We've launched our redesigned Learning Commons website. Our former site remains available until 12/16/2022.
Early Childhood Education
- Curriculum and lesson planning
- Research tools
- Annotated bibliography & literature review
- APA References
- Building a career
An annotated bibliography is a list of sources (articles, books, webpages, etc.) on your research topic.
Each source has its own entry, which includes:
- A citation or reference for the source--usually APA for early childhood education courses.
- An annotation: a paragraph summarizing the source and commenting on how it fits into the world of information on your topic.
- Annotated bibliography: APA sample Open the above document in a new tab or window.
What to include
Professors who assign annotated bibliographies sometimes have specific requirements for:
- The number of sources to include.
- The type of sources to include (i.e. journal articles, webpages, encyclopedia entries, etc.)
- The information to include in the annotation.
Make sure you understand the requirements of your assignment, and get help from a librarian.
Definition: Like an annotated bibliography, a literature review is a paper or section of a paper that reviews what's already been published on your research topic.
Unlike an annotated bibliography, a literature review is written in a standard paper format, with citations grouped together on the last page.
Literature review: a scholarly conversation
Some people think of literature review as being like a party where there are lots of conversations happening at once.
Here's a 2-minute video illustrating this metaphor:
Your literature review is an overview of all the conversations going on at the party, highlighting where guests agree and disagree, and what questions are still unanswered.
- Literature Review Example Open the above document in a new tab or window.
- Find the literature review in this article Schmitt, W. S., & Faas, C. (2016). Alignment of Educational and Occupational Expectations Influences on Young Adult Educational Attainment, Income, and Underemploymentpass:[*]. Social Science Quarterly (Wiley-Blackwell), 97(5), 1174–1188. https://doi-org.libdb.dccc.edu/10.1111/ssqu.12244
Parts of a research article
In general, the parts of a primary research article should include:
- Abstract : Summary of the research question and findings.
- Introduction : Overview of the context of the research question, including literature review.
- Materials/Methods : Description of the method used to collect data.
- Results : Analysis of data and outcomes of the study.
- Discussion : Description of how the results answer or don't answer the research question.
- Conclusion : Summary, significance of research.
- References : Research papers and other information sources that were referenced in the article, most prominently in the Introduction/Literature review.
Typically these sections are usually called out with headings throughout the article.
Look for these sections in the article above to help you understand the information and its purpose in each section.
Still lost? Find help from a librarian in the Learning Commons.
Tools for organizing ideas
These tools may help you organize ideas from various sources thematically.
- NCSU Lit Review Matrix Need help getting started? Here's a useful guide from North Carolina State University with guidance on how to read and organize your thoughts for a literature review.
- Transitional words and phrases A giant list of words that will jump start your thinking on comparing and contrasting ideas from outside sources.
- << Previous: Research tools
- Next: APA References >>
- Last Updated: Sep 21, 2023 9:35 AM
- URL: https://learningcommons.dccc.edu/ECE
Education - Early Childhood Education
- Physical education
- Social Studies
- English language learners
- Learning environments
- Outdoor education
- Play-based learning
- Language arts
- Picture books for science
- Picture books for math
- Picture books without words
- Picture books in rhyme
- Picture books in song
- Picture Books in French
- Picture books - for character education
- Picture books about writing
- Alphabet books
- Early readers
- Pia's Picks
- Encyclopedias & Dictionaries
- Journal Browsing
- Journal Article & Database Searching
- Books & Catalogue Searching
- Research Books by Topic
- Help Videos
- Citation Help
- Literature Reviews
- Projects, Theses & Dissertations
- Related Library Guides
- Literature reviews
- Encyclopedias & Dictionaries
- Projects, Theses & Dissertations
Library Search - Search all UVic resources
Search for Books and eBooks
What is a literature review?
You can find many help videos on how to do a literature review available through youtube. This one by North Carolina State University is particularly good.
You have likely heard your instructors or supervisors using the following terms. So that you know the difference between each concept, consider the following definitions taken from ODLIS: The Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science (2013), edited by Librarian Joan Reitz at Western Conneticut State University.
Literature Review: "A comprehensive survey of the works published in a particular field of study or line of research, usually over a specific period of time, in the form of an in-depth, criticalbibliographic essay or annotated list in which attention is drawn to the most significant works." ( The Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science )
Literature Search: "An exhaustive search for published information on a subject conducted systematically using all available bibliographic finding tools, aimed at locating as much existing material on the topic as possible, an important initial step in any serious research project." ( The Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science )
Systematic Review: "A literature review focused on a specific research question, which uses explicit methods to minimize bias in the identification, appraisal, selection, and synthesis of all the high-quality evidence pertinent to the question. Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials are so important to evidence-based medicine that an understanding of them is mandatory for professionals involved in biomedical research and health care delivery. Although many biomedical and healthcare journals publish systematic reviews, one of the best-known sources is The Cochrane Collaboration, a group of over 15,000 volunteer specialists who systematically review randomized trials of the effects of treatments and other research." ( The Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science )
Bibliography: "Strictly speaking, a systematic list or enumeration of written works by a specific author or on a given subject, or that share one or more common characteristics (language, form, period, place of publication, etc.). When a bibliography is about a person, the subject is the bibliographee. A bibliography may be comprehensive orselective. Long bibliographies may be published serially or in book form...In the context of scholarly publication, a list of references to sources cited in the text of an article or book, or suggested by the author for further reading, usually appearing at the end of the work. Style manuals describing citation format for the various disciplines (APA, MLA, etc.) are available." ( The Online Dictionary for Library and Information Scienc e)
Annotated Bibliography: "A bibliography in which a brief explanatory or evaluative note is added to each reference or citation. An annotation can be helpful to the researcher in evaluating whether the source is relevant to a given topic or line of inquiry." (The Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science)
Critical Annotation: "In a bibliography or list of references, an annotation that includes a brief evaluation of the source cited, as opposed to one in which the content of the work is described, explained, or summarized." (The Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science)
Citation: "In the literary sense, any written or spoken reference to an authority or precedent or to the verbatim words of another speaker or writer. In library usage, a written reference to a specific work or portion of a work (book, article, dissertation, report, musical composition, etc.) produced by a particular author, editor, composer, etc., clearly identifying the document in which the work is to be found. The frequency with which a work is cited is sometimes considered a measure of its importance in theliterature of the field. Citation format varies from one field of study to another but includes at a minimum author, title, and publication date. An incomplete citation can make a source difficult, if not impossible, to locate." ( The Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science ).
