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Essay on “Water Crisis in Pakistan and its Remedies” for CSS, PMS, Judiciary Examinations

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  • August 30, 2021
  • Essay for CSS PMS and Judiciary Exam

This is an essay on “Water Crisis in Pakistan and its Remedies” for CSS, PMS, and Judiciary Examinations. Pakistan’s big arguably, biggest — problem is water scarcity. The country faces acute water scarcity by 2025 and will be the most water-stressed country in South Asia within two decades. Almost 30 million Pakistanis have no access to clean water. Find below the complete Essay on the water crisis in Pakistan and its remedies.

World Bank (WB) and Asian Development Bank (ADB) report

Causes of the water crisis

  • No dams construction
  • Dispute between the provinces
  • Demands of Sindh
  • Punjab’s role
  • Lack of proper water management
  • Climate change
  • Mismanagement of resource

Indian propaganda since 1947

  • Standstill Agreement
  • Role of the president of the World Bank
  • Indus Basin Treaty 1960
  • Wullar Barrage (The Tulbal Navigation Lock)
  • Kishanganga Project
  • Baghlihar Dam

Sources of Water

  • Indus River
  • Closed basin Kharan desert
  • Makran coastal basin
  • Water reservoirs/ capacities
  • Terbela dam reservoir
  • Mangla dam reservoir
  • Chashma barrage reservoir
  • Utilization of water
  • Power generation

Water and Agriculture

Impact on Economy

Recommendations for Water Crisis

  • Kalabagh dam
  • Thal reservoir
  • Raised Mangla dam
  • Gomalzam dam
  • Water management
  • Use of alternative sources of energy

Essay on “Water Crisis in Pakistan and its Remedies” for CSS, PMS, Judiciary Examinations

According to the World Bank (WB) and Asian Development Bank (ADB), Pakistan is one of the most “water-stressed” countries in the world; it is likely to face an acute water shortage over the next five years due to lack of water availability for irrigation, industry and human consumption. A WB report states that the water supply in Pakistan has fallen from 5,000 cubic meters per capita to 1,000 cubic meters in 2010, and is likely to further reduce to 800 cubic meters per capita by 2020. Contributory factors consist of an increase in population, climate change, lack of a solid vision to construct water reservoirs, and misplaced use of Jhelum and Chenab rivers by India under the Indus Water Treaty (IWT) of 1960 that has resulted in reduced flow of water to Pakistan.

The water crisis has two dimensions. First is the distribution of water among the four provinces, particularly between Punjab and Sindh. The second is between Pakistan and India arising because of utilizing water from the Chenab and Jhelum rivers. The first problem basically arises from the second one.

India got the right to fully utilize water from the three eastern rivers; Ravi, Bias, and Sutlej, while Pakistan was to utilize water from the three western rivers; Indus, Chenab, and Jhelum under the Indus Water Treaty (IWT). India was also permitted limited irrigation of 1,343 million acres (2.85 MAF) from western rivers. Water for Pakistan was not quantified. However, it is implied in the treaty that India is not to exceed the specified limit for water utilization. If India continues with its current strategy of building dams on the Chenab and Jhelum rivers, then there would be serious implications for Pakistan’s agriculture and national security. It would aggravate the already strained relationship between the two countries, which is due to the unresolved Kashmir issue.

A very strong perception exists in Pakistan that India in its quest to utilize water from Chenab and Jhelum rivers and is not fulfilling its obligations under the IWT. It wants to constrict the flow of water to Pakistan. This strategy has a hidden political agenda to create scarcity of irrigation water that would hurt Pakistan’s economy and agriculture sector in between 10-15 years. The national interests of both countries would be best served if India honored its comn1ittnents under the IWT. But, is India ready to address Pakistan’s concerns or wants to safeguard its own interests by violating the IWT that could lead to worsening of relations between the two countries?

The Water Crisis at the National Level Exists due to the following reasons:

  •  In the past, the public leadership did not succeed to develop a consensus on the construction of huge water reservoirs, particularly the Kalabagh dam that could have addressed many of the power and water problems that are being faced today.
  • Provinces are in dispute over their respective share of water under the IWT, with particular reference to utilizing water for Kharif and Rabi seasons through link canals managed by the Indus River System Authority (Irsa). Irsa has stopped satisfying Punjab, Sindh, and Balochistan provinces over the distribution of irrigation water for the current Rabi season because of a 34.0 percent shortage of water, primarily due to the construction of the Baglihar dam on Chenab. Water supply would be further constricted because of the planned construction of the Basrur multipower project, Siwalkot dam, and Pakot Dul dam on Chenab river by India. Unless resolved it would continue to be a recurring problem.
  • The Sindh Assembly has demanded scrapping the Hydropower project on the Chashma Jhelum link canal, a key project for the Punjab government . There is a strong perception in Sindl1 that the project would constrict the flow of water to the province and hurt its agriculture as well.
  • Punjab 1s accused of stealing 16,000 cusecs of water between Taunsa and Guddu, from 2nd to 4th Feb 2010. The Punjab government claims that system losses are to blame for the water that has disappeared.
  • Because of an absence of proper water management essentially at the secondary canal level, water crisis, particularly at the lower parts of these canals, is very evident. Coupled with flood irrigation, either irrigation by flooding basins or using the old Punchoo system, the water crisis keeps on increasing its intensity day by day. IRSA has no telemetry system and we cannot decide to distribute water by going beyond letter sense and include the spirit of the Water Apportionment Accord of 1991, we do not see an end to this water crisis in Pakistan.

As far as the scarcity of water in Pakistan is concerned, apparently, it has also to do with:

1. Climatic changes

2. Negligence and mismanagement of water resources by successive governments in Pakistan

Global warming has led to the melting of the Himalayan glaciers and consequent depletion in the flow of water into the Indus River system. The trend is likely to continue with rising temperatures. It is not that only the agricultural sector, the backbone of Pakistan’s economy , is suffering; due to depleting water supply, there is reduced power generation from the hydroelectric plants, having a devastating impact on the country’s industries too. Pakistan has no control over nature. However, it can improve the management of water resources. Pakistan needs to address the following problems on an urgent basis:

  • The silting of dams and barrages is a continuous process. Due to heavy sediments carried by the rivers, Tarbela, Mangla and Chasma Dams have lost nearly 25% of their capacity.
  • An estimated 40% of the water that runs through canals is lost because of seepage. The reason is the canal beds and banks are unlined, poorly lined, or porous.
  • Traditional and antiquated agricultural techniques lead to excessive loss of water.
  • While water-intensive varieties of crops, like sugarcane and rice, are cultivated. Optimum crop rotation is imperative but is not done effectively.

On 2 June 2008, Pakistan’s National Economic Council met under the Chairmanship of Prime Minister Syed Yousuf Raza Gilani and approved the development strategy based on the Medium Term Development Framework 2005-10. The water sector part of the overall strategy concentrates on water augmentation, water conservation, and effective use of water. It calls for the development of additional medium and large-size reservoirs with priority.

The water storages to be completed, by 2016 include Akhori Dam, Basha-Diamer Dam, Kalabagh Dam, and Munda Dam. Simultaneously the ongoing projects such as raising the structures of Mangla Dam, Gomal Dam, Satpra Dam, Kurram Tangi Dam, and Sabakzai Dam are also to be the top priority. The Medium-Term Development Framework 2005-10 also envisages a number of other measures, including reclamation of land from waterlogging and salinity, improvement of watercourses and ground-water management, etc.

Last year, 20 different UN bodies had warned; “Water is linked to the crisis of climate change, energy and food supplies and prices, and troubled financial markets. Unless their links with water are addressed and water crises around the world are resolved, these other crises may intensify and local water crises may worsen, converging into a global water crisis and leading to political insecurity and conflict at various levels”.

In a recent report, the United Nations has estimated that Pakistan’s water supply has dropped from about 5,000 cubic meters per person in the 1950s to about 1,420 cubic meters. Any further drop would seriously jeopardize economic growth and would be a health hazard. Notwithstanding Indus Basin Treaty, The need for effective international cooperation among riparian countries is greater now than ever before. The demand for water in all countries is escalating and increasingly the harmful effects of activities in upstream countries are being observed. Over a third of the 200 international river basins, are not covered, by an international agreement; only some 30, including Pakistan and India, have co-operative institutional arrangements.

