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5.2 - writing hypotheses.

The first step in conducting a hypothesis test is to write the hypothesis statements that are going to be tested. For each test you will have a null hypothesis ($$H_0$$) and an alternative hypothesis ($$H_a$$).

When writing hypotheses there are three things that we need to know: (1) the parameter that we are testing (2) the direction of the test (non-directional, right-tailed or left-tailed), and (3) the value of the hypothesized parameter.

• At this point we can write hypotheses for a single mean ($$\mu$$), paired means($$\mu_d$$), a single proportion ($$p$$), the difference between two independent means ($$\mu_1-\mu_2$$), the difference between two proportions ($$p_1-p_2$$), a simple linear regression slope ($$\beta$$), and a correlation ($$\rho$$).
• The research question will give us the information necessary to determine if the test is two-tailed (e.g., "different from," "not equal to"), right-tailed (e.g., "greater than," "more than"), or left-tailed (e.g., "less than," "fewer than").
• The research question will also give us the hypothesized parameter value. This is the number that goes in the hypothesis statements (i.e., $$\mu_0$$ and $$p_0$$). For the difference between two groups, regression, and correlation, this value is typically 0.

Hypotheses are always written in terms of population parameters (e.g., $$p$$ and $$\mu$$).  The tables below display all of the possible hypotheses for the parameters that we have learned thus far. Note that the null hypothesis always includes the equality (i.e., =).

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## Writing Null Hypotheses in Research and Statistics

Last Updated: January 17, 2024 Fact Checked

This article was co-authored by Joseph Quinones and by wikiHow staff writer, Jennifer Mueller, JD . Joseph Quinones is a High School Physics Teacher working at South Bronx Community Charter High School. Joseph specializes in astronomy and astrophysics and is interested in science education and science outreach, currently practicing ways to make physics accessible to more students with the goal of bringing more students of color into the STEM fields. He has experience working on Astrophysics research projects at the Museum of Natural History (AMNH). Joseph recieved his Bachelor's degree in Physics from Lehman College and his Masters in Physics Education from City College of New York (CCNY). He is also a member of a network called New York City Men Teach. There are 7 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been fact-checked, ensuring the accuracy of any cited facts and confirming the authority of its sources. This article has been viewed 20,599 times.

Are you working on a research project and struggling with how to write a null hypothesis? Well, you've come to the right place! Start by recognizing that the basic definition of "null" is "none" or "zero"—that's your biggest clue as to what a null hypothesis should say. Keep reading to learn everything you need to know about the null hypothesis, including how it relates to your research question and your alternative hypothesis as well as how to use it in different types of studies.

## Things You Should Know

• Write a research null hypothesis as a statement that the studied variables have no relationship to each other, or that there's no difference between 2 groups.

• Adjust the format of your null hypothesis to match the statistical method you used to test it, such as using "mean" if you're comparing the mean between 2 groups.

## What is a null hypothesis?

• Research hypothesis: States in plain language that there's no relationship between the 2 variables or there's no difference between the 2 groups being studied.
• Statistical hypothesis: States the predicted outcome of statistical analysis through a mathematical equation related to the statistical method you're using.

## Null Hypothesis vs. Alternative Hypothesis

• For example, your alternative hypothesis could state a positive correlation between 2 variables while your null hypothesis states there's no relationship. If there's a negative correlation, then both hypotheses are false.

• You need additional data or evidence to show that your alternative hypothesis is correct—proving the null hypothesis false is just the first step.
• In smaller studies, sometimes it's enough to show that there's some relationship and your hypothesis could be correct—you can leave the additional proof as an open question for other researchers to tackle.

## How do I test a null hypothesis?

• Group means: Compare the mean of the variable in your sample with the mean of the variable in the general population. [6] X Research source
• Group proportions: Compare the proportion of the variable in your sample with the proportion of the variable in the general population. [7] X Research source
• Correlation: Correlation analysis looks at the relationship between 2 variables—specifically, whether they tend to happen together. [8] X Research source
• Regression: Regression analysis reveals the correlation between 2 variables while also controlling for the effect of other, interrelated variables. [9] X Research source

## Templates for Null Hypotheses

• Research null hypothesis: There is no difference in the mean [dependent variable] between [group 1] and [group 2].

• Research null hypothesis: The proportion of [dependent variable] in [group 1] and [group 2] is the same.

• Research null hypothesis: There is no correlation between [independent variable] and [dependent variable] in the population.

• Research null hypothesis: There is no relationship between [independent variable] and [dependent variable] in the population.

## Expert Interview

• ↑ https://online.stat.psu.edu/stat100/lesson/10/10.1
• ↑ https://online.stat.psu.edu/stat501/lesson/2/2.12
• ↑ https://support.minitab.com/en-us/minitab/21/help-and-how-to/statistics/basic-statistics/supporting-topics/basics/null-and-alternative-hypotheses/
• ↑ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5635437/
• ↑ https://online.stat.psu.edu/statprogram/reviews/statistical-concepts/hypothesis-testing
• ↑ https://education.arcus.chop.edu/null-hypothesis-testing/
• ↑ https://sphweb.bumc.bu.edu/otlt/mph-modules/bs/bs704_hypothesistest-means-proportions/bs704_hypothesistest-means-proportions_print.html

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## Hypothesis Testing | A Step-by-Step Guide with Easy Examples

Published on November 8, 2019 by Rebecca Bevans . Revised on June 22, 2023.

Hypothesis testing is a formal procedure for investigating our ideas about the world using statistics . It is most often used by scientists to test specific predictions, called hypotheses, that arise from theories.

There are 5 main steps in hypothesis testing:

• State your research hypothesis as a null hypothesis and alternate hypothesis (H o ) and (H a  or H 1 ).
• Collect data in a way designed to test the hypothesis.
• Perform an appropriate statistical test .
• Decide whether to reject or fail to reject your null hypothesis.
• Present the findings in your results and discussion section.

Though the specific details might vary, the procedure you will use when testing a hypothesis will always follow some version of these steps.

Step 1: state your null and alternate hypothesis, step 2: collect data, step 3: perform a statistical test, step 4: decide whether to reject or fail to reject your null hypothesis, step 5: present your findings, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about hypothesis testing.

After developing your initial research hypothesis (the prediction that you want to investigate), it is important to restate it as a null (H o ) and alternate (H a ) hypothesis so that you can test it mathematically.

The alternate hypothesis is usually your initial hypothesis that predicts a relationship between variables. The null hypothesis is a prediction of no relationship between the variables you are interested in.

• H 0 : Men are, on average, not taller than women. H a : Men are, on average, taller than women.

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For a statistical test to be valid , it is important to perform sampling and collect data in a way that is designed to test your hypothesis. If your data are not representative, then you cannot make statistical inferences about the population you are interested in.

There are a variety of statistical tests available, but they are all based on the comparison of within-group variance (how spread out the data is within a category) versus between-group variance (how different the categories are from one another).

If the between-group variance is large enough that there is little or no overlap between groups, then your statistical test will reflect that by showing a low p -value . This means it is unlikely that the differences between these groups came about by chance.

Alternatively, if there is high within-group variance and low between-group variance, then your statistical test will reflect that with a high p -value. This means it is likely that any difference you measure between groups is due to chance.

Your choice of statistical test will be based on the type of variables and the level of measurement of your collected data .

• an estimate of the difference in average height between the two groups.
• a p -value showing how likely you are to see this difference if the null hypothesis of no difference is true.

Based on the outcome of your statistical test, you will have to decide whether to reject or fail to reject your null hypothesis.

In most cases you will use the p -value generated by your statistical test to guide your decision. And in most cases, your predetermined level of significance for rejecting the null hypothesis will be 0.05 – that is, when there is a less than 5% chance that you would see these results if the null hypothesis were true.

In some cases, researchers choose a more conservative level of significance, such as 0.01 (1%). This minimizes the risk of incorrectly rejecting the null hypothesis ( Type I error ).