- << Previous: Citation Help
- Next: Projects, Theses & Dissertations >>
- Last Updated: Jul 21, 2023 1:06 PM
- URL: https://libguides.uvic.ca/earlychildhood
- Published: 11 November 2023
Trauma-Informed Care in Early Childhood Education Settings: A Scoping Literature Review
- Mia Chudzik ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0003-3640-2231 1 ,
- Catherine Corr 1 &
- Rosa Milagros Santos 1
Early Childhood Education Journal ( 2023 ) Cite this article
Children ages birth to five experience trauma at high rates. Additionally, children with disabilities are more likely to experience trauma than children without disabilities, highlighting the need for early childhood education (ECE) settings and professionals to be prepared to support children with disabilities who have experienced trauma. In this scoping literature review, we sought to explore the current knowledge base on trauma-informed care in ECE settings to identify what is known and potential gaps in the literature. We found 20 articles that discuss trauma-informed care in ECE settings and summarize the key findings from the literature, including that few studies have focused on children with disabilities. We describe several implications for research related to trauma-informed care.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution .
Buy single article.
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT (Russian Federation)
Rent this article via DeepDyve.
Arata, C. M., Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J., Bowers, D., & O’Farrill-Swails, L. (2005). Single versus multi-type maltreatment: An examination of the long-term effects of child abuse. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 11 (4), 29–52. https://doi.org/10.1300/J146v11n04_02
Article Google Scholar
Avery, J. C., Morris, H., Galvin, E., Misso, M., Savaglio, M., & Skouteris, H. (2021). Systematic review of school-wide trauma-informed approaches. Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma, 14, , 381-397. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40653-020-00321-1
Bailey, B. A. (2011). The theoretical and scientific basis of Conscious Discipline®. https://consciousdiscipline.com
*Bartlett, J. D., & Smith, S. (2019). The role of early care and education in addressing early childhood trauma. American Journal of Community Psychology, 64 (3–4), 359–372. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajcp.12380
*Chudzik, M., Corr, C., & Wolowiec-Fisher, K. (2022). Trauma: early childhood special education teachers’ attitudes and experiences. Early Childhood Education Journal . https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-021-01302-1
Cole S. F., Eisner, A., Gregory, M., & Ristuccia, J. (2013). C reating and advocating for trauma-sensitive schools. Massachusetts Advocates for Children. http://www.traumasensitiveschools.com
Corr, C., Snodgrass, M. R., Love, H., Scott, I. M., Kim, J., & Andrews, L. (2021). Exploring the landscape of published mixed methods research in special education: A systematic review. Remedial and Special Education, 42 (5), 317–328. https://doi.org/10.1177/0741932520924030
National Association for the Education of Young Children. (2020). Developmentally Appropriate Practice. [Position Statement]. https://www.naeyc.org/sites/default/files/globally-shared/downloads/PDFs/resources/position-statements/dap-statement_0.pdf
Division for Early Childhood. (2016). Child Maltreatment: A position statement of the Division for Early Childhood [Position Statement]. Retrieved from http://www.dec-sped.org/single-post/2016/10/28/DECs-Position-Statement-on-Child-Maltreatment—Taking-a-Stand
*Douglass, A., Chickerella, R., & Maroney, M. (2021). Becoming trauma-informed: A case study of early educator professional development and organizational change. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 42 (2), 182–202. https://doi.org/10.1080/10901027.2021.1918296
Dube, S. R., Felitti, V. J., Dong, M., Chapman, D. P., Giles, W. H., & Anda, R. F. (2003). Childhood abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction and the risk of illicit drug use: The adverse childhood experiences study. Pediatrics, 111 (3), 564–572. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.111.3.564
*DuBois, A. L. (2010). An inquiry of the lived experiences and contextual understandings of early childhood special educators related to children’s trauma. (Publication No. 3427789). [Doctoral dissertation, Duquesne University]. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.
Eigsti, I., & Cicchetti, D. (2004). The impact of child maltreatment on expressive syntax at 60 months. Developmental Science, 7 (1), 88–102. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2004.00325.x
Elo, S., & Kyngäs, H. (2008). The qualitative content analysis process. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 62 (1), 107-115. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2007.04569.x
Felitti, V. J., Anda, R. F., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D. F., Spitz, A. M., Edwards, V., Moss, M. P., & Marks, J. S. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14 , 245–258. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0749-3797(98)00017-8
Hemmeter, M. L., Ostrosky, M. M., & Fox, L. (2021). Unpacking the Pyramid Model . Brookes Publishing.
*Holmes, C., Levy, M., Smith, A., Pinne, S., & Neese, P. (2015). A model for creating a supportive trauma-informed culture for children in preschool settings. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24 (6), 1650–1659. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-014-9968-6
Jimenez, M. E., Wade, R., Lin, Y., Morrow, L. M., & Reichman, N. E. (2016). Adverse experiences in early childhood and kindergarten outcomes. Pediatrics, 137 (2), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2015-1839
Jones, L., Bellis, M. A., Wood, S., Hughes, K., McCoy, E., Eckley, L., & Ofcer, A. (2012). Prevalence and risk of violence against children with disabilities: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Lancet, 380 , 899–907. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(12)60692-8
Larson, S. A., & Anderson, L. (2006). Children with disabilities and the child welfare system: Prevalence data. Impact Feature Issue on Children with Disabilities in the Child Welfare System, 19 (1), 6–7.
