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A progress report on Indigenous education in Ontario's publicly funded schools

New report by People for Education shows that publicly funded schools in Ontario have made significant progress towards Indigenous education over the last decade but we still have a long way to go to fulfill the education-related Calls to Action from the Truth and Reconciliation Commission.

Introduction

1. truth and reconciliation commission calls to action for education and youth, 2. ontario’s response to the calls to action related to education, 3. professional development on indigenous education an increasingly common starting point, 4. increase in secondary schools offering and mandating indigenous studies courses, 5. more ontario schools working with indigenous guest speakers, elders, and knowledge keepers, 6. community consultations and partnerships are integral to advancing indigenous education, 7. incorporating indigenous cultures, ways of knowing, teachings, and language, 8. access to indigenous education differs by region and level of schooling, conclusion and recommendations, appendix: methodology, bibliography.

Findings from People for Education’s 2022-23 Annual Ontario School Survey (AOSS) indicate that Ontario’s publicly funded schools are showing signs of progress in response to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission’s (TRC) Calls to Action for education.

It has been eight years since the TRC issued its Calls to Action to support reconciliation in Canada, with Calls to Action 6-12 and 62-66 specifically addressing children, youth, and education. While some progress has been made, a recent report from the Yellowhead Institute found that only 13 of the 94 Calls to Action have been fully implemented, and none of these completed calls are those focused on education. 1

Using data from People for Education’s annual survey, based on responses from 1,044 schools across all the province’s 72 publicly funded school boards, this report provides an overview of how Ontario is doing in response to the TRC’s Calls to Action for education, and the progress Ontario schools have made on implementing Indigenous education strategies and programs over the last decade.

These findings focus only on provincially funded schools in Ontario school boards, and do not include First Nations schools located on reserves. According to the Ministry of Education, more than 80% of Indigenous students attend provincially funded schools. 2 So, while this report does not provide information about First Nations education on reserves, it does offer insight about the progress of Indigenous education programs in provincially funded schools which are attended by the vast majority of Indigenous and non-Indigenous students in the province.

According to The Honourable Murray Sinclair, Chair of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, education has a key role to play in long-term reconciliation, and changes in our education systems must include improvements in the education of both Indigenous and non-Indigenous students.

“Education is what got us into this mess — the use of education in terms of residential schools — but education is the key to reconciliation. We need to look at the way we are educating children. That’s why we say that this is not an Aboriginal problem. It’s a Canadian problem.” 3 Justice Murray Sinclair, Chair of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission

It is important to recognize that there is much diversity within First Nation, Métis, and Inuit communities in Ontario. Please note that the use of the term “Indigenous” in this report refers to all the distinct cultures, nations, and individuals within First Nation, Métis, and Inuit populations living in the province.

Quick Facts

education funding technical paper 2022 23

Figure 1. Truth and Reconciliation Commission Calls to Action pertaining to education and young people

Over the last 16 years, Indigenous education policy in Ontario has been punctuated by a number of reports, frameworks, goals, and changes to funding.

In 2007, Ontario launched its First Nation, Métis, and Inuit Education Policy Framework. The Framework outlined two targets to be achieved by 2016: improving achievement among First Nation, Métis, and Inuit students and closing gaps between Indigenous and non-Indigenous students in literacy and numeracy scores, graduation rates, and advancement to post-secondary education. At the same time, the province acknowledged the importance of having accurate data to track whether these goals were being achieved. To that end, the Ministry of Education released guidelines to support school boards in developing a voluntary, confidential self-identification process for Indigenous students. 4

Nearly a decade after the release of the 2007 Policy Framework, the Ontario government released The Journey Together: Ontario’s Commitment to Reconciliation with Indigenous Peoples. The 2016 strategy emphasized a commitment to “address the legacy of residential schools, close gaps and remove barriers, support Indigenous culture, and reconcile relationships with Indigenous peoples.” 5

In 2017, in a further step toward reconciliation, and in response to Calls to Action 62 and 63 from the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, the province made a commitment to revise the Ontario curriculum by fall 2018 so that it would include mandatory Indigenous-focused content for grades 4, 5, and 6 Social Studies and grades 7, 8, and 10 History. 6

Four years later, a new Ontario government reiterated previous governments’ commitments to work with Indigenous partners to support First Nation, Métis, and Inuit student achievement and wellbeing by closing the achievement gap and increasing every student’s knowledge of Indigenous perspectives, histories, and cultures. 7   The 2021 announcement included a plan to work with Indigenous partners to add mandatory Indigenous-focused curriculum to Social Studies for grades 1-3 by September 2023. The content was to focus on the role of family and resilience in First Nations, Métis, and Inuit communities, Indigenous historical and contemporary realities, Indigenous peoples’ connection with the land, the residential school system, and the reclamation of identity, language, culture, and community connections. 8 As of April 2023, the revamped curriculum had not yet been released.

Science curriculum unilaterally changed

In the spring of 2022, the province released new Science and Technology Curriculum for grades 1-8. However, despite having worked with Indigenous partners on the curriculum, the government made a unilateral decision to remove or substantially modify sixteen Indigenous-related expectations in the curriculum just three weeks before its release. 9 For example, the original curriculum explicitly named that students would “explore real-world issues by connecting Indigenous sciences and technologies and Western science and technology, using ways of knowing such as the Two-Eyed Seeing approach…”. This approach allows an understanding of science that includes both Western and Indigenous perspectives. Instead, the final version generally states that students will “analyze science and technology contributions from various communities.” 10

Slow progress on data collection

Data collection forms a key component of both the Calls to Action from the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, and the recommendations from the UN on Canada’s lack of progress in implementing the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. 11  Without data, and in particular, race-based data, it is impossible to know if numerous policy goals are being met. 12  While school boards in Ontario are now required to collect race-based data (as of 2023), it is not yet clear whether this work has been completed. Likewise, through school boards have been encouraged to implement voluntary, confidential Indigenous self-identification initiatives since 2007, it remains difficult to find out what progress has been made.

In the 2022-23 school year, Ontario’s Ministry of Education allocated $120.5 million in the Indigenous Education Grant, intended to fund “programs and initiatives to support the academic success and well-being of Indigenous students, as well as build the knowledge of all students and educators on Indigenous histories, cultures, perspectives and contributions.” 13 The funding is allocated to school boards based on their total enrolment, the number of students in Indigenous studies and language programs, and the number of students who have self-identified as Indigenous. However, since Ontario appears to be behind in its collection and reporting of race-based and Indigenous student data, it is not clear if funding is being allocated where it is most needed.

“We want to do more but need help and direction with what to do and how to do it.” Elementary school principal, Southwestern Ontario

Staff professional development is essential to effectively incorporating Indigenous histories and curriculum in classrooms (i.e., Calls to Action 62 and 63). Professional development was the most reported Indigenous education opportunity offered across the province’s publicly funded elementary (76%) and secondary (82%) schools. The proportion of schools reporting professional development for school staff has more than doubled for elementary (34% in 2012 to 76% in 2022) and secondary schools (34% in 2012 and 82% in 2022) over the last decade.

education funding technical paper 2022 23

Figure 2. Proportion of elementary and secondary schools in Ontario offering staff professional development on Indigenous education, 2012-2013 to 2022-2023

In their responses to the AOSS 2022-23, principals often cited the value of professional development on Indigenous education. Principals noted that a supportive school board that prioritizes Indigenous education, along with having a dedicated staff member in school leading the work, were valuable when offering staff professional development opportunities.

“Having a System Principal of Indigenous Rights and Education has really helped to ensure that we have open communication between our Treaty Partner and the board, and this is translating into better services and understanding at the school level.” Elementary school principal, GTA

Some barriers mentioned by principals included finding the time for professional development, competing priorities with other equity focuses, and staff or board hesitancy or discomfort with Indigenous-focused content.

“Time and priority. With so little staff meeting time and the focus for those being on math and literacy instruction, there is no time to run staff PD for Indigenous studies. We cannot have PLC [professional learning community] time as we are unable to get supply coverage.” Elementary school principal, Eastern Ontario “People are interested in doing the work but are fearful at times about offending members of the Indigenous community. We need to continue to build partnerships and have representation in the work that we do.” Secondary school principal, GTA

In February 2023, the Toronto District School Board (TDSB) joined a growing list of school boards in the province who are making the shift to replace the compulsory grade 11 English course (i.e., ENG3U/C/E) with an Indigenous-focused course centered on First Nations, Métis, and Inuit voices (i.e., NBE3U). 14  The course, titled Understanding Contemporary First Nations, Métis, and Inuit Voices, is currently offered as an alternative English course, along with other optional Indigenous-focused courses for secondary school students, in the revised 2019 Ontario Curriculum grades 9 to 12 First Nations, Métis, and Inuit Studies. 15 For French-language schools, this change would mean replacing the grade 11 French course (i.e., FRA3U/C/E) with the course titled, Découvrir les vois contemporaines des Premières Nations, des Métis et des Inuits (i.e., NBF3U).

Figure 3. Ontario school boards who have mandated the grade 11 English course, NBE3U: Understanding Contemporary First Nations, Métis, and Inuit Voices (February 2023)

Figure 3 lists the 32 school boards in Ontario who have mandated NBE3U as of February 2023. A handful of other boards are also in the process of following suit. For example, Halton District School Board (HDSB) and Waterloo Region District School Board (WRDSB) have plans in place to mandate NBE3U by the beginning of the upcoming 2023-2024 school year. 16

Some schools who participated in AOSS 2022-23 have chosen to offer the Indigenous studies course NBE3U as the only option for students’ grade 11 compulsory English credit despite it not being mandated by their board. Many of these principals noted that the Indigenous studies courses offered were popular with students and generally supported by the school community, although some said that they experienced resistance to the course. A secondary school principal in Central Ontario reported that, “It is sometimes challenging to get all students/families to recognize the importance of this learning. For instance, we are offering only the NBE courses for Gr. 11 English and we have experienced some resistance from the school community.”