The academic proofreading tool has been trained on 1000s of academic texts and by native English editors. Making it the most accurate and reliable proofreading tool for students.

The results of hypothesis testing will be presented in the results and discussion sections of your research paper , dissertation or thesis .

In the results section you should give a brief summary of the data and a summary of the results of your statistical test (for example, the estimated difference between group means and associated p -value). In the discussion , you can discuss whether your initial hypothesis was supported by your results or not.

In the formal language of hypothesis testing, we talk about rejecting or failing to reject the null hypothesis. You will probably be asked to do this in your statistics assignments.

However, when presenting research results in academic papers we rarely talk this way. Instead, we go back to our alternate hypothesis (in this case, the hypothesis that men are on average taller than women) and state whether the result of our test did or did not support the alternate hypothesis.

If your null hypothesis was rejected, this result is interpreted as “supported the alternate hypothesis.”

These are superficial differences; you can see that they mean the same thing.

You might notice that we don’t say that we reject or fail to reject the alternate hypothesis . This is because hypothesis testing is not designed to prove or disprove anything. It is only designed to test whether a pattern we measure could have arisen spuriously, or by chance.

If we reject the null hypothesis based on our research (i.e., we find that it is unlikely that the pattern arose by chance), then we can say our test lends support to our hypothesis . But if the pattern does not pass our decision rule, meaning that it could have arisen by chance, then we say the test is inconsistent with our hypothesis .

If you want to know more about statistics , methodology , or research bias , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

• Normal distribution
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Hypothesis testing is a formal procedure for investigating our ideas about the world using statistics. It is used by scientists to test specific predictions, called hypotheses , by calculating how likely it is that a pattern or relationship between variables could have arisen by chance.

A hypothesis states your predictions about what your research will find. It is a tentative answer to your research question that has not yet been tested. For some research projects, you might have to write several hypotheses that address different aspects of your research question.

A hypothesis is not just a guess — it should be based on existing theories and knowledge. It also has to be testable, which means you can support or refute it through scientific research methods (such as experiments, observations and statistical analysis of data).

Null and alternative hypotheses are used in statistical hypothesis testing . The null hypothesis of a test always predicts no effect or no relationship between variables, while the alternative hypothesis states your research prediction of an effect or relationship.

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Once you have developed a clear and focused research question or set of research questions, you’ll be ready to conduct further research, a literature review, on the topic to help you make an educated guess about the answer to your question(s). This educated guess is called a hypothesis.

In research, there are two types of hypotheses: null and alternative. They work as a complementary pair, each stating that the other is wrong.

• Null Hypothesis (H 0 ) – This can be thought of as the implied hypothesis. “Null” meaning “nothing.”  This hypothesis states that there is no difference between groups or no relationship between variables. The null hypothesis is a presumption of status quo or no change.
• Alternative Hypothesis (H a ) – This is also known as the claim. This hypothesis should state what you expect the data to show, based on your research on the topic. This is your answer to your research question.

Null Hypothesis:   H 0 : There is no difference in the salary of factory workers based on gender. Alternative Hypothesis :  H a : Male factory workers have a higher salary than female factory workers.

Null Hypothesis :  H 0 : There is no relationship between height and shoe size. Alternative Hypothesis :  H a : There is a positive relationship between height and shoe size.

Null Hypothesis :  H 0 : Experience on the job has no impact on the quality of a brick mason’s work. Alternative Hypothesis :  H a : The quality of a brick mason’s work is influenced by on-the-job experience.

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## 7.3: The Research Hypothesis and the Null Hypothesis

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Hypotheses are predictions of expected findings.

## The Research Hypothesis

A research hypothesis is a mathematical way of stating a research question.  A research hypothesis names the groups (we'll start with a sample and a population), what was measured, and which we think will have a higher mean.  The last one gives the research hypothesis a direction.  In other words, a research hypothesis should include:

• The name of the groups being compared.  This is sometimes considered the IV.
• What was measured.  This is the DV.
• Which group are we predicting will have the higher mean.

There are two types of research hypotheses related to sample means and population means:  Directional Research Hypotheses and Non-Directional Research Hypotheses

## Directional Research Hypothesis

If we expect our obtained sample mean to be above or below the other group's mean (the population mean, for example), we have a directional hypothesis. There are two options:

• Symbol:       $$\displaystyle \bar{X} > \mu$$
• (The mean of the sample is greater than than the mean of the population.)
• Symbol:     $$\displaystyle \bar{X} < \mu$$
• (The mean of the sample is less than than mean of the population.)

Example $$\PageIndex{1}$$

A study by Blackwell, Trzesniewski, and Dweck (2007) measured growth mindset and how long the junior high student participants spent on their math homework.  What’s a directional hypothesis for how scoring higher on growth mindset (compared to the population of junior high students) would be related to how long students spent on their homework?  Write this out in words and symbols.

Answer in Words:            Students who scored high on growth mindset would spend more time on their homework than the population of junior high students.

Answer in Symbols:         $$\displaystyle \bar{X} > \mu$$

## Non-Directional Research Hypothesis

A non-directional hypothesis states that the means will be different, but does not specify which will be higher.  In reality, there is rarely a situation in which we actually don't want one group to be higher than the other, so we will focus on directional research hypotheses.  There is only one option for a non-directional research hypothesis: "The sample mean differs from the population mean."  These types of research hypotheses don’t give a direction, the hypothesis doesn’t say which will be higher or lower.

A non-directional research hypothesis in symbols should look like this:    $$\displaystyle \bar{X} \neq \mu$$ (The mean of the sample is not equal to the mean of the population).

Exercise $$\PageIndex{1}$$

What’s a non-directional hypothesis for how scoring higher on growth mindset higher on growth mindset (compared to the population of junior high students) would be related to how long students spent on their homework (Blackwell, Trzesniewski, & Dweck, 2007)?  Write this out in words and symbols.

Answer in Words:            Students who scored high on growth mindset would spend a different amount of time on their homework than the population of junior high students.

Answer in Symbols:        $$\displaystyle \bar{X} \neq \mu$$

See how a non-directional research hypothesis doesn't really make sense?  The big issue is not if the two groups differ, but if one group seems to improve what was measured (if having a growth mindset leads to more time spent on math homework).  This textbook will only use directional research hypotheses because researchers almost always have a predicted direction (meaning that we almost always know which group we think will score higher).

## The Null Hypothesis

The hypothesis that an apparent effect is due to chance is called the null hypothesis, written $$H_0$$ (“H-naught”). We usually test this through comparing an experimental group to a comparison (control) group.  This null hypothesis can be written as:

$\mathrm{H}_{0}: \bar{X} = \mu \nonumber$

For most of this textbook, the null hypothesis is that the means of the two groups are similar.  Much later, the null hypothesis will be that there is no relationship between the two groups.  Either way, remember that a null hypothesis is always saying that nothing is different.

This is where descriptive statistics diverge from inferential statistics.  We know what the value of $$\overline{\mathrm{X}}$$ is – it’s not a mystery or a question, it is what we observed from the sample.  What we are using inferential statistics to do is infer whether this sample's descriptive statistics probably represents the population's descriptive statistics.  This is the null hypothesis, that the two groups are similar.

Keep in mind that the null hypothesis is typically the opposite of the research hypothesis. A research hypothesis for the ESP example is that those in my sample who say that they have ESP would get more correct answers than the population would get correct, while the null hypothesis is that the average number correct for the two groups will be similar.

In general, the null hypothesis is the idea that nothing is going on: there is no effect of our treatment, no relation between our variables, and no difference in our sample mean from what we expected about the population mean. This is always our baseline starting assumption, and it is what we seek to reject. If we are trying to treat depression, we want to find a difference in average symptoms between our treatment and control groups. If we are trying to predict job performance, we want to find a relation between conscientiousness and evaluation scores. However, until we have evidence against it, we must use the null hypothesis as our starting point.

