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hkcc research essay

Journal of the Hong Kong College of Cardiology

Journal of the Hong Kong College of Cardiology

The Journal of the Hong Kong College of Cardiology (JHKCC) publishes peer-reviewed articles on all aspects of cardiovascular medicine including original clinical studies, review articles and case reports. JHKCC publishes quarterly and as an official journal of the Hong Kong College of Cardiology, abstracts presented at the Annual Scientific Sessions of the College and other College-sponsored scientific conferences will be published in supplement issues.

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Dr LAM, Ting-pui Elegance

Dr LAM, Ting-pui Elegance

BSc (Plym.); MMedSc, PhD (H.K.)

[email protected]

Teaching and Scholarly Interests: Mathematics, Statistics, Engineering & Physics

Output/ Activities/ Achievements

Dr Elegance Lam received her Bachelor of Science in Applied Statistics with Management Science from the University of Plymouth, Master of Medical Sciences (Distinction) and Doctor of Philosophy in Medical Statistics from The University of Hong Kong. During her study, Elegance received the Best Poster Presentation Award from the International Society for Quality of Life Conference in 2007 and the Best Abstract Scholarship from the Asian Chinese Quality of Life Conference in 2008.

Elegance’s main research interests include health-related quality of life assessment, decision analysis, and statistical modelling. She has published research papers in international journals.

Before joining HKCC, Elegance taught Mathematics, Statistics and Research Methods at different institutions. Elegance teaches Mathematics and Statistics subjects in HKCC at present.

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Disappointment

In high school I took part in many math competitions; the hardest (and therefore to my teenage mind the only ones that counted) were the competitions relating to the international mathematical olympiad (IMO). In Melbourne there was a program of competition and training that culminated in a nine hour exam spread over two days to determine the makeup of the Australian IMO team. I remember very well the first time I took the exam. It was 1987, and the IMO was to be held that year in Cuba. As I sat at my carrel in the Morris library, I took the February sunlight for fortune smiling on me, inspiration spilled liberally from my Pelikano steel nib fountain pen, and I went home at the end of the second day in a blur of fatigue and self-congratulation. Six weeks later a pregnant manila envelope arrived in the mail. From its girth alone I knew I had aced the exam and won my rightful spot on the team. Before even opening the envelope I could see myself in the green woolen team blazer with the Australian coat of arms embroidered on the breast pocket, and by the time I found a letter opener I was shaking hands with Fidel Castro.

The envelope contained…sixty-odd sheets of loose-leaf paper, no invitation, no cover letter: my exam papers, bloodstained with question marks, lines through paragraphs, squiggles of uncomprehension, Xs and Os. My stomach fell. I blushed. In a fraction of a second I rewrote or recolored dozens of memories and fantasies from the recent past and future, and became intensely conscious of and embarassed by my vanity and foolishness. What I now find remarkable was the speed and scope of my transformation; the analogy that comes to mind is being struck by a speeding car.

So how does one deal with disappointment? Freud, in Civilization and Its Discontents identifies three typical measures:

powerful deflections, which cause us to make light of our misery; substitutive satisfactions, which diminish it; and intoxicating substances, which make us insensible to it.

If these are the typical responses, are there any others? Before trying to answer this it might be helpful first to articulate what disappointment actually is , and then to ask what it’s for . Evidently, disappointment is a form of mental suffering. It is so unpleasant that we can experience it in a host of physiological dimensions. Profound mental suffering involves a complex array of interactions between any number of processes and subsystems, both conscious and unconscious, involving both the brain and the limbic system. The suffering that arises from disappointment is that that accompanies disruption: disappointment causes a certain kind of shake-up or realignment of our worldview and self-image and consequently of our priorities; this disruption can be so great that we sometimes emerge from it a very different person.

According to certain schools of cognitive science (e.g., Minsky’s Society of Mind model) the idea of a “self” as a unified, indivisible entity is an oversimplification; rather (they suggest) a self is an uneasy federation of simpler subsystems (sometimes termed “agents”) with their own local goals and interests, which are frequently in competition with one another. Under ordinary circumstances stability is achieved by a complicated system of temporary alliances, detentes, three-way standoffs, and so forth. Our subjective sense of the unified self is—in itself!—also a source of stability. Sometimes a dramatic change in (real or perceived) external circumstances—an unforseen event, an unpleasant discovery—can lead to a cascade of disruptions to this order. This is the mechanism of disappointment, and why it is so painful; it is both a crisis and an opportunity—in Homer Simpson’s inspired terminology, a crisitunity.