Longitudinal AOSS data shows that the proportion of secondary schools offering any Indigenous studies course rose from 40% in 2013 to 72% in 2022, indicating Ontario secondary schools have made significant progress on incorporating Indigenous-focused courses over the past decade, and as more school boards make plans to mandate NBE/NBF3U, that growth will likely continue.

education funding technical paper 2022 23

Figure 4. Proportion of secondary schools in Ontario offering an Indigenous studies course (e.g., NBE/ NBF3U), 2013-2014 to 2022-2023

“Our district has great partnerships with local Indigenous knowledge keepers and our students and staff have lots of opportunities to learn from them.” Elementary school principal, Southwestern Ontario

In the TRC’s Calls to Action, Call 63 includes a focus on building student capacity for intercultural understanding, empathy, and mutual respect. 17 Prioritizing opportunities for First Nations, Inuit, and Métis guest speakers, Elders, and Knowledge Keepers to visit and develop relationships with Ontario schools is vital to build this capacity in students as it provides students with access to Indigenous perspectives and cultures. In 2022-23, 41% of elementary schools and 68% of secondary schools reported offering opportunities to talk with Indigenous Elders and/or Knowledge Keepers. Moreover, the proportion of schools reporting that they had Indigenous guest speakers rose significantly over the last decade, increasing from 23% in 2012 to 55% in 2022 for elementary schools and from 41% in 2012 to 76% in 2022 for secondary schools.

Figure 5. Proportion of elementary and secondary schools in Ontario offering Indigenous guest speakers, 2012-13 to 2022-23

Beyond having Indigenous guest speakers, principals talked about the importance of creating extended opportunities for Indigenous Elders, speakers, and Knowledge Keepers to build relationships with their students and school communities through a range of activities. They said that staff and students greatly benefited from learning with them. A secondary school principal from Eastern Ontario reported, “We have a resident Knowledge Keeper who builds canoes and wigwams. Our students are learning through building, creating and storytelling.”

On the other hand, not all principals said that they had access to these individuals, with some saying that they did not have enough board support, funds, or community partnerships to facilitate these relationships. One elementary school principal from Southwestern Ontario wrote that, “Some people are able to access money for guest speakers and other opportunities, but it is not universal.”

There have been steady increases over the last decade in the proportion of schools offering the Indigenous education opportunities that People for Education asks about on the AOSS. However, in the AOSS 2022-23, principals called attention to some areas where more work needs to be prioritized: community consultations and partnerships, offering cultural support programs, and support for resources and teacher training.

“We work hard at our relationships with our Indigenous partners and families and look for opportunities to learn together.” Elementary school principal, Northern Ontario

Strong relationship building between First Nations, Inuit, and Métis communities and non-Indigenous communities, consultation with Indigenous communities about educational priorities, and partnerships with Indigenous community organizations are all key to responding to the TRC’s Calls to Action for education. The proportion of elementary schools that offer consultation with Indigenous community organizations about education priorities rose from 12% in 2012 to 36% in 2022, while secondary schools saw an increase from 28% in 2012 to 59% in 2022.

education funding technical paper 2022 23

Figure 6. Proportion of elementary and secondary schools in Ontario offering consultation with Indigenous community organizations about educational priorities, 2012-13 to 2022-23

“We have connected with some families who are sharing their expertise, for example, developing a display of Indigenous resources in the library, smudging ceremony, outdoor learning, grandfather teachings.” Elementary school principal, Southwestern Ontario

While some principals reported that their schools had strong partnerships with local Indigenous communities, others said they were still working on building community relationships or noted that they needed support from their school board as well as the Ministry of Education to do this work. Principals also told us that relationships with Indigenous students’ families were sources of connection to and learning about Indigenous perspectives, teachings, and cultures.

“We have a partnership with [name of Indigenous community]. Their program lives in our school, with an Indigenous Youth Outreach Worker providing mentorship opportunities, in-school math and literacy supports, in-school and after school cultural programming and nutritional supports. We collaborate to celebrate an annual powwow, a true highlight at our school. Our Ojibwe Language program continues to grow with an increasing number of students opting to take Ojibwe instead of French as a Second Language each year. Educational staff are open to learning and to providing land-based learning opportunities for students.” Elementary school principal, Northern Ontario

The TRC’s Calls to Action for education are not only important to support the Indigenous youth in our schools, but also to educate non-Indigenous students about residential schools and Indigenous culture, history, and ways of knowing. It is important that Indigenous students see themselves reflected in their education, and that they feel that their communities and cultures are valued and connected to school. 18

Offering cultural support programs in schools not only provides a valuable resource to Indigenous students, but they also help to integrate Indigenous perspectives more holistically in the school community. Cultural support programs include things like creating an Indigenous-focused student success team or dedicating an Indigenous space like a smudge room or garden on school property.

The proportion of elementary schools reporting that they offer cultural support programs rose from 9% in 2012 to 36% in 2022; for secondary schools, the proportion of schools offering cultural support programs increased from 22% in 2012 to 51% in 2022. These are significant increases over the past decade, but cultural support programs were still one of the least reported Indigenous education opportunities compared to all other opportunities.

education funding technical paper 2022 23

Figure 7. Proportion of elementary and secondary schools in Ontario offering cultural support programs, 2012-13 to 2022-23

Another way Ontario schools are working to support Indigenous students is through offering activities such as ceremonies and land-based activities like drumming, dancing, medicine walks, and storytelling. These activities support Indigenous students by connecting the school community to Indigenous students’ families and communities outside the school and help to incorporate Indigenous cultures and ways of knowing more holistically in the school community through experiential learning for all students, Indigenous and non-Indigenous.

“We have an Outdoor Education program for all primary students that focuses on looking at the land we live on through an Indigenous lens. One of the parents on our grounds & greening committee (which manages a teaching garden & works with the outdoor ed teacher) is Indigenous and helps us to reflect & question.” Elementary school principal, GTA

In 2022-23, 44% of elementary schools and 56% of secondary schools reported that they offer activities such as ceremonies and land-based activities (e.g., medicine walks, drumming, dancing, storytelling).

Principals also listed various ways in which their schools were working to support Indigenous students and incorporate Indigenous cultures and teachings holistically. One school installed a courtyard healing circle. A few principals mentioned that their school had a smudge room or smudging retreats. Others said that students had opportunities to participate in experiential learning, Indigenous cooking, gardening, land-based activities, storytelling, art, and the Seven Grandfather Teachings.

“We have been able to collaborate in an amazing whole-school living reconciliation on important lands and learning to integrate circles, treaties, and relationships with each other and the land by learning from Indigenous educators and Elders.” Elementary school principal, Southwestern Ontario

Indigenous Languages Programs

Offering an Indigenous languages program in school is another way Ontario elementary and secondary schools can support Indigenous students. The TRC’s Call to Action 10 calls for protecting the right to Aboriginal languages, which includes the teaching of Aboriginal languages as credit courses in school, along with a commitment to sufficient funding in this area. 19

In 2022-23, the least reported Indigenous education opportunity was Indigenous languages programs for both elementary (13%) and secondary schools (20%). Although they were the least reported education opportunity, the proportion of schools reporting it still increased from 2012 to 2022 (from 4% to 13% for elementary schools and from 11% to 20% for secondary schools).

In the 2022-23 AOSS, principals said that they wanted to offer Indigenous languages courses, with some mentioning that it was challenging to find a qualified Indigenous languages teacher. Funding was mentioned by principals as another major barrier to offering Indigenous languages programming in school.

education funding technical paper 2022 23

Figure 8. Proportion of elementary and secondary schools in Ontario offering Indigenous languages programs, 2012-2013 to 2022-2023

“We have a large percentage of Indigenous students. I would like to offer NSL [Native as a Second Language], but we cannot secure a native speaker to teach this course.” Elementary school principal, Northern Ontario “Finding a language speaker to take on our Anishnaabemowin class on a consistent basis has been a significant barrier.” Elementary school teacher, Southwestern Ontario

In 2022-23, secondary schools were more likely than elementary schools to offer Indigenous education opportunities. The biggest differences between elementary and secondary schools were in the proportions of schools that reported offering opportunities to speak with Indigenous Elders and/or Knowledge Keepers (41% of elementary schools compared to 68% of secondary schools), consultation with Indigenous community organizations about educational priorities (36% of elementary schools compared to 59% of secondary schools), and Indigenous guest speakers (55% of elementary schools compared to 76% of secondary schools).

education funding technical paper 2022 23

Figure 9. Proportion of elementary and secondary schools in Ontario offering Indigenous education opportunities, 2022-2023

Moreover, there are regional differences in Indigenous education opportunities across the province. Generally, schools in Northern Ontario were more likely to offer Indigenous education opportunities, while schools in the GTA were least likely to offer these opportunities. While some responses from schools in Northern Ontario highlighted serving larger populations of Indigenous students, recent data from Statistics Canada show that the Indigenous population living in large urban population centres has grown by 12.5% from 2016 to 2021. 20

Figure 10. Proportion of Ontario schools offering Indigenous education opportunities, by region, 2022-2023

The largest differences regionally were in the proportion of schools that offered cultural support programs (55% of Northern Ontario schools compared to 25% of GTA schools), Indigenous languages programs (37% of Northern Ontario schools compared to 5% of GTA schools), and activities such as ceremonies and land-based activities (72% of Northern Ontario schools compared to 30% of GTA schools). On the other hand, secondary schools in Northern Ontario (61%) were least likely to offer an Indigenous studies course compared to secondary schools in Central Ontario (82%), Southwestern Ontario (81%), the GTA (73%), and Eastern Ontario (71%).

