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World history

Course: world history   >   unit 1.

  • Ancient Egypt and the Nile River Valley

Ancient Egyptian civilization

  • The Hittite Empire and the Battle of Kadesh
  • The Hittites and Ancient Anatolia
  • Ancient Egypt

essay about egypt history

  • Egyptian civilization developed along the Nile River in large part because the river’s annual flooding ensured reliable, rich soil for growing crops.
  • Repeated struggles for political control of Egypt showed the importance of the region's agricultural production and economic resources.
  • The Egyptians kept written records using a writing system known as hieroglyphics.
  • Egyptian rulers used the idea of divine kingship and constructed monumental architecture to demonstrate and maintain power.
  • Ancient Egyptians developed wide-reaching trade networks along the Nile, in the Red Sea, and in the Near East.

Early Egypt

Old kingdom egypt: 2686-2181 bce, middle kingdom: 2000-1700 bce, new kingdom: 1550-1077 bce, third intermediate period: 1069-664 bce, what do you think.

  • Why was the Nile River essential to Egyptian civilization?
  • How might a writing system like hieroglyphics have helped rulers gain and maintain political power?
  • What was one difference between common people and elites?
  • How did rulers use religion to support their positions?
  • Why do you think Egypt was invaded so frequently throughout its history?

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Good Answer

Ancient Egypt

Egypt was a vast kingdom of the ancient world. It was unified around 3100 B.C.E. and lasted as a leading economic and cultural influence throughout North Africa and parts of the Levant until it was conquered by the Macedonians in 332 B.C.E.

Anthropology, Archaeology, Social Studies, Ancient Civilizations, World History

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The world of ancient Egypt

Few civilizations have enjoyed the longevity and global cultural reach of ancient Egypt. Their distinct visual expressions, writing system, and imposing monuments are instantly recognizable by viewers all around the world even today—put simply, their branding was on point. 

Pyramid of Khafre (photo: MusikAnimal, CC BY-SA 3.0)

Pyramid of Khafre, Egypt (photo: MusikAnimal, CC BY-SA 3.0)

Despite portraying significant stability over a vast period of time, their civilization was not as static as it may appear at first glance, particularly if viewed through our modern eyes and cultural perspectives . Instead, the culture was dynamic even as it revolved around a stable core of imagery and concepts. The ancient Egyptians adjusted to new experiences, constantly adding to their complex beliefs about the divine and terrestrial realms, and how they interact. This flexibility, wrapped around a base of consistency, was part of the reason ancient Egypt survived for millennia and continues to fascinate.  

Read an introductory essay about ancient Egypt

Step Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara

Ancient Egypt: an introduction

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The Natural World of Egypt

View of the Nile River, Egypt (photo: Badics, CC BY-SA 3.0)

View of the Nile River, Egypt (photo: Badics, CC BY-SA 3.0)

With the blazing sun above, flanked by vast seas of shifting sand, and fed by the life-giving Nile River (which hid frightening creatures beneath its dark waters), the natural world of Egypt was inherently beautiful but also potentially deadly. Outside the lush river valley, there was little protection from the ever-dominant sun, whose intensity was both feared and revered. The deserts were home not only to many dangerous creatures, but the sands themselves were also unpredictable and constantly shifting. The clear night skies dazzled with millions of stars, some of which seemed to move of their own accord while others rose and fell at trackable intervals. The Nile, with its annual floods, brought fertility and renewal to the land, but could also overflow and wreak havoc on the villages that lined its banks. Careful observers of their environment, the Egyptians perceived divine forces in these phenomena and many of their deities, such as the powerful sun god Ra, were connected with elements from the natural world.

Hieroglyphs, detail from the White Chapel, Karnak (photo: Dr. Amy Calvert)

Hieroglyphs, detail from the White Chapel, Karnak (photo: Dr. Amy Calvert)

The perception of divine powers existing in the natural world was particularly true in connection with the animals that inhabited the region. There was an array of creatures that the Egyptians would have observed or interacted with on a regular basis and they feature heavily in the culture. One of the most distinctive visual attributes of Egyptian imagery is the myriad deities that were portrayed in hybrid form, with a human body and animal head. In addition, a wide range of birds, fishes, mammals, reptiles, and other creatures appear prominently in the hieroglyphic script —there are dozens of different birds alone.

Nebamun fowling in the marshes, Tomb-chapel of Nebamun, c. 1350 B.C.E., 18th Dynasty, paint on plaster, 83 x 98 cm, Thebes © Trustees of the British Museum

Nebamun fowling in the marshes, Tomb-chapel of Nebamun, c. 1350 B.C.E., 18th Dynasty, paint on plaster, 83 x 98 cm, Thebes (© Trustees of the British Museum)

The Nile was packed with numerous types of fish, which were recorded in great detail in fishing scenes that became a fixture in non-royal tombs. Most relief and painting throughout Egypt’s history was created for divine or mortuary settings and they were primarily intended to be functional. Many tomb scenes included the life-giving Nile and all it’s abundance with the goal of making that bounty available for the deceased in the afterlife. In addition to the array of fish, the river also teemed with far more dangerous animals, like crocodiles and hippopotami. Protective spells and magical gestures were used from early on to aid the Egyptians in avoiding those watery perils as they went about their daily lives.

Hunefer's Judgement in the presence of Osiris, Book of the Dead of Hunefer, 19th Dynasty, New Kingdom, c. 1275 B.C.E., papyrus, Thebes, Egypt (British Museum)

Hunefer (center) flanked by two deities: the ibis-headed Thoth (left) and the falcon-headed Horus (right), from Hunefer’s Judgement in the presence of Osiris, Book of the Dead of Hunefer, 19th Dynasty, New Kingdom, c. 1275 B.C.E., papyrus, Thebes, Egypt (British Museum)

The desert, likewise, was full of potentially dangerous creatures. Lions, leopards, jackals, cobras, and scorpions were all revered for their attributes and feared for their ferocity. Soaring above were birds of prey, like falcons who were sharp-eyed hunters, and massive vultures that consumed decaying flesh and fed it to their young. Scarab beetles also seemingly brought new life from decay and the sacred ibis with their curved beaks found sustenance hidden in the muddy banks of the Nile. All of these creatures (and many others) became closely associated with different deities very early in Egyptian history. The Egyptians did not worship animals; instead, certain animals were revered because it was believed that they were related to particular gods and thus served as earthly manifestations of those deities.

Model scene of workers ploughing a field, Middle Kingdom, late Dynasty 11 – early Dynasty, 2010–1961 B.C., wood, 54 cm (MFA Boston)

Model scene of workers ploughing a field, Middle Kingdom, late Dynasty 11, 2010–1961 B.C.E., wood, 54 cm (MFA Boston)

Even domesticated animals, such as cows, bulls, rams, and geese, became associated with deities and were viewed as vitally important. Cattle were probably the first animals to be domesticated in Egypt and domesticated cattle, donkeys, and rams appear along with wild animals on Predynastic and Early Dynastic votive objects , showing massive herds that were controlled by early rulers, demonstrating their wealth and prestige. Pastoral scenes of animal husbandry appear in numerous private tomb chapels and wooden models, providing detailed evidence of their daily practices. Herdsmen appear caring for their animals in depictions that include milking, calving, protecting the cattle as they cross the river, feeding, herding, and many other aspects of their day-to-day care.

The Battlefield Palette, c. 3100 B.C.E., mudstone, found at el-Amarna, Egypt, 19.6 x 32.8 cm (© Trustees of the British Museum)

The Battlefield Palette , c. 3100 B.C.E., mudstone, found at el-Amarna, Egypt, 19.6 x 32.8 cm (© Trustees of the British Museum)

Already in the Predynastic period the king was linked with the virile wild bull, an association that continues throughout Egyptian history—one of the primary items of royal regalia was a bull tail, which appears on a huge number of pharaonic images. An early connection between the king and lions is also apparent. One scene on a Predynastic ceremonial palette ( The Battlefield Palette), shows the triumphant king as a massive lion devouring his defeated foes. First Dynasty kings appear to have kept lion cubs as pets.

The Great Sphinx (photo: superblinkymac, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

The Great Sphinx (photo: superblinkymac, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

In addition, lions (among other animals) were associated with the burials of some early rulers. One of the most iconic images from ancient Egypt is the massive Great Sphinx at Giza, which was sculpted from the living rock of the plateau. This fused form, with the body of a lion and the head of the king, became a common visual expression of royal power. 

Historical Setting

While many of the religious and cultural characteristics of ancient Egypt were evident from very early on and continued all the way through the Roman era (contributing to overall cultural stability), sweeping conceptual developments and adoptions of external elements are also evident. Throughout ancient Egypt’s long history, periods of unified control were interspersed with moments of instability where parts of the country were controlled by different authorities. These repeated waves of political and cultural development create a decidedly complex history that  spans thousands of years.

Read essays to understand the historical setting and basic characteristics of each era

Tutankhamun’s tomb, innermost coffin, c. 1323 B.C.E., 18th Dynasty, New Kingdom, gold with inlay of enamel and semiprecious stones, found in the Valley of the Kings in 1922 (Egyptian Museum of Antiquities, Cairo)

Ancient Egyptian chronology and historical framework: an introduction

den grid

Predynastic and Early Dynastic:  an introduction

Giza plateau (photo: Ikiwaner CC BY-SA 2.0)

Old Kingdom and First Intermediate Period: an introduction

Pectoral and Necklace of Sithathoryunet with the Name of Senwosret II, Middle Kingdom, Dynasty 12, reign of Senwosret II, c. 1887–1878 B.C.E., Egypt, Fayum Entrance Area, el-Lahun (Illahun, Kahun; Ptolemais Hormos), Tomb of Sithathoryunet (BSA Tomb 8), EES 1914, Gold, carnelian, feldspar, garnet, turquoise, lapis lazuli

Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period: an introduction

Mortuary Temple and Large Kneeling Statue of Hatshepsut, c. 1479-58 B.C.E., New Kingdom, Egypt

New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period: an introduction

The Rosetta Stone, 196 B.C.E., Ptolemaic Period, 112.3 x 75.7 x 28.4 cm, Egypt © Trustees of the British Museum. Part of grey and pink granodiorite stela bearing priestly decree concerning Ptolemy V in three blocks of text: Hieroglyphic (14 lines), Demotic (32 lines) and Greek (53 lines).

