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- Walter Frick is a contributing editor at Harvard Business Review , where he was formerly a senior editor and deputy editor of HBR.org. He is the founder of Nonrival , a newsletter where readers make crowdsourced predictions about economics and business. He has been an executive editor at Quartz as well as a Knight Visiting Fellow at Harvard’s Nieman Foundation for Journalism and an Assembly Fellow at Harvard’s Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society. He has also written for The Atlantic , MIT Technology Review , The Boston Globe , and the BBC, among other publications.
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Case study: Dell—Distribution and supply chain innovation
Read the highlights
- Cutting out the middleman can work very well.
- Forgoing the retail route can increase customer value.
- Re-examine & improve efficiency for process/operations.
- Use sales data and customer feedback to get ahead of the curve.
In 1983, 18-year-old Michael Dell left college to work full-time for the company he founded as a freshman, providing hard-drive upgrades to corporate customers. In a year’s time, Dell’s venture had $6 million in annual sales. In 1985, Dell changed his strategy to begin offering built-to-order computers. That year, the company generated $70 million in sales. Five years later, revenues had climbed to $500 million, and by the end of 2000, Dell’s revenues had topped an astounding $25 billion. The meteoric rise of Dell Computers was largely due to innovations in supply chain and manufacturing, but also due to the implementation of a novel distribution strategy. By carefully analyzing and making strategic changes in the personal computer value chain, and by seizing on emerging market trends, Dell Inc. grew to dominate the PC market in less time than it takes many companies to launch their first product.
No more middleman: Dell started out as a direct seller, first using a mail-order system, and then taking advantage of the Internet to develop an online sales platform. Well before use of the Internet went mainstream, Dell had begun integrating online order status updates and technical support into their customer-facing operations. By 1997, Dell’s Internet sales had reached an average of $4 million per day . While most other PCs were sold preconfigured and pre-assembled in retail stores, Dell offered superior customer choice in system configuration at a deeply discounted price, due to the cost-savings associated with cutting out the retail middleman. This move away from the traditional distribution model for PC sales played a large role in Dell’s formidable early growth. Additionally, an important side-benefit of the Internet-based direct sales model was that it generated a wealth of market data the company used to efficiently forecast demand trends and carry out effective segmentation strategies. This data drove the company’s product development efforts and allowed Dell to profit from information on the value drivers in each of its key customer segments.
Virtual integration: On the manufacturing side, the company pursued an aggressive strategy of “virtual integration.” Dell required a highly reliable supply of top-quality PC components, but management did not want to integrate backward to become its own parts manufacturer. Instead, the company sought to develop long-term relationships with select, name-brand PC component manufacturers. Dell also required its key suppliers to establish inventory hubs near its own assembly plants. This allowed the company to communicate with supplier inventory hubs in real time for the delivery of a precise number of required components on short notice. This “just-in-time,” low-inventory strategy reduced the time it took for Dell to bring new PC models to market and resulted in significant cost advantages over the traditional stored-inventory method. This was particularly powerful in a market where old inventory quickly fell into obsolescence. Dell openly shared its production schedules, sales forecasts and plans for new products with its suppliers. This strategic closeness with supplier partners allowed Dell to reap the benefits of vertical integration, without requiring the company to invest billions setting up its own manufacturing operations in-house.