In sum, the null hypothesis is always : There is no difference between the groups’ means OR There is no relationship between the variables .

In the next chapter, the null hypothesis is that there’s no difference between the sample mean   and population mean.  In other words:

• There is no mean difference between the sample and population.
• The mean of the sample is the same as the mean of a specific population.
• $$\mathrm{H}_{0}: \bar{X} = \mu \nonumber$$
• We expect our sample’s mean to be same as the population mean.

Exercise $$\PageIndex{2}$$

A study by Blackwell, Trzesniewski, and Dweck (2007) measured growth mindset and how long the junior high student participants spent on their math homework.  What’s the null hypothesis for scoring higher on growth mindset (compared to the population of junior high students) and how long students spent on their homework?  Write this out in words and symbols.

Answer in Words:            Students who scored high on growth mindset would spend a similar amount of time on their homework as the population of junior high students.

Answer in Symbols:    $$\bar{X} = \mu$$

Foster et al.  (University of Missouri-St. Louis, Rice University, & University of Houston, Downtown Campus)

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• Null and Alternative Hypotheses | Definitions & Examples

## Null and Alternative Hypotheses | Definitions & Examples

Published on 5 October 2022 by Shaun Turney . Revised on 6 December 2022.

The null and alternative hypotheses are two competing claims that researchers weigh evidence for and against using a statistical test :

• Null hypothesis (H 0 ): There’s no effect in the population .
• Alternative hypothesis (H A ): There’s an effect in the population.

The effect is usually the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable .

Answering your research question with hypotheses, what is a null hypothesis, what is an alternative hypothesis, differences between null and alternative hypotheses, how to write null and alternative hypotheses, frequently asked questions about null and alternative hypotheses.

The null and alternative hypotheses offer competing answers to your research question . When the research question asks “Does the independent variable affect the dependent variable?”, the null hypothesis (H 0 ) answers “No, there’s no effect in the population.” On the other hand, the alternative hypothesis (H A ) answers “Yes, there is an effect in the population.”

The null and alternative are always claims about the population. That’s because the goal of hypothesis testing is to make inferences about a population based on a sample . Often, we infer whether there’s an effect in the population by looking at differences between groups or relationships between variables in the sample.

You can use a statistical test to decide whether the evidence favors the null or alternative hypothesis. Each type of statistical test comes with a specific way of phrasing the null and alternative hypothesis. However, the hypotheses can also be phrased in a general way that applies to any test.

The null hypothesis is the claim that there’s no effect in the population.

If the sample provides enough evidence against the claim that there’s no effect in the population ( p ≤ α), then we can reject the null hypothesis . Otherwise, we fail to reject the null hypothesis.

Although “fail to reject” may sound awkward, it’s the only wording that statisticians accept. Be careful not to say you “prove” or “accept” the null hypothesis.

Null hypotheses often include phrases such as “no effect”, “no difference”, or “no relationship”. When written in mathematical terms, they always include an equality (usually =, but sometimes ≥ or ≤).

## Examples of null hypotheses

The table below gives examples of research questions and null hypotheses. There’s always more than one way to answer a research question, but these null hypotheses can help you get started.

*Note that some researchers prefer to always write the null hypothesis in terms of “no effect” and “=”. It would be fine to say that daily meditation has no effect on the incidence of depression and p 1 = p 2 .

The alternative hypothesis (H A ) is the other answer to your research question . It claims that there’s an effect in the population.

Often, your alternative hypothesis is the same as your research hypothesis. In other words, it’s the claim that you expect or hope will be true.

The alternative hypothesis is the complement to the null hypothesis. Null and alternative hypotheses are exhaustive, meaning that together they cover every possible outcome. They are also mutually exclusive, meaning that only one can be true at a time.

Alternative hypotheses often include phrases such as “an effect”, “a difference”, or “a relationship”. When alternative hypotheses are written in mathematical terms, they always include an inequality (usually ≠, but sometimes > or <). As with null hypotheses, there are many acceptable ways to phrase an alternative hypothesis.

## Examples of alternative hypotheses

The table below gives examples of research questions and alternative hypotheses to help you get started with formulating your own.

Null and alternative hypotheses are similar in some ways:

• They’re both answers to the research question
• They both make claims about the population
• They’re both evaluated by statistical tests.

However, there are important differences between the two types of hypotheses, summarized in the following table.

To help you write your hypotheses, you can use the template sentences below. If you know which statistical test you’re going to use, you can use the test-specific template sentences. Otherwise, you can use the general template sentences.

The only thing you need to know to use these general template sentences are your dependent and independent variables. To write your research question, null hypothesis, and alternative hypothesis, fill in the following sentences with your variables:

Does independent variable affect dependent variable ?

• Null hypothesis (H 0 ): Independent variable does not affect dependent variable .
• Alternative hypothesis (H A ): Independent variable affects dependent variable .

## Test-specific

Once you know the statistical test you’ll be using, you can write your hypotheses in a more precise and mathematical way specific to the test you chose. The table below provides template sentences for common statistical tests.

Note: The template sentences above assume that you’re performing one-tailed tests . One-tailed tests are appropriate for most studies.

The null hypothesis is often abbreviated as H 0 . When the null hypothesis is written using mathematical symbols, it always includes an equality symbol (usually =, but sometimes ≥ or ≤).

The alternative hypothesis is often abbreviated as H a or H 1 . When the alternative hypothesis is written using mathematical symbols, it always includes an inequality symbol (usually ≠, but sometimes < or >).

A research hypothesis is your proposed answer to your research question. The research hypothesis usually includes an explanation (‘ x affects y because …’).

A statistical hypothesis, on the other hand, is a mathematical statement about a population parameter. Statistical hypotheses always come in pairs: the null and alternative hypotheses. In a well-designed study , the statistical hypotheses correspond logically to the research hypothesis.

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• 8.3 A Population Proportion
• 8.4 Confidence Interval (Home Costs)
• 8.5 Confidence Interval (Place of Birth)
• 8.6 Confidence Interval (Women's Heights)
• 9.2 Outcomes and the Type I and Type II Errors
• 9.3 Distribution Needed for Hypothesis Testing
• 9.4 Rare Events, the Sample, and the Decision and Conclusion
• 9.5 Additional Information and Full Hypothesis Test Examples
• 9.6 Hypothesis Testing of a Single Mean and Single Proportion
• 10.1 Two Population Means with Unknown Standard Deviations
• 10.2 Two Population Means with Known Standard Deviations
• 10.3 Comparing Two Independent Population Proportions
• 10.4 Matched or Paired Samples (Optional)
• 10.5 Hypothesis Testing for Two Means and Two Proportions
• 11.1 Facts About the Chi-Square Distribution
• 11.2 Goodness-of-Fit Test
• 11.3 Test of Independence
• 11.4 Test for Homogeneity
• 11.5 Comparison of the Chi-Square Tests
• 11.6 Test of a Single Variance
• 11.7 Lab 1: Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit
• 11.8 Lab 2: Chi-Square Test of Independence
• 12.1 Linear Equations
• 12.2 The Regression Equation
• 12.3 Testing the Significance of the Correlation Coefficient (Optional)
• 12.4 Prediction (Optional)
• 12.5 Outliers
• 12.6 Regression (Distance from School) (Optional)
• 12.7 Regression (Textbook Cost) (Optional)
• 12.8 Regression (Fuel Efficiency) (Optional)
• 13.1 One-Way ANOVA
• 13.2 The F Distribution and the F Ratio
• 13.3 Facts About the F Distribution
• 13.4 Test of Two Variances
• 13.5 Lab: One-Way ANOVA
• A | Appendix A Review Exercises (Ch 3–13)
• B | Appendix B Practice Tests (1–4) and Final Exams
• C | Data Sets
• D | Group and Partner Projects
• E | Solution Sheets
• F | Mathematical Phrases, Symbols, and Formulas
• G | Notes for the TI-83, 83+, 84, 84+ Calculators

The actual test begins by considering two hypotheses . They are called the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis . These hypotheses contain opposing viewpoints.