*Lombardi, C. (2019). Early childhood teacher perspectives regarding preparedness to teach children experiencing trauma . (Publication No. 27672548). [Doctoral dissertation, Walden University]. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.
*Loomis, A. (2018). The role of preschool as a point of intervention and prevention for trauma-exposed children: Recommendations for practice, policy, and research. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 38 (3), 134-145. https://doi.org/10.1177/0271121418789254
*Loomis, A. M., & Felt, F. (2021). Knowledge, skills, and self-reflection: Linking trauma training content to trauma-informed attitudes and stress in preschool teachers and staff. School Mental Health, 13 , 101–113. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12310-020-09394-7
*Lipscomb, S. T., Hatfield, B., Lewis, H., Goka-Dubose, E., & Fisher, P. A. (2019). Strengthening children’s roots of resilience: Trauma-responsive early learning. Children and Youth Services Review, 107 , 104510. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2019.104510
*Martin, C. P., Russo, J., Goldenthal, H., Holley, C., Gouze, K. R., & Williford, A. (2021). Supporting young children exposed to potentially traumatic events: Implications for early care and education policy. Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 8 (2), 119–126. https://doi.org/10.1177/23727322211033880
McDermott, B., Berry, H., & Cobham, V. (2012). Social connectedness: A potential aetiological factor in the development of child post-traumatic stress disorder. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 46 (2), 109–117. https://doi.org/10.1177/0004867411433950
Mersky, J. P., Topitzes, J., & Reynolds, A. J. (2013). Impacts of adverse childhood experiences on health, mental health, and substance use in early adulthood: A cohort study of an urban, minority sample in the U.S. Child Abuse and Neglect, 37 , 917–925. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2013.07.011
Miller, D., & Santos, R. M. (2020). The characteristics among maltreatment, special education service delivery, and personnel preparation. The Journal of Special Education, 53 (4), 216-225. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022466919836278
Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., Altman, D. G., PRISMA Group. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement. Annals of Internal Medicine, 151 (4), 264–269. https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-151-4-200908180-00135
*Montgomery, J. (2020). Trauma-informed care: The perceptions of Head Start teachers. (Publication No. 28001681). [Doctoral dissertation, California State University]. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.
*Mortensen, J. A., & Barnett, M. A. (2016). The role of child care in supporting the emotion regulatory needs of maltreated infants and toddlers. Children and Youth Services Review, 64 , 73–81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2016.03.004
National Child Traumatic Stress Network, Schools Committee. (2017). Creating, supporting, and sustaining trauma-informed schools: A system framework. Los Angeles, CA, and Durham, NC: National Center for Child Traumatic Stress.
*Pantry, J. S. (2020). Trauma-informed teacher preparedness in early childhood programs serving students from low-income families exposed to adverse traumatic experiences: A qualitative phenomenological study. (Publication No. 28258945). [Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University]. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.
Pears, K., Fisher, P., Bruce, J., Kim, H., & Yoerger, K. (2010). Early elementary school adjustment of maltreated children in foster care: The roles of inhibitory control and caregiver involvement. Child Development, 81 (5), 1550–1564. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01491.x
*Pusakulich, A. L. (2020). The perceptions of early childhood professionals regarding identifications of developmental trauma and training needs in trauma informed practices: a qualitative case study. (Publication No. 28090115). [Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University]. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.
*Reynaga, J. (2020). Creating a trauma-informed early childhood workforce in Los Angeles County: Understanding the self-reported impact of a TIC training program . (Publication No. 28094539). [Doctoral dissertation, University of Southern California]. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.
*Saint Gilles, M. P. (2016). A pilot study of the effects of a trauma supplement intervention on agency attitudes, classroom climate, head start teacher practices, and student trauma-related symptomology. (Publication No. 10244457). [Doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University]. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.
Saldaña, J. (2021). The coding manual for qualitative researchers (4th ed.). SAGE.
*Sciaraffa, M. A., Zeanah, P. D., & Zeanah, C. H. (2018). Understanding and promoting resilience in the context of adverse childhood experiences. Early Childhood Education Journal, 46 (3), 343–353. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-017-0869-3
Sedlak, A. J., Mettenburg, J., Basena, M., Peta, I., McPherson, K., & Greene, A. (2010). Fourth national incidence study of child abuse and neglect (NIS-4) . Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services, 9, 2010.
*Stegall, E. A. (2020) . Trauma-informed teaching in the early childhood classroom: Teachers’ perspectives on supporting students exposed to trauma. (Publication No. 28025814). [Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University]. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2014). SAMHSA’s concept of trauma and guidance for a trauma-informed approach. https://ncsacw.samhsa.gov/userfiles/files/SAMHSA_Trauma.pdf
Sullivan, P. M., & Knutson, J. F. (2000). Maltreatment and disabilities: A population-based epidemiological study. Child Abuse and Neglect, 24 (10), 1257–1273. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134(00)00190-3
Thomas, M. S., Crosby, S., & Vanderhaar, J. (2019). Trauma-informed practices in schools across two decades: An interdisciplinary review of research. Review of Research in Education, 43 (1), 422-452. https://doi.org/10.3102/0091732X18821123
van der Kolk, B. A. (2005). Developmental trauma disorder: Toward a rational diagnosis for children with complex trauma histories. Psychiatric Annals, 35 (5), 401–408. https://doi.org/10.3928/00485713-20050501-06
VERBI Software. (2021). MAXQDA 2022 [computer software]. VERBI Software. maxqda.com.
*Waddell, P. J. (2020). Teachers’ perceptions of toxic stress and classroom practices they use with young children. (Publication No. 28262191). [Doctoral dissertation, Walden University]. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.
Wassink-de Stigter, R., Kooijmans, R., Asselman, M. W., Offerman, E. C. P., Nelen, W., & Helmond, P. (2022). Facilitators and barriers in the implementation of trauma-informed approaches in schools: A scoping review. School Mental Health, 14 (3), 470-484. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12310-021-09496-w
*Whitaker, R. C., Herman, A. N., Dearth-Wesley, T., Smith, H. G., Burnim, S. B., Myers, E. L., Saunders, A. M., & Kainz, K. (2019). Effect of a trauma-awareness course on teachers’ perceptions of conflict with preschool-aged children from low-income urban households. JAMA Network Open, 2 (4), e193193. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3193
Zetlin, A. (2006). The experiences of foster children and youth in special education. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 31 (3), 161–169. https://doi.org/10.1080/13668250600847039
Authors and affiliations.