Innovation on the assembly floor: In 1997, Dell reorganized its assembly processes. Rather than having long assembly lines with each worker repeatedly performing a single task, Dell instituted “manufacturing cells.” These “cells” grouped workers together around a workstation where they assembled entire PCs according to customer specifications. Cell manufacturing doubled the company’s manufacturing productivity per square foot of assembly space, and reduced assembly times by 75%. Dell combined operational and process innovation with a revolutionary distribution model to generate tremendous cost-savings and unprecedented customer value in the PC market. The following are some key lessons from the story of Dell’s incredible rise:
1. Disintermediation (cutting out the middleman): Deleting a player in the distribution chain is a risky move, but can result in a substantial reduction in operating costs and dramatically improved margins. Some companies that have surged ahead after they eliminated an element in the traditional industry distribution chain include:
- Expedia (the online travel site that can beat the rates of almost any travel agency, while giving customers more choice and more detailed information on their vacation destination)
- ModCloth (a trendy virtual boutique with no bricks-and-mortar retail outlets to drive up costs)
- PropertyGuys.com (offers a DIY kit for homeowners who want to sell their houses themselves)
- iTunes (an online music purchasing platform that won’t have you sifting through a jumble of jewel cases at your local HMV)
- Amazon.com (an online sales platform that allows small-scale buyers and sellers to access a broad audience without the need for an expensive storefront or a custom website)
- Netflix (the no-late-fees online video rental company that will ship your chosen video rentals right to your door)
2. Enhancing customer value: Forgoing the retail route allowed Dell to simultaneously improve margins while offering consumers a better price on their PCs. This move also gave customers a chance to configure PCs according to their specific computing needs. The dramatic improvement in customer value that resulted from Dell’s unique distribution strategy propelled the company to a leading market position.
3. Process and operations innovation: Michael Dell recognized that “the way things had always been done” wasn’t the best or most efficient way to run things at his company. There are countless examples where someone took a new look at a company process and realized that there was a much better way to get things done. It is always worth re-examining process-based work to see if a change could improve efficiency. This is equally true whether you’re a company of five or 500.
4. Let data do the driving: Harnessing the easily accessible sales and customer feedback data that resulted from online sales allowed Dell to stay ahead of the demand curve in the rapidly evolving PC market. Similarly, sales and feedback data were helpful in discovering new ways to enhance customer value in each of Dell’s key customer segments. Whether your company is large or small, it is essential to keep tabs on metrics that could reveal emerging trends, changing attitudes, and other important opportunities for your company.
See additional learning materials for distribution .
Summary: Dell combined operational and process innovation with a revolutionary distribution model to generate tremendous cost-savings and unprecedented customer value in the PC market.
Read next: customer discovery: identifying effective distribution channels for your startup.
Strickland, T. (1999). Strategic Management, Concepts and Cases . McGraw Hill College Division: New York.
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The entire hiring process consisted of 6 rounds.
First Round: This was the online exam. We had 15 Aptitude and 35 Technical MCQ. The Aptitude Section was easy and the technical sections included questions from Basic Computer Architecture, Storage Network Architectures, and Redundant Array of Independent Disks concepts. It also included a few OS and Computer Networks related problems.
Second Round: This was an Elevator pitch round. In this round, we have to speak for 2 minutes. 1 minute to talk about Self-Introduction and motivation to join Dell Technologies. The other 1 minute for a topic which the panel members would give. The topics were really generic and, on a few occasions, students were asked to talk about their favorite subject. The panel consisted of 2 members. I was given the topic “Go Green Initiative”.
Third Round: This was a Use Cases round where the students are mailed a Mock Customer problem statement 15 minutes prior to the round. The mailed pdf document consists of all the instructions along with Glossary, Assessment Statement and finally, we have to make a PPT for supporting our Sales Pitch keeping in mind all the business rules mentioned in the instructions. The round lasts for 1.5 hours after which we have to submit our PPTs to a Google link. The PPT should have 3 slides, First slide should be about the Customer (Market share, Number, and Figures), 2nd Slide should have the Asset/Customer Inventory Report (Use bar graphs, tables, chart) and the products which might be an Opportunity of Sale for us, 3rd slide should consist of Solution or the approach which we take in convincing the customer using the resources provided to us, such as Demos, Proof of Concept (POC)., etc.
Fourth Round: This was Solution Defense Round, in this round we have to present our Sales Pitch to the Panel consisting of three members from the Dell Presales Business Unit. Lots of questions are asked per slide based on decisions we make and the way of PPT presentation which we put forward, starting from the Customer information to Solution which we present to panel. This round also consists of few Technical questions from the topics which are mentioned in the first paragraph of the article. The interviewers don’t follow a constant pattern for questioning students with regards to Technical questions but, yet its in the best interest of candidates to prepare for them as well. Towards the end, one of the panel members explains to us the role and responsibilities of the job position.
