Talk to our experts

1800-120-456-456

  • Environmental Protection Essay

ffImage

Essay on Environmental Protection

Environmental protection is improving, defending, and maintaining the quality of the environment. The main methods of environmental protection are recycling, reusing, and reducing; however, some other methods such as Green Energy production, green transportation development, and eco-friendly industrialization also exist. Not only residents but also businesses and industries should play their basic roles to improve the environment.

The History of Environmental Protection  

Humankind has always been concerned about the environment. The ancient Greeks were the first to develop environmental philosophy, and they were followed by other major civilizations such as India and China. In more recent times, the concern for the environment has increased because of growing awareness of the ecological crisis. The Club of Rome, a think tank, was among the first to warn the world about the dangers of overpopulation and pollution in its report "The Limits to Growth" (1972).

In the early days of environmentalism, people thought that the best way to protect nature was to set aside areas where humans would not disturb the environment. This approach, which is known as preservation, was given a major boost in the United States with the establishment of the National Park Service in 1916.

The modern environmental movement began in the 1960s when concerns about the negative impact of humans on the environment began to increase. In response to these concerns, governments around the world began to pass legislation to protect the environment. In the United States, for example, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was established in 1970.

The Principles of Environmental Protection

There are three fundamental principles of environmental protection:

The precautionary principle: This principle states that if an activity has the potential to cause harm to the environment, then steps should be taken to prevent that harm even if there is no clear evidence that the activity is damaging.

The polluter pays principle: This states that the party responsible for causing pollution should be held responsible for cleaning it up.

The public right to know the principle: This principle states that the public has a right to know about any potential threats to the environment and what is being done to address them.

The goals of Environmental Protection

There are three main goals of environmental protection:

To protect human health: This is the most important goal of environmental protection because humans cannot survive without a healthy environment.

To protect ecosystems: Ecosystems are the foundation of life on Earth, and they provide many benefits to humans, such as clean air and water, food, and fiber.

To promote sustainable development: Sustainable development is a development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

Environmental protection is a practice that aims to protect the natural environment from the hands of individuals, organizations, and governments. It is the need of the hour because the Earth's environment is deteriorating every day, and the reasons are human beings. They are mishandling the Earth's environment to fulfill their needs. If it goes like this, then it is difficult to say that the future generation will have a safer environment to live in. Through this essay, you will learn the importance of environmental protection.

A Long Essay on Environmental Protection

It is imperative to protect our natural environment from deteriorating, and the only way to do that is through environmental protection. This process should be adopted by every country as soon as possible before it is too late. The objective of this process is to conserve all the natural resources and try to repair some parts of the environment that are possible to get repaired. The biophysical environment is getting degraded permanently because of overconsumption, population growth, and the rapid development of technology. This can be stopped if the government plan strategies to restrict these activities to perform in a controlled way. This environmental protection essay can be a great help for the students to understand the environment they are living in.

Voluntary Environmental Agreements

Voluntary environmental agreements are getting popular in most industrial countries. Through this free essay on environmental protection, one will learn more about this type of agreement. These agreements provide the companies with a platform where they are recognized if they are moving beyond the minimum regulatory standards for protecting the environment. These agreements support the development of one of the best environmental practices. For example, the India Environment Improvement Trust (EIT) has been working in this environment field since the year 1998. Through this environmental protection essay, one is getting so much to learn.

Ecosystems Approach

An ecosystem approach to environmental protection aims to consider the complex interrelationships of the ecosystem as a whole to the process of decision making rather than just focusing on specific issues and challenges. The environmental protection essay writing will give a more precise overview of this approach. The ecosystems approach aims to support the better transferring of information, develop strategies that can resolve conflicts, and improve regional conservation. This approach has played a major role in protecting the environment. This approach also says that religions also play an important role in the conservation of the environment.

International Environmental Agreements

In the present scenario, many of the Earth's natural resources have become vulnerable because of humans and their carelessness towards the environment across different countries. As a result of this, many countries and their governments have come into different agreements to reduce the human impact on the natural environment and protect it from getting deterioration. Through this environmental protection essay in English, one will get a much clearer view on this matter particularly.

The agreements made between different governments of various countries are known as International Environmental Agreements. This agreement includes factors such as climate, oceans, rivers, and air pollution. These agreements are sometimes legally bound, and in case they are not followed, it may lead to some legal implications. These agreements have a long history with some multinational agreements that were made in the year 1910 in Europe, America, and Africa. Some of the most well-known international agreements are the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement. Through this environmental protection essay, it is clear that governments are taking steps to solve the environmental issue, but it is not enough.

A Short Paragraph on Environmental Protection in English

Earth is a beautiful place to live in, with the most favorable environmental conditions for living beings. But we humans are making it vulnerable and are destroying our own homes with activities that are causing pollution at an increased rate. In this protecting the environment essay, 200 words will be explained properly on how to save the environment.

Environmental protection has become the need of the hour as it is getting destroyed each day. So, governments are making policies and are coming into agreements with other countries to come up with strategies that can protect the environment. Some companies also have the same aim of protecting the environment from the activities of humans.

In this short article on environmental protection, it is clear that if sudden steps are not taken then, our future generation will have to live in a polluted environment that is conserved very conserve difficult. Environmental protection is the key to a safe and secure future with a beautiful environment to live in. 

With pollution increasing each year and causing deterioration of the natural environment, it has become necessary to take steps to protect the natural environment. As we know that the reason for all these problems is humans, governments should make policies to restrict their activities that are causing harm to the environment. If they are not stopped urgently, then the world might see some catastrophic destruction in the coming years. For example, climate change has been a huge problem, and this is one of the causes of increased pollution. A secured future depends on the environment as a whole.

arrow-right

FAQs on Environmental Protection Essay

1. What are International Environmental Agreements?

International environmental agreements are legal contracts between countries that discuss the protection of the environment to provide better living to present and future generations. These include issues such as climate, oceans, rivers, air pollution, etc. we should always consider that if we harm our environment, then it can affect us as well, and we will become more vulnerable. If we do not take action now, it might get a lot worse. We need to be the generation that starts taking care of our planet and future generations!

2. What is the Kyoto Protocol?

The Kyoto Protocol is one of the most well-known and successful international environmental agreements that has been made in the past to protect the environment. This agreement between countries was made to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases which are causing damage to the ozone layer and climate change. With the help of Kyoto, protocol countries have reduced emission rates by 8% and are planning to reduce them more so that future generations can live in a healthy environment in which they can flourish.

3. What is the Paris Agreement?

The Paris Agreement was made in 2015 to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases and to stop climate change. This agreement is very important as it includes every country in the world, and all have agreed to work together to stop climate change. This is a huge step forward as it means that everyone is now working together to try to save our planet. If we try to solve these problems together, then we will have a chance to save our planet.

4. What is the Green Climate Fund?

The Green Climate Fund comes from an agreement made in 2010 to provide money for developing countries that are going through issues such as deforestation and air pollution by making them more sustainable. This fund has a goal of collecting 100 billion dollars by 2020 for supporting developing countries. If this can happen, then many lives can be saved, and we will be able to see a lot of positive changes in the coming years and decades so that we can see an improved environment.

5. What are some activities that harm the Environment?

Some activities that harm the environment include burning fossil fuels, deforestation, air pollution, and wastewater discharge. These activities harm not only the environment but also humans, and we must take action now to reduce the impact which we are causing. For example, the burning of fossil fuels is one of the main reasons for climate change and air pollution, which both have a huge impact on humans. If we stop these activities, then it will be a lot better for everyone!

6. How can we protect the Environment?

Environmental protection is very much required in today's time. Some of the ways to protect the environment are to reduce, reuse, recycle, conserve water, save electricity, clean up the community, educate people on pollution, conserve water, preserve soil, tree plantation, use long-lasting bulbs, and plant trees. Heaven these are the ways which help us to protect the environment from getting polluted.

7.  Why is Environmental Protection Important?

The ecosystem in which we live provides the natural services that are very much important to humans and other species for health, quality of life, and survival. So to protect that, environmental protection is very important. Hence, governments of various countries should make strategies to protect our natural environment from getting polluted.

U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Here’s how you know

Official websites use .gov A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS A lock ( Lock A locked padlock ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

JavaScript appears to be disabled on this computer. Please click here to see any active alerts .

  • Recycling Basics and Benefits

Recycling is the process of collecting and processing materials that would otherwise be thrown away as trash and turning them into new products. Recycling can benefit your community, the economy, and the environment. Products should only be recycled if they cannot be reduced or reused. EPA promotes the waste management hierarchy , which ranks various waste management strategies from most to least environmentally preferred. The hierarchy prioritizes source reduction and the reuse of waste materials over recycling.

On this page:

In the United States in 2018, 292.4 million tons of trash were generated. 146.2 million tons ended up in landfills.

Benefits of Recycling

  • Recycling System Overview

Challenges to Recycling System

What is being done, environment.

Recycling provides many benefits to our environment. By recycling our materials, we create a healthier planet for ourselves and future generations. 

Conserve natural resources: Recycling reduces the need to extract resources such as timber, water, and minerals for new products.

Climate change: According to the most recent EPA data , the recycling and composting of municipal solid waste (MSW or trash) saved over 193 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent in 2018. 

Energy savings: Recycling conserves energy. For example, recycling just 10 plastic bottles saves enough energy to power a laptop for more than 25 hours. To estimate how much energy you can save by recycling certain products, EPA developed the individual Waste Reduction Model (iWARM). 

Waste and pollution reduction: Recycling diverts waste away from landfills and incinerators, which reduces the harmful effects of pollution and emissions. 

EPA released significant findings on the economic benefits of the recycling industry with an update to the national Recycling Economic Information (REI) Study in 2020. This study analyzes the numbers of jobs, wages and tax revenues attributed to recycling. The study found that in a single year, recycling and reuse activities in the United States accounted for:

  • 681,000 jobs,
  • $37.8 billion in wages, and
  • $5.5 billion in tax revenues.

This equates to 1.17 jobs per 1,000 tons of materials recycled and $65.23 in wages and $9.42 in tax revenue for every ton of materials recycled. For more information, check out the full report .

Kids with recycling bin smiling

Environmental Justice: Across the country, waste management facilities are concentrated in underserved communities, and they can have negative impacts on human health, property values, aesthetic and recreation values, and land productivity. Recycling provides these areas with a healthier and more sustainable alternative.

International: Waste generated in the United States also affects communities in other countries. Recycled materials are exported to some countries that are not able to manage those materials in an environmentally sound manner.  

U.S. Recycling System Overview

The recycling process is made up of three steps that are repeated over and over again. This creates a continuous loop which is represented by the familiar chasing arrows recycling symbol. The three steps of the recycling process are described below.  

Step 1: Collection and Processing

Businesses and consumers generate recyclables that are then collected by either a private hauler or government entity. There are several methods for collecting recyclables, including curbside collection, drop-off centers, and deposit or refund programs. Visit How do I recycle... Common Recyclables for information on specific materials. 

After collection, recyclables are sent to a recovery facility to be sorted, cleaned, and processed into materials that can be used in manufacturing. Recyclables are bought and sold just like raw materials would be, and prices go up and down depending on supply and demand in the United States and around the world.

Step 2: Manufacturing

After processing, recyclables are made into new products at a recycling plant or similar facility. More and more of today's products are being manufactured with recycled content.

Recycled materials are also used in new ways such as recovered glass in asphalt to pave roads or recovered plastic in carpeting and park benches.

Step 3: Purchasing New Products Made from Recycled Materials

You help close the recycling loop by buying new products made from recycled materials. There are thousands of products that contain recycled content. When you go shopping, look for the following:

  • Products that can be easily recycled
  • Products that contain recycled content

Below are some of the terms used:

  • Recycled-content product - The product was manufactured with recycled materials either collected from a recycling program or from waste recovered during the normal manufacturing process. The label will sometimes include how much of the content came from recycled materials.
  • Post-consumer content - Very similar to recycled content, but the material comes only from recyclables collected from consumers or businesses through a recycling program.
  • Recyclable product - Products that can be collected, processed, and manufactured into new products after they have been used. These products do not necessarily contain recycled materials. Remember not all kinds of recyclables may be collected in your community, so be sure to check with your local recycling program before you buy.

Some common products you can find that are made with recycled content include the following:

  • Aluminum cans
  • Car bumpers
  • Cereal boxes
  • Comic books
  • Egg cartons
  • Glass containers
  • Laundry detergent bottles
  • Paper towels
  • Steel products

While the benefits of recycling are clear, the current system still faces many challenges. 

  • Many people are confused about what items can be recycled, where they can be recycled and how. This often leads to recyclables going in the trash or trash going in the recycling bin.
  • America’s recycling infrastructure has not kept pace with today’s waste stream. Communication between the manufacturers of new materials and products and the recycling industry needs to be improved to prepare for and optimally manage the recycling of new materials.
  • Domestic markets for recycled materials need to be strengthened in the United States. Historically, some of the recycled materials generated in the U.S. have been exported internationally. However, changing international policies have limited the export of materials. Improving communication among the different sectors of the recycling system is needed to strengthen the development of existing materials markets and to develop new innovative markets.
  • We need to better integrate recycled materials and end-of-life management into product and packaging designs. 
  • More consistent measurement methodologies are necessary to improve recycling system performance. These more standardized metrics can then be used to create effective goals and track progress.

The Bipartisan Infrastructure Law: Transforming U.S. Recycling and Waste Management:   The Bipartisan Infrastructure Law is a historic investment in the health, equity, and resilience of American communities. With unprecedented funding to support state and local waste management infrastructure and recycling programs, EPA will improve health and safety and help establish and increase recycling programs nationwide. 

National Recycling Strategy : EPA developed the National Recycling Strategy with a focus on advancing the national municipal solid waste recycling system. It identifies strategic objectives and actions to create a stronger, more resilient, and cost-effective recycling system.  

Draft Strategy to Prevent Plastics Pollution: This strategy builds upon EPA’s National Recycling Strategy and focuses on actions to reduce, reuse, collect, and capture plastic waste.

America Recycles Day : Every year on November 15, EPA reminds everyone of the importance and impact of recycling through education and outreach.

Basel Convention :  The United States is a signatory to the Basel Convention, but has not yet become a Party to the Convention. The Basel Convention establishes standards for the transboundary movement of various types of waste. 

  • Recycle Home
  • Reduce and Reuse Basics
  • Frequent Questions on Recycling
  • How Do I Recycle...
  • What You Can Do
  • Used Electronics
  • Used Batteries
  • Food Waste Prevention
  • Composting at Home
  • Students and Educators

Essay on Recycling for Students and Children

500+ words essay on recycling.

Recycling is a method of procedure that includes the collection and breaking down of waste material to create something new out of it. The process was introduced sot that the non-biodegradable materials can be melted or break down to create something useful. After the effects of global warming and pollution have become known to men the process of recycling has become more important.

Essay on Recycling

Why We Need Recycling?