Department of Special Education, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, 1310 S 6Th St, Champaign, IL, 61820, USA
Mia Chudzik, Catherine Corr & Rosa Milagros Santos
You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar
Correspondence to Mia Chudzik .
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Rights and permissions
Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.
Reprints and Permissions
About this article
Cite this article.
Chudzik, M., Corr, C. & Santos, R.M. Trauma-Informed Care in Early Childhood Education Settings: A Scoping Literature Review. Early Childhood Educ J (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-023-01596-3
Accepted : 09 October 2023
Published : 11 November 2023
DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-023-01596-3
Share this article
Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:
Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article.
Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative
- Trauma-informed care
- Early childhood
- Find a journal
- Publish with us
- Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Performance Framework
- Australian Mesothelioma Registry
- GEN Aged Care Data
- Housing data
- Indigenous Mental Health and Suicide Prevention Clearinghouse
- Metadata Online Registry (METEOR)
- Regional Insights for Indigenous Communities
- Help & tools
- Increase text size
- Decrease text size
Literature review of the impact of early childhood education and care on learning and development
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2015) Literature review of the impact of early childhood education and care on learning and development , AIHW, Australian Government, accessed 13 November 2023.
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2015). Literature review of the impact of early childhood education and care on learning and development . Canberra: AIHW.
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Literature review of the impact of early childhood education and care on learning and development . AIHW, 2015.
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Literature review of the impact of early childhood education and care on learning and development. Canberra: AIHW; 2015.
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2015, Literature review of the impact of early childhood education and care on learning and development , AIHW, Canberra.
Get citations as an Endnote file : Endnote
PDF | 1.4Mb
Early childhood education and care is a key priority for the Australian Government in recognition that ECEC programs play a vital role in the development of Australian children and their preparation for school, and enabling parents to work. This review explores the literature on the complex relationship between attendance at early childhood education and care programs and developmental outcomes for children.
- ISBN: 978-1-74249-818-8
- Cat. no: CWS 53
During the past three decades, extensive literature has accumulated on the early years of life for children. Research findings unequivocally agree that these years are a critical period of intense learning for children which provides the foundation for later academic and social success. This review explores the literature on the complex relationship between developmental outcomes and attendance at early childhood education and care programs.
0–3 years: within a child care setting
- Attendance at child care in the first 3 years of life has no strong effects on cognitive and language development for children who are not disadvantaged at home, provided child care is of a high quality (CCCH 2007).
- Quality is key: poor quality child care was found to produce deficits in language and cognitive function for young children (Productivity Commission 2014).
- Studies on the impact of quantity of child care for 0–3 year olds were inconclusive. Some studies reported better intellectual development, improved independence and improved concentration and sociability at school entry; other studies reported lower-rated learning abilities and an elevated risk of developing antisocial behaviour in the future (Sammons et al. 2012; Sylva et al. 2010).
- Other reported benefits of attendance at high-quality child care include less impulsivity, more advanced expressive vocabulary, and greater reported social competence (Belsky et al. 2007).
- Children from disadvantaged backgrounds show the greatest gains from attending high-quality child care (Elliott 2006; Moore 2006).
3–5 years: within a preschool setting
- Stand-alone preschools and day care with preschool programs were both reported to promote cognitive and social development benefits, with evidence of improved performance in standardised tests in the early years of primary school (Warren & Haisken-DeNew 2013).
- Number of months of attendance at preschool is related to better intellectual development and improved independence, concentration and sociability (Sammons et al. 2012).
- Full-time attendance at preschool led to no more significant gains than part-time attendance (Sammons et al. 2012).
- Longitudinal studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of high-quality, focused preschool programs in reducing the effects of social disadvantage, developing children’s social competency and emotional health, and preparing children for a successful transition to school. Benefits were optimised when children from different social backgrounds attended the same preschool program (Sylva et al. 2004).
- Children living in disadvantaged communities, those not proficient in English, and Indigenous children were identified as particularly vulnerable and most likely to benefit from high-quality preschool programs (Baxter & Hand 2013; Hewitt & Walter 2014).
- Programs aimed at increasing the attendance of these vulnerable children at preschool programs need to be culturally sensitive (Harrison et al. 2012; Mann et al. 2011).
PDF report table of contents
- 0-3 years: within a child care setting
- 3-5 years: within a preschool setting
- Priority areas for government
- Growth in child care: Government assistance and workforce participation
- Measuring developmental outcomes: The Australian Early Development Census (AEDC)
- Cost benefit of ECEC
- International cost-benefit research
- Australian cost-benefit research
- Conceptual approach and criteria for including studies
- Key research questions
Does the quality of ECEC affect developmental outcomes?
- What is quality in ECEC?
- Age-related benefits of ECEC
- For children aged 0-3 years
- Children 3 years and older
Does the quantity of ECEC affect developmental outcomes?
- For children 3 years and older
Which groups of children benefit most from exposure to ECEC?
- Indigenous children
- Socially disadvantaged children
- Children from non-English speaking backgrounds
- What we don't know: key areas for further research
End matter: Acknowledgments; Abbreviations; References
We'd love to know any feedback that you have about the AIHW website, its contents or reports.
The browser you are using to browse this website is outdated and some features may not display properly or be accessible to you. Please use a more recent browser for the best user experience.