Fifth Round: This is the Managerial Interview, which consisted of two-panel members. They asked about me and my family. Most of the questions were focused on my characteristics and reaction to a certain situation in which I am put. Though, the primary questions they asked were:
- Why do you think you will be fit for such a role?
- Where do you see yourself in 5 years?
- What are your plans for higher studies?
- What makes you unique from other candidates who are lined up for this job?
The main focus was on a candidate’s personality and the way I reacted if the questions are structured differently. The panel members were very polite and the interview ended on a positive note.
Sixth Round: This was the HR interview, the interviewer asked me about my motivation for doing projects and about my Community Outreach Programs which I had undertaken during my college life. The questions also included the responsibilities which I had undertaken professionally in academics or extra-curricular activities. The interviewer also talked about my parents and the people who I idolize in life. Similarly, many questions were personal life based and the Interview process was complete.
Overall, the hiring process was a fresh experience and all the panelists across the rounds were very friendly and polite.
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Home / Case Studies / Dell Technologies
Dell Technologies unlocks new connections and streamlines work with Microsoft Viva Topics
Published on March 1, 2023
Among one of the world’s leading technology companies, Dell Technologies is committed to transforming business, shaping the future of innovation, and driving human progress. With more than 158,000 employees, the organization has a vast amount of organizational knowledge and content that its tens of thousands of salespeople around the world consider vital. Dell Technologies turned to Microsoft Viva Topics, a knowledge platform that uses AI to bring knowledge and content directly to employees in the Microsoft 365 apps where they already work.
When Sandra Murtagh, Vice President of Global Sales Learning and Development at Dell Technologies, and Karen Butcher, Head of the Global Sales Learning and Development Transformation Office at Dell Technologies, launched a transformation office within the Dell learning and development organization, the goal was to orient the sales function toward the future. “We’re always thinking about what’s next,” says Butcher. “How can we make the learning experience better? How can we make life easier for our sellers?”
They focused on delivering great experiences and integrating their learning platform with Microsoft Teams, where sellers will be able to access training content at the moment of need. Viva Topics emerged as the next logical step. “Moving forward, we want to integrate more and more information in convenient places for sellers,” says Butcher. “That’s exactly what we’ve started to do with Viva Topics.”
The sales learning and development organization at Dell recognized AI as the most effective way to gather and present large amounts of information. “We’re using Viva Topics because it’s an AI-driven curation engine that pulls together both content and people associated with topics,” says Bruce Sánchez, Global Lead for Sales Learning and Development Technology at Dell Technologies. And because Viva Topics will extend to partner apps, employees will gain a full picture of information gathered from Microsoft sources and beyond. “We’re always on the lookout for partner integrations,” adds Srikanth Ramaswamy, Global Lead for Modern Content and Collaboration Services, Dell Digital Team Member Experience at Dell Technologies. After the success of the pilot testing phase, Dell has recently expanded the use of Viva Topics and embraced a full-scale rollout across its global sales force.
Turning to Viva Topics to uncover knowledge from within the apps they use every day leads Dell sales employees to forge new connections with colleagues. “That’s probably one of the biggest benefits we’re experiencing,” says Murtagh. “Historically, we relied on legacy relationships, but with the combination of Microsoft Teams and Viva Topics, we’re opening up collaboration and relationships across all our functions.”
The ability to effortlessly create connections is a boon for a global, highly dispersed sales force. “Dell has championed working from home for many years,” says Butcher. “And today, a hybrid approach is at the forefront of our organization.” Creating a flexible, highly mobile experience for sellers is one way the sales learning and development organization supports the hybrid approach for Dell’s sales team. “The ability to easily search for and uncover content natively in Teams and other applications was a big hit,” Butcher continues. “Especially because people have the same experience on mobile devices and desktops, no matter where they work from.”
“We’ve made Viva Topics a big part of our reimagination of what work looks like for our sellers.”
As the sales learning and development organization expands its use of Viva Topics, it’s also exploring other Microsoft Viva modules, including Microsoft Viva Connections, Microsoft Viva Sales, and Microsoft Viva Insights. It’s an exciting moment. “I’ve been with Dell for 26 years,” says Murtagh. “Where we are now in terms of knowledge management and learning is a massive flip from where we were in the past. We’ve made Viva Topics a big part of our reimagination of what work looks like for our sellers.”