H 0 , the — null hypothesis: a statement of no difference between sample means or proportions or no difference between a sample mean or proportion and a population mean or proportion. In other words, the difference equals 0.

H a —, the alternative hypothesis: a claim about the population that is contradictory to H 0 and what we conclude when we reject H 0 .

Since the null and alternative hypotheses are contradictory, you must examine evidence to decide if you have enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis or not. The evidence is in the form of sample data.

After you have determined which hypothesis the sample supports, you make a decision. There are two options for a decision. They are reject H 0 if the sample information favors the alternative hypothesis or do not reject H 0 or decline to reject H 0 if the sample information is insufficient to reject the null hypothesis.

Mathematical Symbols Used in H 0 and H a :

H 0 always has a symbol with an equal in it. H a never has a symbol with an equal in it. The choice of symbol depends on the wording of the hypothesis test. However, be aware that many researchers use = in the null hypothesis, even with > or < as the symbol in the alternative hypothesis. This practice is acceptable because we only make the decision to reject or not reject the null hypothesis.

## Example 9.1

H 0 : No more than 30 percent of the registered voters in Santa Clara County voted in the primary election. p ≤ 30 H a : More than 30 percent of the registered voters in Santa Clara County voted in the primary election. p > 30

A medical trial is conducted to test whether or not a new medicine reduces cholesterol by 25 percent. State the null and alternative hypotheses.

## Example 9.2

We want to test whether the mean GPA of students in American colleges is different from 2.0 (out of 4.0). The null and alternative hypotheses are the following: H 0 : μ = 2.0 H a : μ ≠ 2.0

We want to test whether the mean height of eighth graders is 66 inches. State the null and alternative hypotheses. Fill in the correct symbol (=, ≠, ≥, <, ≤, >) for the null and alternative hypotheses.

• H 0 : μ __ 66
• H a : μ __ 66

## Example 9.3

We want to test if college students take fewer than five years to graduate from college, on the average. The null and alternative hypotheses are the following: H 0 : μ ≥ 5 H a : μ < 5

We want to test if it takes fewer than 45 minutes to teach a lesson plan. State the null and alternative hypotheses. Fill in the correct symbol ( =, ≠, ≥, <, ≤, >) for the null and alternative hypotheses.

• H 0 : μ __ 45
• H a : μ __ 45

## Example 9.4

An article on school standards stated that about half of all students in France, Germany, and Israel take advanced placement exams and a third of the students pass. The same article stated that 6.6 percent of U.S. students take advanced placement exams and 4.4 percent pass. Test if the percentage of U.S. students who take advanced placement exams is more than 6.6 percent. State the null and alternative hypotheses. H 0 : p ≤ 0.066 H a : p > 0.066

On a state driver’s test, about 40 percent pass the test on the first try. We want to test if more than 40 percent pass on the first try. Fill in the correct symbol (=, ≠, ≥, <, ≤, >) for the null and alternative hypotheses.

• H 0 : p __ 0.40
• H a : p __ 0.40

## Collaborative Exercise

Bring to class a newspaper, some news magazines, and some internet articles. In groups, find articles from which your group can write null and alternative hypotheses. Discuss your hypotheses with the rest of the class.

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## What is The Null Hypothesis & When Do You Reject The Null Hypothesis

Julia Simkus

Editor at Simply Psychology

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Julia Simkus is a graduate of Princeton University with a Bachelor of Arts in Psychology. She is currently studying for a Master's Degree in Counseling for Mental Health and Wellness in September 2023. Julia's research has been published in peer reviewed journals.

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Editor-in-Chief for Simply Psychology

BSc (Hons) Psychology, MRes, PhD, University of Manchester

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A null hypothesis is a statistical concept suggesting no significant difference or relationship between measured variables. It’s the default assumption unless empirical evidence proves otherwise.

The null hypothesis states no relationship exists between the two variables being studied (i.e., one variable does not affect the other).

The null hypothesis is the statement that a researcher or an investigator wants to disprove.

Testing the null hypothesis can tell you whether your results are due to the effects of manipulating ​ the dependent variable or due to random chance.

## How to Write a Null Hypothesis

Null hypotheses (H0) start as research questions that the investigator rephrases as statements indicating no effect or relationship between the independent and dependent variables.

It is a default position that your research aims to challenge or confirm.

## For example, if studying the impact of exercise on weight loss, your null hypothesis might be:

There is no significant difference in weight loss between individuals who exercise daily and those who do not.

## Examples of Null Hypotheses

When do we reject the null hypothesis .

We reject the null hypothesis when the data provide strong enough evidence to conclude that it is likely incorrect. This often occurs when the p-value (probability of observing the data given the null hypothesis is true) is below a predetermined significance level.

If the collected data does not meet the expectation of the null hypothesis, a researcher can conclude that the data lacks sufficient evidence to back up the null hypothesis, and thus the null hypothesis is rejected.

Rejecting the null hypothesis means that a relationship does exist between a set of variables and the effect is statistically significant ( p > 0.05).

If the data collected from the random sample is not statistically significance, then the null hypothesis will be accepted, and the researchers can conclude that there is no relationship between the variables.

You need to perform a statistical test on your data in order to evaluate how consistent it is with the null hypothesis. A p-value is one statistical measurement used to validate a hypothesis against observed data.

Calculating the p-value is a critical part of null-hypothesis significance testing because it quantifies how strongly the sample data contradicts the null hypothesis.

The level of statistical significance is often expressed as a  p  -value between 0 and 1. The smaller the p-value, the stronger the evidence that you should reject the null hypothesis.

Usually, a researcher uses a confidence level of 95% or 99% (p-value of 0.05 or 0.01) as general guidelines to decide if you should reject or keep the null.

When your p-value is less than or equal to your significance level, you reject the null hypothesis.

In other words, smaller p-values are taken as stronger evidence against the null hypothesis. Conversely, when the p-value is greater than your significance level, you fail to reject the null hypothesis.

In this case, the sample data provides insufficient data to conclude that the effect exists in the population.

Because you can never know with complete certainty whether there is an effect in the population, your inferences about a population will sometimes be incorrect.

When you incorrectly reject the null hypothesis, it’s called a type I error. When you incorrectly fail to reject it, it’s called a type II error.

## Why Do We Never Accept The Null Hypothesis?

The reason we do not say “accept the null” is because we are always assuming the null hypothesis is true and then conducting a study to see if there is evidence against it. And, even if we don’t find evidence against it, a null hypothesis is not accepted.

A lack of evidence only means that you haven’t proven that something exists. It does not prove that something doesn’t exist.

It is risky to conclude that the null hypothesis is true merely because we did not find evidence to reject it. It is always possible that researchers elsewhere have disproved the null hypothesis, so we cannot accept it as true, but instead, we state that we failed to reject the null.

One can either reject the null hypothesis, or fail to reject it, but can never accept it.

## Why Do We Use The Null Hypothesis?

We can never prove with 100% certainty that a hypothesis is true; We can only collect evidence that supports a theory. However, testing a hypothesis can set the stage for rejecting or accepting this hypothesis within a certain confidence level.

The null hypothesis is useful because it can tell us whether the results of our study are due to random chance or the manipulation of a variable (with a certain level of confidence).

A null hypothesis is rejected if the measured data is significantly unlikely to have occurred and a null hypothesis is accepted if the observed outcome is consistent with the position held by the null hypothesis.

Rejecting the null hypothesis sets the stage for further experimentation to see if a relationship between two variables exists.

Hypothesis testing is a critical part of the scientific method as it helps decide whether the results of a research study support a particular theory about a given population. Hypothesis testing is a systematic way of backing up researchers’ predictions with statistical analysis.

It helps provide sufficient statistical evidence that either favors or rejects a certain hypothesis about the population parameter.