There is more work to be done for Truth and Reconciliation in education

People for Education’s latest findings illustrate that progress has been made in the past decade to advance Indigenous education across publicly funded schools in Ontario, but overall, Canada still has a long way to go in completely fulfilling the TRC’s eleven Calls to Action regarding education. These Calls to Action emphasize the importance of informed consent, full participation, consultation, and collaboration with Indigenous peoples; all components that require building partnerships between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples. So, while commitments to work together in the form of public statements and policy documents such as school curriculum are a critical first step, they alone are not enough for truth and reconciliation.

To move forward in supporting the TRC’s Calls to Action regarding education and young people, People for Education has three recommendations for the Ontario Ministry of Education:

Mandate the NBE/NBF3U Indigenous studies course in place of grade 11 English/French at the provincial level, and increase the number of elementary and secondary schools offering Indigenous languages and programs by providing funding and resources for:

The recruitment, hiring, and retention of Indigenous education workers and teachers, in collaboration with school boards and post-secondary faculties of education.

Frequent, timely, and meaningful professional development opportunities to support educators in implementing Indigenous education.

Improved data collection and reporting on the status, experience, and outcomes of Indigenous students.

Provide dedicated funding for positions in schools, boards, and government that are focused on promoting and supporting effective programs on Indigenous languages and ways of knowing more holistically from kindergarten to grade 12.

Convene a taskforce of diverse and regionally reflective Indigenous educators and Elders to support the Ministry of Education and the 72 publicly funded school boards across Ontario in responding to the Calls to Action regarding education and young people. Activities would include the co-development of curriculum and updating the Ontario First Nation, Métis, and Inuit Education Policy Framework that was originally published in 2007. 21

This report is based on data from 1,044 schools from all 72 publicly funded Ontario school boards that participated in the 2022-23 Annual Ontario School Survey (AOSS). Longitudinal data comparisons are based on the data collected from the elementary and secondary schools that participated in People for Education’s 2012-13, 2013-14, 2014-15, 2015-16, 2016-17, 2017-18, 2018-19, 2019-20, and 2021-22 AOSS. Unless cited from other sources, the statistics and quoted material in this report originate from People for Education’s 2022-23 AOSS, the 26th annual survey of elementary schools, and the 23rd annual survey of secondary schools in Ontario. Surveys from the 2022-23 AOSS were completed online via SurveyMonkey in both English and French in the fall of 2022. Survey responses were disaggregated to examine survey representation across provincial regions (see table below). Schools were sorted into geographical regions based on the first letter of their postal code. The GTA region includes schools with M postal codes as well as those with L postal codes located in GTA municipalities. 22

education funding technical paper 2022 23

Figure 11. Survey response representation by region, all schools, 2022-2023

Qualitative data analysis was conducted using inductive analysis. Researchers read responses and coded emergent themes in each set of data (i.e., the responses to each of the survey’s open-ended questions). The quantitative analyses in this report are based on descriptive statistics. The primary objective of the descriptive analyses is to present numerical information in a format that is accessible to a broad public readership. All data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software. All calculations have been rounded to the nearest whole number and may not total 100% in displays of disaggregated categories. All survey responses and data are kept confidential and stored in conjunction with TriCouncil recommendations for the safeguarding of data.

People for Education acknowledges the absence of Indigenous research methodologies in this report, specifically the missing perspectives and lived experiences of First Nations, Métis, and Inuit communities. Building partnerships and working in collaboration with Indigenous communities is an area of improvement where our organization is committed to growing in the future.

For questions about the methodology used in this report, please contact the research team at People for Education: [email protected] .

1 Yellowhead Institute. 2022. “Calls to Action Accountability: A 2022 Status Update on Reconciliation.” Accessed February 22, 2023. https://yellowheadinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/12/TRC-Report-12.15.2022-Yellowhead-Institute-min.pdf .

2 Ontario Ministry of Education. 2018. “Strengthening Our Learning Journey Third Progress Report on the Implementation of the Ontario First Nation, Métis, and Inuit Education Policy Framework.” Accessed March 3, 2023. https://files.ontario.ca/edu-ieo-third-progress-report-en-2021-10-28.pdf , p. 19, citing preliminary OnSIS enrollment data for October 2015.

3 Watters, Haydn. 2015. “Truth and Reconciliation chair urges Canada to adopt UN declaration on Indigenous Peoples.” CBC News, June 1, 2015. Accessed March 31, 2023. https://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/truth-and-reconciliation-chair-urges-canada-to-adopt-un-declaration-on-indigenous-peoples-1.309622.

4 Ontario Ministry of Education. 2007. “Ontario First Nation, Métis, and Inuit Education Policy Framework.” Accessed March 17, 2023. https://files.ontario.ca/edu-ontario-first-nation-metis-inuit-education-policy-framework-2007-en-2021-10-29.pdf ; Ontario Ministry of Education. 2007. “Building Bridges to Success for First Nation, Métis and Inuit Students.” Accessed April 4, 2023. https://files.ontario.ca/edu-building-bridges-to-success-first-nation-metis-inuit-students-en-2021-10-21.pdf .

5 Government of Ontario. 2016. “The Journey Together: Ontario’s Commitment to Reconciliation with Indigenous Peoples.” Accessed February 23, 2023. https://files.ontario.ca/trc_report_web_mar17_en_1.pdf .

6 Johnson, Rhiannon. Nov 8, 2017. “Indigenous history, culture now mandatory part of Ontario curriculum”. CBC News. Accessed March 9, 2023. https://www.cbc.ca/news/indigenous/indigenous-history-culture-mandatory-ontario-curriculum-1.4393527 .

7 Government of Ontario. 2021. “Indigenous education in Ontario.” Accessed February 22, 2023. https://www.ontario.ca/page/indigenous-education-ontario .

8 Government of Ontario. 2021. “Ontario to Strengthen Mandatory Indigenous Learning in School Curriculum.” September 29, 2021. Accessed March 31, 2023. https://news.ontario.ca/en/release/1000904/ontario-to-strengthen-mandatory-indigenous-learning-in-school-curriculum.

9 McInnes, Angela. 2022. “Ontario science and tech curriculum shifts focus from Indigenous framework to economy, educators say.” CBC News, July 23, 2022. Accessed March 31, 2023. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/london/ontario-science-and-tech-curriculum-shifts-focus-from-indigenous-framework-to-economy-educators-say-1.6527820 .

10 Alphonso, Caroline. 2022. “Indigenous science framework removed from Ontario elementary school curriculum.” The Globe and Mail, July 2, 2022. Accessed March 31, 2023. https://www.theglobeandmail.com/canada/article-indigenous-science-framework-removed-from-ontario-elementary-school/ .

11 People for Education. 2022. “30 years with insufficient progress on child well-being.” Accessed April 4, 2023. https://peopleforeducation.ca/our-work/30-years-with-insufficient-progress-on-child-well-being/ .

12 Ontario Ministry of the Solicitor General. 2020. “Annual progress report 2020: Ontario’s Anti-Racism Strategic Plan.” Accessed April 4, 2023. https://files.ontario.ca/solgen-annual-progress-report-2020-anti-racism-strategic-plan-en-2020-09-20-v2.pdf.

13 Ontario Ministry of Education. 2022. “Education Funding: Technical Paper 2022–23.” Accessed April 4, 2023. https://files.ontario.ca/edu-2022-23-technical-paper-en-2022-03-15.pdf .

14 Toronto District School Board. 2023. “TDSB Approves Mandatory Indigenous Education in Grade 11.” February 1, 2023. Accessed March 31, 2023. https://www.tdsb.on.ca/Home/ctl/Details/mid/42863/itemId/66

15 Ontario Ministry of Education. 2019. “The Ontario Curriculum Grades 9 to 12 First Nations, Métis, and Inuit Studies.” Accessed February 23, 2023. https://assets-us-01.kc-usercontent.com/fbd574c4-da36-0066-a0c5-849ffb2de96e/e5733b4c-80ae-4988-8ab4-d29ae1cbaae2/First-nations-metis-inuit-studies-grades-9-12.pdf .

16 Halton District School Board. 2021. “Student Voices Student Experiences of Racism & HDSB’s Strengthened Commitments to Anti-Racism.” Accessed March 1, 2023. https://www.hdsb.ca/our-board/Documents/Student-Voices-HDSB-Response-to-Racism.pdf#search=NBE ; Waterloo Region District School Board. 2022. “Director’s Response Strategic Plan.” Accessed March 8, 2023. https://www.wrdsb.ca/learning/strategic-plan/directors-response/.

17 Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. 2015. “Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada: Calls to Action.” Accessed February 22, 2023. https://ehprnh2mwo3.exactdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/Calls_to_Action_English2.pdf .

18 Ontario Ministry of Education. 2017. “Ontario’s Education Equity Action Plan.” Accessed March 3, 2023. https://files.ontario.ca/edu-1_0/edu-Ontario-Education-Equity-Action-Plan-en-2021-08-04.pdf.

19 Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. 2015. “Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada: Calls to Action.” Accessed February 22, 2023. https://ehprnh2mwo3.exactdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/Calls_to_Action_English2.pdf .

20 Statistics Canada. 2022. “Indigenous population continues to grow and is much younger than the non-Indigenous population, although the pace of growth has slowed.” September 21, 2022. Accessed March 31, 2023. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/daily-quotidien/220921/dq220921a-eng.htm .

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Original research article, the problems of the covid-19 pandemic in higher education.