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Home » Management Case Studies » Case Study: Management Information System at Dell
Case Study: Management Information System at Dell
Management information system involves the information system and the organization. MIS begins where computer science ends. Computer scientists deserve accolades for developing and delivering even more advanced forms of information technology: hardware technology; software technology; and network technology. Yet because no technology implements itself, there is more to MIS than just information technology. MIS has dimensions. The four interrelated dimensions of MIS are as follows: First, MIS involves not just information technology, but also its instantiation; second, MIS involves, as reactive and inextricable elements, both an information system and its organizational context; third, MIS involves information technology as a form of intellectual technology; and fourth, MIS involves the activities of a profession or corporate function which are integral to the essence of what MIS is (Currie & Galliers, 1999).
Dell Computer Corporation: Company Background
Dell Computer Corporation is a major manufacturer of personal computers, computer peripherals, and software. Among the leading producers of computers in the world, Dell sells its products directly to customers through the Internet and mail-order catalogs rather than through retail outlets. The company is based in Round Rock, Texas. At Dell Computers, customers are brought into the product planning and manufacturing processes, with all employees encouraged having contact with customers. Through effective collaboration across boundaries, ideas can be shared about product designs and value propositions. The result is faster and more customer-focused product and service innovation. To produce the capacity for this, considerable attention must be placed on organizational structures, processes, skills and culture. Such elements may need a radical overhaul in established companies (Dennis & Harris, 2002). Dell was founded in 1984 by Michael Dell. In 1983, during his freshman year at the University of Texas, he bought excess inventory of RAM chips and disk drives for IBM personal computers from local dealers. He resold the components through newspaper advertisements at prices far below retail cost. By 1984, his sales totaled about $80,000 a month. In April 1984, Dell dropped out of school to launch his company (Ford, Honeycutt, & Simintiras, 2003).
The new company soon began manufacturing its own IBM-compatible computers under the name PCs Limited. Because Dell sold computers directly to users through advertisements in magazines and catalogs, the company could price its machines lower than those sold through retail stores. Sales reached nearly $6 million during the company’s first year, climbing to $34 million the following year. By 1987, Dell was the leading mail-order computer company in the United States. In that year, it created a sales force to target large corporations and began adding international offices to capture the direct-mail market outside the United States (Ford, Honeycutt, & Simintiras, 2003). While the company continued to grow rapidly; Dell experienced a series of setbacks that hurt profits. In 1990, the company began selling computers through retail stores, an effort it abandoned in 1994. In 1991, Dell launched a line of notebook computers, but quality problems and inadequate production planning forced the company to stop selling for a year. In 1994, Dell launched a new line of notebook computers and expanded efforts to increase overseas sales. Dell also began focusing on the market for servers, which used the computers to run local area networks. By the late 1990s, Dell was firmly in place as the world’s number one direct seller of computers. More than 50 percent of the company’s computer sales transactions took place via its website, which generated worldwide sales in excess of $40 million a day (Ford, Honeycutt, & Simintiras, 2003).
Information Processing Tools
Information processing or Data processing is the analysis and organization of data. It is used extensively in business, engineering, and science and an increasing extent in nearly all areas in which computers are used. Businesses use data processing for such tasks as payroll preparation, accounting, record keeping, inventory control, sales analysis, and the processing of bank and credit card account statements. Engineers and scientists use data processing for a wide variety of applications, including the processing of seismic data for oil and mineral exploration, the analysis of new product designs, the processing of satellite imagery, and the analysis of data from scientific experiments (Thierauf, 1978).
Data processing is used extensively in business, engineering, and science and to an increasing extent in nearly all areas in which computers are used. Data processing is divided into two kinds of processing: database processing and transaction processing. A database is a collection of common records that can be searched, accessed, and modified, such as bank account records, school transcripts, and income tax data. In database processing, a computerized database is used as the central source of reference data for the computations. Transaction processing refers to interaction between two computers in which one computer initiates a transaction and another computer provides the first with the data or computation required for that function. Most modern data processing uses one or more databases at one or more central sites (Thierauf, 1978).