Clearly, efforts are needed to formulate and reach an agreement on an international “code of conduct” or convention in the utilization of shared water basins so that the water needs of some countries are not undermined by irresponsible utilization of water resources by others. Improved international co-operation is also necessary regarding the transfer of knowledge and technology in the water resources field. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses, 1998, sets the standard for all agreements involving the shared use of trans boundary water, resources.

It specifically establishes the dual criteria of “equitable and reasonable utilization”‘ of the water resources and the need to “exchange data and consult on the possible effects of planned measures on the condition” of the water resource. The U.N. Convention provides the overall framework for Transboundary water sharing.

The partition of the South Asian Subcontinent on 14 August 1947 into the dominions of India and Pakistan gave birth to a host of problems, including that of the sharing of waters of the mighty Indus River System. The issue was of concern to Pakistan because the headworks of the rivers that irrigated Pakistan’s Punjab province mostly went to the Indian side. On 30 December 1947, Pakistan and India concluded a ‘Standstill Agreement’ for a three-month period under which Pakistan continued to receive water supply from the headworks of Madhopur on River Ravi and Ferozepur on River Sutlej, the two tributaries of River Indus. As the interim arrangement ended on 31 March 1948, the next day the Government of Indian Punjab stopped the supply of water to Pakistan from the Madhopur headwork, affecting, according to one estimate, 5.5% of Pakistan’s irrigated area.

Pakistan raised the issue at the Inter-Dominion Conference held on 3-4 May 1948. India dismissed Pakistan’s claim over water, from the headworks on its side as a matter of right but agreed to release water as a provisional arrangement. It was thus abundantly clear that slowly and gradually the quantity of water would be reduced. In 1951, David Lilienthal, who had formerly served as Chairman of the Tennessee Valley Authority and as Chairman of the US Atomic Energy Commission, undertook a research tour of Pakistan and India for writing a series of articles. In one of his articles, he opined that it would be very beneficial for the region if the two countries cooperated to jointly develop and operate the Indus Basin river system. He further suggested that the World Bank might play its role in bringing India and Pakistan to agree on some plan to develop the Indus river system for mutual benefit.

President of the World Bank, Eugene Black, picked up the idea and offered his good offices to resolve the issue of water sharing between India and Pakistan. The two neighbors welcomed the initiative and after tough bargaining during the protracted negotiations that spread, over nine years arrived at the contours of the agreement. Broad parameters thus settled the work of drafting began. Finally, m September 1960, President of Pakistan Field Marshall Mohammad Ayub Khan and Prime Minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru signed the Indus Water Treaty in Karachi.

Following are the provisions of the Indus Basin Treaty 1960

  • Pakistan surrendered three eastern rivers, Ravi, Sutlej, and Beas to India with some minor rights to Pakistan.
  • Largely three western rivers namely Indus, Jhelum, and Chenab remained with Pakistan.
  • India was allowed to use water from the western rivers for irrigation of 642,000 acres of land that were already being irrigated from these rivers along with an entitlement to further irrigate 701,000 acres for crops.
  • India was also given specified entitlement for ‘other’ storage, including, power and flood storage i.e., storage for non-consumptive purposes.
  • Pakistan was to meet the requirements of its eastern river canals from the western rivers by constructing replacement works.
  • Both parties are bound to. regularly exchange flow data of rivers, canals, and streams.
  • A Permanent Indus Water Commission, with one Commissioner from each side, was to be set up to resolve issues.
  • The procedures were set out for settlement of ‘questions’ ‘differences’ and ‘disputes’, bilaterally and through neutral experts and International Court of Arbitration as the case might be.

Since Pakistan required considerable time to build the necessary infrastructure to divert water from western rivers to eastern rivers and their canals on its side, India was to allow the ‘historic withdrawals’ on the part of Pakistan during the transitory period. According to the Treaty, two dams (Mangla on River Jhelum and Tarbela on River Indus) were to be built It also envisaged five barrages Maraia and Qadirabad on River Chenab, Sidhnai on River Ravi, Rasul on River Jhelum, Chashma on River Indus, and Mailsi on River Sutlej. Besides, one siphon and seven link canals (Rasul-Qadirabad on Rivers Jhelum-Chenab, Qadirabad-Balloki on Rivers Chenab-Ravi, Balloki-Suleimanki II and Sidhnai-Mailsi on Rivers Ravi-Sutlej, Chashma-Jhelum on Rivers Indus-Jhelum and Trimmu-Sidhnai on Rivers Indus-Ravi), to be constructed in Pakistan.

To meet the financial cost, India was to pay a fixed amount of US $ 62.060 million over a period of ten years. An international consortium pledged the US $ 900 million. The World Bank was to administer the Indus Basin, Development Fund. The Indus Basin Project was completed despite all hurdles those included opposition and reservations from many quarters in Pakistan who felt that Pakistan’s rights as a lower riparian state had been compromised. This amounted to a successful resolution of a major dispute over the world’s largest, contiguous irrigation system with a command area of about 20 million hectares.

Although the Indus Water Treaty has been a remarkable success story, lately some projects are undertaken by India in the Occupied territory of Jammu and Kashmir from where the western rivers flow into Pakistan have become major irritants and raised serious concerns in Pakistan:

India has embarked upon the construction of a huge network of water storage facilities, the national river linking project at an estimated cost of $120 bn likely to be completed by 2016. It includes the construction of the Basrur multi-power project, Siwalkot dam, and Pakot Dul dam on Chenab, in addition to the already constructed Baglihar dam. In 1985, India started construction of a barrage known as ‘Wullar Barrage (The Tulbal Navigation Lock)’ some 439 feet long and with a lock at the mouth of Wullar Lake, the largest freshwater Lake in Indian occupied, disputed, and held territory.

Purportedly but not so innocently, the stated purpose of the barrage was to make possible navigation in a 22 km stretch between the towns of Sopore and Baramula, during the lean winter season by regulating the flow of the River Jhelum. Pakistan raised objections to this project and the construction work halted in 1987. Pakistan contends that India cannot store water in excess of 0.01 MAF as ‘incidental storage’ on River Jhelum. Pakistan also apprehends that the Wullar Barrage may cause damage to its own project of linking Jhelum and Chenab with the Upper Bari Doab Canal. One important concern of Pakistan, which is extraneous to the Indus Water Treaty but squarely a security issue, is that in case of war between the two countries, India would take advantage of its ability to control the flow of water and make the crossing of the river easy or difficult according to strategic and tactical military requirement.

India, as usual, but erroneously contends that the Wullar Barrage would regulate the flow of water into Jhelum and control the floods. It would not reduce the overall quantum of water flow rather increase it during the lean winter season. All fair weather pretension and an obvious ruse, to get away with an extremely hurtful project to Pakistan. The project’s impact, India asserts, would be beneficial to Mangla Dam in power generation and to Pakistan’s triple canal system due to the regulated flow of water. The matter remains unresolved.

Outrageously on the Kishanganga Project, the Indians hawk on the premise that it will ostensibly bring water from River Kishanganga to Wullar Lake, where a hydroelectric power station is proposed. The project envisages the construction of a channel and a tunnel for this purpose. Simultaneously to build a dam, near the place where River Kishanganga crosses the Line of Control to enter Pakistan-administered Kashmir, where it is known as Neelum.

Here Pakistan plans to construct a 969 MW-capacity Neelum-Jhelum Power Plant with Chinese assistance. The Pakistani project is to going to be completed in 2017, due to a delay in construction work. Pakistan is genuinely concerned and fears that the Kishanganga Project would lead to a shortfall of water flow into Neelum, reducing its power generation by an estimated 9%. The Indus Water Treaty does not bar any party from storing water for power generation as per entitlement.

However, there is the principle of prior appropriation enshrined in the Treaty. India intends to complete the Kishanganga Project by 2016 to avail the opportunity of diverting K.ishanganga’a water to Wullar Lake before Pakistan is able to invoke the provision of prior appropriation. India also claims that Pakistan need not worry because the water diverted by the l<ishanganga Project would reach Pakistan through River Jhelum, no matter Neelum-Jhelum project suffers.

In 1999, India began construction work of 470-feet high, 317 meters wide Baghlihar Dam, also known as Baghlihar Hydroelectric Power Project, oh River Chenab in Doda District of Indian occupied Kashmir. Although India called it a run-of-the-river project, the dam was to have a ‘pond age’ of 15 million cubics! Deters with submerged gated spillways.