Late Period and the Ptolemaic and Roman Periods: an introduction

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Social Organization

Conceptually, the Egyptian state was an absolute monarchy where the office of pharaoh itself was considered divine. The pharaoh (king) was viewed as the earthly manifestation of the god Horus, and was responsible as the supreme commander for making all decisions affecting the nation. In reality, the king stood at the head of a hierarchical administrative structure with layers of civil officials that oversaw various systems and were responsible to the king for their success. 

Seated Scribe​, c. 2500 B.C.E., c. 4th Dynasty, Old Kingdom, painted limestone with rock crystal, magnesite, and copper/arsenic inlay for the eyes and wood for the nipples, found in Saqqara

Seated Scribe​ , c. 2500 B.C.E., c. 4th Dynasty, Old Kingdom, painted limestone with rock crystal, magnesite, and copper/arsenic inlay for the eyes and wood for the nipples, found in Saqqara (photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

Most Egyptians followed the careers of their fathers and were taught by apprenticeship. Only the children of the higher classes, destined to become officials, were taught in schools and learned to read and write. Money in the modern sense did not exist in Egypt until the mid-fourth century B.C.E., so wages were usually paid in grain that could then be exchanged for copper or silver. Agriculture was the basis of the Egyptian economy and the foundation of the state, and produce was delivered to central storehouses to be administered and distributed.

Read essays about the various social strata in Egyptian society

essay about egypt history

Egyptian Social Organization: The Pharaoh

Seated Scribe

Egyptian Social Organization: Administrative officials, priests, ranks of the military, and the general population

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Art and Function

Large Kneeling Statue of Hatshepsut, c. 1479–1458 B.C.E., Dynasty 18, New Kingdom (Deir el-Bahri, Upper Egypt), granite, 261.5 x 80 x 137 cm (The Metropolitan Museum of Art)

Large Kneeling Statue of Hatshepsut , c. 1479–1458 B.C.E., Dynasty 18, New Kingdom (Deir el-Bahri, Upper Egypt), granite, 261.5 x 80 x 137 cm (The Metropolitan Museum of Art)

Egyptian art is sometimes viewed as static and abstract when compared with the more naturalistic depictions of other cultures (ancient Greece for example). Much of Egyptian imagery—especially royal imagery—was governed by decorum (a sense of what was appropriate), and remained extraordinarily consistent throughout its long history. This is why their art may appear unchanging—and this was intentional. For the ancient Egyptians, consistency was a virtue and an expression of political stability, divine balance, and clear evidence of ma’at and the correctness of their culture. The Egyptians even had a tendency, especially after periods of disunion, towards archaism where the artistic style would revert to that of the earlier Old Kingdom which was perceived as a “golden age.”

Read essays about art and function

senusret grid

Ancient Egyptian art: an introduction its function and basic characteristics

Standing Hippopotamus, ca. 1961–1878 B.C.E., Egypt, Middle Kingdom, faience, 7 7/8″ x 2 15/16″ x 4 7/16″ / 20 cm x 7.5 cm x 11.2 cm (The Metropolitan Museum of Art).

Materials and techniques in ancient Egyptian art: an introduction

Consistency and balance

Stela of the sculptor Userwer, 12th dynasty, limestone, from Egypt, 52 x 48 cm wide (© Trustees of the British Museum)

The canon of proportions grid is clearly visible in the lower, unfinished register of the Stela of Userwer, and the use of hieratic scale (where the most important figures are largest) is evident the second register that shows Userwer, his wife and his parents seated and at a larger scale than the figures offering before them. Detail of the stela of the sculptor Userwer, 12th dynasty, limestone, from Egypt, 52 x 48 cm wide (© Trustees of the British Museum)

Consistency in representation was closely related to a fundamental belief that depictions had an impact beyond the image itself. This belief led to an active resistance to changes in codified depictions. Even the way that figures were planned and laid out by the artists was codified. During the Old Kingdom, the Egyptians developed a grid system, referred to as the canon of proportions, for creating systematic figures with the same proportions. Grid lines aligned with the top of the head, top of the shoulder, waist, hips, knees, and bottom of the foot (among other body joints). 

essay about egypt history

King Menkaura (Mycerinus) and Queen, 2490–2472 B.C.E., Old Kingdom, Dynasty 4, greywacke, Menkaura Valley Temple, Giza, Egypt, 142.2 x 57.1 x 55.2 cm, 676.8 kg (Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

The grid aided the artist in ensuring that the proportions of their figures were correct, but those proportions shifted over time. For example, although 18 squares was the standard used for much of Egypt’s history, in the Amarna period 20 squares were used, resulting in figures with more elongated proportions. 

Thutmose, Model Bust of Queen Nefertiti, c. 1340 BCE, limestone and plaster, New Kingdom, 18th dynasty, Amarna Period (Egyptian Museum and Papyrus Collection/Neues Museum, Berlin)

Thutmose, Model Bust of Queen Nefertiti , c. 1340 BCE, limestone and plaster, New Kingdom, 18th dynasty, Amarna Period (Egyptian Museum and Papyrus Collection/Neues Museum, Berlin)

Below are several examples of Egyptian art that demonstrate their primary stylistic characteristics. These include:

  • the use of hierarchical scale
  • the use of registers
  • use of the canon of proportions (described above)
  • a preference for balance
  • the integration of perspectives.  

Read essays and watch videos about consistency and balance

userwer grid

Stela of the sculptor Userwer: The lower part is still covered with the grid used for ensuring that the proportions of the figures were correct.

Heads and torsos (detail), King Menkaure (Mycerinus) and queen, 2490–2472 B.C.E., greywacke, 142.2 x 57.1 x 55.2 cm (Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, photo: Steven Zucker CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

King Menkaure (Mycerinus) and queen: They both look beyond the present and into timeless eternity, their otherworldly visage displaying no human emotion whatsoever.

Thutmose, Model Bust of Queen Nefertiti, c. 1340 BCE, limestone and plaster, New Kingdom, 18th dynasty, Amarna Period (Egyptian Museum and Papyrus Collection/Neues Museum, Berlin)

Thutmose, Model Bust of Queen Nefertiti : This stunning bust exemplifies a change in style.

The Seated Scribe: This painted statue differs from the ideal statues of pharaohs.

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Creative details

Nude figure of the Seal Bearer Tjetji, 2321BC-2184BC (6th Dynasty), from Akhmim, Upper Egypt, wood; obsidian; limestone; copper, 75 cm high (© Trustees of the British Museum)

Nude figure of the Seal Bearer Tjetji, 2321 B.C.E.–2184 B.C.E. (6th Dynasty), from Akhmim, Upper Egypt, wood, obsidian, limestone, and copper, 75 cm high (© Trustees of the British Museum)

Although much Egyptian art is formal, many surviving examples of highly expressive depictions full of creative details prove that the ancient Egyptian artists were fully capable of naturalistic representations. Note, for example, the sensitive modeling of the musculature and close attention paid to realistic physical detail evident in a wood statue of a high official (the Seal Bearer Tjetji) from a Late Old Kingdom tomb. These very unusual and enigmatic statuettes of nude high officials, which are depicted in a standard pose of striding forward with left leg advanced and holding a long staff, were often painted and had eyes of inlaid stone set in copper. 

Musicians and dancers (detail), A feast for Nebamun, Tomb-chapel of Nebamun, c. 1350 B.C.E., 18th Dynasty, paint on plaster, whole fragment: 88 x 119 cm, Thebes © Trustees of the British Museum

Musicians and dancers (detail), A feast for Nebamun, Tomb-chapel of Nebamun, c. 1350 B.C.E., 18th Dynasty, paint on plaster, whole fragment: 88 x 119 cm, Thebes © Trustees of the British Museum

Nebamun’s tomb, with its spectacular paintings, includes several examples that demonstrate a careful observation of the natural world—especially notable in the energetic hunting cat and the sinuous dancing of the entertainers at the banquet. A marvelous wooden head of Queen Tiye presents a woman of strong personality with details that hint at her formidable character. 

Portrait Head of Queen Tiye with a Crown of Two Feathers

Portrait Head of Queen Tiye with a Crown of Two Feathers , c. 1355 B.C.E., Amarna Period, Dynasty 18, New Kingdom, Egypt, yew wood, lapis lazuli, silver, gold, faience, 22.5 cm high (Egyptian Museum and Papyrus Collection at the Neues Museum, Berlin)

Read essays about creative details

tjeti grid

Wooden tomb statue of Tjeti: T he sculptor of this example has carefully modeled the muscles on the torso and legs, and paid close attention to the detail of the face.

Geese (detail), Nebamun's Geese, Tomb-chapel of Nebamun, c. 1350 B.C.E., 18th Dynasty, paint on plaster, whole fragment: 71 x 115.5 cm, Thebes © Trustees of the British Museum

Paintings from the Tomb-chapel of Nebamun: He is shown hunting birds from a small boat in the marshes of the Nile with his wife Hatshepsut and their young daughter.

Portrait Head of Queen Tiye with a Crown of Two Feathers, c. 1355 B.C.E., Amarna Period, Dynasty 18, New Kingdom, Egypt, yew wood, lapis lazuli, silver, gold, faience, 22.5 cm high (Egyptian Museum and Papyrus Collection at the Neues Museum, Berlin)

Portrait Head of Queen Tiye: She was a powerful figure, but her royal life was complicated, as demonstrated through this changing statue.

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Metalworking Traditions

Scene showing the manufacture of valuable items, such as jewelry. Wall-painting, probably from the tomb of Sobekhotep, Thebes, c. 1400 B.C.E., New Kingdom, reign of Thutmose IV, painted stucco, 60 x 58.5 (© Trustees of the British Museum)

Scene showing the manufacture of valuable items, such as jewelry. Wall-painting, probably from the tomb of Sobekhotep, Thebes, c. 1400 B.C.E., New Kingdom, reign of Thutmose IV, painted stucco, 60 x 58.5 (© Trustees of the British Museum)

Egyptian artisans were highly skilled metalworkers from early times; although few metal sculptures have survived, those that are preserved show an incredible level of technical achievement. As with other types of craft, like woodworking, preserved images of artisans in their workshops found in private tombs provide information about the processes of production For instance, we can see a group of jewelers at work in a painting from the tomb of Sebekhotep.