We need recycling for many reasons. But most importantly, it will help us to save our planet. Besides, recycling saves the earth by facilitating the reprocess of paper which will save millions of trees.

Also, recycling saves a lot of energy because many things that we recycle can easily be converted into virgin materials. In addition, it saves a lot of resources too.

Moreover, recycling reduces the burden of the environment. As we save energy the number of greenhouse gases and oxides are produced in less quantity. Because most of the toxic gases are produced by factories.

In addition, recycling reduces the amount of waste, that takes years to decompose. Also, the recycled material can be sold. We use this recycled material for the manufacturing of many new products. So, ultimately recycling saves money.

Get the huge list of more than 500 Essay Topics and Ideas

The Process of Recycling

The various materials that we recycle have to go through a process that refines and purifies them. Besides, different materials go through a different process and in this topic we will discuss the recycling process of various materials.

Paper- It is the most used material on the earth. Paper is made up of two materials water and wood. For recycling paper firstly they break it down in small pieces and dissolve it into water. After that, they add chemicals that filter out the ink and dirt from it. In addition after filtering the paper takes the form of a mush called the pulp and this pulp is later converted into clean paper.

Metals-  The metals are first shredded into small pieces and then they were melted and after that remolded into new shapes.

Glass- The recycling of glass is the easier they just break it into pieces and then they melt it and recast them.

Plastic- They also follow the same process as plastic. But, the process of plastic recycling is a little bit complex because they have to sort out the different types of plastics. As there is a diverse variety of plastic with different properties.

How Can We Contribute to Recycling?

Almost everything that we use can be recycled whether it is household materials like paper, plastic, metal, glass, furniture, toys, artifacts, vehicles, etc. Besides, opt for things from the market that can easily be recycled. Also, try to use merchandise that is made up of recycled products.

In addition, sort your waste and dump your recyclable waste in the recycle bin so that the authorities can recycle it.

To Sum it up, recycling is a small step by humans to save the environment . But this small step is very effective in the long run. Also, before throwing away the waste we should check it to see if there is a recyclable product in it or not.

FAQs about Essay on Recycling

Q.1 List some benefits of recycling. A.1 There are many benefits to recycling like:

  • It reduces the amount of waste produced by us.
  • Conserves natural resources such as water, wood, and minerals.
  • It prevents the overuse of resources and helps in preserving them.
  • In addition, it saves energy.

Q.2 Give an important fact related to recycling. A.2 An important fact can be that recycling reduces the amount of waste which goes to landfills. Also, lesser density in landfill means less amount of methane and other gases is released into the air.

Customize your course in 30 seconds

Which class are you in.

tutor

  • Travelling Essay
  • Picnic Essay
  • Our Country Essay
  • My Parents Essay
  • Essay on Favourite Personality
  • Essay on Memorable Day of My Life
  • Essay on Knowledge is Power
  • Essay on Gurpurab
  • Essay on My Favourite Season
  • Essay on Types of Sports

Leave a Reply Cancel reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Download the App

Google Play

Environmental Protection Essay

The environmental protection essay is a great way to assist the little ones in understanding how to protect the environment. Environmental protection has emerged as one of the major challenges in the world for centuries and has always been important to humans. As of late, it has seen a dramatic change in environmental policy, primarily through the use of the law. One way that law is used to protect the environment is by enacting government regulations on pollution and preventing environmental degradation.

Environmental protection is an integral part of today’s society, but many people lack even basic knowledge on what they can do to help protect our environment. The destruction of the environment and the depletion of natural resources are significant issues that are ever-present. In this essay, there will be a list of ideas for participating in the fight against these problems. This essay on environmental protection describes the meaning and importance of environmental protection and also teaches the right method to preserve the environment.

Environmental Protection Essay

How to Protect the Environment Essay

Environmental protection is the practice of protecting the natural environment against various human activities that degrade, destroy, or otherwise reduce its quality for future generations. Environmental protection has become a widespread issue in recent decades as human pressures on the environment have increased exponentially.

There are many ways to protect the environment. One way to protect the environment is by recycling – a way to reduce the carbon footprint and conserve natural resources. It also decreases the amount of waste that goes into landfills, which causes less pollution to water bodies. Another way is to use eco-friendly products in your life. This can contribute to a healthier environment by reducing the number of harmful chemicals and toxins in the air, ground, and water.

To protect the environment, we should be conscious of what we consume and how we consume it. Many factors affect the quality of our air, water, and land, but it is best to start small by always considering its impact on the environment.

Afforestation and tree plantation help protect our environment by reducing global warming, soil erosion, etc. We can reduce our carbon footprint through carpooling instead of driving, which is cheaper and reduces our energy usage and emissions.

For more essays similar to the environmental protection essay, visit BYJU’S website. You can also find more exciting kids’ learning resources, such as poems, stories, worksheets, etc., on the website.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is environmental protection.

Environmental protection is the practice of protecting the natural environment by maintaining the quality of air, water, land or ecosystem. The effects that humans have on their environment create issues for the natural environment. This can include air pollution, water pollution, and degradation of land. Governments and people are involved with environmental protection through policies and regulations.

How to protect the environment?

Environmental protection has seen a dramatic change, especially through environmental laws. These laws call for reducing pollution and environmental degradation.

Leave a Comment Cancel reply

Your Mobile number and Email id will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Request OTP on Voice Call

Post My Comment

essay on environmental protection and recycling

  • Share Share

Register with BYJU'S & Download Free PDFs

Register with byju's & watch live videos.

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

  • View all journals
  • My Account Login
  • Explore content
  • About the journal
  • Publish with us
  • Sign up for alerts
  • Open access
  • Published: 22 September 2022

Motivating factors behind the public’s use of smart recycling systems: perceived playfulness and environmental concern

  • Liyuan Liu   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-4925-5624 1 &
  • Yen Hsu   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0003-0835-8675 2  

Humanities and Social Sciences Communications volume  9 , Article number:  328 ( 2022 ) Cite this article

3154 Accesses

3 Citations

1 Altmetric

Metrics details

  • Health humanities
  • Science, technology and society

Smart cities around the world are seeking effective ways to recycle waste. A smart recycling service system is a new recycling method that allows people to engage in environmental protection. Previous studies on recycling have only focused on environmental concerns. Whether public intention to use smart recycling is influenced by environmental concern or perceived playfulness has yet to be explored. Therefore, this study proposes a modified technology acceptance model to discuss the impact of perceived playfulness and environmental concern on public intention to use smart recycling systems. We adopted the maximum likelihood estimation method as the measurement model for this study. The results show that both environmental concern and perceived playfulness motivate people to use smart recycling systems. However, perceived playfulness impacts public intention more than environmental concern and had the most significant impact among the four factors discussed in this study. Therefore, when seeking to improve and promote smart recycling systems, the focus should shift to promoting public intention to use and enhance their environmentally-friendly behavior in a playful way. This study provides new insights into the improvement of smart recycling systems and the implications for promoting them.

Similar content being viewed by others

essay on environmental protection and recycling

The impact of artificial intelligence on employment: the role of virtual agglomeration

Yang Shen & Xiuwu Zhang

essay on environmental protection and recycling

Digital Regenerative Agriculture

Tom O’Donoghue, Budiman Minasny & Alex McBratney

essay on environmental protection and recycling

The role of artificial intelligence in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals

Ricardo Vinuesa, Hossein Azizpour, … Francesco Fuso Nerini

Introduction

The increase in waste generation and accumulated environmental pollution have become significant threats to the sustainable development of many countries worldwide (Zhang et al., 2016 ). Therefore, it is necessary to implement smart waste management systems to eliminate or reduce waste and maintain hygienic conditions (Gupta et al., 2019 ). In recent years, due to the extensive application of the Internet and communication technology, as well as the Internet of Things in waste management, smart recycling has emerged as a new recycling mode (Xue et al., 2019 ).

Smart recycling is based on new and evolving technology; it allows for user convenience (Hong et al., 2014 ) and enables real-time interaction (Chen et al., 2017 ). Specifically, smart recycling integrates various smart components for efficient waste sorting and recycling (Murugaanandam et al., 2018 ). In addition, smart recycling uses gamification and rewards users with points, which makes it fun (Briones et al., 2018 ). Users can learn about waste sorting and relevant recycling knowledge through the interactive display screens of smart recycling systems.

Smart recycling systems were first placed as public facilities in smart cities to promote a clean and tidy environment (Xue et al., 2019 ). However, reports indicate that the majority of smart recycling systems are inefficient, and the promotion of smart recycling systems has been unsuccessful. A change in public intention to participate in recycling affects the recycling effectiveness and the utilization rate of the recycling facilities (Bonino et al., 2016 ). The use of recycling facilities is closely related to environmental awareness, but the intention of residents to participate in recycling is at odds with efforts to support the environmental initiative (B. Zhang et al., 2019 ). Therefore, encouraging active public participation in smart recycling is a challenge (Ma et al., 2017 ; Xiao et al., 2017 ).

Several studies have demonstrated the motivational effect of playtime on user intention in various fields, including education (Padilla-MeléNdez et al., 2013 ), computing (Bozionelos and Bozionelos, 1997 ), and mobile communications (Hsieh and Tseng, 2017 ). In the field of recycling, previous studies (Jekria and Daud, 2016 ; Mtutu and Thondhlana, 2016 ; Yu et al., 2019 ) have discussed the intention to recycle from the perspective of environmental concern, but without probing into the intention to use smart recycling systems motivated by perceived playfulness and environmental concern. The preliminary survey of this study found that the fun features of smart recycling systems attract users to participate in recycling. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the influencing factors of the intention to use smart recycling systems to create a method consistent with the public intention to use them. The findings of this study can provide an understanding of the factors that influence the degree of public participation in smart recycling, and offers suggestions for developing smart recycling systems.

In this study, the factors influencing the intention of urban residents to use smart recycling systems are environmental concerns, perceived playfulness, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use. Moreover, we modified the technology acceptance model (TAM) to explore the impact of environmental concern and the sense of fun on public intention to use smart recycling systems. The specific research objectives are as follows:

To explore whether the related hypotheses of environmental concern and perceived playfulness are valid and whether they affect residents’ intention to use smart recycling systems;

To determine whether environmental concern and perceived playfulness are the main variables that influence public intention to use smart recycling systems, and their effects and relationship;

To discuss how smart recycling systems could be improved.

The remainder of this paper is organized as follows: Section “Literature review and hypotheses” is a literature review and presents research hypotheses. Section “Methodology” describes the research methods; section “Results” presents the results; section “Discussion” discusses the results; and section “Conclusion” provides conclusions. Section “Limitations and future research” describes research limitations and proposes suggestions for future research.

Literature review and hypotheses

Literature review, technology acceptance model (tam).

Ajzen ( 1985 ) proposed the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) based on the Theory of Rational Action (TRA) (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1977 ) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), which are derived from predicting behavioral intention (Ajzen, 1991 ). The TAM proposes the concept of perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and individuals’ behavioral intentions to use technology (Davis et al., 1989 ). The TPB, and its extended model, are used to analyze the recycling behavior in previous studies (e.g., Botetzagias et al., 2015 ; Chan and Bishop, 2013 ; Cheung et al., 1999 ; Nigbur et al., 2010 ; Oztekin et al., 2017 ; Tonglet et al., 2004 ). Smart recycling is a new development with a technological orientation (Xue et al., 2019 ), and many studies adopted the TAM to predict users’ acceptance of technology (Davis et al., 1989 ). The modified TAM is a widely used theory to evaluate users’ acceptance of technology, and the effectiveness of this model has been verified by previous studies (Chen and Chao, 2011 ; Davis et al., 1989 ; Fishbein et al., 1980 ; Moon and Kim, 2001 ). Wu et al. ( 2019 ) discussed the role of public environmental concern through the TAM (Wu et al., 2019 ). Moon and Kim ( 2001 ) introduced perceived playfulness into the TAM (Moon and Kim, 2001 ). Therefore, this study adopted the modified TAM to explore the public’s intention to use smart recycling systems according to four dimensions, namely perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, environmental concern, and perceived playfulness.

Flow theory

Moon and Kim ( 2001 ) extended the TAM by including the flow-theory-based intrinsic motivation factor of perceived playfulness. One variable that may affect users’ acceptance is the flow of intrinsic motivation factors, which can be described as the process of the “best experience” or “most pleasant experience” (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990 ). According to flow theory, positive subjective experience is important for one’s engagement in activities. People are more likely to participate in an activity if they “feel good” about it, i.e., having an intrinsic motivation (Hoffman and Novak, 1996 ; Moon and Kim, 2001 ). Flow theory emphasizes that playfulness is the most widely used concept to measure people’s motivational behaviors (Lee et al., 2009 ). Moon and Kim ( 2001 ) defined perceived playfulness as “the degree to which an individual perceives his/her attention to the interaction, maintains curiosity in the interaction process, and finds the interaction pleasant or interesting in nature.” Perceived playfulness is an important factor that motivates users to engage with a system (Moon and Kim, 2001 ). Csikszentmihalyi ( 2014 ) discussed the application of perceived playfulness as a dimension in human–computer interaction, which provides a theoretical method for measuring and studying perceived playfulness in human–computer interactions (Webster et al., 1993 ).

Motivation theory

The motivation theory explains people’s behaviors (Benabou and Tirole, 2003 ). Motivation refers to the broad tendency to engage in activities with intrinsic or extrinsic orientation, including intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (Vallerand, 2000 ). Benabou and Tirole ( 2003 ), Vallerand ( 2000 ), and Davis et al. ( 1992 ) regarded perceived usefulness as extrinsic motivation and enjoyment as intrinsic motivation (Benabou and Tirole, 2003 ; Davis et al., 1992 ; Vallerand, 2000 ). Igbaria et al. ( 1996 , 1994 ) found that people’s use of systems is subject to the influence of extrinsic motivation (perceived usefulness) and intrinsic motivation (perceived enjoyment) (Igbaria et al., 1996 , 1994 ). Moon and Kim ( 2001 ) regarded perceived playfulness as an intrinsic motivation, positively correlated with perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use (Moon and Kim, 2001 ). Intrinsic motivation factors contribute to people’s acceptance of technology (Malone, 1981 ). Previous psychological studies have emphasized two basic methods to motivate recycling behavior. The first method focuses on the influence of the last event or the latter event on behavioral change but pays little attention to the possible cognitive process; the second method focuses on evaluating and changing the values, beliefs, intentions, and attitudes that are considered to be the motivations for most behaviors (Vining et al., 1992 ). Davis et al. ( 1992 ) pointed out that enjoyment can explain the significant difference in intention to use and the concept of perceived usefulness (Davis et al., 1992 ). Moon and Kim ( 2001 ) proposed “perceived playfulness” as an individual’s significant internal belief to explain their behaviors under intrinsic motivation (Moon and Kim, 2001 ). Intrinsic motivation is also used to describe various environmental attitudes and behaviors (Iacob et al., 2013 ; Koo and Chung, 2014 ; Poortinga et al., 2004 ; Stern, 2000 ).