Pakistan raised objection to the project design on the ground that the submerged gate ‘spillways would enable India to increase the storage capacity of the reservoir and, if India desired, to halt the supply of water to Pakistan for more than three weeks during the winter season. Pakistan fears that it would lose between 7000 to 8000 cusecs of water per day for Rabi crops. Pakistan also sensed the danger of inundation of the area above Maraia Head Works, if India released water simultaneously from Dulhasti, Baghlihar, and Sala! Darns into River Chenab. Pakistan viewed the Baghlihar Project as another security risk, in times of tension or war, as India would be able to control the flow of water facilitating or hampering the movement of Indian/Pakistani troops according to its requirement.

After the Indus Water Commission failed to resolve the Baghlihar Dam issue, the matter was referred to the World Bank which acknowledged that the issue amounted to a ‘difference’ and appointed Professor Raymond Lafitte, an engineer from Switzerland, as the neutral expert to decide the matter. On 12 February 2007, Lafitte gave his verdict directing India to reduce the capacity of pond age by 13.5% and the height of the Dams’ structure by 1.5 meters. He also called for raising power intake tunnels by 3 meters to reduce flow-control capability. Pakistan had reservations about the verdict but both India and Pakistan agreed to abide by it. The matter, it appears, stands closed.

It is heartening to see that during its recent visit to Pakistan to discuss Indus Water issues, the Indian delegation conceded that all “water disputes must be resolved within an agreed timeframe.” Pakistan’s Indus Commissioner Syed Jamaal Ali Shah told the Indian delegation that a reduction in supplies was jeopardizing the water transfer operation to the eastern part of Pakistan. He also conveyed the message that Pakistan wanted India to take necessary steps if deforestation and environmental impact affected the river flow on its side.

Now dams will be Discussed in detail.

World’s largest earth and rock-filled dam were built at Terbela on river Indus in 1976 with a gross capacity of 11.62 maf and a live storage capacity of 9.68 maf. With the passage of time, due to silting, 24.6% of the storage has been lost and now it has a live storage of 7.295 maf.

Mangla reservoir is the second major storage of Pakistan. It was built in 1967 on river Jhelum with a gross capacity of 5.882 maf and live storage of 5.41 maf. Again due to siltation it has lost 13.2% of its storage and presently can store 4.636 MAF of water.

Chashma barrage is situated on river Indus and was built in 1972 with a gross storage of0.870 maf and live storage of O.717 maf. It has also reduced its storage capacity by 39.3% and is left with a storage capacity of0.435 maf.

In Pakistan, we utilize the water available to us for different purposes. The basic utilization is for irrigation and then used for power generation, drinking, and also provided to some Industries.

Whereas impact on the economy is concerned, according to the estimates of the federal government, the agriculture sector would suffer a loss of about Rs. 90 billion because of drought. Since agriculture has remained a major source of shouldering the already crippled economy , it has a vital role to play particularly in terms of food security and employment of the ever-burgeoning population of the country. It contributes around 35 % to the GNP and employs about 44% of the labor force. It also contributes 65% of our export earnings. The adverse effects of water shortage on agriculture would have a spiraling effect on the prevailing level of poverty.

  •  Less water means less agricultural yields and to fulfill the food requirements of the nation, we will be dependent on other countries.
  • Raising livestock is the main source of livelihood in rural areas. It is also an important economic activity, which contributes 9.7% of GDP, which will be affected due to a shortage of water.
  • Orchards of Pakistan bring home a healthy amount of foreign exchange, which can be affected due to water shortage.
  • Due to less production of main crops, which are wheat, cotton, sugar cane, and rice, the Industries related to them will suffer adversely.
  • Then due to drought and more dependency on groundwater for irrigation, the water table will go down, and this will cause water constraints to the population.
  • Less agricultural outputs will compel people to head towards urban areas for jobs, which will increase unemployment further.
  • The distribution of water is controlled from the center by IRSA (Indus river system authority) as per the 1991 agreement between the provinces. Now the shortage of water will cause disputes between the provinces, which may cause harm to the national integrity.

So for overcoming the water crisis, following steps are recommended:

The national water strategy must be based upon two essential elements covering

1. Water developments

2. Water management

In water development, the following dams should start immediately;-

Bhasha dam would be located 200 miles upstream of Terbela on river Indus. its gross storage capacity would be 7.3 maf and live storage 5.7 maf. Its power generation capacity would be 3360 mw.

Kalabagh dam site is located 132 miles downstream of Terbela. Its gross storage would be 6.1 maf. It would have a power generation of 3600 mw.

That reservoir would be located on the right bank of Chashma – Jhelum link canal, along the western bank of river Jhelum. Its reservoir would have a gross capacity of 2.3 maf.

In this, the present Mangla dam would be further raised by 40 ft and thus increasing its gross capacity to 9.5 maf. In addition, its power generation capacity would be increased by 15%.

Mirani dam is located on Dasht River about 48 km of Turbat town in Mekran division. Its main objective is to provide water for irrigation. Its gross storage is 0.30 maf.

Gomalzam dam is located at Khajori Kach on Gomal River in South Waziristan, about 75 miles from Dera Ismail Khan. Its main objective will be to irrigate 132000 acres of land, power generation of 17.4 mw, and flood control.

From these projects, we shall be able to store an additional 20maf of water. Managing water resources is the need of time, and we in Pakistan are already short of water, mnst chalk out a strategy. Following are recommended in this regard:-

Presently the losses occur due to seepage, infiltration, and leakages, etc. seepage results in waterlogging, and these losses can be reduced or eliminated by lining the canals.

In addition, people should be educated to conserve water by cooperation”: Furthermore government should make laws on water conservation, like many western countries.

The second-largest contribution to the total water available comes from groundwater sources. This source has been exploited and very well used by public and private tube wells. It can still provide over nine maf of water. This source can be exploited and judiciously used for irrigation purposes. However in some areas, groundwater is rapidly depleting due to excessive pumpage, authorities should take control in such areas to save them from depleting.

Efforts would be made to convert the present rotation-based irrigation system to a demand-oriented system. The modem irrigation techniques, that is trickling, sprinkling, etc, have the potential to improve water distribution and its utilization.

Authorities should take appropriate steps to curb the illegal extraction of water and ensure its equitable distribution.

Presently irrigation department has failed to stop the illegal theft and extraction; thus irrigation distribution system needs to be privatized through·water user associations.

In addition, water, nowadays is supplied to farmers at a very negligible cost and that is why they do not treat water as a precious resource; therefore there is a need to increase the water prices to make irrigators realize the importance of this asset.

Farmer’s organizations, water user associations, and the private sector must be involved in the construction, operation, and maintenance of i.e irrigation system. Such associations are conceived as a mechanism for creating a cooperative framework for the improvement of watercourses.

The problems faced by the water sector in the country are many, acute and serious and it is also known that we can generate about 83 maf of more water. Therefore, building more reservoirs and an effective management strategy are the needs of the time. Also, implementation of the recommendations will enable the country to ·meet the challenges, and achieve the objectives of integrated, efficient, environmentally and financially sustainable development and management of limited water resources. At the same time, it will enable us to utilize every drop of our water for our bright future.

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Essay on Water Crisis or Water Shortage in Pakistan with Outline

Essay on water crisis | water shortage in pakistan essay with outline for matric, intermediate, 2nd year, fa, fsc, ba and bsc.

Here is an essay on Water shortage in Pakistan with Outline for the students of Class 10, Class 12 and graduation. In this essay on the water crisis, we will discuss the importance of water in our daily life and how people are misusing it in our country. The source to get water, problems of people of interior Sindh and Balochistan, as well as Indian basin treaty, will also be discussed in Water Crisis Essay.

Essay on Water Shortage in Pakistan | Water Crisis in Pakistan Essay with Outline for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation

  • Uses and importance of water in the life of a common man
  • How people in Pakistan are ill-using this blessing
  • People of interior Sind, and Balochistan bring water from a long distance for their daily use
  • Source of getting water
  • Indian Basin Treaty between Pakistan and India to built dams
  • Suggestions to overcome water crisis
  • Importance of Kala Bagh Dam

Water is a great endowment and blessing of God to man. Without water, life in this world is impossible. Water gives life and energy to everything. It is essential for the life and survival of human beings birds, beasts, plants and trees. It is the main source of energy and power. We use it for cooking our food and quenching our thirst. It is used for washing our clothes and bathing our body. It is the main source of irrigating our fields. Without it, we cannot conceive of life on earth.