Pectoral and Necklace of Sithathoryunet with the Name of Senwosret II, Middle Kingdom, Dynasty 12, reign of Senwosret II, c. 1887–1878 B.C.E., Egypt, Fayum Entrance Area, el-Lahun (Illahun, Kahun; Ptolemais Hormos), Tomb of Sithathoryunet (BSA Tomb 8), EES 1914, Gold, carnelian, feldspar, garnet, turquoise, lapis lazuli

Pectoral and Necklace of Sithathoryunet with the Name of Senwosret II, Middle Kingdom, Dynasty 12, reign of Senwosret II, c. 1887–1878 B.C.E., Egypt, Fayum Entrance Area, el-Lahun (Illahun, Kahun; Ptolemais Hormos), Tomb of Sithathoryunet (BSA Tomb 8), EES 1914, Gold, carnelian, feldspar, garnet, turquoise, lapis lazuli

The most beautifully crafted pieces of jewelry display elegant designs, incredible intricacy, and astonishingly precise stone-cutting and inlay, reaching a level that modern jewelers would be hard-pressed to achieve. The jewelry of a Middle Kingdom princess, found in her tomb at el-Lahun in the Fayum region is one spectacular example.  

Statuette of Thutmose IV, 1400–1390 B.C.E., 19th Dynasty, ancient Egypt, bronze, silver, calcite, 14.7 x 6.4 cm (© Trustees of the British Museum)

Statuette of Thutmose IV, 1400–1390 B.C.E., 19th Dynasty, ancient Egypt, bronze, silver, calcite, 14.7 x 6.4 cm (© Trustees of the British Museum)

The metal statues that survive demonstrate a high level of skill in both sheet working/metal forming and casting in copper and bronze. This marvelous hollow-cast bronze statuette of a kneeling Thutmosis IV, presenting an offering of wine, provides a peek into the abilities of Egypt’s craftsmen. Note that the arms were created separately and joined to the body on tenons and the eyes were originally inlaid.

Read essays and watch a video about metalworking traditions

Scene showing the manufacture of valuable items, such as jewelry. Wall-painting, probably from the tomb of Sobekhotep, Thebes, c. 1400 B.C.E., New Kingdom, reign of Thutmose IV, painted stucco, 60 x 58.5 (© Trustees of the British Museum)

Paintings from the tomb of Sebekhotep: Images show jewelers at work.

Pectoral and necklace of Sithathoryunet: Fashioned delicately in gold, carnelian, feldspar, garnet, turquoise, and lapis lazuli.

thutmose IV grid

Bronze statuette of Thutmose IV:  Very few metal statues survive that date from before the Late Period, though the Egyptians did have the technology to make large copper statues as early as the Old Kingdom.

This brief glimpse at the world of ancient Egypt is just a springboard for gaining an understanding of this compelling and complex culture. 

A final note

The wonder of the internet is the astonishing access to information; one of the big problems with the internet is that anyone, regardless of knowledge or training, can post whatever they like and that information is presented at the same level as content put out by the experienced and trained. Information about ancient Egypt should always come from a well-vetted source, as there is a great deal of misinformation. The culture is astonishing enough on its own. Egypt remains highly influential across different areas of culture and vast swaths of time and space—Egyptian glass beads have been excavated in Viking tombs and revivals of Egyptian style still happen on an almost cyclical basis, even millenia later. We are surrounded by Egyptian imagery and concepts even if we don’t realize it; those emojis we use with such abandon are decidedly hieroglyphic. The more we know about what came before, the better we can grasp everything that has happened since. Only by understanding the past can we really envision the possibilities of the present and plan for the future.   

Key questions to guide your reading

How did the annual flooding of the nile help form the egyptian view of the world, how might the regular behavior of certain animals—like falcons, vultures, snakes, and scarab beetles— suggest "heavenly wisdom" to the careful observer, how would you want to be depicted for eternity what identifying symbols would you want to include, terms to know and use.

canon of proportions

hierarchical scale

Need teaching images?  Here is a  Google Slideshow with many of the primary images in this chapter

Read a chapter about Ancient Egyptian religious life and afterlife

Collaborators

Dr. Amy Calvert

Dr. Beth Harris

Dr. Steven Zucker

The British Museum

The Metropolitan Museum of Art

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Ancient Egypt

Uncover the secrets of one of the world’s oldest civilizations.

It’s the year 2490 B.C. Wooden boats cruise along the Nile River in Egypt as thousands of workers stack giant stone blocks into a pyramid. This 200-foot-tall structure honors a pharaoh named Menkaure. This pharaoh’s father, Khafre, ordered construction of a 450-foot-high pyramid nearby, and his grandfather Khufu built the Great Pyramid at Giza—the largest of the three—at about 480 feet. Covered in polished white limestone, the pyramids seem to glow in the sunlight.

The Egyptians working on the pyramids are helping create a culture that will last more than 3,000 years—it will be one of the longest-lasting civilizations in the world. During that time, ancient Egyptians created works of art and engineering that still amaze us today.

History of ancient Egypt

People settled in Egypt as early as 6000 B.C. Over time, small villages joined together to become states until two kingdoms emerged: Lower Egypt, which covers the Nile River Delta up to the Mediterranean Sea in the north, and Upper Egypt, which covers the Nile Valley in the south. (The Nile River flows from south to north, so for the ancient Egyptians, the southern part of the country was "up.")

Around 3100 B.C., a king (later called a pharaoh) united these two lands to be one country, and so historians begin the long history of ancient Egypt here, dividing it into different periods. (They don’t always know the exact date of historical events. So that’s why you’ll see a "ca" next to some of the years. It stands for "circa" meaning "around.")

Early Dynastic Period, about 525 years (ca 3100 B.C. to ca 2575 B.C.): These early pharaohs worked to keep the two lands under their control. To do this, they claimed they were being watched over by the falcon god Horus, and so the people of Egypt should respect them. They also used record keeping in the form of hieroglyphic writing to record things like royal decrees and the taxes that the people paid in the form of grain. (A dynasty is a series of rulers from the same family.)

Old Kingdom, about 425 years (ca 2575 B.C. to ca 2150 B.C.): By this time, the pharaohs had enough power and wealth to build pyramids in their honor; that’s why the Old Kingdom is sometimes called the “Age of the Pyramids.” The pharaohs at this time were mostly associated with the sun god Ra, a tradition that would remain for much of Egypt’s history.

First Intermediate Period, about 200 years (ca 2130 B.C. to ca 1938 B.C.): These pharaohs lost power after drought hit Egypt. Instead, local leaders took control of their own communities, and they stopped passing along grain to the central government. Eventually, these local rulers formed independent states.

Middle Kingdom, about 300 years (ca 1938 B.C. to ca 1630 B.C.): Around 1938 B.C., Mentuhotep II reunited the country and began an era known for producing some of Egypt’s greatest pieces of art. For the first time, Egyptians wrote stories for entertainment, and pharaohs started construction of Karnak Temple in the modern-day city of Luxor.

Second Intermediate Period, about 90 years (ca 1630 B.C. to ca 1540 B.C.):  Weak pharaohs again lost control. Invaders from western Asia called Hyksos ruled in the north; people from Kush, a kingdom south of Egypt, took control in Upper Egypt.

New Kingdom, about 465 years (ca 1540 B.C. to 1075 B.C.): Egyptians took back control and crowned some of Egypt’s most well-known rulers: The female pharaoh Hatshepsut ruled for 21 years; Akhenaten tried to start a new religion, and his son, the boy king Tutankhamun , reigned for 10 years. Ramses II built more monuments to himself than any other pharaoh. This was ancient Egypt's most prosperous and powerful period.

Third Intermediate Period, about 420 years (ca 1075 B.C. to ca 656 B.C.): This was a time of drought, famine, and foreign invasions. But some pharaohs thrived. Although King Taharqa was a foreign ruler from Kush, a kingdom south of Egypt, he repaired crumbling temples and even began building pyramids again for the first time in about 800 years.

Late Period, about 300 years (ca 656 B.C. to 332 B.C.): This period marks the last time that ancient Egypt was ruled by native Egyptians. Leading an army from Persia (what is now Iran), King Darius I took control.

Macedonian and Ptolemaic Egypt, about 300 years (332 B.C. to 30 B.C.): In 332 B.C., Alexander the Great conquered the ruling Persians, then gave control to the Greek general Ptolemy I Soter. From then on, Egypt was ruled by Greek pharaohs. The last one, Cleopatra VII, lost a war to the Roman ruler Octavian . Egypt would be under Roman rule for the next 600 years.

Life in ancient Egypt

Most people in ancient Egypt were farmers. They lived with their families in houses made of mud bricks that were near the Nile River.

The Nile flooded each year, leaving behind fertile soil for planting crops like wheat, barley, lettuce, flax, and papyrus. As the Egyptians learned how to move river water to their fields, they were able to grow more food, including grapes, apricots, olives, and beans.

During flood season, farmers couldn’t tend their crops. So instead, some worked building pyramids, tombs, and monuments. Other people worked as scribes (people who recorded events), priests, and doctors.

Women in ancient Egypt had more freedom than those in other ancient cultures. Like men, they could be scribes, priests, and doctors, and they usually had the same rights as men. Women could own their own homes and businesses.

Ancient Egyptians also like to have fun! They swam and canoed in the Nile, played board games, and they enjoyed making music and dancing.

The afterlife

In fact, Egyptians enjoyed life so much that they believed that the afterlife would be almost exactly the same—except without things like sadness, illness, or pesky mosquitoes. Even pets like cats, dogs, or monkeys would join them there.

Being mummified—the process of preserving a body—was an important part of how Egyptians believed their soul would enter the afterlife. So were tombs. These burial chambers were filled with things a person would need there: food, games, and even underwear!