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  • 1 Laboratory of Humanistic Approach in Education, Moscow City University, Moscow, Russia
  • 2 Department of Psychology and Pedagogy, Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk, Russia
  • 3 Department of Psychology, Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Moscow, Russia
  • 4 Department of Pedagogy and Psychology of Professional Education, K.G. Razumovsky Moscow State University of Technologies and Management, The First Cossack University, Moscow, Russia
  • 5 Department of Psychology and Human Capital Development, Financial University Under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia
  • 6 Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Sechenov University, Moscow, Russia
  • 7 Department of Public Administration and Social Technologies, Moscow Aviation Institute, National Research University, Moscow, Russia

Since the outbreak of the pandemic COVID-19, many studies have been conducted to examine how education has responded to the challenges of a completely new situation that has led to the spread of distance education as the only form of instruction. In this study, data were collected and analyzed to understand the difficulties of distance education that higher education students faced during the pandemic. Our goal was to present the results of a socio-psychological study of accessibility, educational resources, applications, and distance learning technologies. A total of 160 students from different Moscow universities participated in the study. A qualitative research method was used for the study. For this purpose, mainly in-depth interviews were conducted to find out the participants’ views on distance education. The data obtained were analyzed by the researchers using qualitative analysis methods. The results showed that all students faced technical difficulties during distance learning, such as poor internet connection, lack of access to online platforms due to the high number of users, lack of necessary equipment, and individual space for online learning. The results also showed low technical readiness for distance education and low quality of online resources, as well as cyber threats during online courses. In addition, the results showed that most students indicated that they would prefer a hybrid form of instruction that combines distance and face-to-face instruction. Implications for further studies are drawn in the conclusion.

Introduction

Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, one of the most pressing research topics around the world has been the introduction of distance learning and the development of online education and training ( Jacques et al., 2020 , 2021 ; Zagkos et al., 2022 ). All over the world, research has focused on how education is responding to the challenges of an entirely new situation in which distance education has become the only form of knowledge acquisition and learning. The initiative of the consortium of participants in the World Education Leadership Symposium ( Vachkova et al., 2022 ) and the international project World School Leadership Study [WSLS] ( Huber and Spillane, 2016 ) can serve as an example of an international project. This project collected and analyzed data on the difficulties faced by school education participants around the world in the context of the pandemic and the full transition to distance education. The scientific community around the world has been struggling to cope with the global risks and challenges created by the pandemic COVID-19. This situation has led to the accumulation of research studies on the problem and the development of distance education in schools to investigate the most effective ways to solve the challenges under extreme conditions during the pandemic. The analysis of existing research on the aforementioned problems revealed several opportunities to identify new trends in the development of distance education during the pandemic ( Galimova et al., 2019 ; Ulyanina, 2020 ).

Methodological Framework

Experience in the implementation of distance education: international analysis of practices.

The spread of the COVID-19 pandemic in early 2020 led to the largest disruption of the entire education system in the world. More than 1.5 billion students in more than 190 countries had to leave school to go to school. The closure of schools and other educational institutions affected exactly 94% of the world’s students ( United Nations, 2020 ). Moreover, the disruption of the educational process has serious consequences not only in the context of ensuring the right of students to education but also in the context of the economic and socio-political development of higher education. On the other hand, the crisis in the school system has triggered a new impetus for the emergence and development of innovative methods in the educational process ( Lipatova et al., 2015 ; Kalinina et al., 2017 ; Salakhova et al., 2017 ; Valeeva et al., 2018 ; Joshi et al., 2020 ). From this perspective, educational innovations have affected all educational stakeholders, including parents, students, and teachers. To ensure continuity of learning during the pandemic, innovative approaches such as radio and television broadcasts were used for school lessons. In addition, other measures such as e-interviews ( Temsah et al., 2021a ), video interviews ( Joshi et al., 2020 ), mobile learning ( Bacolod, 2022 ), and distance learning ( Mitin and Mitina, 2020 ; Tugun et al., 2020 ; Usak et al., 2020 ; Nagovitsyn et al., 2021 ; Qarkaxhja et al., 2021 ; Rerke et al., 2021 ) were taken to ensure continuity of the educational process.

In Argentina, for example, an educational website called “Seguimos Educando” has been created for students at all levels of schooling ( Argentine Ministry of Education, 2021a ). Seguimos Educando uses a virtual platform that brings together television, radio, and print media to provide educational support to students. In addition, a variety of digital technologies (with a description and download links) were created and published for students ( Argentine Ministry of Education, 2021b ). Collections of digital teaching materials and resources for students, organized by grade level, have been published through this platform ( Argentine Ministry of Education, 2021c ).

Austria is another country that has implemented effective distance education practices. For this, a specialized section for students, teachers, and parents has been created on the website of the Ministry of Education, which contains up-to-date information on the implementation of distance learning during the pandemic ( BMBWF, 2021 ). The Austrian Ministry of Education has developed the Eduthek content platform, which includes educational materials for learners of all ages. To improve the effectiveness of online education, a portal for distance learning services has been developed in this country. The provision of consulting services organized by the Austrian government for all participants in the educational environment deserves special attention. In another country, distance education is based on the use of educational television and broadcasting educational technologies through the YouTube channel in Brazil ( YouTube, 2021 ). An educational online platform “AULA EM CASA” has also been designed to answer the need to shift training to the online mode.

Since March 2020, a digital learning system has been implemented in the territory of Bulgaria, which provides information and methodological support for all students. The country has also created a National Electronic Library (electronic content repository), which publishes materials from expert teachers on their activities in the digital environment. Education in schools is carried out on the Microsoft Teams platform ( Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Bulgaria, 2020 ).

The experiences of distance learning in the United Kingdom indicate that the country has carried out large-scale work not only to create innovative technologies for teaching practice but also to implement a reform to the school system. In addition to the educational platforms, the country is constantly monitoring the implementation of the child’s rights in education (control and supervision of the activities of mobile operators, control of Internet providers, collection of information about the operation of online platforms) ( Find Government Services and Information GOV.UK, 2020 ; National Literacy Trust, 2020 ).

A specialized platform Aptus has been developed in Chile, on which digital resources are collected to provide distance learning (video lectures, assessment, and monitoring system) ( Aptus Potenciadora Educacional, 2020 ). China has created and operated a national state educational online platform with total coverage of more than 180 million students and support for 7,000 servers ( China National Online Education Platform, 2020 ). Colombia has created Aprender digital, a digital platform of the Ministry of Education, with over 80,000 digital learning resources, organized by grades in various forms (games, videos, etc.), available to teachers, principals, and other stakeholders in the educational process, covering preschool, primary and secondary school education ( RTVC y Ministerio de Educación Nacional, 2020 ). For families who do not have access to the Internet, the government has developed a homeschooling kit. Also, in the territory of the country, educational programs are broadcast on state radio and television for primary and secondary school students. In Croatia, students can access digital content through the portal “Skolaza Zivot” ( Ministry of Science and Education of The Republic of Croatia, 2020 ). Instruction in educational institutions is carried out using platforms: Loomen, Microsoft Teams, and Yammer.

The experiences of the Czech Republic have included a specialized website “distance education” that was designed for implementing distance learning ( Specialized website “Distance education”, 2020 ). The developed platform includes a wide range of opportunities for the realization and support of online learning: digital content for students, a list of links to digital educational resources, practical advice for teachers and parents with detailed video instructions, training webinars, and masterclasses, etc. In France, the epidemiological situation prompted the creation of the online portal Ma classe à la Maison by the National Center for Distance Education (CNED) ( Ministre de l’Education Nationale de la Jeunesse et des Sports, 2020 ). The online portal Ma classe à la Maison is not only a set of educational resources but also an “educational device,” the architecture and structure of which are aimed at helping the student in mastering new educational material. The technical and methodological support of the online portal is carried out by the CNED service, which increases the effectiveness of the educational activities of the teacher. In addition, educational content is hosted in digital work environments: “Environment Numérique de travail”–ENT; EcoleDirecte, ProNote, etc.–internal school networks (intranets). In addition, television, and radio broadcasting facilities (France Télévisions, Radio France, Arte, and National Education) are included in the educational process to expand learning opportunities in France. The resources are available through podcasts, streaming, or playback on national websites and platforms.

The experience of implementing distance learning in Italy also testifies to the development and creation of new educational resources and online platforms ( Ministero dell’IstruzioneMinistero dell’Università e della Ricerca, 2020 ). Italy has also created the platform of the National Institute for Documentary, Innovative and Educational Research (INDIRE), aimed at providing methodological support for teachers in the development of information technology ( INDIRE, 2020 ). National television and radio broadcasting programs have been used to implement online educational activities in Italy. Great importance in the country’s education system has been given to pedagogical training and the continuity of distance learning practices [La Scuola per la Scuola community; Next-Level Association; ITE Tosi; Institute of Educational Technologies (ITD) of the National Research Council].

In Spain, the INTEF educational platform has been created to ensure the online educational process, which includes more than 100 thousand educational resources in various Procomún formats ( INTEF, 2021 ); the educational portal Educlan for professional adaptation of teachers to the distance learning mode ( EDUCLAN, 2020 ). Distance education in the United States varies from state to state. For example, in South Carolina, the online state program VirtualSC has been developed ( VirtualSC, 2020 ). North Carolina has an online collection of resources and best educational practices ( North Carolina Remote Learning Resources, 2020 ). Mainly e-mail, Zoom, and Google Meet have been used as communication tools between teacher and student.

In India, educational portals were used to implement distance learning portal “DIKSHA” ( DIKSHA, 2020 ); “E-Pathshala” ( NCERT, 2020 ); the portal of the National Repository of Open Educational Resources “NROER” ( NROER, 2020 ); Swayam Prabha ( Swayam Prabha, 2020 ). In Indonesia, distance education is supported by the educational television “Televisi Pendidikan Indonesia” ( Televisi Pendidikan Indonesia, 2020 ). The platform “Rumah Belajar” ( Rumah Belajar, 2020 ) provides a learning management system, digital lesson delivery, e-textbooks, and assessment tools. Other educational platforms included Google Suite Education, Smart Class, Microsoft Teams, Quipper School, Sekolahmu, and Kelas Pintar.