Disappointment measures in pain the gap between reality and what we want the world to be. Disappointment matters. It matters because we don’t actually live in the real world. We live in our heads, in a mental world of assumptions, recollections, anticipations, desires and conjectures. And even when we do meet reality, it’s a mistake to think that what our senses feed us is objective, unfiltered, unsorted. Rather we operate according to an interrogative protocol—we ask the world questions to confirm what we already “know” (or, more accurately: hope), and only when we get an unpleasant surprise do we take a closer look. As Proust says,

The real voyage of discovery consists not in seeking new landscapes, but in having new eyes. Happiness is beneficial for the body, but it is grief that develops the powers of the mind.

In his famous paper, “How not to prove the Poincaré Conjecture,” John Stallings writes about an adventure in his mathematical life, how he discovered a proof of the Poincaré Conjecture but later found it to be mistaken. He goes so far as to describe this episode as a “sin;” but the sin was not in the mistake per se, rather it was his resistance to recognizing it as such. He writes,

There are two points about this incorrect proof worthy of note …(t)he second…is that I was unable to find flaws in my ‘proof’ for quite a while, even though the error is very obvious. It was a psychological problem, a blindness, an excitement, an inhibition of reasoning by an underlying fear of being wrong. Techniques leading to the abandonment of such inhibitions should be cultivated by every honest mathematician.

Few mathematicians are as honest or as generous as Stallings in sharing their own stories of disappointment. This is because disappointment often comes wrapped in shame, because our goals are inextricable from our personal and social attachments and relationships. Convention and social norms dictate that any display of human weakness or failing is “unprofessional.” We’re not supposed to admit it when we feel stupid, or underappreciated, or jealous, or that we cared so much about something that when it didn’t go our way we felt shattered. Techniques leading to the abandonment of such inhibitions should be cultivated by every honest mathematician.

Disappointment takes many forms; a partial list from my personal history includes:

being un- or under-acknowledged in a colleague’s paper or talk;

being scooped;

missing out on a job/prize/conference invitation;

having a prospective student work with someone else;

having a potential advisor turn me down as a student;

having a promising line of attack on a problem fail to pan out;

discovering an error in an amazing proof;

having a paper go unread or a book go unreviewed;

seeing an admired senior colleague behave badly;

realizing that I haven’t lived up to my own standards of behavior;

discovering that success, when it came, was not all I hoped it would be.

The last one, perhaps, deserves elaboration. Some acute disappointments in my career were the result of getting what I thought I wanted: a paper in a fancy journal; a job offer; tenure; an invitation to talk at a fancy conference. I don’t mean to diminish the value of such things at all, or the challenges (personal or structural) many people must overcome to achieve them; much about the way such “rewards” are distributed in academic culture is unfair, often in systematic ways, and it should be the goal of all of us to point this out and work to change it wherever we can. I also don’t mean to suggest that success has been joyless; the opposite is true. Nevertheless it is the case that sometimes when we get what we think we want, we discover that these things weren’t what we thought they were, and (more importantly) that we are not who we though we were. When disappointment accompanies success it is worth paying special attention to. If we get what we want but it doesn’t bring us fulfillment, then what’s really going on? In my experience, it has only been at the point of my posing this question that I have acquired insight, and the agency to really change things or come to terms with them.

It took a month of pain after the manila envelope arrived before curiosity got the better of me and I opened it again. And a remarkable thing happened. The exam pages: my answers, the blots, the corrections, the red ink, the comments, were exactly as before. But time and some strange alchemy of which disappointment itself was the catalyst had altered their meaning. An actual human being had taken the time to read my work and share valuable feedback with me. My annotated exam was no longer a certificate of failure, it was a how-to manual: it was about how to prove an inequality by leveraging the convexity of a cleverly chosen auxiliary function, or how to recast a geometric figure in terms of complex numbers and understand it with algebra. These math problems weren’t “problems” at all: they were windows into mathematics itself. And the manila envelope wasn’t a slap in the face, it was a gift; but to see it as a gift I had to see it with new eyes. I never got to Cuba, but I’d taken my first steps on a longer and far more interesting and rewarding journey that continues to this day.