Unfortunately, this great gift and blessing of God has been wasted and ill-used by the people of Pakistan. We have never paid any attention to preserve and save this great treasure of Nature. There are many areas in Pakistan where people do not get water for drinking purpose. In the interior Sind, and Balochistan, there are many towns and villages where people have to carry water from as far as thirty or forty kilometres away from their homes. The Women, children and old men have to undertake the long journey to carry water for their daily use. This is a very sad spectacle. The sources of getting water are very few and limited. Water is present in the subsoil of the earth. It Is brought to earth by the operation of tube wells and electric motors. The other source of water is the rivers, lakes and streams. Water comes into rivers and streams by the melting of massive and glaciers.

This source of getting water is quite doubtful and uncertain. Sometimes, the summer season begins late and these icebergs and glaciers are not melted in time. Consequently,0 the rivers and lakes become dry and barren. The country falls a victim to the shortage of water.

In 1960, a treaty between Pakistan and India was signed with World Bank meditation. The treaty is known as the “Indian Basin Treaty”. According to it, the control of waters of Ravi, Bias and Sutlag was given to India. It was decided that the Indian Govt. would help Pakistan in the construction of two large dams on the Indus and the Jhelum. But this was never fulfilled. Indian Govt. often stopped the flow of water in our rivers when it liked, out of sheer enmity.

The only way to overcome water crisis is to build dams on the river banks. The earliest dams were built to store water for domestic and agriculture. Hydropower became a major reason to build dams.

The construction of Kalabagh Dam is the need of the time. If it is not built in time, our country is going to face severe starvation and famine. Essay on Water Crisis or Water shortage in Pakistan , previously in Exams – P.U. 2000 B.Sc . However, you should look at Essay on Load Shedding with outline as well.

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Essay on Water Crisis and Water Shortage in Pakistan with Outline

water crisis in pakistan essay with outline

  • November 27, 2023

Kainat Shakeel

Water, a precious resource sustaining life on our earth, is facing an extremity in the colorful corridor of the world. One similar region scuffling with a severe water deficit is Pakistan. In this essay, we claw into the causes, impacts, and implicit results of the water extremity in Pakistan, aiming to exfoliate light on a critical issue that demands immediate attention.  

 The term” water extremity” refers to a situation where the vacuity of water falls short of the demand, leading to severe consequences for ecosystems, mortal health, and profitable stability.

Importance of Addressing Water deficit in Pakistan:

 Pakistan, an agricultural frugality heavily reliant on irrigation, faces dire consequences due to water failure. It not only affects husbandry but also poses trouble to the overall well-being of the nation.

Causes of Water Crisis in Pakistan:

  • Population Growth:  The exponential growth of Pakistan’s population intensifies the water demand, placing immense pressure on water coffers.
  • Climate Change:  Changing climate patterns, including irregular downfall and rising temperatures, contribute to the reduction of water sources, aggravating the extremity.
  • Mismanagement of Water coffers:  Inefficient use and misallocation of water coffers further aggravate the problem, emphasizing the need for better governance and resource operation.

Impact on Agriculture:

  • Reduced Crop Yields:  inadequate water for irrigation leads to reduced crop yields, directly impacting the livelihoods of growers and the nation’s food security.  
  • Economic Consequences:  The decline in agrarian productivity due to water failure has far-reaching profitable counteraccusations, affecting both pastoral and civic populations.

Water Scarcity in Urban Areas:

  • Unequal Distribution:  Civic areas frequently witness the unstable distribution of water coffers, with certain regions facing further acute deaths than others.
  • Increased Demand:  Rapid urbanization and population growth in metropolises elevate the water demand, straining structures and coffers.

Results of the Palliate Water Crisis:

  • Improved Water Management

Implementing effective water operation practices, including better irrigation ways and conservation sweats, is pivotal to addressing the extremity.

  • Investment in Water structure 

 Acceptable investment in water structure, similar to heads and budgets, can enhance water storehouse capacity and distribution.

  • Public Awareness and Education 

 Educating the public about responsible water operation and the significance of conservation plays a vital part in mollifying the extremity.

Role of the Government and NGOs:

  • Policy perpetration 

 Governments must apply and apply programs that regulate water use and promote sustainable practices.

  • Collaborative sweats 

Collaboration between governmental bodies and non-governmental associations( NGOs) is essential for a comprehensive and effective approach to resolving the water extremity.

Sustainable Practices:

  • Rainwater Harvesting 

Encouraging the relinquishment of rainwater harvesting ways in individual and community situations can contribute significantly to water conservation.

  • Effective Water Use Technologies 

Embracing advanced technologies for effective water use in husbandry and civic settings is pivotal for sustainable water operation.

Future Prospects:

  • Long-Term Strategies 

Developing and enforcing long-term strategies that address the root causes of the water extremity will be necessary for securing a water-sustainable future for Pakistan.

  • Global Perspectives on Water Crisis 

Understanding and learning from global sweat to combat water failure can give precious perceptivity and results applicable to Pakistan’s environment.

 In conclusion, the water extremity in Pakistan is a multifaceted challenge that demands immediate attention and combined sweat. By addressing its root causes, enforcing sustainable practices, and fostering collaboration between stakeholders, there’s a stopgap for a water-secure future for the nation.

Conclusion:

In the face of the water extremity, collaborative action is imperative to secure a sustainable future for Pakistan. By enforcing comprehensive strategies, fostering mindfulness, and embracing innovative results, the nation can overcome the challenges posed by water failure.

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CSS Essay: Water Crisis in PAKISTAN – Causes and Consequences

CSS Essay: Water Crisis in PAKISTAN – Causes and Consequences

Essay Outline | Water Crisis in PAKISTAN – Causes and Consequences

1. Introduction

– Water crisis – number one global risk based upon its impact on society (World Economic forum 2015). – Water Scarcity – a nightmare scenario for Pakistan, despite it having the world’s largest glaciers. – Pakistan being a single basin country is facing challenges of water scarcity. – Pakistan among the 36 most water stressed countries.

2. Overview of the Current Situation of water crisis in Pakistan.

2.1 IMF report throwing light on the severity of Pakistan’s water crisis. (a) Pakistan has the world’s 4th highest rate of water use. (b) Pakistan is the 3rd water stressed country in the world. (c) The aquifer in the Indus basin is the 2nd most stressed in the world.

3. Water Vision 2025.

(3.1) In 2009, the Running on Empty study projected that Pakistan’s water shortfall could be 5 times the amount of water stored in Indus reservoirs.

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4. Causes of water crisis in Pakistan. International causes ‘Water terrorism by India’.

(a) Violation of Indus water Treaty by India. (i) Construction of Wullar barrage on River Jhelum. (ii) Construction of Buglihar Dam on River Chenab. (iii) Kishanganga project on river Neelam. (b) China’s mega water diversion scheme and its impact on the flow of river Indus and Satluj.National Causes. (a) Delay in the construction of dams and water reservoirs (Pakistan’s total dam storage is 30 days of average demand whereas the figure is 220 days for India. (i) Kalabagh Dam – a controversial issue. (b) Rapid population growth and urbanization (i) Country is among the world’s top 6 most popular states and as per the UN report, projected to have a population of 300 million by 2050 causing a threat to sustainability of water resources. (c) Financial constraints (d) Inefficient water policy making and lock of proper management of water resources by the government. (i) Agricultural sector is untaxed and more than 90 pc of Pakistan’s water resources are allocated to that sector. (ii) Unavailability of safe drinking water to the entire population. (iii) Tarbela, Mangla and Chashma reservoirs have lost about 5 million acre-feet due to sedimentation. (iv) An estimated 40% of water that run through canals is lost because of seepage. (4.3) Natural causes (i) Increase in the global warming and melting of glaciers. (a) On average, glaciers currently lose between 50 to 150 cm of thickness every year that is 2 to 3 times more than the average of the 20th century.

5. Consequences of Water Crisis. Global Impacts.

(a) Threat of nuclear war between India and Pakistan on the water issue. i.e; India uses water as weapon against Pakistan in IWT agreement conflict in 2016. Impacts. (a) Water wars among provinces (Escalating tensions between Punjab and Sindh). (b) Severe episodes of droughts leading to the devastation of agriculture. (i) Water logging and salinity is increasing as a result of installing more and more tube wells in order to overcome the shortage of dams. (c) Loss of habitat and devastation of tourism industry leading toward unemployment and Economy. (d) Sewerage disposal issue resulting in pollution (e) Lesser availability of clean drinking water (arsenic poisoning) (f) Importation of water at high rates.