In Jamaica, educational materials have been prepared for students who do not have the opportunity to access the internet. TV lessons and transmissions are included in the educational process (for example, “School is not OUT” on the TJ Live channel). Also, access has been provided to digital educational resources (One on One Educational Services, Cheetah, Book Fusion, Edufocal, Learning Hub, CSEC COVID-19 Toolkit, etc.).

There are four main platforms for educational programs and resources for students in Kenya for organizing distance education: Kenya Broadcasting Corporation “KBC” ( Kenya Broadcasting Corporation, 2020 ); educational television programs are broadcast on Edu channel TV; KICD EduTV in Kenya on YouTube channel; Kenyan Education Cloud-hosted and supervised by KICD ( Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development, 2020 ). To overcome the lack of Internet connectivity, Kenyan authorities have launched a program to use the Loon Google stratospheric balloon network with 4G LTE base stations ( Loon Google Stratospheric Balloon Program, 2020 ). In Mexico, distance education “telesecundaria” has been used since 1968, and this state has not had particular difficulties in switching to online education due to the pandemic ( Gobierno de México, 2021 ).

The presented international experience in organizing distance education, regardless of the level of economic development and experience in implementing the country’s information technologies, allows us to conclude that all countries have made many efforts to maintain the educational process and offer online learning.

Experiences in Organizing Online Education in Russia

Across the Russian Federation, as well as in foreign countries around the world, a set of measures was carried out aimed at organizing activities for the transition of the education system to the online format. Large-scale research and monitoring, revealing the specifics of organized measures, were carried out both by the scientific community and by representatives of state authorities. For example, the HSE Laboratory of Media Communications in Education studied the experience of teachers who were in transition to distance learning ( HSE University, 2020 ). More than 22 thousand teachers from 73 territorial entities of the Russian Federation did participate in the study. Four main problems were determined in the analyses. These are difficulties in giving lessons via video communication; lack of practice in the use of online resources; technical difficulties and organizational difficulties. The study concluded that, despite the indicated difficulties, all teachers quickly mastered the required digital skills and successfully adapted to the new form of teaching. This finding is reflected in the UNESCO report on the progress of distance learning during the pandemic ( UNESCO, 2020 ).

The People’s Foundation conducted a study whose results showed that more than 80% of teachers faced organizational, technical, and adjustment difficulties in implementing distance education. Among the students’ problems, teachers mentioned the lack of necessary equipment for online learning ( via computers, tablets, phones) and problems with Internet connection ( Vachkova et al., 2022 ). The study of students’ and parents’ opinions on distance education was the subject of a study conducted by experts from the project PF “Equal Opportunities for Children” and the National Education Resources Foundation. The results of their analysis showed that the overwhelming majority of both school children and parents do not want to replace offline learning with a distance form. More than 80% of respondents (children and parents) also reported technical difficulties, slow internet connection speed, and deficiencies in educational platforms and resources.

The analysis of the results of the transition to distance education was conducted by Moscow State Pedagogical College, HSE Institute of Education ( Adamovich et al., 2020 ), and their international partners, Research Center for the Socialization and Personalization of Children’s Education at FIRO RANEPA ( Tarasova et al., 2020 ), NAFI Analytical Center, etc. The results of these studies confirm that, in general, the Russian education system has coped well with the transition to online mode. However, many teachers have found that the transition to distance education has caused a different range of problems that require additional effort. Therefore, the present study aims to understand the difficulties of distance education faced by higher education students during the pandemic. We also aimed to understand the accessibility, educational resources, applications, and distance education technologies in higher education during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Research Methods

Since this study is empirical research to understand the difficulties of distance education faced by higher education students during the pandemic, an exploratory and descriptive case study approach was used. In-depth interviews were the main data collection tool. Case study research is appropriate for the acquisition of an in-depth understanding of the behavior and experiences of individual participants in a natural setting ( Patton, 2002 ).

A large-scale socio-psychological study among students from Moscow universities was carried out to study the problems of accessibility, educational resources, applications, and distance educational technologies during the pandemic. The research included in-depth interviews of the participants voluntarily. An unstructured interview was conducted with students according to a previously prepared script (guide) with audio recording. The interviews were conducted by researchers with training in the interview process. Interviews averaged 20 min in length. Interviews were recorded with the participants’ permission. All the interviews were transcribed and reviewed by researchers. To collect the data for the present study, necessary approval procedures were received by the Moscow City University, which enrolled the participants in this study. This research was conducted under the approval of the Moscow City University institutional review board.

The developed script of the interviews, which provided the possibility of subsequent use of qualitative analysis of the processing of the data, served as a toolkit. When developing the interview guides, various types and forms of questions were used to determine general and specific problems in the accessibility, educational resources, applications, distance learning technologies, as well as their satisfaction with the services provided to them. To analyze the data gathered from the interviews, we used open-ended coding methods as suggested by Strauss and Corbin (1990) . A total number of 160 students from various Moscow universities were involved in the interviews. The participants’ demographic information is given in Table 1 . The participants were a convenience sample of higher education students who enrolled at the universities during the pandemic in Russia. All participants ranged in age from 18 to 27 ( M = 20.5, S.D. = 1.2). The key criterion was that all participants had to be higher education students. The participants were involved in the study voluntarily. The male to female ratio was 92–68. All of the participants were predominantly white people. Permission to conduct the study was granted by the Research Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Education of the Moscow City University. Before beginning the interviews with the participants, they were informed about the purpose of the study so that they participated knowingly, and their confidentiality and anonymity were assured. The interviews were conducted between February 1, 2021 and June 1, 2021. The organizational platform of the online research was the Zoom service.

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Table 1. Participants’ demographic information for the study ( n = 160).

In our study, responses from the interviews were used only to understand the difficulties of distance education faced by higher education students during the pandemic, and no statistical analysis was performed on the results. Since the data obtained from the interviews provide an in-depth understanding of the difficulties of distance education faced by higher education students during the pandemic, no other data sources were not included in the study.

In the data analysis, qualitative content analysis was conducted by researchers. For the analyses, all of the researchers read the transcripts. Later, the researchers began to code the transcripts. While doing this coding, researchers determined codes and themes that emerged from the data. The transcripts were constantly compared to see what patterns or themes emerged in the interview data. The coding of data into themes was conducted independently by two researchers. After this coding, two researchers met and compared their codes. When there was no consensus on codes, researchers discusses their coding and reached a consensus on the coding.

Trustworthiness in this study was ensured by using triangulation and member-checking methods. The triangulation aims to evaluate the accuracy of the data ( Merriam, 1998 ). For the triangulation, the authors sought to obtain rich data to answer the research question. Another method, member checking was used to reduce the impact of subjective bias ( Patton, 2002 ). For this procedure, the researchers distributed the analyzed themes from the interviews to the participants and asked them about the accuracy of the data.

In our results regarding the organizational conditions for distance learning, all students (160 people) emphasized the low technical readiness of electronic platforms and applications (Zoom, Teams), as well as the quality of these electronic resources on the Internet. The students indicated that the quality of courses did completely depend on the work of these electronic resources. Sample quotations from students’ are as follows: “We just flew out of Zoom, for example, and the screen darkened,” “The teachers were hard to hear and everything was always freezing,” “Problems emerged with connection and it was not clear what the lecturer was saying, I had to ask again.”

- In addition, 16 students out of 160 respondents reported cyber threats (attacks) while studying online. For example, “Hackers wrote. Someone wrote obscene phrases passing himself off as other students. We had a lot of such things. felt sorry for the teachers.”

- Almost all students, except for students living in a residence hall, mentioned the presence of their home workspace for distance learning. It was difficult for these students to organize their attendance in distance classes. All students had technical tools (computer/laptop/tablet/phone) for distance learning. However, most of the students (121 out of 160) generally preferred to use a tablet or phone rather than a computer. The following quotations for these results are: “Using the phone is more convenient and more mobile,” “You can walk around the house with it,” “You can attend to your business,” “You can stay in bed and turn on a lecture on the phone,” “You can turn on the lecture on the phone and at the same time do your homework on the computer.”

- Regarding the involvement of students in distance learning technologies, the participants expressed the following quotations: “At the beginning of the distance learning format it was interesting, and then it became terribly boring,” “Interactive activity was interesting, but not all lecturers bother with it,” “It was difficult to understand the subject and master the information. The poor quality of the Internet service always forced us to revise the material,” “Everything was easy and standard,” “It was just our duty to study remotely,” and “I kept on studying. There was no particular interest.”

- These listed judgments allow us to conclude that all students consider the transition to distance learning as a requirement for teaching. Students showed their interest in this form only at the beginning of self-isolation and explained it by the possibility of not attending a university. However, after the lapse of time, this interest was flagged. In addition, a negligent attitude toward online classes has appeared.

- As part of the study of student’s assessment of the quality of the provision of training courses, additional education during the period of distance learning and its impact on the quality of educational results, study load, contradictory data were obtained. Some students (89 out of 160 children) mentioned that the transition to distance learning has nothing to do with the quality of mastering academic disciplines and everything depends only on the student himself. Others, on the contrary, emphasized the importance of face-to-face education and the decline in learning outcomes due to the transition of classes to distance learning (71 out of 160). It is worth noting that the conclusions obtained on this block of questions do not find any relationship with the category of students but depend on individual personality traits (locus of control, level of development of the emotional-volitional sphere, the intellectual level of development, character traits, temperament, etc.).

- As part of the study, on the attitude of students to the future opportunities and directions of development of distance learning, 71 out of 160 students expressed negative attitudes. For example, among the students’ judgments about the future of distance learning, the following judgments were recorded: “I would rather keep attending classes at university. It is impossible to study at home. Home is not for learning,” “There must be no distance learning. There is no control. Nobody learns. Everyone goes about his business,” “I became more independent during my online studies,” “Everything is clear at university. The lecturer when he explains the material, you can ask, and he will explain everything. This cannot be done online,” and many others.