According to legend, ancient Egyptian gods also helped people in the afterlife. Some, like the jackal-headed god Anubis, helped guide people to the underworld, where they would be judged by its ruler, the god Osiris.

Egyptians believed other gods helped them in real life, too. For instance, Osiris’s wife, the goddess Isis, helped cure human sickness, and the goddess Tefnut caused the rain to fall.

Pyramid power

Click through this gallery to see how the pyramid developed over time.

Why ancient Egypt still matters

Today, millions of tourists visit the country of Egypt each year to see the pyramids, tombs, and temples. But these monuments aren’t all this ancient culture left behind.

Ancient Egyptian astronomers created a calendar much like ours—based on the sun’s rotation—and are thought to be the first civilization to measure a year using 365 days. They were also math geniuses: Historians think that division and multiplication were first developed by these people. (Plus, how else would they have figured out how to build pyramids without a lot of math?)

This was also one of the first civilizations to have a written language using a system called hieroglyphic writing, in which symbols—not letters—represent words or sounds. (These people even created writing sheets out of a plant called papyrus.) Hieroglyphs are carved into most temples and tombs to record names and dates, describe events like battles, and give instructions for passing on to the afterlife.

  • The ancient Egyptians worshipped over 2,000 gods and goddesses.
  • Cleopatra, Egypt’s last pharaoh, lived closer to our time than to the building of the Pyramids at Giza.
  • Ancient Egyptian bakers sometimes kneaded bread dough with their feet.
  • These ancient people often referred to their pet cats as miu. (Sound familiar?) 
  • Ancient Egyptians called their homeland Kemet, meaning “black land.” It refers to the dark, fertile soil left behind after flooding from the Nile River.  

Read This Next

Ancient rome, the discovery of king tut’s tomb, maze: egypt.

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Discovering Ancient Egypt: A Guide to Essay Topics

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Greetings, history buffs and time travelers! As we prepare to embark on another intellectual adventure, we are drawn into the enigmatic world of Ancient Egypt. Renowned for its monumental architecture, mystical religious practices, and profound cultural influence, Egypt presents a myriad of intriguing topics for your next essay. To aid your exploration, we’ve meticulously curated a list of 195 compelling essay topics spanning various aspects of Ancient Egyptian civilization.

Table of content

Egypt has captivated historians for centuries with its grand pharaohs, enigmatic hieroglyphs, and majestic pyramids. Today’s relevance is seen in our understanding of mathematics, engineering, medicine, etc. Exploring its history allows us to appreciate the progression of human civilization and the cultural structures that continue to influence our world.

Society and Culture

Step into the bustling marketplaces and along the lush banks of the Nile as we explore the social norms and cultural practices that shaped Ancient Egyptian society.

  • The Class Structure of Ancient Egyptian Society: the Role of the Pharaoh
  • The Evolution of Ancient Egyptian Law and Its Impact on Modern Legal Systems
  • The Role of Women in Ancient Egyptian Society
  • Slavery in Ancient Egypt: An In-Depth Study
  • The Significance of Ancient Egyptian Festivals and Rituals
  • Ancient Egyptian Music: a Cultural Perspective
  • The Influence of Nubian Culture on Ancient Egyptian Society
  • The Impact of Ancient Egypt on Modern Western Civilization
  • Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphs and Their Societal Importance
  • An Analysis of the Ancient Egyptian Education System
  • The Role of Sports and Recreation in Ancient Egyptian Society
  • Ancient Egyptian Marriage Customs and Their Influence on Societal Structure
  • The Influence of the Nile River on Ancient Egyptian Culture and Society
  • Ancient Egyptian Literature and Its Reflection on Society
  • Ancient Egyptian Art: a Societal Mirror
  • The Societal Role of the Ancient Egyptian Temples
  • Ancient Egyptian Dining Customs: From Beer to Bread
  • The Importance of Animals in Ancient Egyptian Society
  • Ancient Egyptian Funerary Practices and Beliefs about Death
  • Childhood in Ancient Egypt: From Birth to Adulthood
  • Ancient Egyptian Cosmetics: More than Mere Decoration
  • The Role of Ancient Egyptian Scribes in Society
  • The Influence of Ancient Egypt on Modern Fashion
  • Trade and Commerce in Ancient Egypt
  • The Role of Ancient Egyptian Amulets in Daily Life
  • Gender Roles in Ancient Egyptian Society
  • The Concept of Ma’at (Order and Harmony) in Ancient Egypt
  • The Influence of Ancient Egyptian Culture on Greek and Roman Societies
  • Slavery in Ancient Egypt: Conditions, Roles, and Rights
  • The Impact of Climate on the Culture and Society of Ancient Egypt
  • Symbolism in Ancient Egyptian Jewelry and Its Cultural Significance
  • Ancient Egyptian Festivals: Social and Religious Aspects
  • The Role of Dance in Ancient Egyptian Society
  • Comparative Analysis of the Family Structures in Ancient and Modern Egyptian Societies
  • The Significance of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphics
  • Ancient Egyptian Music: Its Characteristics and Influence on Modern Music
  • Ancient Egyptian Medicine: Practices and Beliefs
  • The Importance of Beer in Ancient Egyptian Society
  • Ancient Egyptian Textiles and Clothing: a Cultural Study
  • The Role of Women in Different Sectors of Ancient Egyptian Society
  • The Portrayal of Animals in Ancient Egyptian Art
  • Fashion in Ancient Egypt: Significance and Symbolism
  • The Role of Dance in Ancient Egyptian Culture and Religion
  • The Significance of Ancient Egyptian Symbols in Their Art and Literature
  • The Impact of Ancient Egyptian Agriculture on their Society and Economy
  • Understanding Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphs: Their Importance in Communication and Record-Keeping
  • An Analysis of Ancient Egyptian Social Norms and Values
  • Ancient Egyptian Games and Their Societal Role
  • The Importance of the Papyrus Plant in Ancient Egyptian Society

Politics and Leaders

Unveil the dynastic secrets, political intrigues, and influential leaders that have shaped the course of Ancient Egyptian civilization.

  • The Role of Pharaohs in Ancient Egypt: From Gods to Rulers
  • An Analysis of the Political Structure of Ancient Egypt
  • A Comparative Study of the Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, and New Kingdom Pharaohs
  • Hatshepsut: The Female Pharaoh Who Ruled Egypt
  • The Influence of Akhenaten’s Monotheistic Reforms on Ancient Egyptian Society
  • The Political Impact of the Hyksos Invasion on Ancient Egypt
  • The Political Power of Priests in Ancient Egypt
  • Nefertiti: The Influence of the Most Beautiful Queen on Egyptian Politics
  • Tutankhamun: The Boy King and His Short Reign
  • The Role of the Military in Ancient Egyptian Politics
  • Diplomatic Relations of Ancient Egypt with Other Civilizations
  • The Leadership of Queen Hatshepsut and Its Impact on Ancient Egypt
  • The Influence of Akhenaten’s Monotheistic Reforms on Egyptian Politics
  • The Role and Influence of Foreign Powers on Ancient Egyptian Politics
  • The Impact of the Hyksos Invasion and Occupation on Ancient Egypt
  • Thutmose III: The Napoleon of Ancient Egypt
  • The Political Landscape of Ancient Egypt During the Ptolemaic Dynasty
  • The Role and Responsibilities of Officials in Ancient Egyptian Government
  • The Influence of the Ptolemaic Dynasty on Ancient Egyptian Politics
  • The Leadership of Ramesses II and His Impact on Egypt
  • Cleopatra VII: The Last Pharaoh of Egypt
  • The Power of Egyptian Propaganda: the Narmer Palette
  • The Political Implications of the Rosetta Stone
  • Ancient Egyptian Law and Justice: a Comprehensive Analysis
  • The Influence of Foreign Powers on Ancient Egyptian Politics
  • The Political Reforms and Innovations Introduced by the Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt
  • The Role of Viziers in Ancient Egyptian Government
  • An Overview of Major Political Changes in Ancient Egypt
  • The Political Significance of the Nile River in Ancient Egypt

Religion and Mythology

Explore the pantheon of deities, their religious practices, and the mythology that permeated every aspect of Ancient Egyptian life.

  • The Role of Religion in Ancient Egyptian Society
  • An Overview of Ancient Egyptian Deities and Their Roles
  • The Concept of Afterlife in Ancient Egyptian Religion
  • The Significance of the Book of the Dead in Ancient Egyptian Religion
  • The Influence of Ancient Egyptian Religion on Christianity
  • The Role and Symbolism of the Ankh in Ancient Egyptian Religion
  • The Mythology and Symbolism of the Egyptian Sphinx
  • The Rituals and Symbolism Associated with the Ancient Egyptian Sun God Ra
  • The Cult of Osiris: Its Influence and Significance in Ancient Egypt
  • The Role of Priests and Priestesses in Ancient Egyptian Religion
  • The Significance of the Pharaoh in Ancient Egyptian Religion
  • The Worship of the Nile: Its Role and Importance in Ancient Egyptian Religion
  • Animal Deities in Ancient Egyptian Religion: Symbolism and Worship
  • The Role and Influence of Magic in Ancient Egyptian Religion
  • Understanding the Ancient Egyptian Pantheon: Major Deities and Their Roles
  • The Impact of the Amarna Revolution on Ancient Egyptian Religion
  • Funerary Texts and Tombs: Windows into Ancient Egyptian Beliefs
  • Ancient Egyptian Mythology: The Osiris Myth and Its Cultural Significance
  • Solar Worship in Ancient Egypt: The Cult of Ra
  • The Book of the Dead and the Ancient Egyptian Perception of the Afterlife
  • The Significance of Temple Rituals in Ancient Egyptian Religious Practices
  • The Role of Dreams and Omens in Ancient Egyptian Religion
  • The Influence of Ancient Egyptian Mythology on Modern Literature and Media
  • An Overview of Ancient Egyptian Demons and Supernatural Beings
  • The Significance of Animal Cults in Ancient Egyptian Religion
  • The Influence of Ancient Egyptian Mythology on Greek Mythology
  • An Analysis of Ancient Egyptian Creation Myths
  • Isis: the Ancient Egyptian Goddess of Magic and Life
  • The Role of Magic in Ancient Egyptian Religion
  • The Symbolism and Significance of Pyramids in Ancient Egyptian Religion
  • The Role of Dreams in Ancient Egyptian Spiritual Life
  • The Influence of Astrology on Ancient Egyptian Religion and Society
  • The Mysteries and Rituals of the Ancient Egyptian Cult of the Dead
  • The Interpretation of Ancient Egyptian Myths in the Modern World

Science and Technology

Discover the profound understanding and innovative inventions that marked Ancient Egypt as an advanced civilization in medicine, mathematics, and engineering.