## Purpose of a Null Hypothesis

• The primary purpose of the null hypothesis is to disprove an assumption.
• Whether rejected or accepted, the null hypothesis can help further progress a theory in many scientific cases.
• A null hypothesis can be used to ascertain how consistent the outcomes of multiple studies are.

## Do you always need both a Null Hypothesis and an Alternative Hypothesis?

The null (H0) and alternative (Ha or H1) hypotheses are two competing claims that describe the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable. They are mutually exclusive, which means that only one of the two hypotheses can be true.

While the null hypothesis states that there is no effect in the population, an alternative hypothesis states that there is statistical significance between two variables.

The goal of hypothesis testing is to make inferences about a population based on a sample. In order to undertake hypothesis testing, you must express your research hypothesis as a null and alternative hypothesis. Both hypotheses are required to cover every possible outcome of the study.

## What is the difference between a null hypothesis and an alternative hypothesis?

The alternative hypothesis is the complement to the null hypothesis. The null hypothesis states that there is no effect or no relationship between variables, while the alternative hypothesis claims that there is an effect or relationship in the population.

It is the claim that you expect or hope will be true. The null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis are always mutually exclusive, meaning that only one can be true at a time.

## What are some problems with the null hypothesis?

One major problem with the null hypothesis is that researchers typically will assume that accepting the null is a failure of the experiment. However, accepting or rejecting any hypothesis is a positive result. Even if the null is not refuted, the researchers will still learn something new.

## Why can a null hypothesis not be accepted?

We can either reject or fail to reject a null hypothesis, but never accept it. If your test fails to detect an effect, this is not proof that the effect doesn’t exist. It just means that your sample did not have enough evidence to conclude that it exists.

We can’t accept a null hypothesis because a lack of evidence does not prove something that does not exist. Instead, we fail to reject it.

Failing to reject the null indicates that the sample did not provide sufficient enough evidence to conclude that an effect exists.

If the p-value is greater than the significance level, then you fail to reject the null hypothesis.

## Is a null hypothesis directional or non-directional?

A hypothesis test can either contain an alternative directional hypothesis or a non-directional alternative hypothesis. A directional hypothesis is one that contains the less than (“<“) or greater than (“>”) sign.

A nondirectional hypothesis contains the not equal sign (“≠”).  However, a null hypothesis is neither directional nor non-directional.

A null hypothesis is a prediction that there will be no change, relationship, or difference between two variables.

The directional hypothesis or nondirectional hypothesis would then be considered alternative hypotheses to the null hypothesis.

Gill, J. (1999). The insignificance of null hypothesis significance testing.  Political research quarterly ,  52 (3), 647-674.

Krueger, J. (2001). Null hypothesis significance testing: On the survival of a flawed method.  American Psychologist ,  56 (1), 16.

Masson, M. E. (2011). A tutorial on a practical Bayesian alternative to null-hypothesis significance testing.  Behavior research methods ,  43 , 679-690.

Nickerson, R. S. (2000). Null hypothesis significance testing: a review of an old and continuing controversy.  Psychological methods ,  5 (2), 241.

Rozeboom, W. W. (1960). The fallacy of the null-hypothesis significance test.  Psychological bulletin ,  57 (5), 416.

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## AP®︎/College Statistics

Course: ap®︎/college statistics   >   unit 10.

• Idea behind hypothesis testing
• Examples of null and alternative hypotheses

## Writing null and alternative hypotheses

• P-values and significance tests
• Comparing P-values to different significance levels
• Estimating a P-value from a simulation
• Estimating P-values from simulations
• Using P-values to make conclusions
• (Choice A)   H 0 : p = 0.1 H a : p ≠ 0.1 ‍   A H 0 : p = 0.1 H a : p ≠ 0.1 ‍
• (Choice B)   H 0 : p ≠ 0.1 H a : p = 0.1 ‍   B H 0 : p ≠ 0.1 H a : p = 0.1 ‍
• (Choice C)   H 0 : p = 0.1 H a : p > 0.1 ‍   C H 0 : p = 0.1 H a : p > 0.1 ‍
• (Choice D)   H 0 : p = 0.1 H a : p < 0.1 ‍   D H 0 : p = 0.1 H a : p < 0.1 ‍

## Null Hypothesis Examples

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The null hypothesis —which assumes that there is no meaningful relationship between two variables—may be the most valuable hypothesis for the scientific method because it is the easiest to test using a statistical analysis. This means you can support your hypothesis with a high level of confidence. Testing the null hypothesis can tell you whether your results are due to the effect of manipulating ​ the dependent variable or due to chance.

## What Is the Null Hypothesis?

The null hypothesis states there is no relationship between the measured phenomenon (the dependent variable) and the independent variable . You do not​ need to believe that the null hypothesis is true to test it. On the contrary, you will likely suspect that there is a relationship between a set of variables. One way to prove that this is the case is to reject the null hypothesis. Rejecting a hypothesis does not mean an experiment was "bad" or that it didn't produce results. In fact, it is often one of the first steps toward further inquiry.

To distinguish it from other hypotheses, the null hypothesis is written as ​ H 0  (which is read as “H-nought,” "H-null," or "H-zero"). A significance test is used to determine the likelihood that the results supporting the null hypothesis are not due to chance. A confidence level of 95 percent or 99 percent is common. Keep in mind, even if the confidence level is high, there is still a small chance the null hypothesis is not true, perhaps because the experimenter did not account for a critical factor or because of chance. This is one reason why it's important to repeat experiments.

## Examples of the Null Hypothesis

To write a null hypothesis, first start by asking a question. Rephrase that question in a form that assumes no relationship between the variables. In other words, assume a treatment has no effect. Write your hypothesis in a way that reflects this.

• What Is a Hypothesis? (Science)
• What 'Fail to Reject' Means in a Hypothesis Test
• What Are the Elements of a Good Hypothesis?
• Scientific Method Vocabulary Terms
• Null Hypothesis Definition and Examples
• Definition of a Hypothesis
• Six Steps of the Scientific Method
• Understanding Simple vs Controlled Experiments
• Hypothesis Test for the Difference of Two Population Proportions
• What Is the Difference Between Alpha and P-Values?
• Null Hypothesis and Alternative Hypothesis
• What Are Examples of a Hypothesis?
• Hypothesis Test Example
• How to Conduct a Hypothesis Test
• What Is a P-Value?
• The Difference Between Type I and Type II Errors in Hypothesis Testing
• Math Article

## Null Hypothesis

In mathematics, Statistics deals with the study of research and surveys on the numerical data. For taking surveys, we have to define the hypothesis. Generally, there are two types of hypothesis. One is a null hypothesis, and another is an alternative hypothesis .

In probability and statistics, the null hypothesis is a comprehensive statement or default status that there is zero happening or nothing happening. For example, there is no connection among groups or no association between two measured events. It is generally assumed here that the hypothesis is true until any other proof has been brought into the light to deny the hypothesis. Let us learn more here with definition, symbol, principle, types and example, in this article.

• Comparison with Alternative Hypothesis

## Null Hypothesis Definition

The null hypothesis is a kind of hypothesis which explains the population parameter whose purpose is to test the validity of the given experimental data. This hypothesis is either rejected or not rejected based on the viability of the given population or sample . In other words, the null hypothesis is a hypothesis in which the sample observations results from the chance. It is said to be a statement in which the surveyors wants to examine the data. It is denoted by H 0 .

## Null Hypothesis Symbol

In statistics, the null hypothesis is usually denoted by letter H with subscript ‘0’ (zero), such that H 0 . It is pronounced as H-null or H-zero or H-nought. At the same time, the alternative hypothesis expresses the observations determined by the non-random cause. It is represented by H 1 or H a .