- However, 89 out of 160 students emphasized the importance of combining distance learning and the traditional form in the future: “It is advisable to combine distance learning and university studies. Some lectures can be missed,” “A 50% to 50% form would be ideal,” “Distance learning is more mobile and more rational. Why, under compulsion, attend classes that are not interesting and unnecessary”?

- The data obtained indicate that students of higher educational institutions in the city of Moscow have a more negative attitude to distance learning. However, despite their attitude, most students believe that the optimal form of training lies in a hybrid form. Students believe that only by combining distance learning online and full-time format, effective learning outcomes be possible. One hundred and twenty-nine students out of 160 said that “In our group, basically all students work, and it would be great if the attendance was not considered when assessing the student’s academic performance,” “I work and it is very difficult for me to get to the university physically by a certain time, but I’m fine I learn the material online. I am for online courses,” “There are subjects, for example, “of general orientation,” which can be changed over to an online format. The quality of education would only benefit from this,” “A hybrid form means new opportunities! It is cool and great.”

The purpose of this study was to explore the results of a socio-psychological study to understand the problems of accessibility, educational resources, applications, and distance educational technologies in higher education during the pandemic. Our results revealed that nearly all higher education students (160 people) did emphasize that they had problems with the low technical readiness of electronic platforms and applications (such as Zoom and Teams), as well as the quality of these electronic resources on the Internet in general. These results are consistent with those of studies conducted in other countries ( Leontyeva, 2018 ; Devkota, 2021 ; Lakshman Naik et al., 2021 ; Nsengimana et al., 2021 ; Zapata-Garibay et al., 2021 ). In general, many studies ( Leontyeva, 2018 ; Devkota, 2021 ; Lakshman Naik et al., 2021 ; Nsengimana et al., 2021 ; Zapata-Garibay et al., 2021 ) reported that the students in the higher education level had some problems regarding technical equipment, the quality of internet, and applications for distance education during the pandemic. The reason for these problems may be that the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic was at an unexpected time. Therefore, institutions, scholars, and students were not prepared for this pandemic and knowledgeable about what they would encounter in the pandemic. Because of this reason, the unpreparedness of all stakeholders including scholars, students, and universities for the pandemic can be explained as the reason for this result.

Another finding is that all students had technical tools such as computers, laptops, tablets, and phones for distance learning. However, the majority of the students (121 out of 160) generally did prefer to use a tablet or a phone for their internet connection rather than a computer. These results show that the use of tablets or phone is very common in higher education. Another point from this result is that most of the students had an opportunity to connect lessons in distance education. This result is parallel to those of Zapata-Garibay et al. (2021) . However, the same result contradicts the study of Rahiem (2020) who reported that university students in Indonesia had many deficiencies and inequities in finding a device to connect distance education lessons.

The results also revealed that more than half of the students (89 out of 160 children) indicated that the transition to distance learning has nothing to do with the quality of mastering academic disciplines and everything depends only on the student himself. This result is very similar to the findings of Lischer et al. (2021) who reported the experiences of the undergraduate student with coping with the challenges to their teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic in Switzerland. The study of Lischer et al. (2021) revealed that undergraduate students considered discussions in distance education as boring than in face-to-face teaching. From this perspective, the reason behind our results may be that distance education is not well-organized and/or implemented for the satisfaction of the students.

In addition, nearly half of the students in this study (71 out of 160 students) expressed negative attitudes to distance learning. This result is interesting for distance education during the COVID-19 pandemic. The reason for this result may be that, in general, the students were passive throughout lessons in distance education. This result is consistent with a recent study by Supriya et al. (2021) that shows that students perceived several negative impacts of the transition to remote learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. In particular, these negative impacts were “… particularly on students’ perceived understanding of course content, interactions with other students and instructors, feeling like a part of the biology community at the university, and career preparation .” ( Supriya et al., 2021 , p. 10). As a result of this situation, students may have been boring during the teaching. Therefore, they might consider that lessons in distance education were more sluggish than face-to-face teaching. Another reason may be that poorly prepared lessons and the deficiencies in distance teaching may have caused this result. From this perspective, it can be concluded that face-to-face classes are a substitute for teaching in higher education.

Finally, nearly more than half of the students (89 out of 160 students) indicated the importance of combining distance learning and the traditional form in the future. This result is parallel to the comments of Lischer et al. (2021) . As it is well-known, institutions in various countries consider combining distance teaching and face-to-face learning from the beginning of the pandemic. This result may stem from the positive effects of active learning during face-to-face teaching. A recent study by Deslauriers et al. (2019) found that students who received active instruction had higher scores in the assessment. Based on our findings, it is important to combine distance and face-to-face teaching to overcome the deficiencies and inequities of distance learning during the pandemic. Based on the literature, there has been an effort to combine distance and face-to-face teaching in a hybrid form of teaching ( Lischer et al., 2021 ; Temsah et al., 2021b ).

The results obtained from this study showed that all students did experience technical difficulties during distance learning such as low quality of the internet connection, failure access to online platforms due to an increased number of users, lack of necessary equipment, and individual space for online classes. The results also showed that all the students depicted distance learning as a process of a high degree of complexity in terms of organizational, methodological, organizational, and technical work. In particular, the students pointed out the low level of technical readiness for online platforms and applications (such as Zoom, Teams) and the low quality of the online resources, as well as the presence of cyber threats during online courses. Our results also revealed that most of the students (129 out of 160 students) indicated that they would prefer a hybrid format for courses when switching to face-to-face education. In addition, our findings have revealed that students consider distance education technologies highly effective and motivating them in learning subjects. Namely, students believe that effective results of educational activities will be increased by combining distance and face-to-face education.

The COVID-19 pandemic is continuing. It is well-accepted that distance education is a part of teaching in higher education in the world. Because of this reason, more research is needed to examine and understand the effects of the pandemic on higher education. This study investigated the problems in the implementation of distance education in one country. Future studies should be conducted to explore the problems while implementing distance education in different countries so that differences and similarities between different countries may be revealed from these studies.

Limitations

One of the limitations of our study is the small number of participants. Our participants were students who enrolled at universities in Moscow city. It should be noted that the histories and experiences of this group in Russia are different from other students in other places of the world. Another limitation is that we used only interviews to understand the change and challenges in higher education during the pandemic. However, we agree that different data collections could be included in assessing the effects of the pandemic among higher education students. Future studies should consist of different data collection tools to obtain detailed data. Another limitation is that the data were based on the Russian higher education student’s views of the problems in distance teaching during the pandemic. We need to emphasize that the results of this research are not generalizable to the country’s situation in higher education.

Data Availability Statement

The original contributions presented in the study are included in the article/supplementary material, further inquiries can be directed to the corresponding author.

Author Contributions

All authors listed have made a substantial, direct, and intellectual contribution to the work, and approved it for publication.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Publisher’s Note

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

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Keywords : distance learning, pandemic, COVID-19, the system of higher professional education, digital platforms

Citation: Salakhova VB, Shukshina LV, Belyakova NV, Kidinov AV, Morozova NS and Osipova NV (2022) The Problems of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Higher Education. Front. Educ. 7:803700. doi: 10.3389/feduc.2022.803700

Received: 28 October 2021; Accepted: 22 April 2022; Published: 16 May 2022.

Reviewed by:

Copyright © 2022 Salakhova, Shukshina, Belyakova, Kidinov, Morozova and Osipova. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) . The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

*Correspondence: Valentina B. Salakhova, [email protected]

† ORCID: Valentina B. Salakhova, orcid.org/0000-0002-5056-6518 ; Liudmila V. Shukshina, orcid.org/0000-0002-9378-6633 ; Natalia V. Belyakova, orcid.org/0000-0001-7116-9389 ; Alexey V. Kidinov, orcid.org/0000-0002-1826-208X ; Natalia S. Morozova, orcid.org/0000-0002-6453-1615 ; Natalia V. Osipova, orcid.org/0000-0002-9757-8057

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Digital Transformation of Education in the Covid-19 Process and its Psychological Effects on Children

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Rainstorms impacts on water, sediment, and trace elements loads in an urbanized catchment within Moscow city: case study of summer 2020 and 2021

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  • Sergey Chalov   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-6937-7020 1 , 2 ,
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  • Vsevolod Moreido 1 , 3 ,
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In 2020 and 2021, the city of Moscow, Russia, has experienced two historical rainfall events that had caused major flooding of small rivers. Based on long-term observation datasets from the surrounding weather stations, regional mesoscale COSMO-CLM climate model results, and a detailed hydrological and water quality monitoring data, we performed a pioneer assessment of climate change and urbanization impact on flooding hazard and water quality of the urban Setun River as a case study. Statistically significant rise of some moderate ETCCDI climate change indices (R20mm and R95pTOT) was revealed for the 1966–2020 period, while no significant trends were observed for more extreme indices. The combined impact of climate change and increased urbanization is highly non-linear and results in as much as a fourfold increase in frequency of extreme floods and shift of water regime features which lead to formation of specific seasonal flow patterns. The rainstorm flood wave response time, involving infiltrated and hillslope-routed fraction of rainfall, is accounted as 6 to 11 h, which is more than twice as rapid as compared to the non-urbanized nearby catchments. Based on temporal trends before and after rainfall flood peak, four groups of dissolved chemicals were identified: soluble elements whose concentrations decrease with an increase in water discharge; mostly insoluble and well-sorted elements whose concentrations increase with discharge (Mn, Cs, Cd, Al); elements negatively related to water discharge during flood events (Li, B, Cr, As, Br and Sr); and a wide range of dissolved elements (Cu, Zn, Mo, Sn, Pb, Ba, La, Cs, U) which concentrations remain stable during rainfall floods. Our study identifies that lack of research focused on the combined impacts of climate change and urbanization on flooding and water quality in the Moscow urban area is a key problem in water management advances.