  • Ancient Egyptian Mathematics: The Understanding of Geometry and Fractions
  • The Role of Astronomy in Ancient Egyptian Culture and Agriculture
  • The Development and Importance of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphics
  • Medicine in Ancient Egypt: Practices and Beliefs
  • Ancient Egyptian Architectural Marvels: the Science Behind the Pyramids
  • The Use of Geometry in Ancient Egyptian Architecture
  • The Role and Importance of Astronomy in Ancient Egyptian Society
  • The Ancient Egyptian Calendar: Interplay of Science and Religion
  • Understanding the Ancient Egyptian Numeric System
  • The Process of Mummification in Ancient Egypt: An Exploration of Their Medical Knowledge
  • An Overview of Ancient Egyptian Farming Techniques and Tools
  • The Importance of the Nile River in Ancient Egyptian Irrigation Practices
  • Ancient Egyptian Contributions to Modern Medicine
  • The Art of Ancient Egyptian Warfare: Weaponry and Tactics
  • The Nile and Ancient Egyptian Innovations in Irrigation
  • Ancient Egyptian Metallurgy: Understanding the Production of Bronze and Gold
  • Ancient Egyptian Medicine: Techniques, Remedies, and Surgical Practices
  • The Invention of Papyrus and Its Impact on Ancient Egyptian Society
  • Ancient Egyptian Astronomy: The Decans and Star Clocks
  • The Contribution of Ancient Egyptians to Mathematics: Understanding Hieroglyphic Numerals and Fractions
  • The Engineering Marvels of Ancient Egypt: From Pyramids to Obelisks
  • Ancient Egyptian Metallurgy: Techniques and Innovations
  • Understanding the Construction Techniques of Ancient Egyptian Monuments
  • The Impact of the Nile Flood Cycle on Ancient Egyptian Agriculture
  • The Role of Ancient Egyptian Inventions in the Development of Modern Technology
  • The Influence of Ancient Egyptian Science on Greek and Arabic Scientific Traditions
  • The Utilization and Production of Glass in Ancient Egypt
  • The Development and Use of Papyrus in Ancient Egypt
  • The Science of Mummification in Ancient Egypt
  • Ancient Egyptian Shipbuilding and Its Role in Expansion and Trade

Archaeology and Excavations

Unearth the rich archaeological findings, the enigmatic discoveries, and the ongoing explorations that provide valuable insights into Ancient Egypt.

  • The Discovery of the Rosetta Stone and Its Importance for Understanding Hieroglyphics
  • Howard Carter and the Discovery of King Tutankhamun’s Tomb
  • The Excavation and Preservation of Ancient Egyptian Artifacts
  • The Archaeological Exploration of the Great Pyramid of Giza
  • The Impact of Tomb Robbing on the Preservation of Ancient Egyptian History
  • The Discovery of the Tomb of Tutankhamun: Revelations and Implications
  • Zahi Hawass and His Contributions to Egyptian Archaeology
  • The Valley of the Kings: An Archaeological Overview of the Royal Necropolis
  • An Examination of the Archaeological Methods Used in Ancient Egyptian Excavations
  • Recent Archaeological Discoveries in Ancient Egypt and Their Significance
  • The Controversy Over the Ownership and Display of Ancient Egyptian Artifacts
  • The Use of Modern Technologies in the Archaeological Exploration of Ancient Egypt
  • The Impact of the Discovery of the Tomb of Queen Nefertari
  • The Archaeological Exploration of the Great Sphinx of Giza: Discoveries and Theories
  • The Uncovering of the Workers’ Village at Deir el-Medina: Insights into Ancient Egyptian Society
  • The Excavation and Study of the Temple Complex at Karnak
  • The Role of Archaeology in Unraveling the Mysteries of Ancient Egyptian Civilization
  • An Analysis of the Finds from the Tomb of Tutankhamun and Their Cultural Significance
  • The Ethics of Archaeological Excavations in Ancient Egypt: Balancing Science, Culture, and Respect for the Dead
  • Challenges Faced in the Conservation of Ancient Egyptian Archaeological Sites
  • The Implications of the Discovery of the Rosetta Stone for Egyptology
  • Unearthing the Ancient City of Akhetaten: Revelations about the Amarna Period
  • The Challenges and Dilemmas of Repatriating Egyptian Artifacts
  • The Unearthing of Ancient Egyptian Cities: a Case Study of Tell El-Amarna
  • The Ongoing Archaeological Investigations in the Valley of the Kings
  • The Significance of the Nile Delta Archaeological Sites
  • Exploring the Mysteries of the Great Sphinx of Giza
  • The Challenges and Ethics of Displaying Ancient Egyptian Artifacts in Modern Museums
  • Recent Developments in the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt
  • The Future of Archaeology in Egypt: Emerging Technologies and Their Potential

This comprehensive list should provide ample inspiration for your Ancient Egyptian studies. Remember, the best research topics are those that captivate your interest. Enjoy the journey into the past!

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Civilization in Ancient Egypt Essay

  • To find inspiration for your paper and overcome writer’s block
  • As a source of information (ensure proper referencing)
  • As a template for you assignment

The basic element of ancient civilization in Egypt besides its geography is religion. The government, literature, astronomy, medicine and arts formed their basis on religion.

It is therefore justified to say that religion was integral to the Egyptians way of life. Since the earliest beginnings of religion in Egypt, changes in religious themes, way of worship and how the worship was conducted have been observed as will be explored in this essay.

People in ancient Egypt ranging from the peasants, merchants, priests, workers, to individual kings worshipped their own gods formulated in the pre-dynastic Egypt and expressed in pictures.

Initially, animals were included in the Egyptian religious cults. That is perhaps why archeologist found preserved graves where cats, gazelles, bulls and sheep were carefully buried (Patricia 112). The worship of pictures did not last for long as they were turned into human portraits.

This, also referred to as anthropomorphism, was unique in the sense that the pictures took human form but retained an animal’s body or head. The Egyptians believed that these gods had human emotions, drank, ate, gave birth, went into battle, lived among people and died.

The reigns of these gods were believed to merge at times and in other instances overlap. In fact, their reign during this time in ancient Egypt did not have an organized hierarchy structure. The power of their gods relied on the power of the reigning king. A powerful king would imply a powerful god and so it was also with the name, location and dominance of the kings (Rosalie 1803).

Additionally, religious names were believed to be very powerful and full of mystery. For instance, in the normal society, people would die or get afflicted when certain traditional rituals were done to their names. In the same respect, certain names were used to express or describe phenomenon that were good and beneficial.

In religion, the Egyptians gave to their gods’ names that were descriptive or qualities such as majestic, virile or strong. Each god had five names and as aforementioned, was worshipped at different times, for different purposes and in different locations depending on the myth.

Examples of gods who were worshipped at that time included Ptah and Osiris the earth gods, Horus, Bat and Hathor were gods of the heaven and Amaunet, amon and Antaios were examples of gods that were worshipped depending on the location (Patricia 111).

In ancient Egypt, the kings played an integral part in religion by connecting the gods and Egyptians. Until around the third dynasty, the kings were believed to be a bridge crossing over the chasm that divided gods and men.

Besides, the priests’ roles were equally important in ancient Egypt and included reading scrolls before religious events, preparing images and statutes, caring for the image gods, and acting as voice of the oracles, stewards of granaries and temple riches and being pinnacles of decisions of their gods.

Furthermore, the ancient religion allowed the use of magic that was commonplace. Warding of evil was done through wearing of amulets, magical texts, spells, concoctions and rituals were used and their successes and their failures were attributed to the gods.

It is important to understand that the ancient religion in Egypt was centralized despite the hierarchy of deities. This indicates a sharp contrast between Egypt and Mesopotamia where in the latter, religion was decentralized. Also, the focus of Egyptian temple was for worship unlike in Sumer where it was for religious, economic and political functions.

The civilization of ancient Egypt happened at the same time Mesopotamian civilization was taking place in other areas in the nations of the Akkadians, Babylonians and the Sumerians (Rosalie 1802). Hence, most other parts of the world were also going through major revolutions in the religious spheres.

For instance, the Egyptian civilization is believed to have originated from the west and other neighboring nations as well as some internal influences. As mentioned before, civilization in ancient religious practices saw the worship of animals turned into the worship of image and pharaoh’s role as a mediator between gods and people changing to a position where he considered himself a divine being.

The rule of pharaoh which was believed to have a qualities such as righteousness, order, justice and truth brought stability and harmony which earlier on was not manifested in image worship (Oesterdiekhoff 103). Due to this and other related factors, religion created optimism, confidence and acted as a unifying factor.

It is important to note that Egyptians believed in life after death and judging by the continuous rhythmic cycle of life and death and their unchanging universe, sought to change their lifestyle in order to meet the predictable patterns of life. In this sense, they began farming, built irrigation canals and pyramids that today give a reflection of extreme centralization created by religion and which brought a significant change in Egypt.

The Hebrews also played a significant role in the civilization of ancient Egypt. The influence exerted by the Hebrews on the western intellectual tradition and the western society was so immense that affected the patterns and activities of other great institutions.

According to the Hebrews, there is only one God to whom they are committed to worship and follow his laws as stated in the Old Testament. The heroes of the Jews unlike the Egyptians were men and women and not gods and goddesses. These heroes represented both the strong and the weak men and women.

The Egyptians and the Sumerians had adopted the worship of many gods also referred to as polytheism and as mentioned earlier on, the dominance of the gods depended on the kings. The Hebrews on the other hand, believed their God was sovereign and practiced monotheism.