6. Water management strategies International Level

(a) Pakistan should take the issue to International court of Justice in order to urge India not to make dams on Western rivers. At National Level (a) Construction of dams and improvement of existing canal system. (i) Construction of Kalabagh Dam [It will create a reservoir with usable storage capacity of 6.1 MAF]. (ii) Raising Mangla Dam, Gomal Dam, Satpara dam, and Sabakzai Dam should be the top priority. (iii) Canlas should be cemented in order to stop the seepage of water. (iv) Creation of Think tank (planning commission, HEC, universities, PEC) for water Resources Development and Management. (b) Water pricing reforms tariff reform is critical to ensure sustainable water use as canal water is heavily underpriced. (c) Bringing the agriculture within the tax net. (i) Agriculture in Pakistan is largely untaxed more than 90% of Pakistan’s water resources are allocated to this sector. (d) Sufficient and sincere political will is required to implement water pricing reforms. (e) Nationwide campaign to raise awareness. (i) Regarding less water intensive crop production exp drip irrigation system should be adopted. (ii) Optimum crop rotation should be encouraged.

7. Conclusion

– Public consensus on national issue to defeat the nefarious aims of enemies. – Provinces should reform the agriculture taxation system in the context of NFC award in order to entrance the political interest of powerful land owners. – Control of excessive groundwater exploitation is imperative.

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Css essay | water crisis in pakistan – causes and consequences.

Water is the most precious natural resource in the world. Without it there would be no life on earth. Unfortunately, water is becoming scarce and there are various factors leading to this scarcity. According to a report of world economic forum, water crisis is the number of one global risk based upon the devastation it is likely to create. Particularly in Pakistan the situation is alarming as Pakistan, though, bestowed with the world’s largest glacial resources is facing the prospect of water crisis. The expected demand and supply imbalance is creating challenges on the domestic, agricultural and industrial level as Pakistan’s water availability is heavily relied upon Indus Basin.

Water crisis is a nightmare scenario, that is all too real but inevitable for Pakistan. According to a recent IMF report, Pakistan is among the 36 most water stressed countries in the world. It has the world’s 4th highest rate of water use. Its water intensity rate measured as per unit of GDP is the world’s highest. Pakistan is also the 3rd most water stressed country in the world. According to New Nasa Satellite data of world’s underground aquifers, The aquifer in the Indus basin is the second most stressed in the world. In 2009, The Running of Empty study projected that by 2050. Pakistan’s water shortfall would be 5 times the amount of water that could be stored in the Indus river’s vast reservoir. Federal Minister of Water and Power, Khuwaja Asif has also warned that scarcity of water is another issue looming on Pakistan.

Water terrorism on the part of India is a major reason of Pakistan’s water crisis. India has constructed two hydro electric projects on river Neelam and called Kishanganga in Indian dialect. The Baglihar dam on Chenab permits the agreed quota of water flow to Pakistan despite Pakistan sought the help of World Bank to stop its construction. Wullar barrage has been constructed at the mouth of Wullar lake on river Jhelum. Pakistan believes that the construction of dams could be used as a geostrategic weapon as India can control the flow of Rivers. Moreover, Indian project on Wullar lake also has the potential of disrupting the triple canal Lover Bari Doab Canal. Further, China’s Mega Water Diversion scheme is also a source of concern for Pakistan as it could stop the flaw of water to river Indus and Satluj which is a tributary of Indus River.

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Delay in the construction of dams and reservoirs are also creating a threat to the amount of water available for household consumption and for agricultural and industrial use. Pakistan’s total dam capacity is 30 days of the average demand whereas the figure is 1000 days for Egypt and 220 days for India. Construction of Kalabagh dam has been delayed and the reason for its delay is the bitter controversy among the four provinces. The only province in favor of its construction is Punjab. When completed, the dam would create a reservoir with usable storage capacity of 6.1 Million acre-feet (MAF). Moreover, despite the two

ground-breaking ceremonies of Diamer-Bhasha dam by the successive governments, developmental work on the life saving project could not be started. Financial constraints accompanied with the lack of resources, infrastructure and political will among the leaders are some key factors which do not let the construction of dams, barrages and reservoirs in Pakistan.

Rapidly growing population along with urbanization are also some significant factors leading towards water scarcity. Pakistan is among the world’s top 6 most populous states as per the UN report, and is projected to have a population of about 300 million by the end of 2050 which has threatened the sustainability of water resources. The rapid increase in population is leading toward escalated demand of water and food resources and leading toward the depletion of natural resources.

Weak administration and poor water management are also causing water scarcity. It is the lack of effective policy making on the part of government that agriculture sector in Pakistan is largely untaxed. And more than 90% of Pakistan’s water resources are allocated to this sector. Moreover, traditional and antiquated agriculture techniques are leading towards 50 to 60% loss of water. Water intensive crops like rice and sugarcane are being cultivated without taking into account the optimum crop rotation. This inefficient water distribution is creating water shortages and has forced people to use unhygienic water for daily consumption.

The gradual loss in saving capacities of the existing reservoirs is also contributing to water scarcity. Tarbela, Mangla and Chashma reservoirs have lost about 5 million acre-feet, that is, 2.5% of their water saving capacity due to heavy sedimentation carried by the rivers. The canal beds are either unlined or poorly lined and 40 % of water that runs through canals is lost because of seepage. Increase in the global warming is a major reason of melting of glaciers. On average, glaciers currently lose between 50 to 150 cm thickness every year. Pakistan is sandwiched between China and India, the first and third largest emitters of carbon de oxide gas Co2 respectively. Glaciers are a major source of water supply for Pakistan, however, according to a study glaciers in Pakistan are melting continuously because of rising temperature and. By the year 2050, the country will no longer posses water reserves in the form of glaciers.

Water terrorism on the part of India is posing the threat of a nuclear war between the two rivals. Border between India and Pakistan is considered the most stressed border in the world. Any war between these two rivals is going to have negative repercussions on not only the south Asian region but also on the entire Asian continent. Hence, the water issue between the two neighbors has the potential to bring the entire region to the brink of major disaster, that is, the possibility of a nuclear war.

The short term implications of water crisis are already visible as tensions are escalating among provinces. The level of distrust, pertaining to the distribution of water, is increasing between Punjab and Sindh. Open Chashma-Jehlum canal to meet Punjab’s requirement has created tensions between the provinces in the past. Dispute could be resolved if the provinces show enough maturity in resolving the dispute amicably as they have done previously in resolving the dispute on National Fiancé Commission (NFC) award.

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Water shortage is also contributing to an increase in water logging and salinity. Reduction in the dam storage capacity is leading toward lesser per-acre water availability. To cope with this problem farmers are installing more and more tube wells. That is why salinity has become a major issue in most parts of Punjab and Sindh. Sindh contributes significantly in the production of cash crops including cotton and rice, however, scarcity of water is adversely affecting the production and exports of these crops. Water tables are dropping drastically and the resultant pumping of water to meet increased water demands is increasing the cases of arsenic poisoning. Lesser availability of clean drinking water is giving birth to many parasitic diseases and deadly viruses such as dengue. Water reduction is also creating problems in sewerage disposal and hence increasing pollution and temperature.

Pakistani government has to take significant measures to cope with the looming threat of water crisis. Arbitration, reconciliation and dialogue are the best options to resolve the issue of water between the two neighbors. Although water commissioner level talks between India and Pakistan have failed during August last year as India did not budge on its design of Kishanganga dam and also refused to halt the construction of river Chenab. However, a fresh round of talks should be held and both neighbors should understand that nuclear war is not the solution of their problems.

At the national level, construction of new dams is vital to meet the constantly increasing water demand. Construction of Kalabagh dam is imperative as it will create a reservoir with useable storage of 6.1 million nacre-feet. Government should also its divert its attention toward the rapid construction of Daimer- Bhasha Dam, which when constructed would be able to store 8 MAF of water. Construction of such larger reservoirs is imperative to maintain the cultivation of water intensive crops in the fertile lands of Sindh and Punjab Raising the structure of Mangla dam, Gomal dam, Satpara dam and Sabakzai dam should be the top priority of the government. Capacity building and improvement of existing canal system is necessary as 40% of water that runs through canals is lost because of seepage of water.

Government should create a think tank including planning commission, Higher Education Commission, (HEC) and universities in order to improve water resource development and management Water prancing reforms should be introduced to ensure sustainable water use as canal water is heavily underpriced. Agriculture in Pakistan is predominantly irrigated (90 percent) and consumes about 95 percent of annually available surface water. Bringing the agriculture sector within the tax net will bring sufficient funds to build new dams and will help improving supply to the water stressed areas of Pakistan. Nationwide campaigns should be conducted to raise the importance of water saving by growing less water intensive crops and by encouraging optimum crop rotation.