Acknowledgment

I would like to thank Kathryn Kruse for her extensive feedback on and advice about an early draft of this essay.

Danny Calegari is a professor of mathematics at the University of Chicago. His email address is [email protected] .

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Article DOI: 10.1090/noti2782

The Early Career Section offers information and suggestions for graduate students, job seekers, early career academics of all types, and those who mentor them. Krystal Taylor and Ben Jaye serve as the editors of this section. Next month’s theme will be Math and the Real World.

Photo of Danny Calegari is courtesy of Danny Calegari.

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How Much Research Is Being Written by Large Language Models?

New studies show a marked spike in LLM usage in academia, especially in computer science. What does this mean for researchers and reviewers?

research papers scroll out of a computer

In March of this year, a  tweet about an academic paper went viral for all the wrong reasons. The introduction section of the paper, published in  Elsevier’s  Surfaces and Interfaces , began with this line:  Certainly, here is a possible introduction for your topic. 

Look familiar? 

It should, if you are a user of ChatGPT and have applied its talents for the purpose of content generation. LLMs are being increasingly used to assist with writing tasks, but examples like this in academia are largely anecdotal and had not been quantified before now. 

“While this is an egregious example,” says  James Zou , associate professor of biomedical data science and, by courtesy, of computer science and of electrical engineering at Stanford, “in many cases, it’s less obvious, and that’s why we need to develop more granular and robust statistical methods to estimate the frequency and magnitude of LLM usage. At this particular moment, people want to know what content around us is written by AI. This is especially important in the context of research, for the papers we author and read and the reviews we get on our papers. That’s why we wanted to study how much of those have been written with the help of AI.”

In two papers looking at LLM use in scientific publishings, Zou and his team* found that 17.5% of computer science papers and 16.9% of peer review text had at least some content drafted by AI. The paper on LLM usage in peer reviews will be presented at the International Conference on Machine Learning.

Read  Mapping the Increasing Use of LLMs in Scientific Papers and  Monitoring AI-Modified Content at Scale: A Case Study on the Impact of ChatGPT on AI Conference Peer Reviews  

Here Zou discusses the findings and implications of this work, which was supported through a Stanford HAI Hoffman Yee Research Grant . 

How did you determine whether AI wrote sections of a paper or a review?

We first saw that there are these specific worlds – like commendable, innovative, meticulous, pivotal, intricate, realm, and showcasing – whose frequency in reviews sharply spiked, coinciding with the release of ChatGPT. Additionally, we know that these words are much more likely to be used by LLMs than by humans. The reason we know this is that we actually did an experiment where we took many papers, used LLMs to write reviews of them, and compared those reviews to reviews written by human reviewers on the same papers. Then we quantified which words are more likely to be used by LLMs vs. humans, and those are exactly the words listed. The fact that they are more likely to be used by an LLM and that they have also seen a sharp spike coinciding with the release of LLMs is strong evidence.

Charts showing significant shift in the frequency of certain adjectives in research journals.

Some journals permit the use of LLMs in academic writing, as long as it’s noted, while others, including  Science and the ICML conference, prohibit it. How are the ethics perceived in academia?

This is an important and timely topic because the policies of various journals are changing very quickly. For example,  Science said in the beginning that they would not allow authors to use language models in their submissions, but they later changed their policy and said that people could use language models, but authors have to explicitly note where the language model is being used. All the journals are struggling with how to define this and what’s the right way going forward.

You observed an increase in usage of LLMs in academic writing, particularly in computer science papers (up to 17.5%). Math and  Nature family papers, meanwhile, used AI text about 6.3% of the time. What do you think accounts for the discrepancy between these disciplines? 

Artificial intelligence and computer science disciplines have seen an explosion in the number of papers submitted to conferences like ICLR and NeurIPS. And I think that’s really caused a strong burden, in many ways, to reviewers and to authors. So now it’s increasingly difficult to find qualified reviewers who have time to review all these papers. And some authors may feel more competition that they need to keep up and keep writing more and faster. 

You analyzed close to a million papers on arXiv, bioRxiv, and  Nature from January 2020 to February 2024. Do any of these journals include humanities papers or anything in the social sciences?  