Transaction processing is used to access and update the databases when users need to immediately view or add information; other data processing programs are used at regular intervals to provide summary reports of activity and database status. Examples of systems that involve all of these functions are automated teller machines, credit sales terminals, and airline reservation systems (Thierauf, 1978).
The information processing tools that Dell uses include computers, the internet, maps, spreadsheets, models, and databases. For the operational level of Dell, the most appropriate tool for information processing is maps. Through the said information processing tool, decisions on how to operate the organization can be initialized and made. Maps can be used to determine which country/place information will be acquired from, it can also assist in determining the demographic level of people and information will be gathered . Maps can be in the form of charts that can also provide necessary information. The information gathered in turn can assist in helping to decide how an organization will be operated. For the tactical level of Dell, the most appropriate tool for information processing is databases. Through the said information processing tool, the records that can assist in finding out the strength and weakness of the company can be used to determine the tactic that will be used by the organization. For the strategic level of Dell, the most appropriate information processing tool is the internet or World Wide Web. Through the internet, trends and strategies by other companies can be known. After analyzing the trends and strategies used by other companies, an appropriate strategy can be formulated to use by the organization.
Inventory control systems
Individual businesses need, first and foremost, an efficient inventory control system. This implies the minimum amount of inventory that will provide the consumers with what they need whenever and wherever they need it. Effectiveness of the inventory system means basically having an inventory mix that is most likely successful in satisfying consumer needs (Samli & Sirgy, 1995). The inventory control systems used by Dell is up to date and reliable to prevent problems to arise. The inventory system of Dell makes sure that anything the consumer need will be available to them at any given time. It is also what the company uses to know if certain products are still available or misuse of the inventory system may cost problems to the company.
Management information system involves the information system and the organization. Dell benefits a lot from the management information system. The system helps the company create strategies that will help the company conquer any problems and threats from competitors. The system also assists the company in processing the needed information. Management Information Systems also helps a company to create or update its inventory control system.
Since the MIS of a company is a vital part of its operations and its survival in the modern world, it must be well updated and it must compete well with MIS’s competitors. The MIS of a company should be created from high standards so that it can be of stiff competition against its counterparts. The MIS system should help the company to achieve its goals and assist the company in reaching its potential.
1. Comment on the MIS in Dell and suggest the positives and negatives of MIS in Dell?
2. The dell directly sells its computers to the customer whether it will give them good and reliable information or they are lacking in information system due to this move?
3. Develop the information flow diagram for dell and suggest some improvement in the same.
4. MIS is a combination of Management, Information and System otr of the three parts of the information system in which area does the Dell lacking?
- Logistic information system and it's objectives
- Information System Activities
- The factors which lead to the success and failure of MIS in an organization
- Marketing Information Systems
- Types of Systems
- Case Study of Dell: Primary Target Markets and Positioning Strategy
- Components of an Information System
- Business benefits of ERP systems
- Computer Based Information Systems (CBIS) - Meaning and Types
- Data storage in Management Information Systems (MIS)
3 thoughts on “ Case Study: Management Information System at Dell ”
please publish the answers for the questions also… so that we can use for reference
Please post answers to the questions also so that we can also use it for our reference. Thanks.
Is it possible to have the answers to be used for reference please ?
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Dell Online – Case Solution
"Dell Online" case study discusses the company Dell Computer Corporation which commenced its virtual presence for its PCs in 1996. The following year, the corporation had garnered a $3 million per day sales rate. This case study looks into the moves of Dell Computer Corporation which eventually led to its success. It discusses how the company can maintain and improve such leverage for the succeeding years.
V. Kasturi Rangan and Marie Bell Harvard Business Review ( 502S31-PDF-SPA ) August 09, 2002
Case questions answered:
Case study questions answered in the first solution:
- Analyze the success and failure of Dell Online.
- Provide your recommendations on how to better improve the company’s services.
Case study question answered in the second and third solutions:
- What type of case was this? Based on the type of case, write a well-constructed analysis and response.
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Dell Online Case Answers
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Extended 5 C’S Analysis for Dell Online
The 5 C’s Analysis for Dell Online is used to analyze the five key areas in marketing before making any decision. They are the Company, Customers, Competitors, Collaborators, and Climate.