Water is an engine to economic growth in Pakistan. The country has the necessary natural endowment and is blessed with the world’s most extensive irrigation system. What basically required is the public consensus to defeat the nefarious aims of the enemies. Provinces should reform the system of agricultural taxation to entrench the political interests of powerful landowners. Control of excessive ground water exploitation is also imperative in dealing with the looming threat of water crisis in Pakistan.

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Home — Essay Samples — Geography & Travel — Pakistan — An Overview Of Pakistan’S Water Crises

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An Overview of Pakistan’s Water Crises

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Published: Mar 3, 2020

Words: 1864 | Pages: 4 | 10 min read

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An overview of pakistan’s water crises, effects of water crises in pakistan.

  • Climate change: The eventual changes in climate have severely affected the amount of water present in the country. As a result of global warming the temperatures are rising leading to greater evaporation of water ending in leading lands barren and unfit for agriculture. Apart from that, the monsoon season, since the past few years has been erratic and the winter season has shrunk to two or four months in some parts of the country. Simultaneously Pakistan does not have enough dams to store flood water and use it to compensate for water shortages. Also, forests have declined because of anthropogenic activities which have left forests barren. Less vegetation brings less rain so this causes shortage of water in the country.
  • Water politics: Ever since its creation, Pakistan has suffered heavily at the hands of its enemy, India, who troubled Pakistan with several concerns and with water in particular. Never granted an equal share of resources, Pakistan lacked much and the headquarters and main supply of water to date remain in the hands of India. India uses this power to exploit Pakistan, releasing water in case of flood and holding it back when there is a shortage hence making Pakistan suffer with water issues deliberately. Tarbela and Mangla Dam, the only two major reservoirs of Pakistan have also been announced to have reached their dead levels only recently. Kugelman says that the Pakistani authorities need to step up efforts to overcome the water crisis, which is partly man-made.
  • Wastage of water: Where on one hand we face issues storing water, the one we already have is also mismanaged and wasted on a daily basis. This mismanagement takes place at various levels. From mismanagement at domestic level to wasting water at an industrial level, we truly waste water at every level and fail to play our part in its conservation. After all it is every water drop that adds up to become a mighty ocean. We as tiny water droplets need to play our part in conserving water and once everyone plays their part as a responsible citizen, the country may be able to stabilize in terms of the shortage of water. Hence, wasting water is one of the major reasons our country lacks proper water management and sufficient amount to cater everyone’s needs.
  • Decreased crops: Water is essential to the growth of crops hence crucial to the agricultural industry of Pakistan. Some crops such as rice required stagnant water in order to grow. Rice fields must be flooded with water at all time to ensure plentiful and proper growth. In case of a shortage of water, such fields would get insufficient water leading decrease in output of the crop ultimately being unable to meet the growing demands of the industry and the population. This is not just for rice fields, rather for all crops so such lack of water may drastically affect the output of crops and their shortage will affect Pakistan’s economy.
  • Unemployment: As a result of decline of the agricultural industry the employment sector does suffer greatly. The more the agricultural sector flourishes, the greater the chances of employment as farmers etc. and it goes vice versa. With a rapid decline in the agricultural sector because of shortage of water, the need for farmers and other such jobs decrease hence leading to decline in employment. If water is unavailable in some farm, farmers may have to give up their fields as farming and crop growth is not possible without water.
  • Export decline: Pakistan has some good quality fruits that it exports to other countries specially good quality fruits from Baluchistan. With a decline in the agricultural sector because of shortage of water, these exports would decline rapidly hence leading to negative impacts on the economy of Pakistan.
  • Livestock farming:Livestock, like every other human require water and without water livestock farming would become a major issue. Cattle and livestock will not be raised and can lead to decline in cattle stock faming.
  • Hydropower: Hydropower is the main source of energy generation in Pakistan. With shortage of water the electricity generation would decline causing an energy crisis. According to recent news WAPDA requires power of 75149 MW by year 2025 but it cannot be achieved without constructing new storage dams.
  • Health issues: One major problem resulting from the shortage of water would be the unavailability of clean drinking water for the common people. In the absence of clean water people would be bound to drink unhealthy water leading to various infections such as typhoid.
  • Water development: This suggests that new dam development projects should start to develop new dams and maintain and manage the ones that already exist. This includes focus on projects like those stated below:a) Kalabagh Dam: Kalabagh dam site is located 132 miles downstream of Terbela. Its gross storage would be 6.1 maf. It would have a power generation of 3600 mw. Thus setting up this dam will give plentiful amount of energy and also save and store water helping in Pakistan’s water crisis.b) Raised Mangla dam: In this the present Mangla dam would be further raised by 40 ft. and thus increasing its gross capacity to 9.5 maf. In addition, its power generation capacity would be increased by 15%.c) Bhasha Dam: One initiative that the government has taken is the collection of funds for the development of a new dam named Bhasha dam. The government is actively involving the citizen to contribute to making of this dam, hoping that it will save and store water for our future generations.
  • Water management: The idea of water management includes management of the resources that are already present. Such maintenance would help save water and use it efficiently meaning that it will contribute to solving the water crises in Pakistan. The ideas of water management include the following:a) Conservation of water: One important method of water management is the conservation of water which begins at an individual level where we as responsible citizens need to save water in our daily uses. This could be as simple as closing the water tap while brushing your teeth, making use of a bucket to bath rather than open flowing water etc. It is our duty and moral responsibility to play our part as a responsible citizen because little things add up to make a whole.b) Government laws: the government needs to play its part by setting laws about ways to conserve and maintain water so that it remains available in the future as well.c) Modern techniques: For watering fields and other various purposes modern techniques should be used such as sprinkling etc. as it saves water and improves water distribution.d) Valuing water as a resource: Water is supplied to farmers at a very negligible cost and that is why they do not treat water as a precious resource hence there is a need to increase the water prices to make irrigators realize the importance of this asset.

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Water Crisis in Pakistan!

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Water is essential to life on Earth, yet our planet is suffering a serious water crisis. Water scarcity has become an international crisis affecting millions of people around the globe and contributing to climate change, urbanization and unsustainable water management practices – including Pakistan. Amid all this turmoil is Pakistan where its own unique water crisis exists.

Rapidly rising global population:

One of the main factors contributing to our current water crisis is an ever-increasing global population . As this figure rises, so too does demand for water, needed for drinking, cooking, cleaning, and agriculture purposes. With growing populations comes increasing demands on already limited freshwater resources resulting in water scarcity across many regions.

Climate change: Another significant contributor to the water crisis, climate change has altered weather patterns with less predictable rainfall patterns and an increase in droughts and floods, further diminishing availability of water in dry and semi-arid regions with limited resources.

Urbanization and industrialization:

Water consumption by humans has also contributed significantly to the global water crisis. As more people move to cities, their demand for water increases, straining resources. Furthermore, industrial activities require large volumes of freshwater which results in overuse and depletion of freshwater sources.

Unsustainable water management strategies:

Over-extraction of groundwater, pollution of water sources. And ineffective irrigation techniques all play a part in creating the current water crisis. Such practices depleted freshwater reserves making it more challenging to meet growing demands for freshwater supplies.

Access to Clean Water is limited:

The water crisis has severe repercussions for human health, agriculture and the environment. Due to limited access to clean water and sanitation facilities. Waterborne diseases like cholera, typhoid and dysentery spread quickly through populations without access. Furthermore, agriculture – an industry which heavily consumes water resources – is particularly hard hit. Crops fail to flourish which create food shortages while farmers struggle for survival in an unforgiving landscape.

The water crisis also has environmental ramifications:

Depletion of freshwater resources leads to degradation of ecosystems and the loss of biodiversity. While impacting their functioning rivers, lakes, and wetlands that provide essential ecological services. Such as purifying drinking water supplies, controlling flood waters, providing flood control measures, or serving as habitat for aquatic species.

To address the water crisis:

There is an urgent need for a coordinated and integrated response. That takes into account all the contributing factors of this problem, including promoting water conservation and efficiency. Investing in infrastructure projects that facilitate sustainable management practices, adopting sustainable water management practices, and encouraging renewable energy sources. This may require measures such as increasing conservation efforts, investing in infrastructure investments, adopting sustainable water management practices and encouraging renewable energy production to address this complex situation.