- Help & FAQ
Early childhood science education from 0 to 6: a literature review
Research output : Contribution to journal › Review Article › Research › peer-review
Over the past three decades, our understanding of science learning in early childhood has improved exponentially and today we have a strong empirically based understanding of science experiences for children aged three to six years. However, our understanding of science learning as it occurs for children from birth to three years, is limited. We do not know enough about how scientific thinking develops across the first years of life. Identifying what we do know about science experiences for our youngest learners within the birth to three period specifically, is critical. This paper reviews the literature, and for the first time includes children in the birth to three period. The results are contextualised through a broader review of early childhood science education for children aged from birth to six years. Findings illustrated that the empirical research on science concept formation in the early years, has focused primarily, on children aged three to six years. The tendency of research to examine the process of concept formation in the birth to three period is also highlighted. A lack of empirical understanding of science concept formation in children from birth to three is evident. The eminent need for research in science in infancy–toddlerhood is highlighted.
- Early childhood
- Literature review
- Science education
Access to Document
- 10.3390/educsci11040178 Licence: CC BY
- 338436408-oa Final published version, 529 KB Licence: CC BY
Other files and links
- Link to publication in Scopus
Projects per year
Science and engineering concept formation in homes and playbased settings
Australian Research Council (ARC)
19/03/19 → 19/03/24
Project : Research
T1 - Early childhood science education from 0 to 6
T2 - a literature review
AU - O’connor, Gillian
AU - Fragkiadaki, Glykeria
AU - Fleer, Marilyn
AU - Rai, Prabhat
PY - 2021/4
Y1 - 2021/4
N2 - Over the past three decades, our understanding of science learning in early childhood has improved exponentially and today we have a strong empirically based understanding of science experiences for children aged three to six years. However, our understanding of science learning as it occurs for children from birth to three years, is limited. We do not know enough about how scientific thinking develops across the first years of life. Identifying what we do know about science experiences for our youngest learners within the birth to three period specifically, is critical. This paper reviews the literature, and for the first time includes children in the birth to three period. The results are contextualised through a broader review of early childhood science education for children aged from birth to six years. Findings illustrated that the empirical research on science concept formation in the early years, has focused primarily, on children aged three to six years. The tendency of research to examine the process of concept formation in the birth to three period is also highlighted. A lack of empirical understanding of science concept formation in children from birth to three is evident. The eminent need for research in science in infancy–toddlerhood is highlighted.
AB - Over the past three decades, our understanding of science learning in early childhood has improved exponentially and today we have a strong empirically based understanding of science experiences for children aged three to six years. However, our understanding of science learning as it occurs for children from birth to three years, is limited. We do not know enough about how scientific thinking develops across the first years of life. Identifying what we do know about science experiences for our youngest learners within the birth to three period specifically, is critical. This paper reviews the literature, and for the first time includes children in the birth to three period. The results are contextualised through a broader review of early childhood science education for children aged from birth to six years. Findings illustrated that the empirical research on science concept formation in the early years, has focused primarily, on children aged three to six years. The tendency of research to examine the process of concept formation in the birth to three period is also highlighted. A lack of empirical understanding of science concept formation in children from birth to three is evident. The eminent need for research in science in infancy–toddlerhood is highlighted.
KW - Concepts
KW - Early childhood
KW - Infants
KW - Literature review
KW - Preschoolers
KW - Science
KW - Science education
KW - Toddlers
UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85104609833&partnerID=8YFLogxK
U2 - 10.3390/educsci11040178
DO - 10.3390/educsci11040178
M3 - Review Article
AN - SCOPUS:85104609833
SN - 2227-7102
JO - Education Sciences
JF - Education Sciences
Neag School of Education
Best practices in early childhood literacy.
- by: Shannon Kelley
- October 20, 2021
- Community Engagement
Editor’s Note: Shannon Kelley, Neag School doctoral candidate in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction , prepared the following rapid research brief — in affiliation with the Center for Education Policy Analysis, Research, and Evaluation (CEPARE) .
Learning to read is critical to children’s success in school and opportunities once they reach adulthood. The foundation of reading is laid in the preschool years. The ultimate goal of reading development is successful reading comprehension, which is the ability to process and interpret the written language. To comprehend a text, a reader must be able to simultaneously decode the words and apply their background knowledge to make meaning (Hoover & Gough, 1986). Although this task appears to be natural for fluent readers, it is in fact not. The ability to read is a human technology that develops over time through instruction and purposeful activities (Seidenberg, 2017).
Children’s literacy foundations are established as early as infancy and grow throughout early childhood when the brain is at its greatest plasticity levels (Hutton et al., 2020). The development of oral language skills, understanding of the alphabetic principle, and knowledge of print concepts are the greatest predictors of children’s future reading ability (e.g. Burns et al., 1999; Snow, 2006; Strickland et al., 2004). Young children who experience rich language environments have greater oral language skills (e.g. vocabulary knowledge & listening comprehension) and phonemic awareness (Kuhl, 2011; Strickland et al., 2004). Parents and guardians can support children’s development of oral vocabulary and print awareness through organic conversations and shared reading activities while a strong preschool literacy program provides instruction in more specific knowledge like the alphabetic principle and concepts of print (Burns et al., 1999; Snow, 2006). Children’s attendance at a preschool with a strong literacy program is highly correlated with reduced special education placements and retention in later elementary school and is especially impactful for children who grow up in poverty (Meloy et al., 2019; Yoshikawa et al., 2013).
Children who have abundant opportunities to interact with language from infancy to early elementary school are more likely to develop into skilled and fluent readers.
In this policy brief, I present a brief overview of early childhood literacy including its importance for future literacy achievement. I then detail six best practices for preschools of all types  , discuss the importance of family literacy, and offer three high-leverage strategies parents and guardians can use with their children. Finally, I offer a review of best practices to support literacy development in the preschool to kindergarten transition. I conclude with a brief set of recommendations for bringing high-quality literacy practices to preschools and families in schools serving large numbers of low-income children and English language learners.
What is early childhood literacy?