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Field studies were supported by Russian Science Foundation project 19–77-30004. The analytical experiments were done under Ministry of Science and Higher Education of Russian Federation project 075–15-2021–574. COSMO-CLM model setup is a part of RFBR project 21–55-53039. The methodology of this study is developed under the Interdisciplinary Scientific and Educational School of Lomonosov Moscow State University «Future Planet and Global Environmental Change» and Kazan Federal University Strategic Academic Leadership Program (“PRIORITY-2030”). The research is carried out using the equipment of the shared research facilities of HPC computing resources at Lomonosov Moscow State University. Streamflow patterns analysis was carried out under Governmental Order to Water Problems Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, subject no. FMWZ-2022–0003, project 3.7.

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Chalov, S., Platonov, V., Erina, O. et al. Rainstorms impacts on water, sediment, and trace elements loads in an urbanized catchment within Moscow city: case study of summer 2020 and 2021. Theor Appl Climatol 151 , 871–889 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-022-04298-9

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What university in moscow is listed in most university rankings, what university in moscow is best ranked for studying business, what university in moscow is best ranked for studying languages & literature, what university in moscow is best ranked for studying natural sciences, what university in moscow is best ranked for studying mathematics, what university in moscow is best ranked for studying education, what university in moscow is best ranked for studying social studies & humanities, what university in moscow is best ranked for studying engineering, what university in moscow is best ranked for studying law, what university in moscow is best ranked for studying computer science, what university in moscow is best ranked for studying medicine & health, what university in moscow is best ranked for studying agriculture, ranking publishers, british quacquarelli symonds, uk, qs world university rankings  (published: 27 june, 2023).

Academic Reputation 40% Employer Reputation 10% Faculty/Student Ratio 20% Citations per faculty 20% International Faculty Ratio 5% International Student Ratio 5%

view methodology

QS Employability Rankings  (Published: 23 September, 2021)

Employer reputation 30% Alumni outcomes 25% Partnerships with Employers per Faculty 25% Employer/Student Connections 10% Graduate employment rate 10%

QS 50 under 50  (Published: 24 June, 2020)

Based on the QS World University rankings methodology, the top 50 universities that are under 50 years old.

QS University Rankings: EECA Emerging Europe & Central Asia  (Published: 15 December, 2021)

Academic reputation 30% Employer reputation 20% Faculty/student ratio 10% Papers per faculty 10% International research network 10%

QS University Rankings BRICS  (Published: 06 May, 2019)

Academic reputation 30% Employer reputation 20% Faculty/student ratio 20% Staff with a PhD 10% Papers per faculty 10%

QS World University Rankings: Sustainability  (Published: 26 October, 2022)

Cwur center for world university rankings, cwur center for world university rankings  (published: 25 april, 2022).

Research Performance: 40%

  • Research Output: 10%
  • High-Quality Publications: 10%
  • Influence: 10%
  • Citations: 10%

Quality of Education: 25%

Alumni Employment: 25%

Quality of Faculty: 10%

Centre for Science and Technology Studies, Leiden University, Netherlands

Cwts leiden ranking  (published: 22 june, 2022).

Scientific Impact Number of Publications Collaboration Open Access Gender Diversity

NTU ranking

Ntu performance ranking of scientific papers  (published: 11 july, 2023).

Research Productivity: 25%

  • # Articles last 11 years: 10%
  • # Articles current year: 15%

Research Impact: 35%

  • # Citations last 11 years: 15%
  • # Citations last 2 years: 10%
  • Average # citations last 11 years: 10%

Research Excellence: 40%

  • H-index last 2 years: 10%
  • # Highly cited papers last 11 years: 15%
  • # Articles current year in high-impact journals: 15%

Nature Index

Nature index - young universities  (published: 08 december, 2021), rur ranking agency (moscow, russia), rur world university rankings  (published: 25 may, 2023).

Teaching: 40%

  • Ratio Faculty/Student: 8%
  • Ratio Faculty/Bachelor Degrees Awarded: 8%
  • Ratio Faculty/Doctoral Degrees Awarded: 8%
  • Ratio Doctoral Degrees Awarded/Bachelor Degrees Awarded: 8%
  • World Teaching Reputation: 8%

Research: 40%

  • Citations per Academic/Research Staff: 8%
  • Doctoral Degrees per Accepted PhD: 8%
  • Normalized Citation Impact: 8%
  • Papers per Academic/Research Staff: 8%
  • World Research Reputation: 8%

International Diversity: 10%

  • International Faculty: 2%
  • International Students: 2%
  • International Co-Authored Papers: 2%
  • Reputation Outside Geographical Region: 2%
  • International Level: 2%

Financial Sustainability: 10%

  • Institutional Income per Faculty: 2%
  • Institutional Income per Student: 2%
  • Papers per Research Income: 2%
  • Research Income per Academic/Research Staff: 2%
  • Research Income per Institutional Income: 2%

RUR Academic Rankings  (Published: 25 May, 2023)

Normalized citation impact (Citations of research publications from all university authors compared with world averages) 20% Citation per papers 20% Papers per academic and research staff 20% International research reputation 20% Share of research publications written in international co-authorship 20%

RUR Reputation Ranking  (Published: 25 May, 2023)

Teaching Reputation 50% Research Reputation 50%

Scimago Institutions

Scimago institutions rankings  (published: 06 march, 2023).

Research 50% Innovation 30% Societal 20%

ShanghaiRanking Consultancy

Arwu academic ranking of world universities - shanghairanking  (published: 15 august, 2023).

Quality of Education 10%

  • Alumni winning Nobel Prizes/Field Medals 10%

Quality of Faculty 40%

  • Staff winning Nobel Prizes/Field Medals 20%
  • Highly Cited Researchers 20%

Research Output 40%

  • Papers published in Nature and Science 20%
  • Papers indexed in Science Citation Index-Expanded & Social Science Citation Index 20%

Per Capita Performance 10%

THE Times Higher Education, UK

The world university rankings  (published: 27 september, 2023).

30% Teaching (the Learning Environment)

  • Reputation survey: 15%
  • Staff-to-student ratio: 4.5%
  • Doctorate-to-bachelor’s ratio: 2.25%
  • Doctorates-awarded-to-academic-staff ratio: 6%
  • Institutional income: 2.25%

30% Research (Volume, Income and Reputation)

  • Reputation survey: 18%
  • Research income: 6%
  • Research productivity: 6%

30% Citations (Research Influence)

7.5% International Outlook (Staff, Students and Research)

  • Proportion of international students: 2.5%
  • Proportion of international staff: 2.5%
  • International collaboration: 2.5%

2.5% Industry Income (Knowledge Transfer)"

THE World Reputation Rankings  (Published: 16 November, 2022)

Research Reputation 66,6% Teaching Reputation 33,3%

THE Emerging Economies University Ranking - Times Higher Education  (Published: 19 October, 2021)

Teaching 30% Research (volume, income and reputation) 30% Citations 20% International outlook (staff, students, research) 10% Industry income (knowledge transfer) 10%

THE Young University Rankings  (Published: 03 July, 2023)

Teaching 30% Research (volume, income and reputation) 30% Citations 30% International outlook (staff, students, research) 7.5% Industry income (knowledge transfer) 2.5%

THE World University Impact Rankings - Overall  (Published: 01 June, 2023)

The china subject ratings overall  (published: 11 may, 2022), urap world ranking - university ranking by academic performance  (published: 28 november, 2022), us news: best global universities  (published: 24 october, 2022), webometrics, webometrics ranking web of universities  (published: 31 july, 2023).

Visibility 50% Excellence 35% Transparency 10% Presence 5%

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Ukrainian Drones Target Moscow and a Russian Border Region, Officials Say

Drone attacks in Russian territory have become more frequent as Ukraine wages a grueling counteroffensive.

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In a close-up of a building, a person is seen through a missing window at the corner of the building. Windows around it are shattered.

By Victoria Kim and Valeriya Safronova

  • Aug. 23, 2023

Russian officials said Ukrainian forces dropped explosives on a Russian village near the border with Ukraine, killing three, and targeted Moscow with drones for a sixth consecutive day on Wednesday.

The attacks appeared to be the latest in a Ukrainian campaign to bring the war to Russia’s citizens across their border.

Drone attacks deep in Russian territory have become more frequent as Ukraine wages a counteroffensive, which has been bogged down by what U.S. and other Western officials say is a misallocation of troops.

In the Russian capital, drones damaged a building under construction in a gleaming skyscraper complex known as Moscow City, which has been hit at least three times in the past month.

The deadly assault on Lavy , a village in the Belgorod region near the border with Ukraine, was the latest in near-daily attacks on the area that have killed at least six others this summer, according to Russian officials. Since Moscow launched its full-scale invasion almost 18 months ago, Ukrainian forces have regularly fired on villages in the region , according to the regional governor, Vyacheslav Gladkov.

The claims have not been independently verified.

Two other drones were shot down early Wednesday in suburban districts of the Moscow region, the Russian Defense Ministry said on the messaging app Telegram. According to the ministry, the drone that struck Moscow City was electronically jammed and lost control before crashing into the building.

Ukrainian officials did not immediately comment on the episodes, as has been their practice on attacks inside Russia. Asked about the attacks, a representative for the U.S. State Department said that it didn’t encourage them but that “it’s up to Ukraine to decide how to defend itself.”

“Russia started this unprovoked war against Ukraine,” the representative said. “Russia could end it at any time by withdrawing its forces from Ukraine instead of launching brutal attacks against Ukraine’s cities and people every day.”