The Hebrews believed that the worship of idol gods that like in the case of ancient Egypt was not ideal as it represented an incapable god put in images making them less sovereign. Further, the Hebrews believed that the Egyptians could not obtain freedom from idol worship.

The arrival of the Hebrews into Egypt brought a different influence to the ancient Egyptian way of worship. Their belief system and the sovereign expression of their God in the rescue mission of the Israelites from Egypt played a key role in creating change in the religious atmosphere in Egypt (Oesterdiekhoff 108-109).

The reactions from various circles concerning civilization of ancient Egypt display a mixture of feelings. Some scholars believe that ancient Egypt before civilization was of a unique distinction. Actually, according to history, it is believed that they were the first people to create a state embodying aspiration of the Egyptian race and the spiritual beliefs in the nation-state.

The ancient state of Egypt which lasted for up to 3000 years showed a determined durability, assurance and extraordinary strength demonstrated by its framework of culture and an unmistakable purity of style. The indisputable unity that existed between culture, state and religion fell and what is seen to have remained is its peculiar geographical setting (Rosalie 1803).

Indeed, religion in ancient Egypt led to myriad of other changes that impacted the society politically, socially and economically. For instance, early developments in religion shaped the political systems and structures in ancient Egypt. Most of the rules and leadership dynamics used by Egypt rulers were largely borrowed from religion. The religiously-influenced political and social structures created other avenues and modalities on how people interacted.

The sharing of religious activities in ancient Egypt has offered the world a broad perspective in understanding early social developments in Egypt. Contemporary life would have been rather blank in terms of rich history and perhaps, it would have been cumbersome to comprehensively bridge the past and modern history on religion and worse still, connect the future history with that of the past.

Works Cited

Oesterdiekhoff, W. George. “Ancient Sun Cults: Understanding religious rites in terms of developmental psychology.” Mankind Quarterly , 48.1 (2007): 99-116.

Patricia, Spencer. “Dance in ancient Egypt.” Near Eastern Archaeology, 66.3 (2003): 111-112.

Rosalie, David. “The art of medicine: The art of healing in ancient Egypt: a scientific reappraisal.” The Lancet , 372.9652 (2008): 1802-1803.

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Bibliography

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Visiting Sleeping Beauties: Reawakening Fashion?

You must join the virtual exhibition queue when you arrive. If capacity has been reached for the day, the queue will close early.

Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History Essays

Papyrus in ancient egypt.

Model Paddling Boat

Model Paddling Boat

Heqanakht Account VII

Heqanakht Account VII

Heqanakht Letter I

Heqanakht Letter I

Mirror of the Chief of the Southern Tens Reniseneb

Mirror of the Chief of the Southern Tens Reniseneb

Letter written in hieratic script on papyrus

Letter written in hieratic script on papyrus

Papyrus Marsh

Papyrus Marsh

Hugh R. Hopgood

Menna and Family Hunting in the Marshes, Tomb of Menna

Menna and Family Hunting in the Marshes, Tomb of Menna

Nina de Garis Davies

Amenhotep III and his Mother, Mutemwia, in a Kiosk

Amenhotep III and his Mother, Mutemwia, in a Kiosk

Menat necklace from Malqata

Menat necklace from Malqata

Pair of Sandals from the Tomb of Yuya and Tjuyu

Pair of Sandals from the Tomb of Yuya and Tjuyu

Facsimile painting from the 'Green Room' in the North Palace at Amarna

Facsimile painting from the 'Green Room' in the North Palace at Amarna

Papyrus Lid

Papyrus Lid

Haremhab as a Scribe of the King

Haremhab as a Scribe of the King

Palette inscribed for Smendes (II), High Priest of Amun

Palette inscribed for Smendes (II), High Priest of Amun

Statuette of Wadjet in the name of Akanosh son of Pediamenopet

Statuette of Wadjet in the name of Akanosh son of Pediamenopet

Sistrum of the Chantress Tapenu

Sistrum of the Chantress Tapenu

Book of the Dead for the Chantress of Amun Nauny

Book of the Dead for the Chantress of Amun Nauny

Amduat (Netherworld) Papyrus Inscribed for Gautsoshen

Amduat (Netherworld) Papyrus Inscribed for Gautsoshen

Relief-decorated Lentoid Bottle (

Relief-decorated Lentoid Bottle ("New Year's Bottle"); Horus falcon in marshes on one side; cow goddess in marshes on the other

Papyrus column amulet

Papyrus column amulet

Relief plaque of cobra on a neb basket

Relief plaque of cobra on a neb basket

Marriage Contract

Marriage Contract

Magical Stela (Cippus of Horus)

Magical Stela (Cippus of Horus)

The Temple of Dendur

The Temple of Dendur

Mummy Mask

Papyrus letter in Greek

Papyrus Fragment of a Letter from Victor to Psan

Papyrus Fragment of a Letter from Victor to Psan

Janice Kamrin Department of Egyptian Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art

A member of the sedge family, the papyrus ( Cyperus papyrus ) was an integral feature of the ancient Nilotic landscape, essential to the ancient Egyptians in both the practical and symbolic realms. Needing shallow fresh water or water-saturated earth to grow, dense papyrus thickets were found in the marshes of the Nile Delta and also in the low-lying areas fringing the Nile valley. From a horizontal root, the slender but sturdy stalks, topped by feathery umbels ending in small brown fruit-bearing flowers, can reach up to five meters in height ( 30.4.60 ).

The pharaonic word for papyrus was tjufy (with mehyt used as a more general term for marsh plants). A hieroglyph in the form of a papyrus plant was used in the writing of the word wadj , meaning fresh, flourishing, and green. An amulet in this shape was worn at the throat for protection and health ( 26.7.1036 ). Due to its prevalence in the Nile Delta, the papyrus was the heraldic plant of Lower (northern) Egypt, while the lily or lotus stood for Upper (southern) Egypt. When shown wound around the hieroglyph for “unite,” these two plants formed an emblem for the unification of the Two Lands of Egypt ( 15.5.1 ). The goddess Wadjet, depicted as a rearing cobra ( 07.228.14 ) or a woman with the head of a lioness ( 35.9.2 ), was the tutelary deity of Lower Egypt, and often is shown carrying a papyrus-shaped scepter.

In ancient Egyptian cosmology, the world was created when the first god stood on a mound that emerged from limitless and undifferentiated darkness and water, a mythical echo of the moment each year when the land began to reappear from beneath the annual floodwaters. Papyrus marshes were thus seen as fecund, fertile regions that contained the germs of creation ( 30.4.136 ). Ceilings in temples and tombs were frequently supported with columns in the form of papyrus plants, turning their architectural settings into models of this primeval marsh ( 68.154 ). Papyrus thickets were seen as liminal zones at the edges of the ordered cosmos, symbols of the untamed chaos that surrounded and perpetually threatened the Egyptian world. Teeming with wild birds and fish as well as dangerous animals such as hippopotami and crocodiles, all seen as incarnations of Egypt’s enemies, these were the setting for ritual hunts. The single-handed defeat of these chaotic creatures by a king or noble, often depicted on the walls of temples and elite tombs, was emblematic of the maintenance of the ordered cosmos against the forces of entropy ( 30.4.48 ).

In one of the great mythic cycles central to Egyptian religion, the goddess Isis took her infant son Horus to the papyrus thickets of the north to conceal him from her brother Seth, who had murdered her husband Osiris and usurped his throne. Horus grew to manhood here, hidden among the swaying reeds whose rustling sounds soothed him and masked his cries, until he emerged to defeat his wicked uncle and reclaim his patrimony ( 50.85 ). Horus was protected and nursed while a baby by the goddess Hathor, who was worshipped in the ritual of the Shaking of the Papyrus. In its ideal form, this was performed in the marshes by a celebrant who shook actual stalks of papyrus; Hathor’s primary cult instruments, the sistrum ( 68.44 ) and the menat ( 11.215.450 ), were rattled to produce a comparable rustling sound and evoke this mythical environment. To celebrate her role as wet-nurse of Horus and symbol of rebirth and resurrection in the celestial realm, this goddess is shown in the form of a cow emerging from the papyrus thicket ( 2007.155 ). The handles of mirrors, associated with Hathor as the goddess of eroticism and beauty, were often in the form of papyrus plants ( 26.7.1351 ).

Papyrus could be used in the manufacture of a variety of objects. Skiffs made by binding the long stalks together were used from the Predynastic era on for local transport and hunting. As shown in tomb art , the boats used for pilgrimages and funerals take this distinctive shape ( 20.3.5 ); these may originally have been made from reeds, and were perhaps translated later into wood. For use in the construction of items such as mats, boxes, baskets, lids, sandals, and ropes, the tough outer rind was stripped, revealing a spongy white pith reinforced by long vascular bundles that could be made into durable strips ( 10.184.1a,b ; 09.184.250 ). According to Herodotus, the lower part of the plant (probably the root) could be roasted and eaten.

Perhaps the most important use for the papyrus plant was as a writing surface, created from strips of the pith found inside the stalk laid down in layers and dried under pressure. This was formed into rolls that could be left intact or cut into sheets; later, codices were also used. Thanks to the preservative qualities afforded by the dry climate of Egypt’s deserts, the remains of many documents on papyrus have been recovered from the Egyptian sands. These include household and administrative documents ( 22.3.522 ), letters ( 22.3.516 ), contracts ( 35.4.1a, b ) and other legal texts, illustrated narratives, and religious texts ( 25.3.31 ; 30.3.31 ). The earliest known roll of papyrus comes from the Dynasty 1 tomb of the high official Hemaka (ca. 2900 B.C.), but this is blank; the first examples on which text is preserved are administrative documents found at the Red Sea port of Wadi el-Jarf that date to Dynasty 4 (ca. 2500 B.C.). This correlates with the earliest known scribe statue, which dates to the same dynasty.