Preschool literacy instruction is focused on the development of children’s emergent literacy which includes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that ultimately promote reading and writing development (Whitehurst & Lonigan, 1998). Although children will develop many literacy skills during this time, research indicates that the following are most important (National Reading Panel, 2000; Neuman & Dickinson, 2001; Snow, 2006):
- Oral language: includes expressive and receptive vocabulary & listening comprehension skills
- Alphabetic principle: includes knowledge of the alphabet & phonological awareness (the ability to recognize and manipulate sounds in words)
- Print awareness: includes understanding and recognition of environmental print and text features
Why is children’s literacy in early childhood critical?
Students’ experiences both at home and school play critical roles in their literacy development. Evidence suggests children learn most of their language and vocabulary related knowledge at home through caregiver and sibling interactions while they learn code related knowledge like phonemic awareness at school (Horowitz‐Kraus & Hutton, 2015). Literacy instruction in both of these spaces can be both spontaneous and planned, individual and community-based (Snow, 2006). Literacy skills and knowledge are not something that exist exclusively in a classroom; rather, they can be taught and learned in all aspects of a preschoolers’ life. For example, while a preschool teacher leads a small group in a planned rhyming activity to promote phonemic awareness, a parent or guardian might ask a four-year old to identify all the signs that have writing on them as they complete an errand around town to promote print awareness. Given all that children must learn to ultimately become readers, it is important to emphasize that there is no hierarchy in emergent literacy development – children’s understanding that the pictures in the book are connected to the written text matter just as much as children’s knowledge of the alphabet.
Evidence suggests children learn most of their language and vocabulary related knowledge at home through caregiver and sibling interactions while they learn code related knowledge like phonemic awareness at school.
Children will develop emergent literacy skills at varying rates according to their home language environment, preschool instruction, and personal development. Although there is no “typical” development path, there are a set of skills and knowledge teachers and caregivers can use to determine where a student is on the developmental continuum (see Table 1).
Note: Adapted from Snow (2006).
Understanding where students fall along a developmental continuum allows teachers and caregivers to provide intervention where necessary. Children who fall behind in their literacy development are at greater risk of not becoming fluent readers because of the Matthew effect, or the phenomena in which children with early reading difficulty have less exposure to texts because they read less, ultimately slowing their language and reading development (Stanovich et al., 1986). Children will experience reading challenges for any number of reasons, but reading difficulty is most often highly correlated with poverty, intellectual disability, hearing problems, dyslexia, ELL, and language disorders (Snow, 2006). Although these may be risk factors in children’s reading development, a strong preschool literacy program and partnerships with families can mitigate the effects on children’s reading development. In the next sections, I offer a review of the literature on best practices for preschool instruction and strategies families can use at home.
What are instructional best practices in preschool?
A majority of children ages 3-6 spend their weekdays in the care of someone other than their primary caregivers (Green et al., 2006). These arrangements include public and private preschools and home-based daycares. Preschool literacy instruction most often focuses on group activities like read aloud and alphabet instruction. In a survey of 180 preschool teachers, Green et al. (2006) found that 78% of preschool teachers read aloud to kids in groups and 93% taught the alphabet while 58% taught features of books and 63% taught about how words are arranged. The impact of preschool programming on a child’s reading development depends on teacher training, parental involvement, and length of program enrollment. In addition, researchers have found that preschool literacy instruction was more effective when teachers had a wide variety of print materials and, in one study, more children present in the classroom (Green et al., 2006; Neuman & Roskos, 1997).
Strong preschool literacy programs focus on developing children’s oral language skills, knowledge of the alphabetic code, and print knowledge. Teachers’ direct instruction can be both code and meaning-focused so students learn letters and sounds while also engaging with the meaning of words and stories (Piasta, 2016). Teachers can develop print rich environments by labeling parts of the classroom, making a variety of texts available, and cultivating many opportunities for children to talk. Research suggests that phonemic awareness and letter knowledge instruction is best supported by lessons that are brief (10 -15 minutes max), highly engaging and fun, and follow a predictable pattern (e.g. begin with rhyming followed by phonemic awareness games that have them identify/add/delete/substitute sounds, and finish with learning a new letter and sound). Class conversations and shared book reading can be more free-flowing, allowing children to engage in authentic engagements (Piasta, 2016).
Evidence indicates that teachers should actively encourage students to develop strong oral language skills and knowledge in their first language; this base affirms the children’s home language identity and serves as a foundation for the students to build on as they learn to speak and read in English.
It is important that preschool teachers keep in mind the variety of learners in their classrooms including being thoughtful about incorporating strategies to meet the needs of students for whom English is not a first language. Evidence indicates that teachers should actively encourage students to develop strong oral language skills and knowledge in their first language; this base affirms the children’s home language identity and serves as a foundation for the students to build on as they learn to speak and read in English. Researchers have found positive effects for instruction in phonemic awareness, print knowledge, and vocabulary for students who do not yet have English oral proficiency (Roberts et al., 2004). If the students’ first language shares an orthography with English (i.e. Spanish, Portuguese), print knowledge is highly transferable and can be instructed in either language (Farver et al., 2009). In addition, children who are English Language Learners benefit from explicit instruction in phonemic awareness and vocabulary in English and in frequent opportunities for adult-child conversation with feedback.
The following practices have been identified as having the greatest impact on student literacy outcomes (see Appendix A for links to additional resources).
Literacy rich environments.
A literacy rich preschool classroom promotes students’ ongoing engagement with language throughout their school day, which promotes understanding of environmental/every day print (e.g. food labels, street signs, clothing logos, etc.) and allows for independent reading activities. Literacy rich classrooms include:
- A library nook with a recommended 5 books per child with illustrations that are about everyday experiences, favorite topics, or skill foci (e.g. ABCs, rhyming) that take about 10-15 minutes to read with children (Neumann & Roskos, 1997).
- Labeled classroom parts (e.g. sink, table, etc.) which provide multiple opportunities for letter and word recognition and an understanding of how print is related to the environment.
- Play areas that incorporate literacy-related materials (e.g. cookbooks, maps, notebooks) that allow children to develop an understanding of how literacy is central to everyday life.
Interactive read aloud.