Hypotheses development

Perceived playfulness.

Playfulness is the inherent motivation for a person when using any new system (Venkatesh and Bala, 2008 ). Playfulness is a complex variable that includes an individual’s enjoyment, psychological stimulation, and interest (Csikszentmihalyi, 2014 ). Moon and Kim ( 2001 ) explained perceived playfulness from an individual’s perspective as follows: a person (1) thinks that their attention is focused on the interaction; (2) is curious about the interaction; and (3) finds the interaction intrinsically interesting (Moon and Kim, 2001 ).

Further research has found that some subjects mentioned engaging in environmental protection behavior to have fun (Koo et al., 2015 ). Playfulness positively affects perceived usefulness and ease of use (Moon and Kim, 2001 ). Previous studies (Lin et al., 2005 ; Moon and Kim, 2001 ; Terzis et al., 2012 ) also confirmed the positive effect of perceived playfulness on the intention to use a new system. Padilla-MeléNdez et al. ( 2013 ) verified that perceived playfulness is positively correlated with perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and intention to use (Padilla-MeléNdez et al., 2013 ).

Based on the above research, the perception of having fun, such as perceived playfulness, is an incentive factor to promote human-computer interaction, and the use of smart recycling systems is a process of human–computer interaction. Therefore, this study introduced perceived playfulness into TAM and proposed the following hypotheses:

Perceived playfulness has a positive influence on perceived usefulness.

Perceived playfulness has a positive influence on perceived ease of use.

Perceived playfulness has a positive influence on intention to use.

Perceived playfulness has a positive influence on environmental concerns.

Environmental concern

Environmental concern is an inherent factor that affects people’s actions regarding waste sorting and recycling (Meng et al., 2019 ). With the deterioration of the environment, the public has gradually become more aware of the importance of environmental protection (Wang et al., 2017 ). Previous studies have shown that environmental concern is positively related to people’s environmental behaviors (Minton and Rose, 1997 ), and those with a high level of environmental concern show a high intention to engage in environmental protection activities (Greaves et al., 2013 ; Ha and Janda, 2012 ). Related studies (Gamba and Oskamp, 1994 ; Jekria and Daud, 2016 ; Schahn and Holzer, 1990 ; Schultz and Oskamp, 1996 ) also clarified the role and impact of environmental concern in recycling. Wu et al. ( 2019 ) confirmed the positive influence of environmental concern on perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and behavioral intention. Therefore, the following hypotheses are proposed:

Environmental concern has a positive influence on perceived usefulness.

Environmental concern has a positive influence on perceived ease of use.

Environmental concern has a positive influence on behavioral intention.

Perceived usefulness

Perceived usefulness indicates the degree to which a person believes using a particular system would improve their job performance (Davis, 1989 ). Smart recycling can improve the efficiency of waste recycling and sorting (Zhang et al., 2019 ). In extensive studies, the influence of perceived usefulness on intention to use has been verified, and the impact of perceived usefulness changes with external variables and structures (Wu et al., 2019 ). In a simple model, without an antecedent variable, perceived usefulness significantly influences intention to use and sometimes attitude (Chen and Lu, 2016 ). When the model contains other antecedent variables, perceived usefulness has a positive and significant influence on intention to use, and external variables play a role through perceived usefulness (Cheng and Huang, 2013 ). The positive impact of perceived usefulness on intention to use has been confirmed in smart systems (Kianpisheh et al., 2011 ; Koo and Chung, 2014 ; Park et al., 2015 ; Wang et al., 2014 ); therefore, the following hypothesis is proposed:

Perceived usefulness has a positive influence on the behavioral intention to use smart recycling systems.

Perceived ease of use

Perceived ease of use refers to the extent to which people think they are free from the physical and mental effort when using a particular system or technology. Smart recycling is easy to use (Zhang et al., 2019 ), and people like to use relatively easy products (Davis, 1989 ). Previous research on smart devices and systems has found that perceived ease of use impacts perceived usefulness and intention to use. Previous research on smart devices and systems (Chen et al., 2009 ; Dong et al., 2017 ; Kranz et al., 2010 ; Stragier et al., 2010 ) found that perceived ease of use affects intention to use and perceived usefulness. Therefore, the following hypotheses are proposed:

The perceived ease of use has a positive influence on the behavioral intention to use the smart recycling system.

The perceived ease of use has a positive influence on the perceived usefulness.

Proposed theoretical model

Based on the above discussion on perceived playfulness, environmental concern, perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and intention to use, the theoretical model and hypotheses are put forward, as shown in Fig. 1 . Perceived playfulness and environmental concern in the modified TAM affect the intention to use smart recycling systems.

figure 1

This figure shows that perceived playfulness and environmental concern are the modified TAM that affects the intention to use smart recycling. This figure is not covered by the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Reproduced with permission of Liyuan Liu; copyright © Liyuan Liu, all rights reserved.

Methodology

Survey design.

This study’s questionnaire consists of three parts: an introduction to the smart recycling systems, respondents’ demographic characteristics, and the measurement items (see Supplementary Questionnaire ).

In the first part, pictures (see Fig. 2 ) and videos were presented to the respondents about the operational process of smart recycling systems. Specifically, the operating procedure is as follows: (1) open the interactive interface of the smart recycling system or smart recycling application (app) on their smartphones; (2) sort recycled items in the smart recycling bins according to the type of recyclables; (3) score points on the app, based on the weight and sorting accuracy of the recyclables; and (4) collect points for small gifts, or play interactive games in the smart recycling app.

figure 2

This picture shows residents using smart recycling. This figure is not covered by the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Reproduced with permission of Liyuan Liu; copyright © Liyuan Liu, all rights reserved.

The second part includes the respondents’ demographic characteristics: gender, age, family income, family size, and usage.

The third part contains the items of the measurement theory model and its hypotheses.

Research measurements

This study referred to the previous scales and modified the items to meet the research purposes. The scale of environmental concern (EC) was modified from Ho et al. ( 2015 ), containing five items; the scale of perceived playfulness (PP) was modified from Terzis et al. ( 2012 ), including four items; the scale of perceived usefulness (PU) was modified from Davis ( 1989 ) and Park et al. ( 2015 ), containing four items; the scale of perceived ease of use (PEU) was modified from Bettiga et al. ( 2020 ) and Venkatesh and Davis ( 2000 ), containing three items; the scale of intention to use (IU) was modified from Li et al. ( 2019 ) and Perrini et al. ( 2010 ), containing three items. The research model consists of five constructs, including 19 items, as shown in Table 1 .

Selection of respondents and data collection

This study focused on residents living in urban communities with smart recycling systems to investigate the factors that impact the public use of smart recycling systems. Ningbo City in China was chosen as the research site for the following reasons:

Ningbo is one of China’s first 46 pilot cities for waste sorting and recycling. It is the first city in China to receive loans from the International Bank for the household waste sorting project. Since the launch of waste sorting in 2013, Ningbo has realized the full coverage of waste sorting in central cities, and the public’s awareness of garbage sorting and recycling has increased from 35.7% to 93.7% (Xie, 2020 ).

Ningbo is a representative city of smart cities, and its experience and efficiency in recycling are higher than in other cities (Wang et al., 2020 ). Waste recycling is an integral part of a smart city and significantly impacts modern society (Dabran et al., 2018 ). Since 2018, Ningbo has actively explored smart recycling and set up a city-wide smart recycling system in many communities, which sets a paradigm for other cities (Zhejiang Provincial Party Committee Political Research Office Industry Division, 2020 ).

Based on the above reasons, Ningbo was chosen as a representative and typical city for this study. The map of the study area is shown in Fig. 3 . The subjects of this study were residents of local communities in Ningbo City equipped with smart recycling systems.

figure 3

This picture shows the location of Ningbo. Ningbo was chosen as a representative and typical city for this study. This figure is not covered by the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Reproduced with permission of Liyuan Liu; copyright © Liyuan Liu, all rights reserved.

Since smart recycling differs from traditional recycling modes, this study focused on the impact of perceived playfulness and environmental concern on public intention to use smart recycling systems. Therefore, the respondents of this study all lived in communities with smart recycling systems, and the data were analyzed to compare the influence of these two factors and their relationship.

The questionnaire was uploaded to a survey website ( https://www.wenjuan.com/list/ ), and electronic copies were sent via social networking platforms (WeChat group) of those communities in the form of a network link. Residents could click the website link of the electronic questionnaire and answer the questions voluntarily and anonymously. The initial research hypotheses and items of the conceptual model were all measured with a seven-point Likert scale, where 1 = “strongly disagree” and 7 = “strongly agree” (Ryu and Jang, 2006 ). The researchers tested the questionnaires and answered them within four minutes. For the electronic questionnaire, the respondents were asked to take more than four minutes to answer the questions, and those who responded to questions for longer than four minutes were rewarded. A total of 378 questionnaires were received and 230 were valid after the data quality control process, with a valid response rate of 60.8%.

Reasonable sample size in studies using structural equation models is 10 times larger than the measured item (Bentler and Chou, 1987 ; Jackson, 2003 ; Kline, 1998 ). Since there were 19 measurement items in this study, according to the suggestions of Kline et al. ( 1998 ), a sample size >190 is considered reasonable. The sample size of this study was 230, which is more significant than 190, suggesting that our sample size was reasonable.

The primary data collected from the respondents included their gender, age, educational level, income, family size, and usage of smart recycling systems. Among the respondents, 33.9% were males 66.1% were females; they were primarily between the ages of 31 and 45 (63.5%), and 80.8% had a junior college degree or above. A personal monthly income of less than 6000 (CNY) accounted for 42.6%, while a higher than 6000 (CNY) accounted for 57.4%. Furthermore, 76.5% of the families had three to four members. Regarding the use of smart recycling systems, 46% of the respondents had used smart recycling systems; among those, 20.4% used them less than once a week, followed by once a week (14.8%) and once a day (1.3%). Moreover, 53.9% of the residents had never used smart recycling systems. The detailed sample base data are shown in Table 2 .

This study analyzed the valid samples according to gender, age, educational level, monthly income, and household size. According to the age groups adopted in Wang et al. ( 2018 ), this study divided the respondents into five age groups: under 20, 21–30, 31–45, 46–60, and above 61. Regarding age and gender ratio, since the questionnaire required family members to know about smart recovery, most respondents were women over 30 years old, and women in this age group are typically responsible for the family chores (Wang et al., 2016 ). Among them, the age group of 31–45 was the largest sample size, followed by 21–30, and 46–60, which corresponded to real-life scenarios (Wang et al., 2018 ). In addition, the respondents’ educational level, income, and family size are consistent with the demographic characteristics of Ningbo City (NBSC, 2021 ). Therefore, the samples obtained in this study are meaningful overall.

Structural equation modeling

This study adopted structural equation modeling (SEM) to test the relationship between the variables and the intention to use smart recycling systems. SEM is a complex methodology in social science for testing the relationship between the potential variables in observation targets. It has great advantages for determining the interaction between potential variables (Gefen et al., 2000 ; Ullman and Bentler, 2003 ). In previous studies, SEM was used to analyze the behavioral intention for recycling (Best and Kneip, 2011 ; Chen and Tung, 2010 ; Fan et al., 2019 ; Ng, 2019 ; Wan et al., 2017 , 2014 ; Zhang et al., 2016 ). It is also suitable for testing the relationship between other variables and behavioral intention (Wu et al., 2019 ), while a confirmatory factor analysis is used to evaluate the measurement model through a maximum-likelihood assessment (MLE), and the structural model is verified through a path analysis (Anderson and Gerbing, 1988 ; Hatcher and O’Rourke, 2013 ).

Measurement model

This study adopted the MLE method as the measurement model. The results are as follows: the standardized factor loadings are between 0.752 and 0.939, indicating that all items are reliable (Chin, 1998 ). The composite reliability (CR) values of the dimensions are between 0.898 and 0.95, which are all above 0.7, indicating a good internal consistency (Nunnally, 1994 ). The average variance extracted (AVE) values are 0.688–0.857, which are all >0.5, indicating a good convergent validity (Fornell and Larcker, 1981 ). The above results are shown in Table 3 .

This study used the AVE method, which is very rigorous, to test the discriminant validity of the measurement model. Fornell and Larcker ( 1981 ) held that the model has discriminant validity if the square root of the AVE of each dimension is greater than the correlation coefficient between the dimensions (Fornell and Larcker, 1981 ). As shown in Table 4 , the square roots of the AVE of most dimensions on the diagonal are larger than the correlation coefficients of the diagonal, suggesting that most of the dimensions in this study have good discriminant validity and are within the acceptable range.

Common method variance (CMV)

The CMV mainly comes from the errors of the measurement tools, which affect the validity of the measurement outcomes of the relationships between dimensions (Podsakoff et al., 2003 ). This study adopted the unmeasured latent method construct (ULMC), which uses a potential variable without observation variables to represent the CMV. If the observation variables are subject to the impact of the CMV of common factors, then the impact of CMV exists. In this study, ULMC was used to measure the CMV. If the model is affected by the CMV, then the CMV would be further modified.

According to the comparison results in Table 5 , the Chi-square difference (Δ χ 2 ) of the two models is 79.993, the difference in the degrees of freedom (Δdf) is 18, and the p -value is 0, indicating that there is a significant difference between the two models. The Chi-square value of congeneric is low, suggesting that the congeneric model is better than the non-congeneric model. The results confirmed that the congeneric model is affected by the CMV.

The congeneric model analyzes CFA after excluding the CMV impact. The constrained model sets the covariance as that of the CFA model affected by the CMV to test the significance of the Chi-square difference between the two models.

According to Table 6 , the Chi-square value difference (Δ χ 2 ) of the two models is 17.647, and the degree of freedom difference (Δdf)) is 10, and the p -value is 0.061, indicating that the Chi-square value of the two models is not significantly different. Even if there is CMV, it does not affect the parameters estimated by the model; hence, the model does not require CMV correction.

Structural model analysis

After using the MLE to analyze the structural model, the degree of fit of the model, the significance test of the research hypothesis, the explanatory variance ( R 2 ), and other results are obtained.

In this study, the nine fit indices that were most widely used in many studies, such as Jackson ( 2003 ), were used to test the fit of the model to the data. The model fitness includes Satorra–Bentler χ 2  = 424.605, 142.00 df, Normed Chi-sqr ( χ 2 /DF) = 2.99, RMSEA = 0.093; SRMR = 0.035, NNFI = 0.929; CFI = 0.941; GFI = 0.914, AGFI = 0.896.