The typical scribal kit consisted of rush styluses (with reeds coming into use in the late first century B.C.), water, and cakes of ink, with a carbon-based black used for most texts and a red, fabricated with hematite, employed for emphasis ( 47.123a–g ). Various additional colors could be used for illustrations. For most of Egyptian history, the script used on papyrus was hieratic, a cursive script ( 27.3.560 ); in later times, demotic, which developed from hieratic, then Greek and Coptic ( 25.8 ; 14.1.531 ), were also used. Scribes, or others among the 0.5 to 3 percent of the population who were literate ( 23.10.1 ), would write first on the inner surface of the roll, now known as the recto, where the fibers were horizontal, then move to the verso, the outer surface. Papyri were often erased and reused, and old strips could be layered with plaster as cartonnage, used for items like mummy masks ( 19.2.6 ).

Papyrus-making is a complex and time-consuming process that requires expertise in all aspects, from the cultivation and harvesting of plants to the manufacture of rolls. Many scholars believe that this was a state-run enterprise, at least in the later periods of Egyptian history; it has been suggested that the Greek term papuros comes from the Egyptian pa-per-aa , “that of the pharaoh,” although there is no substantial evidence for this. In any event, most likely due to the desire to move away from dependence on supplies from Egypt, parchment gradually superseded papyrus as the most popular material for writing. The latest known papyri date from around 1100 A.D., although even these are isolated examples.

Kamrin, Janice. “Papyrus in Ancient Egypt.” In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/papy/hd_papy.htm (March 2015)

Further Reading

Leach, Bridget, and John Tait. "Papyrus." in Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology , edited by Paul T. Nicholson and Ian Shaw. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Leach, Bridget, and John Tait. "Papyrus." In The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt , edited by Donald B. Redford. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Parkinson, Richard B., and Stephen Quirke. Papyrus . Austin: University of Texas Press, 1995.

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Essay on Ancient Egypt

Students are often asked to write an essay on Ancient Egypt in their schools and colleges. And if you’re also looking for the same, we have created 100-word, 250-word, and 500-word essays on the topic.

Let’s take a look…

100 Words Essay on Ancient Egypt

The land of ancient egypt.

Ancient Egypt was a country in North Africa. It was near the Nile River. The Nile was very important. It gave water for drinking and growing crops. It also helped with travel and trade. The Nile made life possible in the dry desert.

Pharaohs and Gods

Pharaohs were the kings of Ancient Egypt. They were very powerful and were seen as gods. The Egyptians believed in many gods. Each god had a role, like Ra the sun god and Isis the goddess of magic.

Pyramids and Sphinx

The Egyptians built big pyramids as tombs for the pharaohs. The most famous are in Giza. There’s also a giant statue called the Sphinx. It has a lion’s body and a human’s head.

Writing and Learning

The Egyptians created a writing system called hieroglyphs. They wrote on papyrus, a type of paper. They were good at math, medicine, and astronomy. They even had a calendar.

Mummies and Afterlife

Egyptians believed in life after death. They mummified the dead to preserve them for the afterlife. Mummies are bodies wrapped in cloth. Many mummies and treasures have been found in tombs.

250 Words Essay on Ancient Egypt

Introduction.

Egypt is a country in Africa. It has a very long history. People lived there thousands of years ago. These people are called Ancient Egyptians. They are famous for many things.

The Ancient Egyptians built big stone structures called pyramids. The biggest is the Great Pyramid of Giza. It was like a tomb for a king. It is one of the Seven Wonders of the World.

The leaders of Ancient Egypt were called pharaohs. They were very powerful. People believed they were gods on earth. Tutankhamun is a famous pharaoh. His tomb was found full of gold and precious things.

The Ancient Egyptians made their own kind of writing. It is called hieroglyphs. They wrote on walls and on a type of paper called papyrus. Today, people can read hieroglyphs because of a stone called the Rosetta Stone. It helped them understand the writing.

The Ancient Egyptians believed in many gods and goddesses. They thought these gods controlled everything. They even mummified dead bodies to help the soul reach the afterlife.

Ancient Egypt was a fascinating place. They had great leaders, built amazing structures, and had a rich culture. We can learn a lot about them today through their writings and the things they left behind.

500 Words Essay on Ancient Egypt

Introduction to ancient egypt.

Ancient Egypt was a grand civilization in northeastern Africa. It started around 3100 BC when Egypt’s first Pharaoh, King Narmer, ruled the land. It ended around 30 BC when the Romans took over.

Geography and Agriculture

Egypt is mostly desert, but it has a fertile area near the Nile River. This river was very important to the ancient Egyptians. They used it for drinking water, bathing, and watering their crops. The Nile also made the soil fertile, so it was good for farming. The ancient Egyptians grew wheat and flax, which they used to make bread and clothes.

Religion and Beliefs

Religion was a big part of life in ancient Egypt. The Egyptians believed in many gods and goddesses. They thought these deities controlled the natural world and human activities. For example, they believed that the sun god Ra made the sun rise and set. They also believed in life after death. They thought that when they died, they would go to a place called the afterlife. To prepare for this, they mummified their dead and placed them in tombs with food, furniture, and other things they might need.

Writing and Education

The ancient Egyptians created a form of writing called hieroglyphs. They used pictures to represent words or sounds. They wrote on papyrus, a type of paper made from a plant. Only certain people, like priests and government officials, could read and write. They went to special schools to learn these skills.

Pyramids and Architecture

The ancient Egyptians are famous for their pyramids. These huge buildings were tombs for the pharaohs and their queens. The Egyptians believed that if the pharaoh’s body was mummified and buried in a pyramid, he would live forever. The Great Pyramid of Giza is one of the most well-known pyramids. It was built for Pharaoh Khufu around 2550 BC.

Science and Technology

The ancient Egyptians were great scientists and engineers. They invented the calendar that we still use today. They also knew a lot about the human body. They used this knowledge to perform complex medical procedures. For example, they could treat broken bones and wounds.

Ancient Egypt was a fascinating civilization with its own unique culture. They made many contributions to the world in areas like art, science, and architecture. Even today, we are still learning about this amazing civilization and its people. Their pyramids, hieroglyphs, and religious beliefs continue to captivate us, reminding us of a time long past but not forgotten.

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essay about egypt history

Daily Life and Society in Ancient Egypt

This essay is about daily life and society in ancient Egypt. It explores the hierarchical structure with the pharaoh at the top, the crucial role of agriculture supported by the Nile, and the importance of artisans and craftsmen. It also highlights the significance of trade and the vibrant marketplaces that fostered cultural interactions. Religion played a central role, influencing every aspect of life, including elaborate burial practices. Family life was the core of social structure, with women enjoying considerable independence. The essay underscores the remarkable achievements and cultural richness that defined ancient Egyptian civilization.

How it works

Existence within ancient Egypt manifested as a mesmerizing amalgamation of ingenuity, spirituality, and communal bonds. Stretching across a span exceeding three millennia, this civilization etched an enduring imprint upon history through its remarkable strides in architectural prowess, agrarian endeavors, and artistic endeavors. However, transcending the splendor of pyramidal structures and the enigma enshrouding hieroglyphic inscriptions, it is the quotidian existence of ancient Egyptians that veritably breathes vitality into this bygone epoch.

In ancient Egypt, societal structuring adhered to a hierarchical paradigm, with the pharaoh reigning supreme as the embodiment of divinity.

Esteemed as a living deity, this regal figure bore the onus of upholding ma’at, denoting cosmic equilibrium, a tenet pivotal to Egyptian cosmology. Supporting the pharaoh’s divine stewardship was a formidable administrative apparatus encompassing viziers, clergy, and literati, each entrusted with pivotal functions in the realms of governance and spiritual devotion. The clergy presided over ceremonial rites and observances to appease the pantheon, ensuring the annual inundation of the Nile and the fecundity of agricultural yields, while literati meticulously transcribed events, transactions, and royal decrees.

Agriculture constituted the backbone of ancient Egypt’s economic edifice, with the Nile River serving as the veritable lifeblood thereof. The annual inundations of the Nile disseminated nutrient-laden sediment upon arable expanses, furnishing Egyptians with the wherewithal to cultivate staples such as wheat, barley, flax, and an assortment of fruits and legumes. This cyclic inundation engendered surplus harvests, thereby sustaining burgeoning demographics and the urbanization trajectory. Farmers toiled assiduously, wielding implements like mattocks, sickles, and draught animals harnessed to plows. Dwellings fashioned from modest mud bricks sheltered them, and their dietary regimen, though austere, abounded in wholesomeness, principally comprising bread, ale, and produce.

Artisans and craftsmen commanded veneration for their artistry, fashioning an array of artifacts ranging from earthenware and adornments to the resplendent statuary and ornate reliefs embellishing temples and sepulchers. These craftsmen congregated in enclaves such as Deir el-Medina, abodes to artisans pivotal in erecting royal sepulchers within the Valley of the Kings. Their vocations were exacting and oft perilous, yet commensurate remuneration in kind and social prestige was accorded. The finesse of their craft mirrored not merely their technical acumen but also their profound spiritual convictions, as much of their handiwork was consecrated to honoring the divine pantheon and ensuring auspicious afterlives for the deceased.

Commerce emerged as another pivotal facet of ancient Egyptian existence. Merchants plied the waters of the Nile and ventured to far-flung realms like Punt, Lebanon, and Nubia, bartering commodities such as bullion, papyrus, linen, and cereals for exotic wares like aromatic resins, ebony, and tusks. These transactions underpinned economic vitality and facilitated intercultural exchanges, heralding novel ideas and technologies into Egypt. Vibrant marketplaces burgeoned as nexus points where denizens from diverse strata of society convened, thereby further diversifying the social fabric of ancient Egypt.

Religion permeated every facet of existence within ancient Egypt. Adherents espoused belief in a multifarious pantheon of deities and goddesses, each presiding over discrete domains of the natural world and human experience. Temples, serving as bastions of veneration, doubled as hubs of economic and bureaucratic activity. Rites and festivities transpired with metronomic regularity, with the populace partaking fervently, viewing these observances as conduits to divine favor and cosmic equilibrium. The belief in an afterlife loomed paramount, precipitating elaborate funerary customs orchestrated to ensure the deceased’s safe traversal to the netherworld and a felicitous existence therein. Mummification rites and the construction of sepulchers stocked with accouterments, talismans, and inscriptions constituted preparatory rites for this odyssey.