Interactive read aloud, also called dialogic or shared reading, is consistently ranked as the most impactful activity on preschoolers’ literacy development both at home and at school (Dennis & Horn, 2011). This form of reading allows children to actively engage with both code and meaning levels of the text which helps them develop understandings of the concepts of print (i.e. book features like titles, dialogue, etc.) and practice listening comprehension. An interactive read aloud should position the children as active participants in the story and should be a dynamic conversation between the adult and children about the text and connections the children have (see Table 2 for a guide).
Note: Table taken from Dennis & Horn (2011).
Print referencing is a strategy that can be incorporated during any literacy activity but is most often used during interactive read aloud to point out important and interesting ideas about print to bring to students’ attention. Teachers can use this strategy to highlight the relationships between letters and sounds, to teach students new concepts of print, and to instruct new vocabulary. Justice & Ezell (2004) suggest the following three print referencing techniques:
- Ask questions about the print (e.g. What do you notice about the word red on this page?).
- Offer comments about print (e.g. I see the date on the newspaper the man is reading).
- Track your finger under print while you read.
Oral language skills are highly correlated to future reading ability (Neuman & Dickinson, 2001). Teachers can actively incorporate dynamic conversation opportunities into circle times, shared reading, meals, play, and other classroom activities. These conversations give children models of speech, teach them new vocabulary words, and offer them the opportunity to practice their own speech. The following talk strategies have empirical evidence suggesting additional benefits for students (Piasta, 2016):
- Recasting: Restating what the child said with more detail or correct language (e.g. child says, “Milk” and the teacher responds, “I want milk please!”
- Expanding: Adding details to the child’s statement (e.g. child says, “Baby cry” and the teacher responds, “The baby is hurt so she’s crying”)
- Open-ended questions: Asking the child to expand their statement (e.g. child says, “I’m sad” and teacher responds, “Why are you sad?”)
- Extended reciprocal and responsive conversations: Engaging in multiple extended questions and responses with children
Small group instruction.
Preschoolers can learn many literacy skills through play and reading, but some skills and knowledge require explicit instruction from a classroom teacher. Given preschoolers’ attention spans and varying development patterns, it is wise to instruct in small groups (Piasta, 2016). This allows teachers to pay close attention to students’ individual needs and to adapt instruction as needed. The following are skills/knowledge to teach in small groups:
- Alphabet knowledge: Directly instruct letter names and sounds together and use memory aides.
- Phonological awareness: Pair with alphabet instruction and build in phoneme manipulation tasks like identifying, blending, and segmenting.
- Vocabulary: Directly instruct new words, allow for multiple interactions with the words, provide opportunities for students to use them, and post the words in the classroom. Teachers can also instruct vocabulary through book reading by introducing three new words, describing them using student friendly language, relating them to topics kids already know, and making them “come alive” through pictures or movements during book reading (Wasik, 2010).
- Writing: Provide many different opportunities for children to engage in written expression; this may include: letters, stories, picture captions, etc. Allow students to use invented spelling or attempt to represent words in print on their own. One study illustrated that students who often used invented spelling had better literacy skills because it allows them to reinforce their understanding of the relationships between letters and sounds (Ouellette & Senechal, 2008). This is most appropriate for older preschoolers who have learned at least a handful of letters though younger students should be encouraged to draw and write as well.
Preschool teachers can use both formal and informal literacy assessment to get an idea of students’ literacy progressions and where they are in relation to their peers. Because literacy development is so variable at this stage, teachers should use assessment data to understand how to better support students rather than as a strict categorization of their literacy abilities (Lonigan et al., 2011). Research indicates that students are most successful in literacy development if they develop knowledge and understanding of the alphabetic code, oral language skills, and print awareness in preschool, so assessments should be focused on students’ letter and vocabulary knowledge, phonological awareness, and print concepts (Snow, 2006).
There are three primary forms of assessment for preschool literacy: screeners, diagnostics, and progress monitoring tools. Screeners are often brief measures used on all students to determine which students are at risk of delayed literacy development. Diagnostics are longer assessments used to identify specific domains in which students need more support; these are expensive and long tests which should be reserved for students with low screener scores. Progress monitoring tools allow teachers to track students’ academic progress over time; standardized measures of this type for all students are less widely available for preschool literacy. Currently, the field of special education offers a handful of tests based on a General Outcome Measurement Approach , which measures student growth over many points in time (Greenwood et al., 2011) , to help early childhood educators determine when a student might need an intervention (see Appendix A for links to assessment resources).
What can families do to support literacy development at home?
Children develop almost all of their neural connections for sensory pathways and language during their first six years of life (Nelson, 2000). For this reason, preschoolers’ experiences both at school and at home are critical to successful literacy development. In one study, researchers found a significant relationship between children’s vocabulary knowledge and expressive language and the amount of time children spent engaged in book reading with their mothers (Roberts et al., 2005). The home literacy environment promotes multiple opportunities for language learning which are necessary for neural connections development through factors like the amount of shared adult-child reading, the number of books in the house, and children’s interaction with print (Horowitz‐Kraus & Hutton, 2015).
Fortunately, best practices for family literacy support require few resources and can be built into existing family routines. Researchers have consistently identified shared book reading as the most impactful activity families can do to support preschool literacy development as it promotes vocabulary development, understanding of text features, and print awareness (Whitehurst & Lonigan, 1998). In addition, authentic and frequent open-ended conversations with adults in the home support children in enhancing their receptive and expressive vocabularies. A strong oral vocabulary is a critical foundation for reading development as it allows children to both understand the content of texts and identify words as they learn to decode in early elementary school.
The following family practices have been identified as having the greatest impacts of students’ literacy development (see Appendix B for links to additional resources).
Language benefits from shared reading have been shown to begin with children as young as six-weeks old (Burns et al., 1999). Children who read with their families at home and who make regular visits to the local library demonstrate stronger vocabulary skills (Senechal et al., 1996). When caregivers read with their children, they can use the following strategies to make the activity engaging and to emphasize critical language and vocabulary skills (Roberts et al., 2005):
- Simple description: Describe a character, animal, object, simple action, or location; “Look at the zebra- I see he has white and black stripes. What else do you notice?”