Testing hypotheses

The results of path effectiveness are shown in Table 7 . As seen, perceived playfulness (Unstd. = 0.743, p  < 0.001) significantly affect environmental concern (Unstd. = 0.397, p  < 0.001). Perceived ease of use (Unstd. = 0.362, p  < 0.001) significantly affect perceived usefulness. Environmental concern (Unstd. = 0.345, p  < 0.001) and perceived playfulness (Unstd. = 0.491, p  < 0.001) significantly affect perceived ease of use. Environmental concern (Unstd. = 0.200; p  = 0.010), perceived usefulness (Unstd. = 0.403, p  < 0.001), and perceived playfulness (Unstd. = 0.487, p  < 0.001) significantly affect intention to use. Perceived ease of use (Unstd. = −0.152, p  > 0.001) does not have a significant influence on environmental concerns.

The R 2 value is another important indicator of path model predictive power. The results indicate that 62.4% of environmental concern can be explained by perceived playfulness; 74.3% of perceived usefulness can be explained by environmental concern, perceived playfulness, and perceived ease of use; 68.7% of perceived ease of use can be explained by environmental concern and perceived playfulness; 81.9% of intention to use can be explained by environmental concern, perceived usefulness, perceived playfulness, and perceived ease of use.

This study compared the effects of environmental concern and perceived playfulness on intention to use with normalized regression coefficients. According to Table 7 , the standardized regression coefficient of perceived playfulness to intention to use is 0.535, while that of environmental concern to intention to use is 0.206, and the effect of perceived playfulness on people’s intention to use smart recycling is more significant than that of environmental concern.

Table 8 summarizes all the path coefficients of the SEM and the analysis results of the hypotheses testing. Except for H1 and H10, the other eight hypotheses are supported.

Figure 4 shows the important relationships between the variables in the structural model.

figure 4

This picture shows the important relationships between the variables in the structural model. This figure is not covered by the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Reproduced with permission of Liyuan Liu; copyright © Liyuan Liu, all rights reserved.

Mediation effect analysis

This study used bootstrapping for the effect analysis. Testing the indirect effects by using bootstrapping has more statistical test power than the causal and coefficient product methods (Mackinnon et al., 2004 ; Williams and Mackinnon, 2008 ). According to Hayes ( 2009 ), the resampling process in bootstrapping should be repeated 1000 times for all samples. Based on deviation correction and the percentile method, zero is not included between the lower limit and upper limit of the total effect and the indirect effect (Hayes, 2009 ). Table 9 shows the effect of environmental concern and perceived playfulness.

As shown in Table 8 , the total effect ( β  = 0.778), the direct effect ( β  = 0.487) and the indirect effect ( β  = 0.292) of perceived playfulness is greater than the total effect ( β  = 0.357), direct effect ( β  = 0.200) and indirect effect ( β  = 0.158) of environmental concern.

The results confirm the direct effects ( β  = 0.200) and indirect effects ( β  = 0.158) of environmental concern on intention to use. The indirect influence of environmental concern on intention to use can be divided into two paths: (1) the path of environmental concern, to perceived usefulness, to intention to use is 0.160; (2) the path of environmental concern, to the perceived ease of use, to perceived usefulness, to intention to use is 0.050.

The total effect of perceived playfulness is 0.778, and its direct effect is 0.292. It is interrelated to other variables of the research model, and indirectly affects intention to use. Perceived playfulness indirectly affects the intention to use via four paths. Among them, the path of perceived playfulness, environmental concern, to intention to use has the greatest effect ( β  = 0.148). The above results indicate that perceived playfulness indirectly affects the intention of respondents to use smart recycling.

Based on the discussion of the results and thorough comparison, the intention of the public to use smart recycling systems in this study is mainly influenced by environmental concern, perceived playfulness, and perceived usefulness. The comparison of the influence of various variables on the intention to use smart recycling systems suggests that perceived playfulness, perceived usefulness, and environmental concern influence the intention to use smart recycling systems, in descending order. In conclusion, the effect of perceived playfulness on intention to use is greater than that of environmental concern, but perceived ease of use cannot significantly affect intention to use. Therefore, perceived playfulness should be a priority for researchers or system designers of smart recycling systems. The influence, comparison, and relationship of each factor will be discussed in the following sections.

The results of the hypothesis validation indicate that environmental concern significantly affects intention to use. Smart recycling is closely related to environmental protection, which can reduce waste and promote classified recycling. When people are more concerned about the environment, they are more likely to use smart recycling systems. Previous studies highlighted the strong effect of environmental concern on intention to use (Wu et al., 2019 ), and regarded environmental concern as the main factor for individual participation in waste recycling (Tonglet et al., 2004 ). This study, however, found that environmental concern has a relatively small influence on intention to use, which may be due to the fact that smart recycling is different from traditional recycling modes, and that there may be other more important factors affecting the intention to use smart recycling systems.

Perceived playfulness significantly affects intention to use. This can be explained by the fact that smart recycling systems are based on technologies to achieve recycling, and gamification methods, such as setting rewards, can generate fun for users when using smart recycling systems, thus promoting their intention to use. This finding is consistent with that of Bakker et al. ( 2020 ), which suggested that people have a natural tendency to play because play is intrinsically rewarding and satisfying. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the fun elements that can enhance the intention to use smart recycling systems. Design engineers should pay attention to the application of gamification technology in the smart recycling systems, as well as the users’ ability to understand the information (Gong et al., 2019 ) and interact with the systems. Increasing user participation in the recycling process by using the incentive of gamification technology is irrelevant to the implementation policy (Bakker et al., 2020 ), so this finding is universal.

Compared to environmental concerns, perceived playfulness has a greater influence on the intention to use smart recycling systems. Although some studies on environmental protection show that users are more concerned about the role of the environment, this study found that they pay more attention to the playfulness of smart recycling systems. There is a paradox between the intention and the actual behavior toward household garbage sorting (Chen et al., 2015 ). Even if the urban residents’ environmental awareness is higher, the personal intention to participate in recycling is lower, due to the problem of the recycling facilities (Zhang et al., 2019 ). This suggests that people’s intention of recycling is not primarily due to their environmental concerns. Perceived playfulness is more important and will become the new focus (Lin et al., 2005 ). The results of this study also indicate that the perception of playfulness has a more prominent influence on the intention to use smart recycling systems. Therefore, playfulness can be considered the main factor that attracts people to participate in smart recycling. In addition, a comparison of the analysis results indicates that the public pays more attention to the playfulness of smart recycling systems. In other words, once users experience fun with smart recycling systems, they would be willing to use them; therefore, perceived playfulness should be an important consideration in the design of smart recycling systems. Perceived playfulness stimulates participation and interaction in the process of smart recycling, and promotes recycling in an interesting and interactive manner. Smart recycling systems, which take advantage of gamification technologies, are designed not just for fun, but rather for a clear focus on recycling.

Environmental concern is associated with perceived playfulness, and perceived playfulness significantly affects environmental concern; in other words, a higher level of playfulness can produce positive emotions and satisfaction (Pan et al., 2014 ; Poncin et al., 2017 ; Shin et al., 2011 ). Urban residents are curious about smart recycling systems, and participation and interaction in the smart recycling process encourage them to focus on recycling in an interesting and interactive way. As a result, more urban residents would be motivated to participate in waste recycling and sorting, thus increasing their attention to environmental interaction. The gamification of smart recycling systems makes urban residents feel as if they are playing a game of recycling and sorting. In this gamified recycling process, those who perform well are rewarded, which promotes environmentally friendly habits (Briones et al., 2018 ). Therefore, it is important to note that playful ways of increasing the intention of residents to use smart recycling systems are not intended to diminish the public’s emphasis on smart recycling as a way of protecting the environment. With the improvement of living conditions, urban residents expect higher environmental quality and pay more attention to environment-related systems and equipment. Because of the large population in cities, enormous amounts of waste are produced. The government should pay attention to the incentive and role of fun in smart recycling, and also strengthen the publicity of the environmental protection role of smart recycling systems, so as to improve the public’s environmental awareness and provide effective environmental protection facilities for the public.

The results of effect analysis show that perceived playfulness indirectly affects the intention of urban residents to use smart recycling systems. Environmental concern is the antecedent variable, which can enhance the public’s intention to use smart recycling systems by improving other variables (e.g., perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use); this is consistent with the findings of Wu et al. ( 2019 ). However, whether the environmental concern has an indirect impact on the intention to use through the perceived ease of use is yet to be proven, which is inconsistent with the characteristics in previous studies.

In the process of using smart recycling systems, urban residents perceive the fun of smart recycling, which promotes their attention to environmental protection and enhances their intention to use smart recycling systems. For example, some residents, who were not planning to engage in recycling, may participate in garbage sorting and recycling when they see interesting anime-type garbage sorting ads on the display screen of the smart recycling system. Therefore, in order to increase the public’s intention to use smart recycling systems, it is necessary to provide them with more intelligent and inspiring services through interesting game-based technologies (Zhang et al., 2019 ), thereby promoting the development of environmentally friendly behaviors.

Conclusions and contributions

Conclusions.

This study introduced environmental concern and perceived playfulness into smart recycling, proposed a modified TAM, and discussed the impact of environmental concern and perceived playfulness on the intention of urban residents to use smart recycling systems. The three main conclusions are as follows:

The results of this study validate the eight hypotheses of the theoretical model, only two of which are statistically insignificant. The model can predict the impact of environmental concern and perceived playfulness on the intention to use smart recycling systems.

When comparing people’s environmental concern and perceived playfulness with their intention to use smart recycling systems, perceived playfulness has a greater influence on their intention to use. In addition, the environmental concern can be promoted by perceived playfulness, and the public’s intention to use smart recycling systems can be enhanced.

The results of this study can provide a reference for improving the public’s intention to use smart recycling systems. In the context of promoting smart recycling systems, the focus could be placed on strengthening the sustainability of public garbage sorting and recycling behavior, while the impact of environmental concerns cannot be ignored.

Contributions

Based on the modified TAM, this study focused on the influences of the public’s environmental concern and perceived playfulness on the intention to use smart recycling systems. This study makes five important contributions:

Smart recycling is still in its early stage of development (Xue et al., 2019 ). Previous studies analyzed this topic from the perspective of the accessibility of recycling facilities or recycling behavior, but rarely discussed the interesting perspective of intention to use. This is one of the first studies to apply the TAM to the intention of smart recycling systems.

Although the focus of this study is smart recycling, the theoretical significance can be transferred to other smart devices or environmental protection devices. The modified TAM can enable researchers to further explore the users’ intention to use smart devices, which makes up for the deficiencies of the existing theories in the literature.

A novel finding in this study, which is different from other studies on environmental protection devices, is that perceived playfulness has a higher impact on intention, as compared with the impact of environmental concern. This provides a theoretical reference for the improvement and promotion of smart recycling systems.

Limitations and future research

Limitations.

This study has the following limitations:

During this study period, smart recycling was in its initial stage, and smart recycling systems were only installed for testing in residential communities, which made it difficult to collect data. Although the sample size was of a reasonable value, it was smaller than those in other studies.

Since the main purpose of this study was to explore the Influences of perceived playfulness and environmental concern on the intention to use smart recycling systems, other factors were not included.

The research background is based on China’s smart recycling, which is in its early stage of development; hence, it has not been widely used by the public. At present, the fun design of smart recycling systems is relatively unique. Due to the popularity of smart recycling, the conclusions and suggestions of the research may not be applicable in the future development of smart recycling.

Future research

The suggestions for future research works are as follows:

With the popularization of smart recycling, more samples from other regions can help to further the universality of the results.

In order to analyze and compare the influences of environmental concern and perceived playfulness, no other variables were introduced in this study. In future studies, the influence of other factors on the intention to use the smart recycling system can be discussed.

With the popularization of smart recycling, the intention to use is likely to change. Therefore, a longitudinal survey can be adopted to understand the change in the public’s intention to use smart recycling systems.

Research into the intention of different age groups and genders to use smart recycling systems can be carried out in future studies.

Data availability

The datasets generated during and analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.

Ajzen I (1985) From intentions to actions: a theory of planned behavior. In: Kuhl J, Beckmann J (eds) Action control. Springer, Berlin, pp. 11–39

Chapter   Google Scholar  

Ajzen I (1991) The theory of planned behavior. Organizational behavior and human decision processes 50(2):179–211. https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-T

Article   Google Scholar  

Anderson JC, Gerbing DW (1988) Structural equation modeling in practice: a review and recommended two-step approach. Psychol Bull 103(3):411–423. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.103.3.411

Bakker AB, Scharp YS, Breevaart K et al. (2020) Playful work design: introduction of a new concept. Span J Psychol 23:e19. https://doi.org/10.1017/SJP.2020.20

Article   PubMed   Google Scholar  

Benabou R, Tirole J (2003) Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Rev Econ Stud 70(3):489–520. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-937X.00253

Article   MathSciNet   MATH   Google Scholar  

Bentler PM, Chou C-P (1987) Practical issues in structural modeling. Sociol Methods Research 16(1):78–117. https://doi.org/10.1177/0049124187016001004

Best H, Kneip T (2011) The impact of attitudes and behavioral costs on environmental behavior: a natural experiment on household waste recycling. Soc Sci Res40(3):917–930. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2010.12.001

Bettiga D, Lamberti L, Lettieri E (2020) Individuals’ adoption of smart technologies for preventive health care: a structural equation modeling approach. Health care Manag Sci.23(2):203–214. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10729-019-09468-2

Bonino D, Alizo MTD, Pastrone C et al (2016) WasteApp: smarter waste recycling for smart citizens. Paper presented at the 2016 international multidisciplinary conference on computer and energy science, Split, Croatia. pp. 13–15

Botetzagias I, Dima A-F, Malesios C (2015) Extending the theory of planned behavior in the context of recycling: the role of moral norms and of demographic predictors. Resour Conserv Recycl 95:58–67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2014.12.004

Bozionelos N, Bozionelos G (1997) Psychology of computer use: XLVIII: relation between playfulness and computer anxiety. Psychol Rep 81(3):956–958. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1997.81.3.956

Article   CAS   PubMed   Google Scholar  

Briones AG, Chamoso P, Rivas A et al. (2018) Use of gamification techniques to encourage garbage recycling. a smart city approach. Paper presented at the international conference on knowledge management in organizations, Žilina, Slovakia, 6–10 August 2018

Chan L, Bishop B (2013) A moral basis for recycling: extending the theory of planned behaviour. J Environ Psychol 36:96–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2013.07.010

Chen C, Zhou M, Hu P et al. (2017) Research on the” Internet+“ urban classified garbage recovery and transportation system framework. Paper presented at the 6th international conference on energy and environmental protection, Zhuhai, China, June 2017. pp. 681–690

Chen C-F, Chao W-H (2011) Habitual or reasoned? Using the theory of planned behavior, technology acceptance model, and habit to examine switching intentions toward public transit. Transp Res Part F 14(2):128–137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trf.2010.11.006

Chen JV, Yen DC, Chen K (2009) The acceptance and diffusion of the innovative smartphone use: a case study of a delivery service company in logistics. Inf Manag 46(4):241–248. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.im.2009.03.001