## Null Hypothesis Principle

The principle followed for null hypothesis testing is, collecting the data and determining the chances of a given set of data during the study on some random sample, assuming that the null hypothesis is true. In case if the given data does not face the expected null hypothesis, then the outcome will be quite weaker, and they conclude by saying that the given set of data does not provide strong evidence against the null hypothesis because of insufficient evidence. Finally, the researchers tend to reject that.

## Null Hypothesis Formula

Here, the hypothesis test formulas are given below for reference.

The formula for the null hypothesis is:

H 0 :  p = p 0

The formula for the alternative hypothesis is:

H a = p >p 0 , < p 0 ≠ p 0

The formula for the test static is:

Remember that,  p 0  is the null hypothesis and p – hat is the sample proportion.

## Types of Null Hypothesis

There are different types of hypothesis. They are:

Simple Hypothesis

It completely specifies the population distribution. In this method, the sampling distribution is the function of the sample size.

Composite Hypothesis

The composite hypothesis is one that does not completely specify the population distribution.

Exact Hypothesis

Exact hypothesis defines the exact value of the parameter. For example μ= 50

Inexact Hypothesis

This type of hypothesis does not define the exact value of the parameter. But it denotes a specific range or interval. For example 45< μ <60

## Null Hypothesis Rejection

Sometimes the null hypothesis is rejected too. If this hypothesis is rejected means, that research could be invalid. Many researchers will neglect this hypothesis as it is merely opposite to the alternate hypothesis. It is a better practice to create a hypothesis and test it. The goal of researchers is not to reject the hypothesis. But it is evident that a perfect statistical model is always associated with the failure to reject the null hypothesis.

## How do you Find the Null Hypothesis?

The null hypothesis says there is no correlation between the measured event (the dependent variable) and the independent variable. We don’t have to believe that the null hypothesis is true to test it. On the contrast, you will possibly assume that there is a connection between a set of variables ( dependent and independent).

## When is Null Hypothesis Rejected?

The null hypothesis is rejected using the P-value approach. If the P-value is less than or equal to the α, there should be a rejection of the null hypothesis in favour of the alternate hypothesis. In case, if P-value is greater than α, the null hypothesis is not rejected.

## Null Hypothesis and Alternative Hypothesis

Now, let us discuss the difference between the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis.

## Null Hypothesis Examples

Here, some of the examples of the null hypothesis are given below. Go through the below ones to understand the concept of the null hypothesis in a better way.

If a medicine reduces the risk of cardiac stroke, then the null hypothesis should be “the medicine does not reduce the chance of cardiac stroke”. This testing can be performed by the administration of a drug to a certain group of people in a controlled way. If the survey shows that there is a significant change in the people, then the hypothesis is rejected.

Few more examples are:

1). Are there is 100% chance of getting affected by dengue?

Ans: There could be chances of getting affected by dengue but not 100%.

2). Do teenagers are using mobile phones more than grown-ups to access the internet?

Ans: Age has no limit on using mobile phones to access the internet.

3). Does having apple daily will not cause fever?

Ans: Having apple daily does not assure of not having fever, but increases the immunity to fight against such diseases.

4). Do the children more good in doing mathematical calculations than grown-ups?

Ans: Age has no effect on Mathematical skills.

In many common applications, the choice of the null hypothesis is not automated, but the testing and calculations may be automated. Also, the choice of the null hypothesis is completely based on previous experiences and inconsistent advice. The choice can be more complicated and based on the variety of applications and the diversity of the objectives.

The main limitation for the choice of the null hypothesis is that the hypothesis suggested by the data is based on the reasoning which proves nothing. It means that if some hypothesis provides a summary of the data set, then there would be no value in the testing of the hypothesis on the particular set of data.

## Frequently Asked Questions on Null Hypothesis

What is meant by the null hypothesis.

In Statistics, a null hypothesis is a type of hypothesis which explains the population parameter whose purpose is to test the validity of the given experimental data.

## What are the benefits of hypothesis testing?

Hypothesis testing is defined as a form of inferential statistics, which allows making conclusions from the entire population based on the sample representative.

## When a null hypothesis is accepted and rejected?

The null hypothesis is either accepted or rejected in terms of the given data. If P-value is less than α, then the null hypothesis is rejected in favor of the alternative hypothesis, and if the P-value is greater than α, then the null hypothesis is accepted in favor of the alternative hypothesis.

## Why is the null hypothesis important?

The importance of the null hypothesis is that it provides an approximate description of the phenomena of the given data. It allows the investigators to directly test the relational statement in a research study.

## How to accept or reject the null hypothesis in the chi-square test?

If the result of the chi-square test is bigger than the critical value in the table, then the data does not fit the model, which represents the rejection of the null hypothesis.

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## Null Hypothesis

Null Hypothesis , often denoted as H 0, is a foundational concept in statistical hypothesis testing. It represents an assumption that no significant difference, effect, or relationship exists between variables within a population. It serves as a baseline assumption, positing no observed change or effect occurring. The null is t he truth or falsity of an idea in analysis.

In this article, we will discuss the null hypothesis in detail, along with some solved examples and questions on the null hypothesis.

Table of Content

• What Is a Null Hypothesis?

## Symbol of Null Hypothesis

Formula of null hypothesis, types of null hypothesis, principle of null hypothesis, how do you find null hypothesis, what is a null hypothesis.

Null Hypothesis in statistical analysis suggests the absence of statistical significance within a specific set of observed data. Hypothesis testing, using sample data, evaluates the validity of this hypothesis. Commonly denoted as H 0 or simply “null,” it plays an important role in quantitative analysis, examining theories related to markets, investment strategies, or economies to determine their validity.

## Definition of Null Hypothesis

Null Hypothesis represent a default position, often suggesting no effect or difference, against which researchers compare their experimental results. The Null Hypothesis, often denoted as H 0 , asserts a default assumption in statistical analysis. It posits no significant difference or effect, serving as a baseline for comparison in hypothesis testing.

Null Hypothesis is represented as H 0 , the Null Hypothesis symbolizes the absence of a measurable effect or difference in the variables under examination.

Certainly, a simple example would be asserting that the mean score of a group is equal to a specified value like stating that the average IQ of a population is 100.

The Null Hypothesis is typically formulated as a statement of equality or absence of a specific parameter in the population being studied. It provides a clear and testable prediction for comparison with the alternative hypothesis. The formulation of the Null Hypothesis typically follows a concise structure, stating the equality or absence of a specific parameter in the population.

## Mean Comparison (Two-sample t-test)

H 0 : μ 1 = μ 2

This asserts that there is no significant difference between the means of two populations or groups.

## Proportion Comparison

H 0 : p 1 − p 2 = 0

This suggests no significant difference in proportions between two populations or conditions.

## Equality in Variance (F-test in ANOVA)

H 0 : σ 1 = σ 2

This states that there’s no significant difference in variances between groups or populations.

## Independence (Chi-square Test of Independence):

H 0 : Variables are independent

This asserts that there’s no association or relationship between categorical variables.

Null Hypotheses vary including simple and composite forms, each tailored to the complexity of the research question. Understanding these types is pivotal for effective hypothesis testing.

## Equality Null Hypothesis (Simple Null Hypothesis)

The Equality Null Hypothesis, also known as the Simple Null Hypothesis, is a fundamental concept in statistical hypothesis testing that assumes no difference, effect or relationship between groups, conditions or populations being compared.

## Non-Inferiority Null Hypothesis

In some studies, the focus might be on demonstrating that a new treatment or method is not significantly worse than the standard or existing one.

## Superiority Null Hypothesis

The concept of a superiority null hypothesis comes into play when a study aims to demonstrate that a new treatment, method, or intervention is significantly better than an existing or standard one.

## Independence Null Hypothesis

In certain statistical tests, such as chi-square tests for independence, the null hypothesis assumes no association or independence between categorical variables.

## Homogeneity Null Hypothesis

In tests like ANOVA (Analysis of Variance), the null hypothesis suggests that there’s no difference in population means across different groups.