Water conservation and efficiency measures:

Environmental water conservation involves both minimizing wastage and optimizing its use, through measures such as fixing leaky pipes, using more efficient appliances, and encouraging water-saving behavior. Investment in infrastructure such as dams, canals, or reservoirs may provide storage and distribution solutions in times of drought.

Sustainable water management practices:

At its core, water management involves balancing demand and supply, protecting sources from pollution, and encouraging more water-efficient irrigation techniques. Renewable energy sources like solar or wind power may help decrease carbon footprint of water supply systems.

Water crisis is an international challenge:

The water crisis is an impending global threat that requires immediate attention. It stems from multiple factors including population growth, climate change, urbanization and unsustainable water management practices. Addressing the water crisis requires a multidisciplinary and holistic strategy including conservation/efficiency initiatives, infrastructure investments and renewable energy promotion; only together can we overcome it and ensure its sustainable future for all.

Pakistan: Water crisis and Pakistan

Pakistan is among the countries most affected by the water crisis. Being predominantly arid and semi-arid with limited water resources. And with population growth fuelling increased demand for water sources; climate change resulting in unpredictable rainfall leading to droughts and floods only compounding this situation further.

Agriculture Sector in Pakistan: The agriculture sector accounts for over 90 per cent of total water usage. Unfortunately, inefficient irrigation techniques such as flood irrigation have resulted in significant wastage of water resources. And have resulted in the depletion of aquifers leading to decreased availability.

Implications of water crisis:

Pakistan’s water crisis has had far-reaching repercussions for human health, agriculture and the environment. A lack of access to clean water and sanitation facilities has resulted in waterborne diseases like cholera, typhoid and dysentery sweeping through. Water scarcity also threatens agriculture which relies heavily on freshwater supplies. Leading to crop failures and food shortages while depletion of freshwater sources has degraded ecosystems and reduced biodiversity levels significantly.

How can Pakistan address its water shortage issue?

There is an urgent need for an integrated approach that encompasses water conservation and efficiency initiatives, investing in infrastructure development projects, adopting sustainable water management practices and encouraging renewable energy sources.

Promoting water conservation and efficiency measures, such as using efficient irrigation techniques, can reduce water waste. Investing in infrastructure such as dams, canals, and reservoirs can aid with water storage and distribution during periods of drought. Adopting sustainable management practices such as groundwater recharge can replenish aquifers to ensure sustainable usage of groundwater resources while encouraging renewable energy sources such as solar-powered pumps can help lower carbon footprint of supply systems.

Pakistan has taken several measures to address its water crisis:

Such as the National Water Policy of 2018 which seeks to ensure sustainable use of water resources. Furthermore, the government has initiated various water management projects, such as building the Diamer-Bhasha dam which increases storage capacity while simultaneously increasing hydropower generation capacity.

Urgent action must be taken immediately to combat Pakistan’s water crisis:

Pakistan faces a critical water crisis that requires urgent action from all levels of government. This issue stems from multiple factors, including population growth, climate change and unsustainable water management practices. Addressing it effectively will require taking multiple approaches such as conserving and efficiently using water resources; investing in infrastructure; adopting sustainable management practices and using renewable energy sources for renewable power production; prioritizing water issues to secure sustainable future for all Pakistanis.

Impact of Pakistan’s Water crisis:

Pakistan’s current water crisis has had serious repercussions, which include:

Agriculture: Pakistan’s economy relies heavily on its agriculture sector for food security and rising prices, yet due to the water crisis this sector has been severely hit. Crop failures and reduced yields have caused food insecurity as prices skyrocket.

Human Health: Lack of access to clean water and sanitation facilities has caused an outbreak of water-borne diseases like cholera, typhoid, and dysentery – making their prevalence an important public health risk.

Environment: Toxic chemicals from agricultural runoff have polluted freshwater resources and degraded ecosystems, leading to loss of biodiversity and reduced ecosystem services.

Energy: Pakistan’s energy sector relies heavily on hydropower generation, but has been seriously compromised by the water crisis. Less water availability has resulted in reduced hydropower generation leading to power shortages and an increase reliance on fossil fuels for generation of power.

Socio-Economic: The water crisis has contributed to increased poverty, inequality and social unrest – particularly in rural areas where agriculture provides primary employment. Competition over water resources has caused conflict which subsequently escalates social tensions further.

Overall, Pakistan’s water crisis has had an immense negative effect on socio-economic development, public health, and the environment. Addressing it requires prompt action and a comprehensive strategy encompassing water conservation/efficiency promotion/investing in infrastructure/sustainable water management practices/promote renewable energy sources/ etc.

Conclusion: mes The global water crisis affects many countries, including Pakistan. Pakistan stands out in this respect due to its arid and semi-arid climate as well as rapidly growing population. Pakistan is facing a water crisis with devastating impacts for agriculture, human health, the environment, energy consumption and socio-economic development – urgent action are required immediately to mitigate them. Addressing Pakistan’s water crisis requires taking an integrative approach that encompasses conservation and efficiency measures, investing in infrastructure improvements, adopting sustainable management practices and encouraging renewable energy use. While the government of Pakistan has made steps towards solving its crisis, more needs to be done as an international community if we hope for a brighter future for all.

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Water Crisis In Pakistan Essay

Water is life. But in Pakistan, we are facing water crises in Pakistan. Water is the source of life and is necessary for the survival of all living things on Earth. Unfortunately, Pakistan is experiencing a major water shortage, which threatens our future. So, in this essay, we will look at the causes, effects, and potential solutions to the water crisis in Pakistan.

The water shortage is a big problem. It affects our daily life, farming, the economy, and the environment. Farmers are unable to provide water to their fields, resulting in a decrease in agricultural output.

Many industries have had to shut down because of insufficient water supply. This crisis directly impacts the lives of citizens and the economic growth of the country. Due to some reasons, most cities and villages across Pakistan face water shortages. Without wasting time, we start an essay on the water crisis in Pakistan.

Table of Contents

Causes For The Water Crisis In Pakistan

Water is essential for life. But Pakistan is facing a serious water shortage, known as the water crisis. In this essay, I will explain point by point reasons of the water crisis in Pakistan.

Increasing Population

Pakistan’s population has increased significantly over the years. Currently, over 222 million people live in Pakistan. A larger population increases the need for more water. This includes water for homes, farming, and industries. However, the supply of water from rivers and groundwater is decreasing.

The growing imbalance between supply and demand is worsening the water situation. With population growth expected to continue, the situation looks alarming if more water is not made available.

Indus River system

First of all, Pakistan relies heavily on the Indus River system for its water supply. This includes the Indus River itself and its rivers like Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej. The flow of water in these rivers is decreasing over time.

Secondly, climate change is producing a decrease in rainfall and snowfall in the Himalayan peaks, which are the source of many key rivers. As a result, the level of water in these rivers is decreasing, particularly during critical dry months.

Water Management

Water waste is a major issue. Because of outdated, broken pipelines throughout cities, a lot of pure water is wasted before it reaches houses. It is believed that leaks in the water distribution system waste up to 50% of the water. 

People waste water at home owing to a lack of awareness. Similarly, traditional farming methods such as flood irrigation waste water when drip or spray irrigation is used. Water is also wasted in industrial processes. Minimizing waste can help to relieve demand on the available water supply.

Water Crisis In Pakistan Essay

Water Pollution

Water contamination reduces the utility of available water. In rivers and lakes, sewage and industrial garbage are discharged. This pollutes both surface and groundwater. The use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides pollutes groundwater as well. 

When water becomes excessively polluted, it cannot be properly cleaned to be used for drinking, agriculture, or industrial purposes. More water treatment plants and a reduction in pollutants can help solve the issue.

Impacts of Water Crisis in Pakistan On The People, Economy, And Environment

Pakistan’s citizens are suffering as a result of the country’s water issue. Due to a lack of water in most places, residents must wait in huge lines for hours to collect water from tankers. The public is suffering from diseases such as diarrhea, typhoid, and hepatitis as a result of the poor quality of drinking water. 

Women and children must go considerable distances to obtain water for their daily requirements. People are fighting and protesting as they seek pure water for their fundamental necessities.

The water crisis significantly impacted Pakistan’s agricultural sector, as approximately 90% of the country’s water is necessary for agriculture. Many farmers are unable to cultivate their lands effectively due to a lack of water. Crop yields have decreased, resulting in shortages of food and rising food prices.

