosphere you want to create and select a location that reflects it.

Do Your Research

Once you’ve narrowed down your options, it’s time to do some research. Look into the logistics of each location, such as travel arrangements, accommodations , and any necessary permits or permissions. Consider factors like weather, tourist season, and local customs that could impact your proposal plans. The more you know about your chosen destination, the better prepared you’ll be to make your dream proposal a reality.

Plan the Details

When it comes to planning a destination proposal, the devil is in the details. Think about how you want the proposal to unfold and plan each aspect accordingly. Will you pop the question at a romantic dinner under the stars, or perhaps during a scenic hike at sunrise? Consider hiring a local photographer to capture the moment or arranging for a private boat ride to add an extra element of surprise. Whatever you decide, make sure to plan ahead to ensure everything goes off without a hitch. When crafting your dream destination proposal, don’t forget to explore stunning engagement ring options available at , adding an extra layer of beauty and significance to your unforgettable moment.

Consider Cultural Sensitivities

If you’re proposing in a foreign country or unfamiliar cultural setting, it’s essential to be mindful of local customs and sensitivities. Take the time to learn about the traditions and etiquette of the place you’re visiting , and make sure your proposal plans are respectful and appropriate. For example, public displays of affection may not be well-received in certain cultures, so it’s essential to be aware of local norms and customs.

Have a Backup Plan

No matter how carefully you plan, things don’t always go according to plan. From unexpected weather to logistical hiccups, there are plenty of factors that could derail your proposal. That’s why it’s crucial to have a backup plan in place. Whether it’s an indoor alternative in case of rain or a Plan B location if your first choice falls through, having a contingency plan will give you peace of mind and ensure that your proposal goes off without a hitch.

Planning a destination proposal can be a daunting task, but with careful planning and attention to detail, you can make your dream proposal a reality. From choosing the perfect location to considering cultural sensitivities and having a backup plan, there are plenty of factors to consider. But with a little effort and creativity, you can create a truly unforgettable moment that you and your partner will cherish for a lifetime. So go ahead, start planning, and get ready to pop the question in style!

The post Planning a Destination Proposal: Tips for Making Your Dream Proposal a Reality appeared first on Malorie's Adventures .


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  1. Top 7 Project Contingency Plan Templates With Samples and Examples

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  1. Research Project Management Contingency Planning

    To assist the research community to plan for these scenarios we have developed a template that addresses some of the critical aspects of contingency planning. It is expected that research teams that utilize specialized equipment, chemicals, human subjects, animal models complete a template.

  2. Contingency Planning

    Contingency planning is important in research because often times, technology, people and experiments in general can be unpredictable and fixing a mistake or an issue often takes more time if there is no contingency plan in place. ... Research Proposals. Scientific communication SyBBURE Searle December 13, 2019. Setting Research Goals. Project ...

  3. How to prepare a research proposal in the health science?

    The research proposal should include, whenever possible, a contingency plan in case some parts of the project go wrong or cannot be carried out. 25 Planning an alternative approach - a plan B - is particularly relevant when most of the objectives are interrelated and (unexpected) negative results from one may compromise the opportunity of ...

  4. How to Conduct Risk Assessment and Contingency Plan for Research Projects

    1 Identify risks. The first step is to identify the possible risks that could affect your research project. Risks can be internal or external, positive or negative, and vary in likelihood and ...

  5. How to write contingency plan section of a proposal template

    How to Write a Contingency Plan Section in a Proposal Template. A contingency plan is a crucial part of any proposal, ensuring that you are prepared for unexpected events or changes in your project. In this article, we will guide you through the process of writing a contingency plan section in a proposal template. ... - Research proposals ...

  6. What Is Contingency Planning? Creating a Contingency Plan

    A business contingency plan is an action plan that is used to respond to future events that might or might not affect a company in the future. In most cases, a contingency plan is devised to respond to a negative event that can tarnish a company's reputation or even its business continuity. However, there are positive contingency plans, such ...

  7. Drexel University

    The Office of Research & Innovation (ORI) encourages researchers to develop individual contingency plans for possible disruptive scenarios that may affect your research activities. Three potential overarching scenarios are: potential reduction in a research team's workforce due to sickness or the inability to perform planned research activities;

  8. How to Write a Research Proposal

    Research proposal examples. Writing a research proposal can be quite challenging, but a good starting point could be to look at some examples. We've included a few for you below. Example research proposal #1: "A Conceptual Framework for Scheduling Constraint Management" Example research proposal #2: "Medical Students as Mediators of ...