The stepped-up attacks near the center of power in Moscow have been seen as an attempt to bring the war in Ukraine home to Russia and its citizens. The drone attacks in the Moscow region have not caused injuries or deaths, according to Russian officials.

Built mostly during President Vladimir V. Putin’s time in power, Moscow City has been held up as a symbol of the modernization of Russia’s economy. It houses government ministries as well as finance and tech companies.

Russia’s Federal Agency for Air Transport said that air traffic had been temporarily halted Wednesday morning at nearby airports for safety reasons and that at least two flights had been diverted.

Also early on Wednesday, Russian forces attacked the southern part of Ukraine’s Odesa region with drones, damaging shipping facilities including granaries, according to the regional Ukrainian military administration. Russia has for weeks been targeting Ukraine’s grain export infrastructure after pulling out of the internationally brokered Black Sea grain deal in July. The claims had not been independently verified.

Juston Jones and Edward Wong contributed reporting.

Victoria Kim is a correspondent based in Seoul, focused on international breaking news coverage. More about Victoria Kim

Our Coverage of the War in Ukraine

News and Analysis

Ukrainian authorities said that a Russian missile attack on Odesa had killed at least 16 people and had injured 55 others , the latest in a series of deadly air assaults on the southern Ukrainian port city.

Chancellor Olaf Scholz of Germany and President Emmanuel Macron of France met in Berlin to smooth over their differences on how to support Ukraine in its war  with Russia and to allay concerns that the Franco-German “engine of Europe” is sputtering.

With its army short of ammunition and troops to break the deadlock on the battlefield, Ukraine has increasingly taken the fight behind Russian lines, attacking oil infrastructure deep in Russian territory .

Electronic Warfare: Drones have become a critical weapon for both Russia and Ukraine. But Moscow’s capability to overpower Ukrainian signals  by broadcasting on the same frequencies at higher power is putting Kyiv at a disadvantage.

Helping the War Effort: Since the early days of the war, thousands of Ukrainian volunteers have led crowdfunding efforts that have been crucial in supplying the military with equipment. But as the conflict drags on, it is becoming harder to raise money .

Holding a Sliver of Hope: A Russian mother knows her son, a conscript, died 14 months ago in a battle in eastern Ukraine. But she is still waiting for him.

How We Verify Our Reporting

Our team of visual journalists analyzes satellite images, photographs , videos and radio transmissions  to independently confirm troop movements and other details.

We monitor and authenticate reports on social media, corroborating these with eyewitness accounts and interviews. Read more about our reporting efforts .

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COMMENTS

  1. PDF Education Funding: Technical Paper 2022-23

    Technical Paper 2022-23, March 2022 7 . Introduction . Purpose . This paper contains an overview and details of the grant formulas and other criteria for education funding through the Grants for Student Needs (GSN) that are used to calculate school boards' 2022-23 allocations for budgeting and financial reporting purposes.

  2. Education funding, 2022-23

    Addendum to the 2022-23 technical paper: education funding modifications for isolate board school authorities. In Ontario, there are four isolate board school authorities which require modified funding formulas due to their unique circumstances, including the remoteness of their locations and that each isolate board operates only one school. ...

  3. Education Funding : Technical Paper, 2022-23

    Family Law Education for Women (FLEW) Neighbours Friends & Families; Consumer Protection Brochures; Road Safety Materials; Species at Risk; Ontario Parks Store; MEDJCT Publications; It Starts with You. It Stays With Him. Draw The Line; Employment Standards; Health & Physical Education Curriculum; EarlyON Child and Family Centre; Occupational ...

  4. Education funding, 2023-24

    Technical paper. The Technical paper 2023-24 contains: an overview of the grant formulas; the details of the grant formulas; other criteria for education funding through the Grants for Student Needs (GSN)These are used to help calculate school boards' 2023-24 allocations for budgeting and financial reporting purposes.

  5. PDF 2022-23 Education Funding; A Guide to the Special Education Grant

    Education Funding: Technical Paper 2022-23. Funding entitlements for school boards can be generated on a per-pupil, per-school, or per-board basis depending on the structure of each grant within the Grants for Student Needs regulation. There are two major components of the Grants for Student Needs: • The Foundation Grants

  6. Education funding, 2021-22

    The Technical paper 2021-22 contains: an overview of the grant formulas. the details of the grant formulas. other criteria for education funding through the Grants for Student Needs ( GSN) These are used to calculate school boards' 2021-22 allocations for budgeting and financial reporting purposes. Download PDF.

  7. PDF Grants for Student Needs Projections for the 2022-23 School ...

    School Authorities. Details on how operating grants are calculated are found in the Technical Paper 2022-23, March 2022. Average Daily Enrolment . The measure of enrolment used for funding purposes is the Average Daily Enrolment (ADE) of pupils. Boards report the full-time equivalent of students enrolled at each school as of October

  8. PDF Ministry of Education

    2022-23 Estimates Forms. am writing to provide you with information about the Ministry of Education's Grants for Student Needs (GSN) funding for isolate boards for 2022-23 further to memorandum 2022:B03. 2022-23 Grants for Student Needs Funding. Details of the funding model are outlined in the Technical Paper, alongside other supporting GSN ...

  9. PDF Student Transportation Grants for Student Needs 2022-23

    For the 2022-23 school year, student transportation funding is projected to be about $1,107.4 million. The ministry is continuing the student transportation review with the goal to achieve a more effective, accountable and needs-based student transportation system. Building on the work to date, the ministry is exploring a potential funding ...

  10. PDF ETFO Submission

    The 2022 Ontario Budget signalled further cuts to education spending of $12.3 billion over the next nine years. Education as a percentage of total government expenses has fallen dramatically since the current government took office. Education funding fell from 18.3% in 2019-20 to 15.8% in 2021-22 and it is

  11. PDF ADDENDUM to the 2022-23 Technical Paper

    The 2022-23 Grants for Student Needs (GSN) Technical Paper contains details of the education funding formulas for district school boards (DSBs) and other criteria for education funding for the 2022-23 school year. There are four isolate board school authorities. 1. in the province which require modified funding formulas due to their unique ...

  12. PDF 2023-24 Education Funding Consultation Guide

    Ontario is also investing record funding for the 2022-23 school year of over $26.6 billion - the highest investment in public education in Ontario's history. This includes a $683.9 million increase in Grants for Student Needs (GSN) funding, with projected total funding of $26.1 billion. In addition, over $500 million is being provided in ...

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    In 2022-23, the least reported Indigenous education opportunity was Indigenous languages programs for both elementary (13%) and secondary schools (20%). Although they were the least reported education opportunity, the proportion of schools reporting it still increased from 2012 to 2022 (from 4% to 13% for elementary schools and from 11% to 20% ...

  14. PDF ADDENDUM to the 2023-24 Technical Paper

    The 2023-24 Education Funding Technical Paper contains details of the education funding formulas for district school boards (DSBs) and other criteria for education funding for the 2023-24 school year. There are four isolate board school authorities. 1. in the province. Funding for these isolate boards is based on the same funding formulas ...

  15. Education funding. Technical paper Latest Journal Impact IF 2022-2023

    Education funding. Technical paper Latest Journal's Impact IF 2022-2023| Trend, Prediction, Ranking & Key Factor Analysis - Academic Accelerator

  16. The Problems of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Higher Education

    Introduction. Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, one of the most pressing research topics around the world has been the introduction of distance learning and the development of online education and training (Jacques et al., 2020, 2021; Zagkos et al., 2022).All over the world, research has focused on how education is responding to the challenges of an entirely new situation in which ...

  17. PDF Education Funding

    Technical Paper 2023-24, April 2023 7 . Introduction . Purpose . This paper contains an overview and details of the grant formulas and other criteria for education funding through the Grants for Student Needs (GSN) that are used to calculate school boards' 2023-24 allocations for budgeting and financial reporting purposes.

  18. Rainstorms impacts on water, sediment, and trace elements ...

    In 2020 and 2021, the city of Moscow, Russia, has experienced two historical rainfall events that had caused major flooding of small rivers. Based on long-term observation datasets from the surrounding weather stations, regional mesoscale COSMO-CLM climate model results, and a detailed hydrological and water quality monitoring data, we performed a pioneer assessment of climate change and ...

  19. Education funding, 2019-20

    The Technical paper 2019-20 contains: an overview of the grant formulas; the details of the grant formulas; other criteria for education funding through the Grants for Student Needs (GSN) ... 2022-23; Education funding, 2021-22; Education funding, 2020-21; Updated: June 28, 2022. Published: June 28, 2022.

  20. All 69 Universities in Moscow

    QS World University Rankings. [Published 27 June, 2023] #1. #312. Scimago Institutions Rankings. [Published 06 March, 2023] Show 17 more rankings of Moscow State University M. V. Lomonosov and subject specific rankings for 10 subjects. #2.

  21. Russia Says Ukrainian Drones Targeted Moscow for a Sixth Consecutive

    Aug. 23, 2023. Russian officials said Ukrainian forces dropped explosives on a Russian village near the border with Ukraine, killing three, and targeted Moscow with drones for a sixth consecutive ...

  22. PDF Education Funding: Technical Paper 2021-22

    Technical Paper 2021-22, Spring 2021 7 . Introduction . Purpose . This paper contains an overview and details of the grant formulas and other criteria for education funding through the Grants for Student Needs (GSN) that are used to calculate school boards' 2021-22 allocations for budgeting and financial reporting purposes.

  23. PDF ADDENDUM to the 2021-22 Technical Paper

    The 2021-22 Grants for Student Needs (GSN) Technical Paper contains details of the education funding formulas for district school boards (DSBs) and other criteria for education funding for the 2021-22 school year. There are four isolate board school authorities. 1. in the province which require modified funding formulas due to their unique ...