## Examples of Null Hypothesis

• Medicine: Null Hypothesis: “No significant difference exists in blood pressure levels between patients given the experimental drug versus those given a placebo.”
• Education: Null Hypothesis: “There’s no significant variation in test scores between students using a new teaching method and those using traditional teaching.”
• Economics: Null Hypothesis: “There’s no significant change in consumer spending pre- and post-implementation of a new taxation policy.”
• Environmental Science: Null Hypothesis: “There’s no substantial difference in pollution levels before and after a water treatment plant’s establishment.”

The principle of the null hypothesis is a fundamental concept in statistical hypothesis testing. It involves making an assumption about the population parameter or the absence of an effect or relationship between variables.

In essence, the null hypothesis (H 0 ) proposes that there is no significant difference, effect, or relationship between variables. It serves as a starting point or a default assumption that there is no real change, no effect or no difference between groups or conditions.

## Null Hypothesis Rejection

Rejecting the Null Hypothesis occurs when statistical evidence suggests a significant departure from the assumed baseline. It implies that there is enough evidence to support the alternative hypothesis, indicating a meaningful effect or difference. Null Hypothesis rejection occurs when statistical evidence suggests a deviation from the assumed baseline, prompting a reconsideration of the initial hypothesis.

Identifying the Null Hypothesis involves defining the status quotient, asserting no effect and formulating a statement suitable for statistical analysis.

## When is Null Hypothesis Rejected?

The Null Hypothesis is rejected when statistical tests indicate a significant departure from the expected outcome, leading to the consideration of alternative hypotheses. It occurs when statistical evidence suggests a deviation from the assumed baseline, prompting a reconsideration of the initial hypothesis.

## Null Hypothesis and Alternative Hypothesis

In the realm of hypothesis testing, the null hypothesis (H 0 ) and alternative hypothesis (H₁ or Ha) play critical roles. The null hypothesis generally assumes no difference, effect, or relationship between variables, suggesting that any observed change or effect is due to random chance. Its counterpart, the alternative hypothesis, asserts the presence of a significant difference, effect, or relationship between variables, challenging the null hypothesis. These hypotheses are formulated based on the research question and guide statistical analyses.

## Null Hypothesis vs Alternative Hypothesis

The null hypothesis (H 0 ) serves as the baseline assumption in statistical testing, suggesting no significant effect, relationship, or difference within the data. It often proposes that any observed change or correlation is merely due to chance or random variation. Conversely, the alternative hypothesis (H 1 or Ha) contradicts the null hypothesis, positing the existence of a genuine effect, relationship or difference in the data. It represents the researcher’s intended focus, seeking to provide evidence against the null hypothesis and support for a specific outcome or theory. These hypotheses form the crux of hypothesis testing, guiding the assessment of data to draw conclusions about the population being studied.

## Example of Alternative and Null Hypothesis

Let’s envision a scenario where a researcher aims to examine the impact of a new medication on reducing blood pressure among patients. In this context:

Null Hypothesis (H 0 ): “The new medication does not produce a significant effect in reducing blood pressure levels among patients.”

Alternative Hypothesis (H 1 or Ha): “The new medication yields a significant effect in reducing blood pressure levels among patients.”

The null hypothesis implies that any observed alterations in blood pressure subsequent to the medication’s administration are a result of random fluctuations rather than a consequence of the medication itself. Conversely, the alternative hypothesis contends that the medication does indeed generate a meaningful alteration in blood pressure levels, distinct from what might naturally occur or by random chance.

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## Solved Examples on Null Hypothesis

Example 1: A researcher claims that the average time students spend on homework is 2 hours per night.

Null Hypothesis (H 0 ): The average time students spend on homework is equal to 2 hours per night. Data: A random sample of 30 students has an average homework time of 1.8 hours with a standard deviation of 0.5 hours. Test Statistic and Decision: Using a t-test, if the calculated t-statistic falls within the acceptance region, we fail to reject the null hypothesis. If it falls in the rejection region, we reject the null hypothesis. Conclusion: Based on the statistical analysis, we fail to reject the null hypothesis, suggesting that there is not enough evidence to dispute the claim of the average homework time being 2 hours per night.

Example 2: A company asserts that the error rate in its production process is less than 1%.

Null Hypothesis (H 0 ): The error rate in the production process is 1% or higher. Data: A sample of 500 products shows an error rate of 0.8%. Test Statistic and Decision: Using a z-test, if the calculated z-statistic falls within the acceptance region, we fail to reject the null hypothesis. If it falls in the rejection region, we reject the null hypothesis. Conclusion: The statistical analysis supports rejecting the null hypothesis, indicating that there is enough evidence to dispute the company’s claim of an error rate of 1% or higher.

## Null Hypothesis – Practice Problems

Q1. A researcher claims that the average time spent by students on homework is less than 2 hours per day. Formulate the null hypothesis for this claim?

Q2. A manufacturing company states that their new machine produces widgets with a defect rate of less than 5%. Write the null hypothesis to test this claim?

Q3. An educational institute believes that their online course completion rate is at least 60%. Develop the null hypothesis to validate this assertion?

Q4. A restaurant claims that the waiting time for customers during peak hours is not more than 15 minutes. Formulate the null hypothesis for this claim?

Q5. A study suggests that the mean weight loss after following a specific diet plan for a month is more than 8 pounds. Construct the null hypothesis to evaluate this statement?

## Null Hypothesis – Frequently Asked Questions

How to form a null hypothesis.

A null hypothesis is formed based on the assumption that there is no significant difference or effect between the groups being compared or no association between variables being tested. It often involves stating that there is no relationship, no change, or no effect in the population being studied.

## When Do we reject the Null Hypothesis?

In statistical hypothesis testing, if the p-value (the probability of obtaining the observed results) is lower than the chosen significance level (commonly 0.05), we reject the null hypothesis. This suggests that the data provides enough evidence to refute the assumption made in the null hypothesis.

## What is a Null Hypothesis in Research?

In research, the null hypothesis represents the default assumption or position that there is no significant difference or effect. Researchers often try to test this hypothesis by collecting data and performing statistical analyses to see if the observed results contradict the assumption.

## What Are Alternative and Null Hypotheses?

The null hypothesis (H0) is the default assumption that there is no significant difference or effect. The alternative hypothesis (H1 or Ha) is the opposite, suggesting there is a significant difference, effect or relationship.

## What Does it Mean to Reject the Null Hypothesis?

Rejecting the null hypothesis implies that there is enough evidence in the data to support the alternative hypothesis. In simpler terms, it suggests that there might be a significant difference, effect or relationship between the groups or variables being studied.

## How to Find Null Hypothesis?

Formulating a null hypothesis often involves considering the research question and assuming that no difference or effect exists. It should be a statement that can be tested through data collection and statistical analysis, typically stating no relationship or no change between variables or groups.

## How is Null Hypothesis denoted?

The null hypothesis is commonly symbolized as H 0 in statistical notation.

## What is the Purpose of the Null hypothesis in Statistical Analysis?

The null hypothesis serves as a starting point for hypothesis testing, enabling researchers to assess if there’s enough evidence to reject it in favor of an alternative hypothesis.

## What happens if we Reject the Null hypothesis?

Rejecting the null hypothesis implies that there is sufficient evidence to support an alternative hypothesis, suggesting a significant effect or relationship between variables.

## Is it Possible to Prove the Null Hypothesis?

No, statistical testing aims to either reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis based on evidence from sample data. It does not prove the null hypothesis to be true.

## What are Test for Null Hypothesis?

Various statistical tests, such as t-tests or chi-square tests, are employed to evaluate the validity of the Null Hypothesis in different scenarios.