Article   MathSciNet   Google Scholar  

Chen M-F, Tung P-J (2010) The moderating effect of perceived lack of facilities on consumers’ recycling intentions. Environ Behav 42(6):824–844. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013916509352833

Chen S, Li R, Ma Y (2015) Paradox between willingness and behavior: classification mechanism of urban residents on household waste. China Popul Resour Environ 25(9):168–176

Google Scholar  

Chen S-Y, Lu C-C (2016) A model of green acceptance and intentions to use bike-sharing: YouBike users in Taiwan. Netw Spat Econ 16(4):1103–1124. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11067-015-9312-8

Cheng Y-H, Huang T-Y (2013) High speed rail passengers’ mobile ticketing adoption. Transp Res Part C 30:143–160. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trc.2013.02.001

Cheung SF, Chan DK-S, Wong ZS-Y (1999) Reexamining the theory of planned behavior in understanding wastepaper recycling. Environ Behav 31(5):587–612. https://doi.org/10.1177/00139169921972254

Chin WW (1998) Commentary: Issues and opinion on structural equation modeling. JSTOR. https://www.jstor.org/stable/249674

Csikszentmihalyi M (2014) Toward a psychology of optimal experience. In: Csikszentmihalyi M (ed) Flow and the foundations of positive psychology: the collected works of Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 209–226

Csikszentmihalyi M (1990) Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. Harper, New York

Dabran I, Cohen Y, Eden O et al. (2018) An intelligent recycle bin for smart cities. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 11th ACM international systems and storage conference, June 2018. p. 119

Davis FD (1989) Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Q 13(3):319–340. https://doi.org/10.2307/249008

Davis FD, Bagozzi RP, Warshaw PR (1989) User acceptance of computer technology: a comparison of two theoretical models. Manag Sci 35(8):982–1003. https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.35.8.982

Davis FD, Bagozzi RP, Warshaw PR (1992) Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation to use computers in the workplace 1. J Appl Soc Psychol 22(14):1111–1132. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1992.tb00945.x

Dong X, Chang Y, Wang Y et al. (2017) Understanding usage of Internet of Things (IOT) systems in China: cognitive experience and affect experience as moderator. Inf Technol People 30(1):117–138. https://doi.org/10.1108/ITP-11-2015-0272

Fan B, Yang W, Shen X (2019) A comparison study of ‘motivation–intention–behavior’model on household solid waste sorting in China and Singapore. J Clean Prod 211:442–454. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.11.168

Fishbein M, Ajzen I (1977) Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: an introduction to theory and research. Philos Rhetoric 10(2):130–132

Fishbein M, Jaccard J, Davidson AR et al. (1980) Predicting and understanding family planning behaviors. In: Ajzen I, Fishbein M (eds) Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Prentice-Hall

Fornell C, Larcker DF (1981) Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. J Mark Res 18(1):39–50. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224378101800104

Gamba RJ, Oskamp S (1994) Factors influencing community residents’ participation in commingled curbside recycling programs. Environ Behav 26(5):587–612. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013916594265001

Gefen D, Straub D, Boudreau M-C (2000) Structural equation modeling and regression: guidelines for research practice. Commun Assoc Inf Syst 4(1):7. https://doi.org/10.17705/1CAIS.00407

Gong Z, Shan C, Yu H (2019) The relationship between the feedback environment and creativity: a self-motives perspective. Psychol Res Behav Manag 12:825. https://doi.org/10.2147/PRBM.S221670

Article   PubMed   PubMed Central   Google Scholar  

Greaves M, Zibarras LD, Stride C (2013) Using the theory of planned behavior to explore environmental behavioral intentions in the workplace. J Environ Psychol 34:109–120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2013.02.003

Gupta PK, Shree V, Hiremath L et al. (2019) The use of modern technology in smart waste management and recycling: artificial intelligence and machine learning. In: Recent advances in computational intelligence. Springer, pp. 173–188

Ha H-Y, Janda S (2012) Predicting consumer intentions to purchase energy-efficient products. J Consum Mark 29(7):461–469. https://doi.org/10.1108/07363761211274974

Hatcher L, O’Rourke N (2013) A step-by-step approach to using SAS for factor analysis and structural equation modeling. SAS Institute

Hayes AF (2009) Beyond Baron and Kenny: statistical mediation analysis in the new millennium. Commun Monogr 76(4):408–420. https://doi.org/10.1080/03637750903310360

Ho C-W, Wang Y-B, Yen N (2015) Does environmental sustainability play a role in the adoption of smart card technology at universities in Taiwan: an integration of TAM and TRA. Sustainability 7(8):10994–11009. https://doi.org/10.3390/su70810994

Article   CAS   Google Scholar  

Hoffman DL, Novak TP (1996) Marketing in hypermedia computer-mediated environments: conceptual foundations. J Mark 60(3):50–68. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224299606000304

Hong I, Park S, Lee B et al. (2014) IoT-based smart garbage system for efficient food waste management. Sci World J 2014:646953. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/646953

Hsieh SH, Tseng TH (2017) Playfulness in mobile instant messaging: examining the influence of emoticons and text messaging on social interaction. Comput Hum Behav 69:405–414. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.12.052

Iacob M-E, van Sinderen MJ, Steenwijk M et al. (2013) Towards a reference architecture for fuel-based carbon management systems in the logistics industry. Inf Syst Front 15(5):725–745. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10796-013-9416-y

Igbaria M, Parasuraman S, Baroudi JJ (1996) A motivational model of microcomputer usage. J Manag Inf Syst 13(1):127–143. https://doi.org/10.1080/07421222.1996.11518115

Igbaria M, Schiffman SJ, Wieckowski TJ (1994) The respective roles of perceived usefulness and perceived fun in the acceptance of microcomputer technology. Behav Inf Technol13(6):349–361. https://doi.org/10.1080/01449299408914616

Jackson DL (2003) Revisiting sample size and number of parameter estimates: some support for the N : q hypothesis. Struct Equ Model 10(1):128–141. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15328007SEM1001_6

Jekria N, Daud S (2016) Environmental concern and recycling behaviour. Procedia Econ Finance 35(C):667–673. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2212-5671(16)00082-4

Kianpisheh A, Mustaffa N, See JMY et al. (2011) User behavioral intention toward using smart parking system. Paper presented at the international conference on informatics engineering and information science, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, November 2011. pp. 732–743

Kline RB (1998) Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. Guilford, New York

MATH   Google Scholar  

Koo C, Chung N (2014) Examining the eco-technological knowledge of Smart Green IT adoption behavior: a self-determination perspective. Technol Forecast Soc Change 88:140–155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2014.06.025

Koo C, Chung N, Nam K (2015) Assessing the impact of intrinsic and extrinsic motivators on smart green IT device use: reference group perspectives. Int J Inf Manag 35(1):64–79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2014.10.001

Kranz J, Gallenkamp JV, Picot A (2010) Exploring the role of control-smart meter acceptance of residential consumers. Paper presented at the AMCIS, Lima, Peru, August 2010. p. 315

Lee B-C, Yoon J-O, Lee I (2009) Learners’ acceptance of e-learning in South Korea: theories and results. Comput Educ 53(4):1320–1329. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2009.06.014

Li J, Ma Q, Chan AH et al. (2019) Health monitoring through wearable technologies for older adults: smart wearables acceptance model. Appl Ergon 75:162–169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2018.10.006

Article   ADS   PubMed   Google Scholar  

Lin CS, Wu S, Tsai RJ (2005) Integrating perceived playfulness into expectation-confirmation model for web portal context. Inf Manag 42(5):683–693. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.im.2004.04.003

Ma J, Hipel KW, Hanson ML (2017) Public participation in municipal solid waste source-separated collection in Guilin, China: status and influencing factors. J Environ Plan Manag 60(12):2174–2191. https://doi.org/10.1080/09640568.2017.1281798

Mackinnon DP, Lockwood CM, Williams J (2004) Confidence limits for the indirect effect: distribution of the product and resampling methods. Multivar Behav Res 39(1):99–128. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327906mbr3901_4

Malone TW (1981) Toward a theory of intrinsically motivating instruction. Cogn Sci5(4):333–369. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0364-0213(81)80017-1

Meng X, Tan X, Wang Y et al. (2019) Investigation on decision-making mechanism of residents’ household solid waste classification and recycling behaviors. Resour Conserv Recycl 140:224–234. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2018.09.021

Minton AP, Rose RL (1997) The effects of environmental concern on environmentally friendly consumer behavior: an exploratory study. J Bus Res 40(1):37–48. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0148-2963(96)00209-3

Moon J-W, Kim Y-G (2001) Extending the TAM for a World-Wide-Web context. Inf Manag38(4):217–230. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-7206(00)00061-6

Mtutu P, Thondhlana G (2016) Encouraging pro-environmental behaviour: energy use and recycling at Rhodes University, South Africa. Habitat Int 53:142–150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2015.11.031

Murugaanandam S, Ganapathy V, Balaji R (2018) Efficient IOT based smart bin for clean environment. Paper presented at the 2018 international conference on communication and signal processing, Chennai, India, November 2018. pp. 0715–0720

NBSC (2021) China Statistical Yearbook. China Statistical Press. http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/2021/indexch.htm

Ng S-L (2019) Predicting multi-family dwelling recycling behaviors using structural T equation modelling: a case study of Hong Kong. Resour Conserv Recycl 149:468–478. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2019.06.007

Nigbur D, Lyons E, Uzzell D (2010) Attitudes, norms, identity and environmental behaviour: using an expanded theory of planned behaviour to predict participation in a kerbside recycling programme. Br J Soc Psychol 49(2):259–284. https://doi.org/10.1348/014466609X449395

Nunnally JC (1994) Psychometric theory 3E. Tata McGraw-Hill Education

Oztekin C, Teksoz G, Pamuk S et al. (2017) Gender perspective on the factors predicting recycling behavior: implications from the theory of planned behavior. Waste Manag 62:290–302. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2016.12.036

Padilla-MeléNdez A, Del Aguila-Obra AR, Garrido-Moreno A (2013) Perceived playfulness, gender differences and technology acceptance model in a blended learning scenario. Comput Educ 63:306–317. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2012.12.014

Pan L-Y, Chang S-C, Sun C-C (2014) A three-stage model for smartphone use antecedents. Qual Quant 48(2):1107–1115. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-012-9821-1

Park E, Kim H, Ohm JY (2015) Understanding driver adoption of car navigation systems using the extended technology acceptance model. Behav Inf Technol 34(7):741–751. https://doi.org/10.1080/0144929X.2014.963672

Perrini F, Castaldo S, Misani N et al. (2010) The impact of corporate social responsibility associations on trust in organic products marketed by mainstream retailers: a study of Italian consumers. Bus Strategy Environ 19(8):512–526. https://doi.org/10.1002/bse.660

Podsakoff PM, MacKenzie SB, Lee JY et al. (2003) Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. J Appl Psychol 88(5):879–903. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.88.5.879

Poncin I, Garnier M, Mimoun MSB et al. (2017) Smart technologies and shopping experience: are gamification interfaces effective? The case of the Smartstore. Technol Forecast Soc Change 124:320–331. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2017.01.025

Poortinga W, Steg L, Vlek C (2004) Values, environmental concern, and environmental behavior: a study into household energy use. Environ Behav 36(1):70–93. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013916503251466

Ryu K, Jang S (2006) Intention to experience local cuisine in a travel destination: the modified theory of reasoned action. J Hosp Tour Res 30(4):507–516. https://doi.org/10.1177/1096348006287163

Schahn J, Holzer E (1990) Studies of individual environmental concern: the role of knowledge, gender, and background variables. Environ Behav 22(6):767–786. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013916590226003

Schultz PW, Oskamp S (1996) Effort as a moderator of the attitude–behavior relationship: general environmental concern and recycling. Soc Psychol Q 59(4):375–383. https://doi.org/10.2307/2787078

Shin D-H, Shin Y-J, Choo H et al. (2011) Smartphones as smart pedagogical tools: implications for smartphones as u-learning devices. Comput Hum Behav 27(6):2207–2214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2011.06.017

Stern PC (2000) New environmental theories: toward a coherent theory of environmentally significant behavior. J Soc Issues 56(3):407–424. https://doi.org/10.1111/0022-4537.00175

Stragier J, Hauttekeete L, De Marez L (2010) Introducing Smart grids in residential contexts: Consumers’ perception of smart household appliances. Paper presented at the 2010 IEEE conference on innovative technologies for an efficient and reliable electricity supply, Waltham, MA, USA, November 2010. pp. 135–142

Terzis V, Moridis CN, Economides AA (2012) The effect of emotional feedback on behavioral intention to use computer based assessment. Comput Educ 59(2):710–721. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2012.03.003

Tonglet M, Phillips PS, Bates MP (2004) Determining the drivers for householder pro-environmental behaviour: waste minimisation compared to recycling. Resour Conserv Recycl42(1):27–48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2004.02.001

Tonglet M, Phillips PS, Read AD (2004) Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour to investigate the determinants of recycling behaviour: a case study from Brixworth, UK. Resour Conserv Recycl 41(3):191–214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2003.11.001

Ullman JB, Bentler PM (2003) Structural equation modeling. Handbook of psychology. pp. 607–634. https://doi.org/10.1002/0471264385.wei0224

Vallerand RJ (2000) Deci and Ryan’s self-determination theory: a view from the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Psychol Inq 11(4):312–318

Venkatesh V, Bala H (2008) Technology acceptance model 3 and a research agenda on interventions. Decision Sci 39(2):273–315. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5915.2008.00192.x

Venkatesh V, Davis FD (2000) A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model: four longitudinal field studies. Manag Sci 46(2):186–204. https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.46.2.186.11926

Vining J, Linn N, Burdge RJ (1992) Why recycle? A comparison of recycling motivations in four communities. Environ Manag 16(6):785–797. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02645669

Article   ADS   Google Scholar  

Wan C, Shen GQ, Choi S (2017) Experiential and instrumental attitudes: interaction effect of attitude and subjective norm on recycling intention. J Environ Psychol 50:69–79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2017.02.006

Wan C, Shen GQ, Yu A (2014) The moderating effect of perceived policy effectiveness on recycling intention. J Environ Psychol 37:55–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2013.11.006

Wang B, Shen Y, Jin Y (2017) Measurement of public awareness of climate change in China: based on a national survey with 4,025 samples. Chin J Popul Resour Environ15(4):285–291. https://doi.org/10.1080/10042857.2017.1418276

Wang BR, Park J-Y, Chung K et al. (2014) Influential factors of smart health users according to usage experience and intention to use. Wirel Personal Commun 79(4):2671–2683. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11277-014-1769-0

Wang M, Zhou T, Wang D (2020) Tracking the evolution processes of smart cities in China by assessing performance and efficiency. Technol Soc 63:101353. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techsoc.2020.101353

Wang Z, Guo D, Wang X (2016) Determinants of residents’ e-waste recycling behaviour intentions: evidence from China. J Clean Prod 137:850–860. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.07.155