  9. Contingency planning in the clinical laboratory: lessons learned amidst

    Contingency planning in the clinical laboratory: lessons learned amidst COVID-19 - PMC. User Guide. Journal List. Oxford University Press - PMC COVID-19 Collection. PMC7188123.

  10. Research Projects Involving Human Subjects Contingency Planning

    To ensure safety of our researchers, staff, and research participants and to be aligned with the most recent NIH guidance, the Office of Research & Innovation is requesting that research involving person-to-person contact or gatherings of human research participants be paused as soon as possible unless needed for participant safety.

  11. How To Create A Good Contingency Plan

    Identify who needs to be aware of and involved in contingency planning. Choose appropriate communication methods for each stakeholder group. For instance, department heads may need specific meetings to focus on their section of the plan. Key employees might need a training session.

  12. PDF Research Contingency Plan

    6: Cascade Communication. In order to contact all members of staff in the event of an emergency out of working hours, the following procedure will be followed: 1: The Director (A. Carr) and/or Deputy Director (K. Caldecott) will contact the individual lab heads, the Laboratory Manager (G. Frost) and Administrator (G. Wheatley).

  13. Contingency plan examples: A step-by-step guide to help your ...

    Lastly, they work with a reputable PR firm to prepare a plan for outreach and messaging to reassure customers in the event that their personal information is compromised. The value of contingency planning . When business operations are disrupted by a negative event, good contingency planning gives an organization's response structure and ...

  14. How to plan and write a budget for research grant proposal?

    An item-wise and year wise summary of the total budget is usually required in most of the applications. Budget summary outlines the proposed grant and often (most of the format) appears at the beginning of the proposal. It should always be prepared at the end, after the grant proposal has been completely developed.

  15. Dengue Contingency Planning: From Research to Policy and Practice

    In response, an evidence-based handbook to translate research into policy and practice was developed. This handbook facilitates contingency planning as well as the development and use of early warning and response systems for dengue fever epidemics, by identifying decision-making processes that contribute to the success or failure of dengue ...

  16. How to Create a Contingency Fund for Research Projects

    1. Identify potential risks. Be the first to add your personal experience. 2. Calculate your contingency fund. Be the first to add your personal experience. 3. Allocate your contingency fund. Be ...

  17. How To Create A Smart Contingency Plan For High-Risk Projects

    Create the contingency steps. Work with your team and stakeholders to play a series of 'what if' scenario games for each risk register item selected. This is best completed as part of a focused workshop, so you can have everyone's full attention. It's important to get people in the zone of contingency thinking.

  18. Contingency Planning: The Need, Benefits, and Implementation of

    September 10, 2023. 2. Abstract. This paper delves into the intricacies of contingency planning and its pivotal role in modern. businesses. In an era marked by rapid technological advancements and ...

  19. Contingency Planning in the Clinical Laboratory: Lessons Learned Amidst

    The laboratory should begin contingency planning by assessing baseline operational status, which benches can be offered less frequently (batched as sample stability allows), ... As universities are increasingly scaling back research operations, other able-bodied personnel such as research scientists, medical students, or Pathology residents may ...

  20. (PDF) Contingency planning

    Contingency planning provides an alternative arrangement for business recovery in emergencies (Fernandes & Gama, 2014). (2020) proposed a framework for responding to an emergency in the absence of ...

  21. Contingency Plan: What It Is and Why Do You Need It?

    A contingency plan is a practical plan you must put in place if a foreseeable risk materialises. It serves as a "Plan B" for when things don't turn out as predicted. A business contingency plan can reduce risk and help you return to normal operations. Contingency plans help in responding to natural disasters.

  22. What is a Contingency Plan (and How Can You Make One?)

    A project contingency plan is an established, pragmatic set of actions that your team will follow if a predetermined risk materializes and makes your initial plan impossible. For example, your software development team is updating a website for a retail company. In the middle of the project, your lead full-stack developer accepts a position ...

  23. Environmental Protection & Contingency Planning

    Environmental Protection & Contingency Planning. It is the policy of the University of New Hampshire (UNH) to maintain a safe environment for its students, academic appointees, staff, and visitors in an atmosphere that encourages those individuals to communicate on occupational and environmental health and safety matters without fear of reprisal.

  24. Planning a Destination Proposal: Tips for Making Your Dream ...

    Planning a destination proposal can be a daunting task, but with careful planning and attention to detail, you can make your dream proposal a reality. From choosing the perfect location to ...

  25. Sri Lanka debt restructuring stumbles as govt rejects bondholders' proposal

    Sri Lanka on Tuesday rejected international bondholders' proposal to restructure more than $12 billion in debt, putting at risk critical International Monetary Fund support and delaying its ...