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1. 13 Different Types of Hypothesis (2024)

2. Null hypothesis

3. null vs research hypothesis Data Science Learning, Social Science

4. Null Hypothesis

5. Null Hypothesis and Alternative Hypothesis

6. Examples of the Null Hypothesis

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1. What is Hypothesis #hypothesis

2. Hypothesis Testing

3. 1.5. Hypothesis statement

4. Testing of Hypothesis,Null, alternative hypothesis, type-I & -II Error etc @VATAMBEDUSRAVANKUMAR

5. HYPOTHESIS || M.Ed. || M.A(Education) || UGCNET || Education Academy

6. Writing Hypothesis Statements

1. How to Write a Null Hypothesis (5 Examples)

Whenever we perform a hypothesis test, we always write a null hypothesis and an alternative hypothesis, which take the following forms: H0 (Null Hypothesis): Population parameter =, ≤, ≥ some value. HA (Alternative Hypothesis): Population parameter <, >, ≠ some value. Note that the null hypothesis always contains the equal sign.

2. Null & Alternative Hypotheses

The null and alternative hypotheses offer competing answers to your research question. When the research question asks "Does the independent variable affect the dependent variable?": The null hypothesis ( H0) answers "No, there's no effect in the population.". The alternative hypothesis ( Ha) answers "Yes, there is an effect in the ...

3. 5.2

Alternative Hypothesis. The statement that there is some difference in the population (s), denoted as H a or H 1. When writing hypotheses there are three things that we need to know: (1) the parameter that we are testing (2) the direction of the test (non-directional, right-tailed or left-tailed), and (3) the value of the hypothesized parameter.

4. How to Write a Strong Hypothesis

6. Write a null hypothesis. If your research involves statistical hypothesis testing, you will also have to write a null hypothesis. The null hypothesis is the default position that there is no association between the variables. The null hypothesis is written as H 0, while the alternative hypothesis is H 1 or H a.

5. How to Write a Null Hypothesis (with Examples and Templates)

Use statistical methods on collected data to test the null hypothesis. Collect and organize your data, then choose a good statistical method to test it. There are many different methods used to analyze data—these are some of the simplest and most common: [5] X Research source.

6. Null Hypothesis: Definition, Rejecting & Examples

How to Write a Null Hypothesis. The null hypothesis varies by the type of statistic and hypothesis test. Remember that inferential statistics use samples to draw conclusions about populations. Consequently, when you write a null hypothesis, it must make a claim about the relevant population parameter. Further, that claim usually indicates that ...

7. How to Write a Hypothesis in 6 Steps, With Examples

4 Alternative hypothesis. An alternative hypothesis, abbreviated as H 1 or H A, is used in conjunction with a null hypothesis. It states the opposite of the null hypothesis, so that one and only one must be true. Examples: Plants grow better with bottled water than tap water. Professional psychics win the lottery more than other people. 5 ...

8. 9.1: Null and Alternative Hypotheses

Review. In a hypothesis test, sample data is evaluated in order to arrive at a decision about some type of claim.If certain conditions about the sample are satisfied, then the claim can be evaluated for a population. In a hypothesis test, we: Evaluate the null hypothesis, typically denoted with $$H_{0}$$.The null is not rejected unless the hypothesis test shows otherwise.

9. Hypothesis Testing

Table of contents. Step 1: State your null and alternate hypothesis. Step 2: Collect data. Step 3: Perform a statistical test. Step 4: Decide whether to reject or fail to reject your null hypothesis. Step 5: Present your findings. Other interesting articles. Frequently asked questions about hypothesis testing.

10. How to Write a Strong Hypothesis

Step 5: Phrase your hypothesis in three ways. To identify the variables, you can write a simple prediction in if … then form. The first part of the sentence states the independent variable and the second part states the dependent variable. If a first-year student starts attending more lectures, then their exam scores will improve.

11. Null & Alternative Hypotheses

In research, there are two types of hypotheses: null and alternative. They work as a complementary pair, each stating that the other is wrong. Null Hypothesis (H0) - This can be thought of as the implied hypothesis. "Null" meaning "nothing.". This hypothesis states that there is no difference between groups or no relationship between ...

12. Null Hypothesis Definition and Examples, How to State

Step 1: Figure out the hypothesis from the problem. The hypothesis is usually hidden in a word problem, and is sometimes a statement of what you expect to happen in the experiment. The hypothesis in the above question is "I expect the average recovery period to be greater than 8.2 weeks.". Step 2: Convert the hypothesis to math.

13. 7.3: The Research Hypothesis and the Null Hypothesis

The Research Hypothesis. A research hypothesis is a mathematical way of stating a research question. A research hypothesis names the groups (we'll start with a sample and a population), what was measured, and which we think will have a higher mean. The last one gives the research hypothesis a direction. In other words, a research hypothesis ...

14. Examples of null and alternative hypotheses

It is the opposite of your research hypothesis. The alternative hypothesis--that is, the research hypothesis--is the idea, phenomenon, observation that you want to prove. If you suspect that girls take longer to get ready for school than boys, then: Alternative: girls time > boys time. Null: girls time <= boys time.

15. Null and Alternative Hypotheses

The null and alternative hypotheses are two competing claims that researchers weigh evidence for and against using a statistical test: Null hypothesis (H0): There's no effect in the population. Alternative hypothesis (HA): There's an effect in the population. The effect is usually the effect of the independent variable on the dependent ...

16. 9.1 Null and Alternative Hypotheses

The actual test begins by considering two hypotheses.They are called the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis.These hypotheses contain opposing viewpoints. H 0, the —null hypothesis: a statement of no difference between sample means or proportions or no difference between a sample mean or proportion and a population mean or proportion. In other words, the difference equals 0.

17. What Is The Null Hypothesis & When To Reject It

A null hypothesis is rejected if the measured data is significantly unlikely to have occurred and a null hypothesis is accepted if the observed outcome is consistent with the position held by the null hypothesis. Rejecting the null hypothesis sets the stage for further experimentation to see if a relationship between two variables exists.

18. Null and Alternative Hypotheses

The null statement must always contain some form of equality (=, ≤ or ≥) Always write the alternative hypothesis, typically denoted with H a or H 1, using less than, greater than, or not equals symbols, i.e., (≠, >, or <). If we reject the null hypothesis, then we can assume there is enough evidence to support the alternative hypothesis.

19. Null Hypothesis Definition and Examples

Null Hypothesis Examples. "Hyperactivity is unrelated to eating sugar " is an example of a null hypothesis. If the hypothesis is tested and found to be false, using statistics, then a connection between hyperactivity and sugar ingestion may be indicated. A significance test is the most common statistical test used to establish confidence in a ...

20. Writing null and alternative hypotheses

Writing null and alternative hypotheses. A ketchup company regularly receives large shipments of tomatoes. For each shipment that is received, a supervisor takes a random sample of 500 tomatoes to see what percent of the sample is bruised and performs a significance test. If the sample shows convincing evidence that more than 10 % of the entire ...

21. How to write a hypothesis in 5 steps (with examples)

5. Write a null hypothesis. The final step to forming a hypothesis is writing a null hypothesis. This step is essential if your research project involves statistical hypothesis testing because it's an additional prediction that says there's no relationship between the two variables that you want to test. Here's an example of a null hypothesis:

22. Examples of the Null Hypothesis

The null hypothesis—which assumes that there is no meaningful relationship between two variables—may be the most valuable hypothesis for the scientific method because it is the easiest to test using a statistical analysis. This means you can support your hypothesis with a high level of confidence. Testing the null hypothesis can tell you whether your results are due to the effect of ...

23. Null Hypothesis

The null hypothesis is rejected using the P-value approach. If the P-value is less than or equal to the α, there should be a rejection of the null hypothesis in favour of the alternate hypothesis. In case, if P-value is greater than α, the null hypothesis is not rejected. Null Hypothesis and Alternative Hypothesis

24. Null Hypothesis

Null Hypothesis. Null Hypothesis, often denoted as H0, is a foundational concept in statistical hypothesis testing. It represents an assumption that no significant difference, effect, or relationship exists between variables within a population. It serves as a baseline assumption, positing no observed change or effect occurring.