Wang Z, Guo D, Wang X et al. (2018) How does information publicity influence residents’ behaviour intentions around e-waste recycling? Resour Conserv Recycl 133:1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2018.01.014

Webster J, Trevino LK, Ryan L (1993) The dimensionality and correlates of flow in human–computer interactions. Comput Hum Behav 9(4):411–426. https://doi.org/10.1016/0747-5632(93)90032-N

Williams J, Mackinnon DP (2008) Resampling and distribution of the product methods for testing indirect effects in complex models. Struct Equ Model 15(1):23–51. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705510701758166

Wu J, Liao H, Wang J-W et al. (2019) The role of environmental concern in the public acceptance of autonomous electric vehicles: a survey from China. Transp Res Part F 60:37–46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trf.2018.09.029

Xiao L, Zhang G, Zhu Y et al. (2017) Promoting public participation in household waste management: a survey based method and case study in Xiamen city, China. J Clean Prod144:313–322. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.01.022

Xie H-B (2020) Investigation and analysis on the implementation of household waste classification in Ningbo. Ningbo Econ (Sanjiang Forum) 11:34–36

Xue Y, Wen Z, Bressers H et al. (2019) Can intelligent collection integrate informal sector for urban resource recycling in China? J Clean Prod 208:307–315. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.10.155

Yu T-K, Lin F-Y, Kao K-Y et al. (2019) An innovative environmental citizen behavior model: recycling intention as climate change mitigation strategies. J Environ Manag 247:499–508. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.06.101

Zhang B, Lai K-H, Wang B et al. (2019) From intention to action: How do personal attitudes, facilities accessibility, and government stimulus matter for household waste sorting. J Environ Manag 233:447–458. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.12.059

Zhang K, Xu Y, Liu W (2019) Empirical analysis of the intelligent influence factors of social network services effectiveness in e-commerce based on human learning behaviors. Psychol Res Behav Manag 12:415–427. https://doi.org/10.2147/PRBM.S203007

Zhang S, Zhang M, Yu X et al. (2016) What keeps Chinese from recycling: accessibility of recycling facilities and the behavior. Resour Conserv Recycl 109:176–186. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2016.02.008

Zhejiang Provincial Party Committee Political Research Office Industry Division (2020) Exploration and enlightenment of ningbo garbage classification intelligence—Envestigation on the operation of “handlehand” renewable resources recycling system. Policy Outlook 210:26–27

Download references

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by the Humanities and Social Science Research Program of the Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. 21YJA760025) and the Philosophy and Social Science Planning Foundation of Zhejiang Province (Project No. 19NDJC293YB).

Author information

Authors and affiliations.

College of Science & Technology, Ningbo University, 315300, Ningbo, China

The Graduate Institute of Design Science, Tatung University, 104, Taipei, Taiwan

You can also search for this author in PubMed   Google Scholar

Conception/design of the work (LL); analysis of data and interpretation of findings (LL and YH); drafted and revised the work (LL and YH); these authors jointly supervised this work.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Liyuan Liu .

Ethics declarations

Competing interests.

The authors declare no competing interests.

Ethical approval

Approval was obtained from the Internal Review Committee of the Neural Ergonomics Laboratory. The procedures used in this study adhere to the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all participants. All participants were informed about the purpose and aims of the study, their participation is entirely voluntary and the ways the data would be used.

Additional information

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary information

Questionnaire, supporting data, rights and permissions.

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ .

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article.

Liu, L., Hsu, Y. Motivating factors behind the public’s use of smart recycling systems: perceived playfulness and environmental concern. Humanit Soc Sci Commun 9 , 328 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-022-01347-6

Download citation

Received : 07 April 2022

Accepted : 08 September 2022

Published : 22 September 2022

DOI : https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-022-01347-6

Share this article

Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:

Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article.

Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative

Quick links

  • Explore articles by subject
  • Guide to authors
  • Editorial policies

essay on environmental protection and recycling

Home — Essay Samples — Environment — Recycling — Reduce, Reuse, Recycle: The Three R’s for a Future

test_template

Reduce, Reuse, Recycle: The Three R's for a Future

  • Categories: Environmental Issues Recycling

About this sample

close

Words: 620 |

Published: Sep 16, 2023

Words: 620 | Page: 1 | 4 min read

Table of contents

The three r's: explained, the environmental impact, individual and collective responsibility.

  • Reducing single-use plastics by using reusable bags and containers.
  • Minimizing food waste by planning meals and buying only what is needed.
  • Opting for products with minimal packaging.
  • Using energy-efficient appliances and reducing energy consumption.
  • Donating or selling gently used clothing, furniture, and electronics.
  • Repurposing items, such as turning old jars into storage containers.
  • Borrowing or sharing tools, books, and equipment instead of buying new ones.
  • Conserve natural resources by reducing the need for raw materials.
  • Save energy during the manufacturing process.
  • Decrease landfill space and reduce environmental pollution.

1. Resource Conservation:

2. greenhouse gas emissions:, 3. biodiversity protection:, 4. landfill diversion:, individual responsibility:, collective responsibility:.

Image of Alex Wood

Cite this Essay

Let us write you an essay from scratch

  • 450+ experts on 30 subjects ready to help
  • Custom essay delivered in as few as 3 hours

Get high-quality help

author

Dr. Heisenberg

Verified writer

  • Expert in: Environment

writer

+ 120 experts online

By clicking “Check Writers’ Offers”, you agree to our terms of service and privacy policy . We’ll occasionally send you promo and account related email

No need to pay just yet!

Related Essays

2 pages / 1001 words

7 pages / 3045 words

2 pages / 868 words

2 pages / 776 words

Remember! This is just a sample.

You can get your custom paper by one of our expert writers.

121 writers online

Still can’t find what you need?

Browse our vast selection of original essay samples, each expertly formatted and styled

Related Essays on Recycling

Recycling is one of the most fundamental practices for sustainable living. It is an easy and effective way to reduce the impact of our waste on the environment. From plastic bottles to electronic devices, recycling has become a [...]

Recycling, the process of converting waste materials into reusable resources, plays a pivotal role in addressing environmental challenges. In this essay, we will analyze the benefits of recycling and its profound impact on [...]

It is undeniable that our planet is facing a crisis due to the ever-increasing amount of waste being produced. From plastic pollution in the oceans to overflowing landfills, the impact of our waste on the environment is becoming [...]

In conclusion, recycling offers numerous advantages, including the conservation of natural resources, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and economic benefits. However, it is not without its disadvantages, such as the cost [...]

Recycling is promoted as one of the ways of conserving the environment and reducing wastage. Humans are decreasing Earth’s resources faster than they are being produced. In addition, we can expected that the supply of these [...]

An environment is the green place that surrounds us as living beings. We must forever keep it clean and pollution-free in order to live a healthy and peaceful life. However, environmental issues have become a threat to the [...]

Related Topics

By clicking “Send”, you agree to our Terms of service and Privacy statement . We will occasionally send you account related emails.

Where do you want us to send this sample?

By clicking “Continue”, you agree to our terms of service and privacy policy.

Be careful. This essay is not unique

This essay was donated by a student and is likely to have been used and submitted before

Download this Sample

Free samples may contain mistakes and not unique parts

Sorry, we could not paraphrase this essay. Our professional writers can rewrite it and get you a unique paper.

Please check your inbox.

We can write you a custom essay that will follow your exact instructions and meet the deadlines. Let's fix your grades together!

Get Your Personalized Essay in 3 Hours or Less!

We use cookies to personalyze your web-site experience. By continuing we’ll assume you board with our cookie policy .

  • Instructions Followed To The Letter
  • Deadlines Met At Every Stage
  • Unique And Plagiarism Free

essay on environmental protection and recycling

Environmental Protection and Waste Management Essay

Introduction, sources of contemporary environmental challenges, global view of waste management, human ecology in relation to environmental challenges, case analysis of the contemporary environmental challenges, environmental effects of waste, background study of environmental waste.

Contemporary environmental challenges concerning current state of the environment lack clear solutions or elucidation. Arguably, majority of the collective proposals or resolutions have some link to economically associated struggles between companies or are from personal perspectives thus lack any scientifically related basis. There is an urgent need to find proper alternatives of managing waste. Waste disposal is the main pollutant that causes radical and alarming environmental changes.

According to Jandt, (2009) UN research indicates that one person for every six in the world lacks access to clean water (6). The UN prediction is that by the year 2025, two thirds of the worlds’ populace will not have access to adequate clean drinking water. The effect is already underway in some areas where people search relentlessly for the commodity they now commonly refer to as the “blue gold”.

The study indicates that only a ninth of the used plastic bottles are recycled. The rest face dumping into the woods, roadsides, seascapes, streams or rivers. These decay resistant materials clog the landfills thus causing intoxication through leaching. Poor dumping styles are therefore the biggest global environmental challenge.

This paper will form an overview analysis of the factors that cause chaotic and un-harmonized inferences regarding environmental protection. This paper will examine the real consequences of waste to environmental degradation. The analysis also focuses on the intellectual behaviour of people regarding the environmental effects of waste.

Most people have a mentality of engaging recycling as the best and most suitable way of managing waste. Scientifically landfills might be a more viable method of disposal compared to burning or recycling depending on the type of waste, situation at hand, cost/benefit exploration and risk valuation (Bruins and Heberling, 2005, p.76).

It is economically benefiting to consider recycling aluminium cans or foils, while the same option would not be economically viable for paper and glass. Recycling paper consumes more water compared to new production from wood pulp. During paper recycling procedure, there is worse depletion of water resources and scientific discoveries indicate that water is becoming a non-renewable commodity.

Paper recycling also creates more environmental pollution due to ink removal procedures among other factors. For this reasons, there is need to consider the environmental and economic expenses of recycling before engagement. Risk assessment involves analysing the amount and rate of intoxication. The problem lies on lacks of enough prove that secondary production/recycling of most products comprises more pollution than primary production.

The food industry also suffers from various overstretched landfills-related implications from the media. Scientific research ought to be the only viable means of providing information that can guide people on the choice of environmentally friendly procedures. The big debate about the plastic and paper cups in the food industry is very easy to settle.

Scientific research shows that more wood pulp is required to produce a cup compared to polystyrene for plastic cups. Production of paper cups would therefore require more steam, electric energy, cooling water and furthermore there is more waste production. More contaminants are present in the wastewater from wood pulp processing compared to polythene. This indicates that if people would follow the cost analysis and risk assessment of recycling against construction of landfills, then polythene usage would prevail.

The widely overstated allegations regarding landfills are obnoxious since very little space can and will only be required for properly managed disposals, over a long period. This is a clear indication of why the contemporary environmental challenges are termed “Wicked problems”. Leaders such as at the resent Copen Hagen meeting lack proper guidance to choose the appropriate methods for people to follow. Individuals are practicing what they think is right but environmental problems are persisting.

Leaders have been under pressure especially from non-governmental organizations to implement bills that enhance measures to control recycling. While the demand for recycling plastics remains very high, there is very low rate of recycling.

Engagement of global campaigns is a good indication of concern by many people especially environmentalists. Are we suggesting the right mechanism or making the situation worse? Leaders may be pushing waste management regulations and various states have seen the outcome of these ‘producer responsibility laws’ with at least one in every five plastic bottles being recycled.

The common methods for enhancing recycling today are through awareness campaigns over the impact of the plastics to the environment. Such methods are creating responsiveness among consumers with regard to home or business recycling initiative. However, there is lack of appropriate programs to provide consumers with the latest news over recycling methods or right procedures to deal with wastes (Keegan and Schlegelmilch, 2001, p.15).

With scientific analysis terming recycling as an expensive and an environment-threatening procedure, there is lack of vital guidance. Other than having a debate that supports recycling blindly, a reflection on the bright side of the outcome would lead to campaigns for litter-free environments and other environment-friendly measures. The depository laws that govern people’s reactivity to plastics would work better if the public were aware of the scientific results (Keegan and Schlegelmilch, 2001, p.15).

Today the society focuses on happiness, health and better lives, therefore other suggestions revolve around use of biodegradable materials. The issue of biodegradation comes about because of poor response over need for proper waste management styles or recycling. The questions depicted regarding production of biodegradable products focuses on risk evaluation, safety and health.

There is very low response towards educating the public on issues regarding environmental effects of recycling. Arguably, majority of the consumers are aware of the dangers, but prefer it due to exposed scenarios of poor damping. The awareness campaigns ought to focus on proper ways of getting rid of waste based on the cost/benefit analysis as well as evaluation of pollution risks. The choice must depend on effects and cost.

Various economists of ecology present very adverse imagery of the future by referencing the past and comparing it to the contemporary situation. Doom or more wicked problems have been the predictions all along. According to Burman (2007), the problem has a link to human adoptability to the environment. The population is rapidly increasing, but people fail to meet the hasty demands to adapt to the surroundings in accordance with the situations (27).

The past indicates that human species had little struggles adapting to the environment. Population was very little in comparison to availability of resources. Human kind alters the environment frequently to accommodate population growths. Demand for higher living standards of current lifestyles calls for changes. People have varying views and outrageously predicting Global catastrophes due to mismanagement of resources.

The predictions date back to the historical eras but it is easy to contain the situation by adoptability to nature. If people agree on the best way forwards and strictly adhere to the scientifically proved facts, then human adoptability is the only way to prosperous future regardless of the population growth. People should thus depend on Human ecology for basic explanations and guidance through human environmental facts.

Environmentally it would be very difficult to argue against the fact that waste management has become an eminent factor of consideration in the whole world. The development of land is occurring at an alarming rate while the rates of recycling, scarce usage and proper waste disposing mechanisms remain dismally very low. Considering the water industry, the amount of plastic bottles discarded by users exacerbates various environmental problems.

In line with McKinney et al, (2007) bottled water has escalated today with a worldwide production of billions of litres yearly (9). The transportation energy required to distribute this water is a great drain to the limited fossil fuels. The significant environmental strains are thus inclined to the unregulated use of limited variable resources, involved in manufacture of billions of synthetic containers as well as pollution due to improper discards.

Industries waste may be causing a lot of strain to the environment, but the proposed solutions seem to go against the standards of living, thus creating a tug of war between concerns of environmental damage and issues relating to compromised quality of life. Today the world is faced with problems related to global warming as a result if emissions or presence of high intoxicants in the atmosphere.

Most fuel emissions of green house gases such as carbon dioxide poses global challenges of finding ways of limiting such pollutions. To date, the global meetings still lack proper achievements, since the main cause of heated debate concerns quality of life, other than incentives of reducing environmental degradation.

Oils and natural gases facilitate plastics manufactory. The classification of these sources of energy falls under the non-renewable sources of energy. Yearly manufactory of plastic containers or polythene bags indicates a figure of million tons. The problem does not concern manufacturing but the industrial procedures and depository methods.