They are used to create a well-defined marketing strategy. This will help Dell make an informed evaluation regarding the introduction of their product into the online market.
Dell was founded in 1983 by Michael Dell, with the typical college dropout story. Michael Dell used his free time to upgrade IBM-compatible hard disks. Two years later, it grew to a size of $6 million and eventually started manufacturing its own PCs. The company became inherently successful and became the national supplier of Fortune 500 companies with a size of $500 million.
Over the next few years, the success grew, but with it came bigger issues, such as retail channels, which resulted in an operating loss in the financial year 1993. Just three years later, they turned from an operating loss to $710 million in profit with the introduction of a superior product in terms of quality, service, and much more. The Latitude product also won numerous prizes and awards, which further improved its brand name and recognition.
Over the years, Dell has introduced new and more innovative products to keep up with the changing demand. They have managed to do this by keeping a small inventory on standby and using lean productions of distribution such as Just in Time. Moreover, this has allowed them to offer their customers the option to customize the products to their specifications.
With the rise of the internet, E-Commerce has become an increasingly important section for most businesses, and Dell has moved with the changing needs and introduced a new department, Dell Online. This change has allowed them to gain unparalleled advantages in the form of higher customers, lower customer accusation costs, and wider market reach, to name a few.
Through the scope of this report, with the help of the case and marking tools such as Extended 5 C’s, SWOT, Hofstede’s dimensions, STP, and Marketing Mix (4 P’s), I will effectively evaluate every aspect of the shift to online and suggest the best overall strategy for Dell Online. Due to this, Dell Online is an evaluation case and will be treated accordingly.
The market for PCs in the US was about $85 Billion in 1997, with Dell owning a 10% market share. There are three groups of Dell’s customers. They are the Transactional, Relationship, and the Mix. These groups consist of 2 main groups: the Transactional and The Relationship. Both groups have distinctly different needs and wants and come under different product categories.
The Mix consists of those customers who fall under both the product categories.
Note: This will be discussed more in-depth in the segmentation section of the STP Analysis (to minimize repetitions).
The competition in the PC market can be categorized as an oligopoly because the few big players dominate the market share. The top 10 players take up 65% of the market share. Due to the increased popularity of the product in the market and increased new entrants, price competition rose. This caused the smaller firms with higher cost structures to find it harder to compete and left the big ten players in the market with the major section of the market.
Dell’s biggest competition and the current market leader is Compaq, which owns a market share of 18% of the $85 Billion US market for PCs. However, Dell is benefiting from lean production methods such as Just-in-Time production, which helps them reduce inventory and warehousing costs and allows them to change with the market demand.
Since competitors such as Compaq and IBM have an inventory of 2 months at any given time, Dell’s computer system and features are usually two months ahead of its main competitors.
In the relationship segment, Dell’s biggest competitors are Compaq, IBM, and HP, amongst others. Furthermore, one of Compaq’s value-added resellers, Vanstar, offers’ additional services such as on-site services, installations, etc. Due to the high success of Dell’s customizable segment, competitors such as Compaq are trying to enter this segment. However, it still has some issues which could be used by Dell to capitalize further.
Lastly, with the increasing preference for portable devices, the laptop market is becoming increasingly saturated. Laptops are priced at a premium and are usually bought in bulk for offices and schools. Dell has recently entered this market, which is dominated by Compaq, Hewlett-Packard, and IBM, with these three brands owning 54% of the market share.
When entering a market or introducing a product, it is crucial to take steps to increase awareness of it in the market and successfully distribute it to the necessary customer segments. That is where collaborators or retailers enter. Initially, Dell had some issues with its distribution network, which led to quality issues.
However, Dell survived that by increasing its importance on a good distribution network. Right now, Dell uses five main distribution networks: Dell Direct, Retail, Indirect through Value-Added Resellers, Indirect through national resellers, and online mediums. All of these channels are vital to Dell’s success as they target the different segments already existing in the market.