We mostly wanted to focus more on CS and engineering and biomedical areas and interdisciplinary areas, like  Nature family journals, which also publish some social science papers. Availability mattered in this case. So, it’s relatively easy for us to get data from arXiv, bioRxiv, and  Nature . A lot of AI conferences also make reviews publicly available. That’s not the case for humanities journals.

Did any results surprise you?

A few months after ChatGPT’s launch, we started to see a rapid, linear increase in the usage pattern in academic writing. This tells us how quickly these LLM technologies diffuse into the community and become adopted by researchers. The most surprising finding is the magnitude and speed of the increase in language model usage. Nearly a fifth of papers and peer review text use LLM modification. We also found that peer reviews submitted closer to the deadline and those less likely to engage with author rebuttal were more likely to use LLMs. 

This suggests a couple of things. Perhaps some of these reviewers are not as engaged with reviewing these papers, and that’s why they are offloading some of the work to AI to help. This could be problematic if reviewers are not fully involved. As one of the pillars of the scientific process, it is still necessary to have human experts providing objective and rigorous evaluations. If this is being diluted, that’s not great for the scientific community.

What do your findings mean for the broader research community?

LLMs are transforming how we do research. It’s clear from our work that many papers we read are written with the help of LLMs. There needs to be more transparency, and people should state explicitly how LLMs are used and if they are used substantially. I don’t think it’s always a bad thing for people to use LLMs. In many areas, this can be very useful. For someone who is not a native English speaker, having the model polish their writing can be helpful. There are constructive ways for people to use LLMs in the research process; for example, in earlier stages of their draft. You could get useful feedback from a LLM in real time instead of waiting weeks or months to get external feedback. 

But I think it’s still very important for the human researchers to be accountable for everything that is submitted and presented. They should be able to say, “Yes, I will stand behind the statements that are written in this paper.”

*Collaborators include:  Weixin Liang ,  Yaohui Zhang ,  Zhengxuan Wu ,  Haley Lepp ,  Wenlong Ji ,  Xuandong Zhao ,  Hancheng Cao ,  Sheng Liu ,  Siyu He ,  Zhi Huang ,  Diyi Yang ,  Christopher Potts ,  Christopher D. Manning ,  Zachary Izzo ,  Yaohui Zhang ,  Lingjiao Chen ,  Haotian Ye , and Daniel A. McFarland .

Stanford HAI’s mission is to advance AI research, education, policy and practice to improve the human condition.  Learn more . 

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What Went Wrong with Federal Student Loans?

At a time when the returns to college and graduate school are at historic highs, why do so many students struggle with their student loans? The increase in aggregate student debt and the struggles of today’s student loan borrowers can be traced to changes in federal policies intended to broaden access to federal aid and educational opportunities, and which increased enrollment and borrowing in higher-risk circumstances. Starting in the late 1990s, policymakers weakened regulations that had constrained institutions from enrolling aid-dependent students. This led to rising enrollment of relatively disadvantaged students, but primarily at poor-performing, low-value institutions whose students systematically failed to complete a degree, struggled to repay their loans, defaulted at high rates, and foundered in the job market. As these new borrowers experienced similarly poor outcomes, their loans piled up, loan performance deteriorated, and with it the finances of the federal program. The crisis illustrates the important role that educational institutions play in access to postsecondary education and student outcomes, and difficulty of using broadly-available loans to subsidize investments in education when there is so much heterogeneity in outcomes across institutions and programs and in the ability to repay of students.

This draft was prepared for the Journal of Economic Perspectives. Adam Looney is Clinical Professor, University of Utah, David Eccles School of Business, Salt Lake City, Utah. He is also a Visiting Senior Fellow, The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC. Constantine Yannelis is Associate Professor of Finance, University of Chicago Booth School of Business, Chicago, Illinois. He is also a Faculty Research Fellow, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Bureau of Economic Research.

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  1. PDF

    Structure of a research essay; Writing a small-scale, fully fledged research essay (on a science and technology topic) to present an argument; Incorporating data and information from different sources to support a thesis; Skills for proofreading and revising written texts; Reinforcement in grammar and sentence skills for writing.