The familial unit constituted the fulcrum of ancient Egyptian society. Matrimonial unions were customarily arranged, with the household emerging as the quintessential nucleus of social organization. Women enjoyed a modicum of legal and economic autonomy vis-à-vis their contemporaries, empowered to hold property, initiate divorce proceedings, and engage in commercial ventures. Offspring were cherished, with educational endeavors, especially directed toward male progeny, being esteemed for their role in grooming them for positions as literati or bureaucratic functionaries.

The legacy of ancient Egypt continues to enthrall the modern imagination. Its pioneering forays in engineering, artistic expression, and governance stand testament to its unparalleled ingenuity. However, it is the quotidian travails of its populace—tillers, artisans, merchants, and familial units—that proffer an authentic glimpse into the fabric of this storied civilization. Through the prism of everyday existence, one can glean insights into the resourcefulness, resilience, and cultural fecundity that defined ancient Egypt, conjoining to furnish its enduring legacy.

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Egyptian history essay

In the Egyptian history, 1956 is remembered as the year of prominent war which the whole world termed it as Suez calamity. The conflict was between United Kingdom and Egypt, Israel and France. When Israel started to invade the strips of Sinai and Gaza, three nations declared total war on Egypt in 1956. In Sinai, disastrous confrontations were witnessed against the military of Egypt, soldiers and the citizens. The violence crimes did not only occur to Israel but also to the sides of French and British countries whereby both British and French countries did not put into consideration the international humanitarian laws.

Generally, the 1956 war crisis is clarified as war aligned with Egyptian citizens, Egyptian POWs. Such wars were terrifying and were also considered to be against international humanitarian laws and conformity. Several events contributed to the 1956 Suez war. Both Western states and President Nasser had planned to finance the project of Aswan High Dam construction. They never came to a conclusion which later led to the beginning of the crisis. The construction of the dam aimed at increasing both the irrigation practices and also to generate electricity power.

Such would have served a variety of fields, among them being agriculture, industrial firms which would symbolize the modern Egypt (Monroe 1963, pg 55). Both United States and Britain volunteered to give Egypt unconditional loan to support the project which had a negative impact to Nasser. Suez Canal organization owned the canal which had the headquarters in Paris. Suggestions of nationalization of canal came up with Britain prime minister where the secretary of United States Dulles recommended that Nasser would eject the whole issue.

Britain and France were key users of the canal for transportation of oil to other nations. To them, they saw Nasser as a big threat to their business. Immediately, Eden planned to prepare a military attack but informed that Britain was not in a position of such actions. As a respond to this issue, Britain and France planned to freeze the Egyptian properties in their country and started preparing military officers in the eastern parts of Mediterranean. With time, the Egypt country decided to compensate the Suez Canal company stakeholders and also promised to warranty the access rights to all ships.

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These were very hard conditions for Britain and French to meet. On the other hand, Egypt was given support by the Soviet Union, the third world countries and the East European allies of Soviet Union. Unites States was not after the idea of nationalizing the canal unlike the Britain. It was not after the issue of application of force to capture the canal. Consequently, an action which was referred to as tripartite war occurred whereby, Israel, Britain and France invaded Egypt.

The France and Britain’s plan to have full control of the Suez Canal made the Israel to invade across the desert of Sinai. France and Britain also issued ultimatum to Israeli and Egyptians to quit from both sides of the canal as they neared the scene. To facilitate shipping, Anglo French group occupied the canal to seize the fighting and also keep the canal free for transportation (Monroe 1963, pg 87). In late October, 1956, Egyptian commandos were adversely destroyed by troops from Israeli who had crossed the border into the Sinai.

The first indication of difference between Britain, Israel and France arose when Anglo-French provocation was forwarded to Israel and Egypt, even before the Israel had got entry to the canal. Egyptian air forces were destroyed by British through bombing. At the same time, the French and British paratroopers were crushed down. Fierce resistance could be witnessed from the Egyptians. No transport could take place in the canal because all ships were sunk. During the process of battle, about 2,700 military force and citizens of Egypt were wounded or killed.

Eventually, Egypt claimed to be the winners of the battle although it was attacked and the Canal Zone used for quite some time. The tripartite attack resulted to general criticisms. France and Britain were highly threatened by the Soviet Union due to application of rocket hits if they failed to withdraw from the battle. The United States was annoyed because it was not incorporated in the battle against Egypt. It in turn pressurized France and Britain to cease from fighting. After several threats, France and Britain accepted to cease fire in the late 1956, when their troops were suspended to proceed the along the canal.

The final attack occurred on December, 22 1956. From the first, both Nasser and Western states had an agreement of financing the construction of a dam in the Suez Canal which would provide them with both energy and electricity. They never succeeded and in turn, crisis erupted. Later, Egypt decided to ban Britain from transporting the services through the canal which to Britain sounded like an act of interfering with its economic activities. This also led to conflicts between the two states.

Also, the battle was highly catalyzed by the intentions of France and Britain to forcefully capture the Suez Canal through issuing the ultimatum to both Egypt and Israel to vacate from the Canal Zone. As a result, Egyptian president Nasser refused where France and Britain reacted through attacking Israel and Egypt thus occupying a section of the zone (Hahu 1991, pg 65). The principal state actors in the invention included the Israeli forces and Egyptian who bordered the Suez Canal and had the ownership of the zone and the Britain and France who wanted to capture the canal by force.

During the battle, some of the officials who participated within the focal state included Abdul Nasser, the president of Egypt, Eisenhower who was the United States President among others. The British and France presidents also played a role in facilitating the Suez war so as to protect their international business interferences from Israel and Egypt who wanted to ban them from using the Suez Canal. The actual role played by the key participants in the Suez war 1965 includes the Gamal Abdel Nasser’s objection to the plan of France and British states to capture the Suez Canal.

This was of great importance because the two states had planned to capture and dominate the whole zone through use of powers. Also, Nasser’s plan with the western states to construct a dam to in the canal played a major role in decision making because in turn it would boost the economic status of Egypt. Although the plan never materialized, it aimed at making a new Egypt. During the time of war, several dimensions were put in place to obtain the objectives of the crisis. Such included military force where some Arab and Egypt nations gained independence from European controlled empires like France and Britain.

As these young nations assert their political rights as liberated people, the old cultures strove to expand their military and economic sufficiency. The Cold War crisis that has been happening between the most capitalist countries and the communist countries in west by Soviet Union has interfered with nationalist objectives and goals for most of the Asian and Africa countries. For instance, foreigners denied Egypt financial aid to build the Aswan Dam in River Nile which would have had control to the wild River Nile (Hanes 1995, pg 92).

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    The history of literature began in the Bronze Age with the invention of writing in Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. In Egypt, hieroglyphs and the similarity of drawings were used for writing. Black Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt. That was the home to the earliest culture of the black people in Africa.

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    Egypt, located in the northeastern corner of Africa, has a rich historical legacy that spans over thousands of years. From the rise of ancient civilizations to its modern-day geopolitical significance, Egypt's history has shaped the world in numerous ways. Studying the history of Egypt is crucial for understanding the development of human civilization, the evolution of political and social ...

  15. Civilization in ancient Egypt

    Civilization in Ancient Egypt Essay. The basic element of ancient civilization in Egypt besides its geography is religion. The government, literature, astronomy, medicine and arts formed their basis on religion. It is therefore justified to say that religion was integral to the Egyptians way of life. Since the earliest beginnings of religion in ...

  16. Papyrus in Ancient Egypt

    Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History Essays Papyrus in Ancient Egypt. Model Paddling Boat Heqanakht Account VII ... Many scholars believe that this was a state-run enterprise, at least in the later periods of Egyptian history; it has been suggested that the Greek term papuros comes from the Egyptian pa-per-aa, "that of the pharaoh," although ...

  17. History of Egypt Essay

    1387 Words. 6 Pages. Open Document. History of Egypt. The rich history of Egypt is tied very closely with the Nile River's fertile banks and existence as a source of water. Flowing south to north, this massive river has had a tremendous impact on agriculture, transportation, religion, migration of populations, and culture as a whole.

  18. The Ancient Egyptian Civilization Essay

    Ancient Egypt is memorialized for its opulent history and culture along with the unique and defining burial practices. Ancient Egyptian religion was a very intricate yet complex way of belief. Egyptian religion was based on the worship and fellowship of many God's who were believed to have a constant and ever being control of all earthly ...

  19. The History Of Ancient Egypt History Essay

    The major events of Egypt's history during the time of pharaoh are listed below. 2700 B.C - First Pyramids Build. 2100 B.C - Mentuhotep II gained control of entire country. (2920 - 2770 BC) - During this time the capital at Memphis was founded. Papyrus was invented.

  20. Ancient Egypt

    Ancient Egypt is a civilization known for its pyramids, pharaohs, and the Nile River, existing from 3100 BC to 332 BC. An essay on this topic could delve into its rich history, culture, architectural, and scientific achievements. Furthermore, discussions could explore the influence of Ancient Egypt on subsequent civilizations and its enduring ...

  21. 100 Words Essay on Ancient Egypt

    250 Words Essay on Ancient Egypt Introduction. Egypt is a country in Africa. It has a very long history. People lived there thousands of years ago. These people are called Ancient Egyptians. They are famous for many things. Pyramids. The Ancient Egyptians built big stone structures called pyramids. The biggest is the Great Pyramid of Giza.

  22. Daily Life and Society in Ancient Egypt

    Essay Example: Existence within ancient Egypt manifested as a mesmerizing amalgamation of ingenuity, spirituality, and communal bonds. Stretching across a span exceeding three millennia, this civilization etched an enduring imprint upon history through its remarkable strides in architectural.

  23. Egyptian history essay Essay

    Egyptian history essay. Free Essays, History. In the Egyptian history, 1956 is remembered as the year of prominent war which the whole world termed it as Suez calamity. The conflict was between United Kingdom and Egypt, Israel and France. When Israel started to invade the strips of Sinai and Gaza, three nations declared total war on Egypt in ...