Dell Direct – This channel focuses on the made-to-order aspect offered by Dell, which helps customers customize their products to their specifications. Moreover, they were able to predict customer needs and offer that through customization. This has no middlemen as it is made and operated by Dell itself. This helps Dell gain higher margins and lower overall costs in the form of shelving space, calls, etc.
The 15% margin that the distributors receive will become the extra profit for Dell. Moreover, this segment is targeted toward most of the consumer segments due to the customization options available. Lastly, this channel has a market share of 19% of the US PC market.
Retail shops – This consists of shops like Best Buy, Circuit City, and CompUSA. This consists of three middlemen. The products go from the manufacturers to the National Retail Chain of the shops mentioned before. They then go to the distribution center and then finally to the retail stores. This distributer usually sold products to individual customers and small businesses, which means that this was targeted toward the Transactional customer segment. 30% of the market in the US for PCs was sold through this channel.
Indirect through Value-added Resellers – Next is the VARs, which consist of companies like Ingram Micro, which has a 54% market share at $12 Billion. Tech Data, which has a 21% market share at $4.6 Billion, and Merisel, which has a 25% market share at $5.5 Billion. Altogether, they supply 100,00 units. This section consists of 2 middlemen. The products go from the manufacturers to the National distributors and then to the Value-added Resellers. They have already established networks through which they push the product to hold 15% of the US PC market share and focus on specialized software and services. This shows that this section targets the blend of the Relationship segment and the Transactional segment.
Indirect through National Resellers – This is the last channel in the traditional direct and indirect sections. This consists of companies like Vanstar, which has a market share of 28.5% at $2.2 Billion. CompuCom Systems at 26% at $2 Billion, and MicroAge with a market share of 45.5% at $3.5 Billion. This also has two middlemen. However, it can go through different systems based on the needs of the national reseller and then either the wholly-owned sales and service center or the Franchised sales and service center. This section usually takes care of the big orders of 100 computers, which allows them to further customize the products. This channel is used for The Relationship customer segment, where customer knowledge is high and the volume is also high. Lastly, this channel conducts 33% of the US PC market business.
Online – The last channel is the online channel that Dell has just introduced. This channel has no middlemen and connects the customer directly to the manufacturer, which is Dell. This channel also benefits from the no middlemen aspect of the Direct Dell channel. This channel is part of the previous channels and essentially connects them into one channel for all the customer’s needs. Therefore, there is no estimate of how the online market dominates much market share.
Moreover, they adopted the Just-in-Time production method, which helped them reduce costs in terms of transportation costs, Warehousing costs, and Inventory costs, amongst others. Additionally, this helped them stay on top of the demand and offer the Dell Direct model, where they allowed customers to customize their products to their specifications.
The climate and context are also important factors when making any decision. Analyzing the environment around the area is a good measure of understanding how customers make decisions.
Dell was initially established in the US market, but with the scope of the internet and their online website, they are…
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Bayer ordered to pay $332 mln in Roundup cancer trial
The Bayer AG logo sits on display at the headquarters in La Garenne-Colombes, near Paris, France, May 13, 2019. REUTERS/Benoit Tessier/File Photo Acquire Licensing Rights
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Oct 31 (Reuters) - A California jury on Tuesday found Bayer (BAYGn.DE) liable in a case brought by a man who claimed his cancer was due to exposure to the company's Roundup weed killer, and ordered it to pay $332 million in damages.
The verdict includes $7 million in compensatory damages and $325 million in punitive damages awarded to plaintiff Mike Dennis, who was diagnosed at age 51 with a form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, according to a spokesperson for the company.
The punitive damage award is almost certain to be reduced sharply, as the U.S. Supreme Court has found that punitive damages should be less than 10 times the compensatory damages in virtually all cases.
The jury sided with Bayer on two of four legal claims in the case, the spokesperson said, finding that while the company had failed to warn of Roundup's risks, it had not been negligent and the product was not defectively designed.
The company said in a statement that it has "strong arguments on appeal to get this unfounded verdict overturned and the unconstitutionally excessive damage award eliminated or reduced, given that there were significant and reversible legal and evidentiary errors made during this trial."
A lawyer for Dennis did not immediately respond to a request for comment.