  2. LCH 1046 : 1046

    LCH1046 Research Essay Guidelines 2324.pdf. LCH1046 Hong Kong Community College LCH1046 English for Academic Studies (Science and Technology) I Semester One 2023/24 Individual Assignment: Research Essay (30% Individual) This assessment task is designed to assess your ability to use English effectiv. LCH 1046.

  3. ENG LCH1046 :

    LCH1046 Research Essay Guidelines.pdf. LCH1046 Hong Kong Community College LCH1046 English for Academic Studies (Science and Technology) I Semester One 2021/22 Individual Assignment: Research Essay (30% Individual) This assessment task is designed to assess your ability to use English effectiv. ENG LCH1046.

  4. PolyU HKCC

    Minimum Entry Requirements. Applicants should have: graduated from high school; obtained satisfactory results in at least 3 subjects (including English Language) in National College Entrance Examination (NCEE) or other equivalent qualifications; and. passed the admission interview and written test arranged by PolyU HKCC.

  5. PDF

    research for information, integrate ideas, and document sources properly for academic purposes. apply comprehension skills to improve understanding of academic materials. write short, structured academic essays. carry out self-directed English learning activities for individual academic needs. explain the importance of upholding academic integrity.

  6. Academic Essays

    Scanner - a program that highlights the words in a text that are easy for a reader to find. Use it to improve the organisation and reader-friendliness of your writing. Replacing Cliches With More Formal Phrases. Conventions. Academic Style Guidelines. Replacing idioms with formal verbs in academic writing.

  7. LCH 1067 : 1067

    LCH1067: Research Essay (25% Group) Argument Essay Outline - Student Sample Thesis Statement: Although some people think that mobile payment is less secure than traditional payment methods, popularizing mobile payment in Hong Kong can optimize the means o ... Language Enhancement Initiatives HKCC Academic English Enhancement Workshop 2020/21 ...

  8. LCH1043 Task 1: Research Essay Guidelines & Submission

    LCH1043 Task 1 Research Essay Screenshots of 3 Text-based Reference Sources: (i)1 source for direct quotation (ii)2 sources for paraphrases/ summaries Text-based reference 1: Direction Quotation 1. Pastethe screenshots of your first chosen text-based reference sources in the space below 2. Highlightthe parts that you quote Type of citation ...

  9. 知乎专栏

    We would like to show you a description here but the site won't allow us.

  10. LCH 1066 : 1066

    Research Essay - Analysing a Student Sample A student wrote an essay contrasting the. Solutions available. LCH 1066. Hong Kong Community College. 2 views. Take-home Test_FAQ.pdf. LCH1066 Academic English (Science and Technology) I Semester One, 2020/21 Frequently Asked Questions about Take-home Test 1. Where can I download the files? You should ...

  11. College Archives

    College Archives. The College Archives collects and organizes materials in both print and electronic formats that depict the development of the College of Professional and Continuing Education (CPCE), and its teaching arms -- the Hong Kong Community College (HKCC), and the School of Professional Education and Executive Development (SPEED).. Examination Papers Database: an in-house developed ...

  12. PDF

    Subject Description Form. This subject is a continuation of CCN1029. It aims to further enhance students' English language abilities to function effectively in a post-secondary, English-medium learning environment. Attention is given to reinforcing students' confidence in pursuing further studies in humanities and communication subjects.

  13. Hong Kong College of Cardiology Research

    JHKCC publishes quarterly and as an official journal of the Hong Kong College of Cardiology, abstracts presented at the Annual Scientific Sessions of the College and other College-sponsored scientific conferences will be published in supplement issues. ISSN (Online): 2790-6744. ISSN (Print): 1027-7811.

  14. PDF

    Subject Description Form. This subject is a continuation of CCN1046. It aims to further enhance students' English language abilities to function effectively in a post-secondary, English-medium learning environment. Attention is given to reinforcing students' confidence in pursuing further studies in science-and-technology-related subjects.

  15. HKCC Staff Directory

    Elegance's main research interests include health-related quality of life assessment, decision analysis, and statistical modelling. She has published research papers in international journals. Before joining HKCC, Elegance taught Mathematics, Statistics and Research Methods at different institutions.