The plastic bottles are made of substances that require less energy and thus industries release fewer emissions to the surroundings during the recycle process compared to metals or glass and this is the main reason why people should take the advantage of plastics. The process used to making plastics is however toxic and causes severe effluence to the atmosphere and human health, especially when the safety measures lack proper enhancements (Keegan and Schlegelmilch, 2001, p.17).

Today, the environment is facing serious challenges when plastics and polythene bags are not properly disposed or recycled and instead they face haphazard dumping. Plastics remain at the dumping sites for hundreds of years due to the slow rate of breakdown, thus the reason why we need a controlled mechanism.

Considering the scientific reveals mentioned in this analysis, it would be better to recycle other than keep producing and dump haphazardly. A major concern is that, issues of environmental degradation are not solvable through abandoning one pollutant for the other (Kutz, 2005, p.165).

There is lack of strong basis for scientific findings and current guidance is causing the environmental challenges to become “wicked problems”. The merits of contemporary claims require full assessment over sufficient timelines and viable data, in order to filter out the heavily popularized ambiguous claims from mare thoughtful concepts.

If people would consider the effects of recycling to the environment compared to fresh manufactory as revealed earlier in this paper, then the issue of campaigning for need to recycle would never rise. This means that people would never compromise on waste management techniques and therefore contemporary challenges would never exist.

Bruins, R. and Heberling, M. (2005). Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment . Florida, FL: CRC Press. Print.

Burman, S. (2007). “The State of the American Empire: How the USA shapes the World” . Berkley, CA: University of California Press.

Jandt, F. E. (2009). “An Introduction to Intercultural Communication: Identities in a Global Community ” (sixth Ed.), New York NY: Sage

Keegan, W. and Schlegelmilch, B. (2001) “Global Marketing Management: A European Perspective.” New York, NY: Pearson Education Press. Print.

Kutz, M. (2005). Handbook of environmental degradation of materials, Volume 0, Issue 8155 . Norwich, NY: William Andrew Publishers, Print.

McKinney, M., Schoch, R. and Yanavjak, L. (2007). “ Environmental Science: System and Solutions” (fourth Ed). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers

  • Chicago (A-D)
  • Chicago (N-B)

IvyPanda. (2024, April 4). Environmental Protection and Waste Management. https://ivypanda.com/essays/contemporary-environmental-challenges/

"Environmental Protection and Waste Management." IvyPanda , 4 Apr. 2024, ivypanda.com/essays/contemporary-environmental-challenges/.

IvyPanda . (2024) 'Environmental Protection and Waste Management'. 4 April.

IvyPanda . 2024. "Environmental Protection and Waste Management." April 4, 2024. https://ivypanda.com/essays/contemporary-environmental-challenges/.

1. IvyPanda . "Environmental Protection and Waste Management." April 4, 2024. https://ivypanda.com/essays/contemporary-environmental-challenges/.

Bibliography

IvyPanda . "Environmental Protection and Waste Management." April 4, 2024. https://ivypanda.com/essays/contemporary-environmental-challenges/.

  • Environmentalism in “Gyre” by Chris Jordan
  • The Ways of Greenhouse Gases Reducing
  • Innovation of Diffusion on 'Eco-Friendly Bags
  • Evidence Collection in Criminology
  • Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC)
  • Operation of an efficient market and causes of market inefficiencies
  • Toxic Electronic Waste Dumping in China
  • Illegal Dumping
  • Policy Change to Control Ocean Dumping
  • The Effect of Other Countries' Dumping in United States: Why America is acting against Chinese Dumping in the US
  • Sustainability and Waste Management in the Australian Construction Industry
  • Waste Management Strategies in Australia
  • Is the push to go green enough or too late?
  • Campus Waste Management
  • To Use or not to Reuse: A Case for Recycling

Logo

Essay on Environment Protection

Students are often asked to write an essay on Environment Protection in their schools and colleges. And if you’re also looking for the same, we have created 100-word, 250-word, and 500-word essays on the topic.

Let’s take a look…

100 Words Essay on Environment Protection

Importance of environment protection.

Environment protection is essential for our survival. The environment includes natural resources like water, air, and land, which are vital for all living beings. Protecting the environment means preserving these resources.

Threats to the Environment

Our environment is under threat from pollution, deforestation, and climate change. These are mainly due to human activities. Pollution harms the air and water, while deforestation leads to loss of habitats.

Our Role in Environment Protection

As individuals, we can help protect the environment. Simple actions like recycling, planting trees, and reducing waste can make a difference. Let’s pledge to protect our environment for a healthier future.

Also check:

  • Paragraph on Environment Protection

250 Words Essay on Environment Protection

Introduction.

Environment protection is a global concern that transcends cultural, social, and economic boundaries. It is the safeguarding of our natural resources from degradation and depletion, a responsibility that lies with every individual and institution.

The Role of Legislation

Legislation plays a crucial role in environment protection. Laws such as the Clean Air Act and the Endangered Species Act in the United States, or the European Union’s Habitats Directive, serve to regulate human activities that pose a threat to the environment. They enforce sustainable practices, penalize non-compliance, and promote conservation.

Individual Responsibility

However, legislation alone is insufficient. The onus also falls on individuals to adopt sustainable behaviors. This includes reducing waste, recycling, and opting for renewable energy sources. Education is vital in promoting these practices, as it fosters an understanding of the environmental consequences of our actions.

Technological Advancements

Technological advancements also offer promising solutions. Innovations in renewable energy, waste management, and carbon capture can significantly reduce our environmental impact. Yet, these technologies must be implemented responsibly to avoid creating new environmental problems.

In conclusion, environment protection is a multifaceted issue that requires collective action. Through legislation, individual responsibility, and technological innovation, we can mitigate environmental degradation and ensure the sustainability of our planet for future generations.

500 Words Essay on Environment Protection

Introduction to environment protection.

Environment protection is the practice of protecting the natural environment at individual, organizational, or governmental levels, for the benefit of both the environment and humans. With the rapid growth of population and industrialization, environmental issues have become increasingly prominent, necessitating immediate attention and action.

The Need for Environment Protection

The environment is a complex system of plants, animals, and various microorganisms that interact with each other and their surroundings. This intricate web of life is critical for the existence and well-being of humanity. However, human activities, such as deforestation, pollution, and climate change, are causing severe damage to this delicate balance.

The need for environment protection is underscored by the increasing depletion of natural resources, extinction of wildlife, and the threat of global warming. It is our responsibility to ensure that future generations inherit a healthy planet.

The Role of Individuals in Environment Protection

Every individual has a significant role in environment protection. Simple actions like reducing energy consumption, recycling, and minimizing waste can have a profound impact. For instance, by choosing to walk or cycle instead of driving, we can reduce greenhouse gas emissions. By recycling, we minimize the amount of waste that goes to landfill, thereby reducing our carbon footprint.

Government and Organizational Roles

Governments and organizations also play a crucial role in environment protection. Governments can implement regulations to control pollution, promote renewable energy, and protect endangered species. Organizations, on the other hand, can adopt sustainable practices, invest in green technologies, and promote environmental awareness among their employees and customers.

Challenges in Environment Protection

Despite the urgency, environment protection faces numerous challenges. These include a lack of political will, insufficient funding, and resistance from industries that profit from environmental degradation. Moreover, the global nature of many environmental issues necessitates international cooperation, which can be difficult to achieve.

In conclusion, environment protection is not a choice but a necessity. It requires the concerted efforts of individuals, organizations, and governments worldwide. Despite the challenges, every step taken towards environment protection is a step towards a sustainable and prosperous future for all. As the renowned naturalist, Sir David Attenborough said, “The future of humanity, and indeed all life on Earth, now depends on us.”

That’s it! I hope the essay helped you.

If you’re looking for more, here are essays on other interesting topics:

  • Essay on Environment and Pollution
  • Essay on Clean and Green Environment
  • Essay on Children’s Role in Protecting the Environment

Apart from these, you can look at all the essays by clicking here .

Happy studying!

Leave a Reply Cancel reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.

Book cover

Marine Organisms: A Solution to Environmental Pollution? pp 267–269 Cite as

Conclusion: Environmental Protection—Our Common Responsibility

  • Alberto A. C. C. Pais 4 &
  • Telma Encarnação 4 , 5 , 6  
  • First Online: 06 January 2023

274 Accesses

Part of the book series: Environmental Challenges and Solutions ((ECAS))

Environmental pollution is increasing globally and, together with climate change, is a priority on the environmental, political, business, and scientific agendas. Air, land, and water pollution have an impact on all ecosystems and our lives and can jeopardize our future and future generations.

The importance of policies on public awareness and perception is recognized and can have an effective role in the protection of the environment. Policymakers, companies and industries, civil society, scientists, all sectors of society should be involved for the same purpose; coordinated efforts at an international level are needed to tackle all the challenges planet Earth face.

Therefore, it is crucial to stimulate the discourse, narrative, and debate about environmental pollution and degradation and mitigation strategies.

  • Environment
  • Marine pollution
  • Civil society
  • Public awareness
  • Climate challenge

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution .

Buying options

  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
  • Durable hardcover edition

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Brouwer R, Hadzhiyska D, Ioakeimidis C, Ouderdorp H (2017) The social costs of marine litter along European coasts. Ocean Coastal Manag 138:38–49

Article   Google Scholar  

Gelcich S, Buckley P, Pinnegar JK, Chilvers J, Lorenzoni I, Terry G, Guerrero M, Castilla JC, Valdebenito A, Duarte CM (2014) Public awareness, concerns, and priorities about anthropogenic impacts on marine environments. PNAS 111:15042–15047

Article   CAS   Google Scholar  

Latinopoulos D, Mentis C, Bithas K (2018) The impact of a public information campaign on preferences for marine environmental protection. The case of plastic waste. Mar Pollut Bull 131:151–162

Roberts KE, Valkan RS, Cook CN (2018) Measuring progress in marine protection: a new set of metrics to evaluate the strength of marine protected area networks. Biol Conserv 219:20–27

Xu G, Shi Y, Sun X, Shen W (2019) Internet of Things in marine environment monitoring: a review. Sensors 19:1711–1731

Download references

Author information

Authors and affiliations.

CQC-IMS, Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal

Alberto A. C. C. Pais & Telma Encarnação

Centre for Rapid and Sustainable Product Development, Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Marinha Grande, Portugal

Telma Encarnação

PTScience Avenida do Atlântico, Lisbon, Portugal

You can also search for this author in PubMed   Google Scholar

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Telma Encarnação .

Editor information

Editors and affiliations.

Coimbra Chemistry Centre (CQC-IMS), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal

Alberto Canelas Pais

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2023 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Cite this chapter.

Pais, A.A.C.C., Encarnação, T. (2023). Conclusion: Environmental Protection—Our Common Responsibility. In: Encarnação, T., Canelas Pais, A. (eds) Marine Organisms: A Solution to Environmental Pollution?. Environmental Challenges and Solutions. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-17226-7_13

Download citation

DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-17226-7_13

Published : 06 January 2023

Publisher Name : Springer, Cham

Print ISBN : 978-3-031-17225-0

Online ISBN : 978-3-031-17226-7

eBook Packages : Biomedical and Life Sciences Biomedical and Life Sciences (R0)

Share this chapter

Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:

Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article.

Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative

  • Publish with us

Policies and ethics

  • Find a journal
  • Track your research

Critical Sustainabilities Logo

  • Eco-oriented Sustainabilities

mainstr-sierclb_johmuir695

Sustainability is perhaps most commonly imagined as eco-oriented, that is, primarily concerned with the bio-natural environment and its eco-systems. This approach can be traced to the rise of modern environmental consciousness and social movements in the 19th century. In general eco-oriented frameworks emerged as a reaction to rapid urbanization and industrialization, and were largely advanced by middle-class social reformers. In some cases, such as the work of Patrick Geddes, 19th century ecological frameworks emerged that sought to find a better balance between cities and their regional biome. In other cases, such as in the work of John Muir, ecology was associated with romantic movements in literature and the arts, premised upon the separation of cities/humans and nature, and seeking an alternative rooted in the preservation of wilderness and/or the pastoral ideal. In combination, these early ecological approaches gave rise to wildlife conservation organizations such as the Sierra Club; early environmental legislation and state agencies including the National Park Service; as well as the scientific fields of ecology and conservation biology.

This approach to sustainability was resurgent in ecologically oriented movements, academic fields, and political shifts of the 1960s and '70s. This included fields of “deep ecology” and environmental studies; national and international environmental organizations, like The Nature Conservancy and Greenpeace; and landmark environmental events, legislation, and agencies, such as Earth Day, the Clean Air Act, and the Environmental Protection Agency. Counter-cultural and back-to-the-land experiments, from the 19th century through the '60s to today, may also be seen in large part as eco-oriented.

Eco-oriented sustainability often positions itself as distinct from other forms. For instance, it has been used to critique purely instrumentalist, human-centered and/or market-oriented modes of development and conceptions of nature. To the degree that it privileges the non-human environment, this approach may also de-emphasize or discount cities, human populations, and/or social justice concerns.

However, eco-oriented sustainabilities are frequently combined with other forms. We see justice and ecological linkages made when, for instance, ecologists collaborate with environmental justice groups on urban reforestation campaigns, identifying the best tree species to be introduced into neighborhoods lacking access to green space. We see vernacular and ecological linkages when, for instance, agro-ecologists work with immigrant gardeners to find hybrid strains of traditional plants that can thrive in a new climate, and thus sustain cultural practices and livelihood. And we see market-oriented linkages when eco-oriented groups become entrepreneurial, lending their expertise and/or directing their efforts towards the demands of large-scale commercial markets and green industries.

Image: Famed naturalist and Sierra Club founder John Muir; photo: the Sierra Club

Differing & Competing Sustainabilities

  • Vernacular Sustainabilities
  • Market-oriented Sustainabilities
  • Justice-oriented Sustainabilities
  • Utopian Sustainabilities

Wastes - Resource Conservation - Common Wastes & Materials

Recent Additions | Contact Us Search: All EPA This Area

  • You are here: EPA Home
  • Resource Conservation
  • Common Wastes & Materials

Environmental Protection Agency - Battery Waste

Prof. robert b. laughlin department of physics stanford university, stanford, ca 94305, http://www.epa.gov/waste/conserve/materials/battery.htm (copied 25 nov 09), just the facts, battery recycling, state and federal regulations, more battery information.

When you need a portable, convenient power source, you can rely on batteries. Batteries of all shapes and sizes supply power to everyday electronics like toys and power tools, but batteries also work where we don't see them too. During a power outage, phone lines still operate because they are equipped with lead-acid batteries. Batteries help control power fluctuations, run commuter trains, and provide back-up power for critical needs like hospitals and military operations. The versatility of batteries is reflected in the different sizes and shapes, but all batteries have two common elements that combine to make power: an electrolyte and a heavy metal.