This marks the third trial loss for Bayer this month, after being hit by a $175 million verdict and a $1.25 million verdict in two separate Roundup trials. Before that, it had won nine consecutive trials over similar claims.
Roundup-related lawsuits have dogged Bayer since it acquired the brand as part of its $63 billion purchase of Monsanto in 2018. The company settled most Roundup claims against it in 2020 for up to $10.9 billion, but still faces close to 40,000 Roundup-related cases.
Reporting by Surbhi Misra and Gursimran Kaur in Bengaluru and Brendan Pierson in New York; Editing by Jamie Freed
Our Standards: The Thomson Reuters Trust Principles.
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Siding with Trump, the ACLU says a judge's gag order in Jan. 6 case is too sweeping
Former President Donald Trump during a trial in New York on Tuesday. A judge in a different case — happening in Washington, D.C. — issued a limited gag order that the ACLU said sweeps too broadly in restraining Trump's speech. Bloomberg via Getty Images hide caption
Former President Donald Trump during a trial in New York on Tuesday. A judge in a different case — happening in Washington, D.C. — issued a limited gag order that the ACLU said sweeps too broadly in restraining Trump's speech.
The American Civil Liberties Union sued former President Donald Trump or his administration more than 400 times during his tenure in the White House.
But now the ACLU is siding with Trump in the criminal case that charges he conspired to disrupt the peaceful transfer of power — telling a judge that a gag order she's imposed sweeps too broadly in restraining Trump's speech.
"[I]f we allow his free speech rights to be abridged, we know that other unpopular voices — even ones we agree with — will also be silenced," said Anthony D. Romero, executive director of the ACLU. "As much as we disagreed with Donald Trump's policies, everyone is entitled to the same First Amendment protection against gag orders that are too broad and too vague."
Earlier this month, U.S. District Judge Tanya Chutkan imposed a limited gag order on Trump, barring him from making inflammatory remarks about special counsel Jack Smith and his team, court employees and likely witnesses in the federal election interference case against him in Washington, D.C.
Trump takes the stand and is fined $10,000 for violating a gag order in fraud case
"Undisputed testimony cited by the government demonstrates that when Defendant has publicly attacked individuals, including on matters related to this case, those individuals are consequently threatened and harassed," the judge wrote .
But in a friend-of-the-court brief filed Wednesday, the ACLU said voters have a right to hear what Trump has to say, especially as he runs to return to the White House in 2024. The civil liberties group said it's not convinced the judge's order is essential to protect the administration of justice.
ACLU attorneys Brett Max Kaufman, Ben Wizner and Brian Hauss wrote that restrictions that seek to stop Trump from "targeting" prosecutors and witnesses are vague because it's not clear what "targeting" might mean.
"In the context of the order, it could mean something as innocuous as 'name' or 'identify,' or something much more violent," they wrote. "One could target another with respectful but vigorous political advocacy, or target them for physical violence or death."
Judge fines Trump $5,000 after post maligning court staffer found on campaign website
Limiting Trump's remarks about the work of special counsel Smith and his prosecutors risks undermining a vigorous debate about how public officials are doing their jobs, the ACLU wrote. The lawyers urged the court to "exempt public officials from the coverage of its order, except to the extent that it bars speech that threatens or instigates violence against, such persons."
The ACLU team acknowledged a "serious risk" that Trump could inspire his political supporters to violence. But their court filing said the First Amendment doesn't give the judge license to gag him.
"The mere fact that others have threatened actions against trial participants after hearing Defendant's words is not enough," the ACLU said.
At a court hearing earlier this month, prosecutor Molly Gaston reminded Judge Chutkan that a Texas woman had been arrested for issuing violent threats against the judge. Trump also has been fined $5,000 in a civil fraud case in New York for failing to remove a baseless post attacking a judge's law clerk from his campaign website.
Trump lawyers John Lauro and Todd Blanche call the gag order in D.C. an "unconstitutional prior restraint" and have launched an appeal, which could help to delay the trial scheduled for March 2024. The judge has issued a temporary pause on the gag order while she awaits additional legal filings.
- Donald Trump
- civil liberties
- special counsel
- Judge Chutkan