  16. hkcc research essay turnitin幾多%為之安全

    我21%,唔知安唔安全 求大佬指教

  17. The Macroeconomic Impact of Climate Change: Global vs. Local

    Working Paper 32450. DOI 10.3386/w32450. Issue Date May 2024. This paper estimates that the macroeconomic damages from climate change are six times larger than previously thought. We exploit natural variability in global temperature and rely on time-series variation. A 1°C increase in global temperature leads to a 12% decline in world GDP.

  18. 中家Reprot hardcopy.docx

    SHDH2201 Chinese Family and Culture Essay Review (香港家 庭): 李明堃,「香港家庭的組織和變遷」 Name: Fung Man Lam Student no.: 18135989A Class no.: A01B Word count: 1497 文章談及工業化過程至現今香港的家庭結構和變遷。 筆者對兩位研究香港家庭 的學者的見解和論證作出反駁,再提出自己的觀點。

  19. HKCC 英文essay資料點搵?已經grad的可唔可以分享下?

    個老師教我地用google scholar搵資料,但問題是大部分都要付費。佢話可以去poly的elibrary,但HKCC根本用唔倒poly的library,而HKCC個資料庫乜書都沒,完全沒用 有沒已經grad咗的巴打分享下你地當時寫essay 的資料主要去邊到搵? 我自認垃圾,話我後門狗的出返去先。我宜家只系想認真做好份功課

  20. AMS :: Notices of the American Mathematical Society

    Danny Calegari is a professor of mathematics at the University of Chicago. His email address is [email protected]. Article DOI: 10.1090/noti2782. The Early Career Section offers information and suggestions for graduate students, job seekers, early career academics of all types, and those who mentor them.

  21. Hkcc Chinese Creative Writing

    Hkcc Chinese Creative Writing | Best Writing Service. ID 21067. (415) 520-5258. Level: College, High School, University, Master's, PHD, Undergraduate. To describe something in great detail to the readers, the writers will do my essay to appeal to the senses of the readers and try their best to give them a live experience of the given subject.

  22. Flood of Fake Science Forces Multiple Journal Closures

    May 14, 2024 8:00 am ET. Text. 1225 Responses. Fake studies have flooded the publishers of top scientific journals, leading to thousands of retractions and millions of dollars in lost revenue. The ...

  23. How Much Research Is Being Written by Large Language Models?

    That's why we wanted to study how much of those have been written with the help of AI.". In two papers looking at LLM use in scientific publishings, Zou and his team* found that 17.5% of computer science papers and 16.9% of peer review text had at least some content drafted by AI. The paper on LLM usage in peer reviews will be presented at ...

  24. When Protectionism Kills Talent

    DOI 10.3386/w32466. Issue Date May 2024. We examine the repercussions of protectionist policies implemented in the United States since 2018 on the composition of workforce and career choices within the semiconductor industry. We find that the shift towards protectionism, aimed at reviving domestic manufacturing and employment, paradoxically ...

  25. Hkcc Creative Writing

    Hkcc Creative Writing, How To Make A Simple Cover Letter For Resume, Edexcel English Language A Level Coursewo, Top Personal Statement Writers Website Online, Sample Nurse Cover Letter For Job Application, Universal Credit Case Study, Do Ucs Care About Essays

  26. What Went Wrong with Federal Student Loans?

    The increase in aggregate student debt and the struggles of today's student loan borrowers can be traced to changes in federal policies intended to broaden access to federal aid and educational opportunities, and which increased enrollment and borrowing in higher-risk circumstances. Starting in the late 1990s, policymakers weakened ...

  27. Chinese Creative Writing Hkcc

    Chinese Creative Writing Hkcc. 8 hours 24 hours 48 hours 3 days 5 days 7 days 14 days. 14 days. 29 Customer reviews. 1647 Orders prepared. User ID: 231078 / Mar 3, 2021.

  28. PDF

    Structure of a research essay; Writing a small-scale, fully fledged research essay (on a humanities and communication topic) to present an argument; Incorporating data and information from different sources to support a thesis; Skills for proofreading and revising written texts; Reinforcement in grammar and sentence skills for writing.

  29. PDF

    Structure of a research essay; Writing a small-scale, fully fledged research essay (on a business topic) to present an argument; Incorporating data and information from different sources to support a thesis; Skills for proofreading and revising written texts; Reinforcement in grammar and sentence skills for writing.