  • Americans purchase nearly 3 billion dry-cell batteries every year to power radios, toys, cellular phones, watches, laptop computers, and portable power tools.
  • Inside a battery, heavy metals react with chemical electrolyte to produce the battery's power.
  • Wet-cell batteries, which contain a liquid electrolyte, commonly power automobiles, boats, or motorcycles.
  • Nearly 99 million wet-cell lead-acid car batteries are manufactured each year.
  • Mercury was phased out of certain types of batteries in conjunction with the "Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management Act," passed in 1996.
  • Recycling batteries keeps heavy metals out of landfills and the air. Recycling saves resources because recovered plastic and metals can be used to make new batteries.

Batteries contain heavy metals such as mercury, lead, cadmium, and nickel, which can contaminate the environment when batteries are improperly disposed of. When incinerated, certain metals might be released into the air or can concentrate in the ash produced by the combustion process.

One way to reduce the number of batteries in the waste stream is to purchase rechargeable batteries. Nearly one in five dry-cell batteries purchased in the United States is rechargeable. Over its useful life, each rechargeable battery may substitute for hundreds of single-use batteries.

EPA Links and Publications

Universal Waste Battery Web Site The universal waste regulations streamline collection requirements for certain hazardous wastes including batteries.

Product Stewardship Battery Web Site

Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Act (PDF) (9 pp, 134K, About PDF )

Implementation of the Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management Act (PDF) (21 pp, 736K, About PDF )

Lead-Acid Automobile Batteries Nearly 90 percent of all lead-acid batteries are recycled. Almost any retailer that sells lead-acid batteries collects used batteries for recycling, as required by most state laws. Reclaimers crush batteries into nickel-sized pieces and separate the plastic components. They send the plastic to a reprocessor for manufacture into new plastic products and deliver purified lead to battery manufacturers and other industries. A typical lead-acid battery contains 60 to 80 percent recycled lead and plastic.

Non-Automotive Lead-Based Batteries Gel cells and sealed lead-acid batteries are commonly used to power industrial equipment, emergency lighting, and alarm systems. The same recycling process applies as with automotive batteries. An automotive store or a local waste agency may accept the batteries for recycling.

Dry-Cell Batteries Dry-cell batteries include alkaline and carbon zinc (9-volt, D, C, AA, AAA), mercuric-oxide (button, some cylindrical and rectangular), silver-oxide and zinc-air (button), and lithium (9-volt, C, AA, coin, button, rechargeable). On average, each person in the United States discards eight dry-cell batteries per year.

  • Alkaline and Zinc-Carbon Batteries Alkaline batteries, the everyday household batteries used in flashlights, remote controls, and other appliances. Several reclamation companies now process these batteries.
  • Button-Cell Batteries Most small, round "button-cell" type batteries found in items such as watches and hearing aids contain mercury, silver, cadmium, lithium, or other heavy metals as their main component. Button cells are increasingly targeted for recycling because of the value of recoverable materials, their small size, and their easy handling relative to other battery types.

Many states have regulations in place requiring battery recycling. The U.S. Congress passed the Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Act (PDF) (9 pp, 134K, About PDF ) in 1996 to make it easier for rechargeable battery and product manufacturers to collect and recycle Ni-CD batteries and certain small sealed lead-acid batteries. For these regulated batteries, the act requires the following:

  • Batteries must be easily removable from consumer products, to make it easier to recover them for recycling.
  • Battery labels must include the battery chemistry, the "three chasing arrows" symbol, and a phrase indicating that the user must recycle or dispose of the battery properly.
  • National uniformity in collection, storage, and transport of certain batteries.
  • Phase out the use of certain mercury-containing batteries.

Local Navigation

  • Wastes Home
  • Resource Conservation Home
  • Common Wastes and Materials Home
  • Consumer Electronics
  • Household Hazardous Waste
  • Organic Materials
  • Scrap Tires
  • Resource Conservation Challenge
  • Information Resources
  • Laws & Regulations
  • Educational Materials
  • Partnerships
  • Privacy and Security Notice

Last updated on Thursday, August 28th, 2008.

The Artistree

The Artistree

Sandra Day O'Connor's papers hint at a landmark Supreme Court decision's potential overturning.

Posted: April 9, 2024 | Last updated: April 9, 2024

Sandra Day O'Connor's papers unveil the backstory of a pivotal Supreme Court case, nearly never occurring, granting broad regulatory power for environmental and public health protection.

More for You

UConn’s 6th national championship made an impossible task look way too easy

UConn’s 6th national championship made an impossible task look way too easy

10 Big Stars You Forgot Appeared In The World Of Doctor Who Thumbnail

10 Big Stars You Forgot Appeared In The World Of Doctor Who

Irish castles and ancient Greek rites show culture's role in regional regeneration

Irish castles and ancient Greek rites show culture's role in regional regeneration

His 'funk is contagious.' This L.A. glassblower breaks the rules with his stunning vessels

His 'funk is contagious.' This L.A. glassblower breaks the rules with his stunning vessels

Coke Is Swapping Out Corn Syrup For A Limited Time

Here's Why Coca Cola Is Selling Bottles With Yellow Caps For A Limited Time

Space Rock Slammed Into Moon - The Explosion Was Seen From Japan

Space Rock Slammed Into Moon - The Explosion Was Seen From Japan

YouTube Creators Dude Perfect at YouTube Brandcast 2019 at Radio City Music Hall on May 02, 2019 in New York City.

YouTube influencer group Dude Perfect scores more than $100M investment

Dennis Rodman Believed Pistons Made Mistake Retiring His No. 10 Jersey: ‘I Didn’t Deserve That’

Dennis Rodman Believed Pistons Made Mistake Retiring His No. 10 Jersey: ‘I Didn’t Deserve That’

Inside the $5 billion floating theme park built on an offshore oil rig

Inside the $5 billion floating theme park built on an offshore oil rig

It was a popular national monument, until it was robbed to extinction

It was a popular national monument, until it was robbed to extinction

Forgotten 1990s Blockbusters Everyone Should Rewatch

Forgotten 1990s Blockbusters Everyone Should Rewatch

Fox News contributor Andy McCarthy reacts to the ruling against James and Jennifer Crumbley.

'Unprecedented' ruling against Crumbleys opens up a 'Pandora's box' in criminal justice system: Andy McCarthy

Private Japanese Moon Lander's View Of Solar Eclipse Shadow And Earth

Private Japanese Moon Lander's View Of Solar Eclipse Shadow And Earth

After 2 years of applying for the NYC housing lottery, she finally won her bid. Now she pays $1,000 in rent for her Manhattan apartment.

After 2 years of applying for the NYC housing lottery, she finally won her bid. Now she pays $1,000 in rent for her Manhattan apartment.

15

15 “As Seen On TV” Products That Are Well Worth The Money

iStock-1408951174.jpg

The surprising animal that claimed role of man’s best friend before the dog

Here's How You Can Get a Free Frosty at Wendy's This Week

Here's How You Can Get a Free Frosty at Wendy's This Week

Netanyahu's defense minister contradicts him, tells U.S. Rafah invasion date not set

Netanyahu's defense minister contradicts him, tells U.S. Rafah invasion date not set

Is this partially a list of '70s actresses I think deserve more credit? Maybe!

32 '70s Icons You Forgot About (But Shouldn't Have)

Artist illustration of TRAPPIST-1b

Webb telescope detects light from an Earth-like planet

IMAGES

  1. ⇉A Wasteful Society: Why Recycling Should be Mandatory Essay Example

    essay on environmental protection and recycling

  2. Reduce Reuse Recycle Electronic Waste Informational Essay Writing Common Core

    essay on environmental protection and recycling

  3. Recycling Persuasive Essay.pdf

    essay on environmental protection and recycling

  4. ⇉Should recycling be mandatory Essay Example

    essay on environmental protection and recycling

  5. ≫ Importance of Recycling for Environment Free Essay Sample on Samploon.com

    essay on environmental protection and recycling

  6. Short Essay About Environmental Conservation

    essay on environmental protection and recycling

VIDEO

  1. Essay on Five Habits you can adopt to Reduce waste and promote Recycling in English

  2. Essay on Recycling

  3. save environment essay in english

  4. ಪರಿಸರ ಸಂರಕ್ಷಣೆ ಪ್ರಬಂಧ

  5. 10 lines on The Importance of Recycling ♻️🌱🌍

  6. Essay on Enviromental pollution ||Pollution in cities essay in English || Environment pollution

COMMENTS

  1. Environmental Protection Essay for Students in English

    Environmental protection is improving, defending, and maintaining the quality of the environment. The main methods of environmental protection are recycling, reusing, and reducing; however, some other methods such as Green Energy production, green transportation development, and eco-friendly industrialization also exist.

  2. Recycling Basics and Benefits

    The study found that in a single year, recycling and reuse activities in the United States accounted for: 681,000 jobs, $37.8 billion in wages, and. $5.5 billion in tax revenues. This equates to 1.17 jobs per 1,000 tons of materials recycled and $65.23 in wages and $9.42 in tax revenue for every ton of materials recycled.

  3. The Advantages of Recycling and Its Impact on the Environment: [Essay

    As seen from the essay, recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce harmful impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal.

  4. Essay on Recycling for Students and Children

    500+ Words Essay on Recycling. Recycling is a method of procedure that includes the collection and breaking down of waste material to create something new out of it. The process was introduced sot that the non-biodegradable materials can be melted or break down to create something useful. After the effects of global warming and pollution have ...

  5. Essay on Recycling

    The recycling industry requires a vast workforce for collection, transportation, processing, and manufacturing of recycled goods. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, recycling and reuse activities in the U.S. accounted for 681,000 jobs in 2017, demonstrating the potential for economic benefits.

  6. Environmental Protection Essay

    This essay on environmental protection describes the meaning and importance of environmental protection and also teaches the right method to preserve the environment. ... One way to protect the environment is by recycling - a way to reduce the carbon footprint and conserve natural resources. It also decreases the amount of waste that goes ...

  7. (PDF) The impact of recycling in preserving the environment

    generated in 2013 alone; Recycling helps conserve natural resources, whereas, the office paper, recycled can save 27,300 liters of. water, 18 trees, 2,450 liters of oil, 2.28 m3 of landfill ...

  8. Importance of Recycling in Conservation of the Environment Report

    Recycling is also associated with building of a strong economy through the combination of aspects like cost reduction, creation of jobs, allowing for efficient utilization of energy among others. In regard to the environment, recycling has proved to be a very positive attribute towards conservation. Recycling of paper for example saves trees ...

  9. Motivating factors behind the public's use of smart recycling systems

    A smart recycling service system is a new recycling method that allows people to engage in environmental protection. Previous studies on recycling have only focused on environmental concerns.

  10. 92 Environmental Protection Essay Topic Ideas & Examples

    The Formation of the Environmental Protection Agency. The Environmental Protection Agency is an agency of the U.S.federal government that was established as a response to the debate in American society over environmental protection. Environmental Protection: Pollution and Fossil Fuels.

  11. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle: The Three R's for a Future

    Decrease landfill space and reduce environmental pollution. Recycling programs, both at the individual and community levels, play a crucial role in diverting materials from landfills and incinerators. The Environmental Impact. The adoption of the three R's can significantly mitigate several environmental issues: 1. Resource Conservation:

  12. Essay on Environmental Protection

    Students are often asked to write an essay on Environmental Protection in their schools and colleges. And if you're also looking for the same, we have created 100-word, 250-word, and 500-word essays on the topic. ... Ways to Help the Environment. We can help by recycling, saving water, and not littering. Using less plastic and walking or ...

  13. Environmental Protection and Waste Management Essay

    This paper will form an overview analysis of the factors that cause chaotic and un-harmonized inferences regarding environmental protection. This paper will examine the real consequences of waste to environmental degradation. The analysis also focuses on the intellectual behaviour of people regarding the environmental effects of waste.

  14. Essay on Environmental Protection

    We can conserve resources by reducing, reusing, and recycling. Using public transportation or carpooling can help reduce air pollution. Planting trees and participating in clean-up events contribute to a healthier environment. ... Conclusion of Essay on Environmental Protection. In conclusion, environmental protection is not a choice but a ...

  15. Essay on Environment Protection

    250 Words Essay on Environment Protection Introduction. Environment protection is a global concern that transcends cultural, social, and economic boundaries. ... For instance, by choosing to walk or cycle instead of driving, we can reduce greenhouse gas emissions. By recycling, we minimize the amount of waste that goes to landfill, thereby ...

  16. Environmental perspectives of textile waste, environmental pollution

    The environmental concerns caused by textile waste require technological development to support recycling and re-utilization. ... Recently, various research studies on textile waste treatment try to find appropriate technical means to realize environmental protection and sustainable recycling. ... Lam has published 87 papers, 5 of which are ...

  17. Pollution and Recycling Essay

    Pollution and Recycling Essay. Topics: Conservation of Forest Conversation Pollution Recycling. Words: 2220. Pages: 5. This essay sample was donated by a student to help the academic community. Papers provided by EduBirdie writers usually outdo students' samples.

  18. Conclusion: Environmental Protection—Our Common Responsibility

    Environmental pollution is increasing globally and, together with climate change, is a priority on the environmental, political, business, and scientific agendas. Air, land, and water pollution have an impact on all ecosystems and our lives and can jeopardize our future and future generations. The importance of policies on public awareness and ...

  19. Eco-oriented Sustainabilities

    Whole Earth Catalog. Sustainability is perhaps most commonly imagined as eco-oriented, that is, primarily concerned with the bio-natural environment and its eco-systems. This approach can be traced to the rise of modern environmental consciousness and social movements in the 19th century. In general eco-oriented frameworks emerged as a reaction ...

  20. Essay on Environmental Protection

    Essay on Environmental Protection: ... We had to just take a simple step of recycling the waste instead of throwing it into nature, we would be doing a great job of saving the environment. Save Trees: Trees are a very essential part of the environment. They consume carbon dioxide and emit life saving oxygen into the air which keeps the ...

  21. Recycled and Purified Water

    The water district's goal is to develop recycled and purified water to provide for at least 10% of the total County water demands by 2025. To achieve this, the water district plans to develop up to 24,000 acre-feet per year (AFY) of additional highly purified water for potable reuse by the year 2025 and support continued production and ...

  22. Batteries

    Batteries contain heavy metals such as mercury, lead, cadmium, and nickel, which can contaminate the environment when batteries are improperly disposed of. When incinerated, certain metals might be released into the air or can concentrate in the ash produced by the combustion process. One way to reduce the number of batteries in the waste ...

  23. Environmental Volunteers

    50 Years of Science and Nature. Environmental Volunteers founded in 1972, has inspired people of all ages for 50 years to learn about the wonders of the natural world. We train volunteers to lead hands-on science and nature programs in schools, community organizations, and at the EcoCenter in the Palo Alto Baylands Nature Preserve.

  24. Sandra Day O'Connor's papers hint at a landmark Supreme Court ...

    Sandra Day O'Connor's papers unveil the backstory of a pivotal Supreme Court case, nearly never occurring, granting broad regulatory power for environmental and public health protection.