Industries, which account for an important part of Pakistan’s economy, are also unable to obtain the necessary amount of water for their operations. Due to the shortage of water, some factories have closed or are producing less. As a result, unemployment is rising.

Environment

The environment is getting worse as water bodies dry up and groundwater reduces rapidly. Reduced river flows endanger meadows and trees. Untreated sewage and industrial effluents infiltrate streams, causing water contamination. This polluted water significantly lowers the available quantity of drinkable water. Dry conditions are impacting wildlife habitats in various regions.

Possible Solution to Water Crisis in Pakistan

The water crisis requires collective efforts from the government, communities, and individuals. Here are some possible solutions:

Large dams on rivers can save a lot of water during the rainy season. During dry seasons, when rivers contain less water, this stored water can be used. Dam construction is critical for Pakistan to store more water.

Repair Leaky Pipes

Our city water pipes are quite old and broken. A large quantity of pure water leaks from these pipelines before it reaches our homes. To stop the leakage, the government must repair all of the broken pipes. This will save a significant amount of water.

Recycle Waste Water

We can treat dirty used water and make it clean again. After further treatment, this recycled water can be utilized for agriculture, industries, or even drinking. Planting water-recycling plants can make an important impact.

Plant More Trees

Trees aid in the production of rain. They help to fill the ground and prevent floods. We can enhance our water supply by planting more trees, which will draw more rain and restore our rivers and groundwater.

Water Crisis In Pakistan Essay

The water crisis in Pakistan is a major threat to our future, and immediate action is required to fix it. Understanding the root causes and effects of the problem allows us to work towards long-term solutions. So, overcoming this problem requires water conservation, improved water management, and increased public awareness.

As responsible citizens, it is our responsibility to safeguard this valuable resource and create a better future for ourselves and future generations. Let us work together to address the water crisis and ensure a water-rich Pakistan for the benefit of all.

People Also Read: Essay On Energy Crisis In Pakistan

What is the problem water crisis in Pakistan?

Pakistan’s water crisis is significant and characterized by the scarcity of water resources and mismanagement of available water. Several factors contribute to the water crisis, creating a challenging situation for the country and its people.

Causes of water crisis in Pakistan?

Pakistan lost ownership of three eastern tributaries of the Indus River under the 1960 Indus Waters Treaty between India and Pakistan.

What is water crisis summary?

Many industries have had to shut down because of insufficient water supply. This crisis directly impacts the lives of citizens and the economic growth of the country. Due to some reasons, most cities and villages across Pakistan face water shortages. 

Why is the water crisis an issue?

The water crisis in Pakistan is a serious problem where there is not enough water for everyone who needs it. Pakistan has a shortage of water because there is not a lot of rain, and the available water is not managed well.

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Water Crisis In Pakistan - Essay with Outline

Helpful resources:.

  • https://nation.com.pk/11-Dec-2017/water-scarcity-in-pakistan-causes-effects-and-solutions
  • https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/326969-water-crisis-why-is-pakistan-running-dry
  • https://pakobserver.net/water-crisis-in-pak-its-solutions/

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Why are the floods in Pakistan so bad?

A third of the country is under water thanks to a perfect storm of extreme rainfall, geography, ocean patterns and insufficient defences, writes hydrologist rob wilby.

Children are ferried across floodwaters on a satellite dish in the Jaffarabad district of Balochistan province

T he extent of flooding in Pakistan is hard to comprehend, and the situation is still evolving. According to the nation’s federal minister for climate change, one third of the country is now under water. To put this into perspective, the area inundated is larger than the UK. Flooding on this scale would overwhelm any nation, and it is only 12 years since Pakistan had its last “superflood”. This one is even more extreme. But why is Pakistan so vulnerable to flooding, and why is it so bad this time around?

The crisis began between May and July when a savage pre-monsoon heatwave increased rates of thawing of ice stores in the mountainous north, triggering surges of meltwater into glacier lakes, leading to floods in the

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Water Crisis In Pakistan Essay 2023

Table of Contents

Water Crisis In Pakistan Essay

Water crisis in Pakistan

Water Crisis In Pakistan Essay . Water! Water is one of the basic needs and right to life. No life could have been possible on the Earth if there had been no water there. It is a sad reality that we do not even bother to take proper measures for securing our natural resources unless crises start knocking at our door and we started expediting difficulties. Water is one of the most important natural resources on the Earth we have. The water crisis in Pakistan is becoming a serious issue with the passage of time.

The world is facing a deadly crisis of its scarcity, which is mainly because of global warming and Pakistan is also no exception in this regard. At present, Pakistan is facing a number of issues but perhaps the most threatening of them is the shortage of water. This problem is getting bigger and bigger with each passing day. According to a recently released IMF report, Pakistan ranks third among countries facing water shortages.

The water crisis in Agriculture:

Water is increasingly essential for the nourishment of human life. Like people’s livelihoods, food security and socio-economic stability as well. Pakistan is dependent on water resources because of agriculture. Similarly, economic growth and advancement of agriculture and economy truly lie in water availability. But the depressing and worrying fact is that Pakistan is facing a serious water shortage at present.

There is not only a critical drinking water scarcity but also an irrigation water crisis which in turn, is badly affecting the agriculture sector and the livelihood of the people. In all these results the socio-economic development and growth of a country have been affected badly to great extent. There are multiple reasons behind water shortage including the lack of water reservoirs and storage of dams, wastage of water and poor water resource management. Secondly, climate change is also one of the major causes of water shortage in Pakistan which has caused dry spells like the situation in rural and remote areas.

To solve this issue we must on a larger scale construct new water reservoirs and the construction of dams is also badly needed to overcome the issue of water shortage. We need to understand that this critical problem cannot be overcome unless dams are constructed. Unfortunately, our government is not paying much attention to this severe problem. Currently, in Pakistan, there are only 150 dams above 49-foot height in Pakistan which are not enough to full fill needs of the country.

  Causes of present alarming crisis:

Water crisis in Pakistan

  • Water supplies are at risk and suffer from extensive losses
  • Limited storage capacity like dams etc.
  • Trans-boundary disputes intensifying river supply vulnerability
  • Outdated distribution system
  • Groundwater resources exhaust rapidly due to over-pumping
  • Extremely low water tariffs are distorting incentives for water conservation
  • Low recovery and underfunded water infrastructure contribute to high water losses
  • Gaps in governance lead to inefficient management
  • Climate Change – a Major Emerging Challenge for Water Sustainability
  • Reduced rainfall
  • Poor water management
  • Poor handling of industrial wastewater
  • Climate change
  • Lack of political will to address the governing issues
  • Changes in food consumption patterns and lack of proper water storage facilities
  • Ignorance at the household level
  • Wastage of drinking water in non-productive means
  • Corruption in the water sector
  • Mismanagement in the irrigation sector
  • Hydrological warfare- water terrorism by India

According to experts, Pakistan is going through the worst water crisis of history. The current dry spell in Sindh and Baluchistan has badly affected the economy as well as agriculture of the country.

Pak-Ind water fight:

Water crisis in Pakistan

To fill Baglihar Dam India had consistently blocked Chenab’s flow in a result Pakistan received only 19,351 cusecs on 9 October 2009 and 10,739 cusecs on 11 October 2009, where Pakistan should be receiving a minimum of 55,000 cusecs per day. The total loss of this was approximately 321,000 MAF of water. India has gained a water holding capacity on western rivers which can seriously affect water inflow at Marsala Mangla Dam causing an acute shortage of water for a winter crop.

Helping the Water Crisis in Pakistan

In 2018 when the Imran Khan government come the government called both national and international Pakistani to help fund a $14 billion project to build two dams. The main aim of the dam is to help Pakistan store more water and to supply Pakistan with electricity and other agricultural problems. Several Pakistani celebrities have donated towards the dam but there is still a lot of money t

The government have to take certain quick steps to slow down the water crisis in Pakistan. The Pakistan Academy of Sciences said that the country needs to expand its water storage in order to reduce water waste and improve water productivity and develop a framework that will help to solve the water crisis.

Keeping in mind a large percentage of Pakistan’s population has no access to safe and clean drinking water big example is that. According to the news report, almost 70 per cent of water in Pakistan is not suitable for human consumption here. There is no denial of the fact that Pakistan is a water-stressed country at the stage but if the visible measures are not taken in this very critical situation it will result in Pakistan will be a water-scarce country from water-stressed by 2025. The government have to take measures before it’s too late.

You can also read 500 general knowledge MCQs about Pakistan. 

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