- Elaborate description: Explain, summarize, or elaborate on plot; “George is really curious so he asks lots of questions and explores the world.”
- Links to world: Ask questions or make comments that help the child make connections between the text and their experiences; “Who else do you know that is very curious?”
- Predictions and inferences: Ask child to predict what might happen or ask questions about character motivations/feelings; “Why do you think George was sad after he lost his boat?”
- Book concepts: Refer to parts of the book or book reading process (e.g. turning the page, pointing out the title, etc.)
- Letter-sound relationships: Point out letter-sound information; “This word is Cat begins with a “c” which makes the sound /k/ .”
- Recall and recite: Ask child to tell you about the text; “Oh that was a great story, can you tell me about it?”
Children’s exposure to the world outside of school and home allows them to develop rich background and vocabulary knowledge which further strengthens the synapses needed for reading development. Parents and guardians can use these experiences to facilitate rich open-ended conversations with children by asking open-ended questions that allow children to explain their ideas and understandings. Although adventures outside of the home are a great time to engage in these conversations, these same techniques can be applied to everyday tasks around the home like eating meals together and getting dressed for school. In addition, these are great opportunities to introduce and explain new vocabulary (Strickland et al., 2004). Here are some tips for facilitating strong conversations:
- Get on the child’s level (if possible)
- Actively listen and respond to what the child says
- Take turns talking
- Ask questions about what the child is doing, seeing, or talking about
- Give time for the child to respond
- Extend children’s language (e.g. if the child says “car”, you can say “yes a red car is parked”)
- Ask children to explain their thinking by using “why” and “how” questions Develop a standardized format to communicate with kindergarten teachers. Preschools and kindergartens use a range of assessment and data tracking methods however both have copious information about students’ literacy development. To streamline the coordination of record sharing and teacher communication, preschools can create a standardized format to capture literacy-related information, prioritizing data on children’s vocabulary, alphabet knowledge, and print awareness.
Children’s phonemic awareness is strengthened by their interactions and understanding of language. Families can support this understanding by leading children in games that help them pay attention to the different sounds and relationships in letters and words. These activities can be spontaneous, brief, fun, and as simple as singing a song together. Ideas include:
- “I spy” or Treasure Hunts: Lead children to identify an object around them by saying, “I spy something that starts with the letter a ” or “Find me something in the room that starts with the letter ” These tasks require students to link the name of the letter ( a) with its sound in the word which reinforces phonemic awareness and understanding of letter-sound correspondences (Games for 3-year-olds).
- Rhyming: Lead children in a game of rhyme generation by saying, “I know a word that rhymes with cat , it’s rat . Your turn, tell me a word that rhymes with rat .” Rhyming is a foundational skill of phonemic awareness as it requires students to pay attention to the middle and end sounds of the word. This attention supports their ability to segment unknown words, which is a critical skill for early decoding (Palmer, I. M.).
- Sing nursery rhymes & other songs: Nursery rhymes and other classic early childhood songs promote language development through the inclusion of repetition, rhyming, and alliteration (Paquette & Rieg, 2008). Singing helps children develop new vocabulary knowledge and promotes joy in the language learning experience (see ideas of songs ).
Supporting literacy in the preschool to kindergarten transition
School and home-based preschool experiences allow children to develop the foundational literacy skills they need to build on throughout early elementary school as they learn to read. By the end of kindergarten, children are expected to recognize and write the letters of the alphabet, demonstrate phonemic awareness by generating rhymes and isolating, blending, and segmenting phonemes in words, and have a solid understanding of the structures of books and other print materials (Burns et al. 1999). The transition from preschool to kindergarten requires students to take on more independence, follow routines, and engage in more challenging academic work. For this reason, it can be a challenging transition for some children. Additionally, preschools and kindergartens are often separated by physical distance and system administration; that is, many children attend private or home-based preschools prior to entering the public school system (Purtell et al., 2020). Despite these differences, there is much that both preschools and families can do to set children up for success during this transition (see Appendix C for links to additional resources.
- Literacy program: The most important thing preschools (including public, private, and home-based programs) can do is establish strong literacy programming. This includes creating literacy rich environments with many accessible books, leading daily interactive story times, and building in many opportunities for adult-child and child-child conversations (Burns et al., 1999).
- Family partnerships: Programs can actively work with families to create shared literacy models by incorporating reading and its importance into daily activities. To do this, programs can invite families to story time, send books home regularly, partner with local libraries for family visits and book sharing, provide families with a clear model of dialogic reading and print referencing (this can include handouts and video links), and host family literacy nights where children, caregivers, and teachers engage in book reading and language games (Dennis & Horn, 2011).
- Communication with kindergartens: Because many children do not attend public preschool, there is often a gap in communication from preschool to kindergarten. Preschool teachers can minimize this gap by actively communicating with local kindergarten programs about students’ experiences and academic needs. School districts can strengthen this partnership by bringing preschools and kindergartens together to align programming and information structures and by issuing surveys of local preschools to gather information about children’s experiences including type of school, length of program, and attendance history (Purtell et al., 2020).
- Partner with non-English speaking families: Evidence from a 2008 study (Roberts) suggests that shared reading in students’ primary language is just as effective as in English, especially if the same story is read at home and at school. Because research illustrates that students primarily learn oral language skills like vocabulary and expression at home, students benefit from partnerships that encourage shared reading and other language games in their primary language. Schools can partner with non-English speaking families by providing them with reading material and suggested practices in their primary language and by actively encouraging word play and engaging conversations with their children (Restrepo & Towle-Harmon, 2008).
- Kindergarten transition days: One of the most important things families can do to support the preschool to kindergarten transition is attend the transition days or experiences that the schools offer. This allows children to meet their teachers and classmates and the parents/guardians to develop a positive relationship with the teachers.
- Bridge preschool-kindergarten communication: Before children exit preschool, parents/guardians can ask the preschool teachers about their child’s literacy skills. Parents can share this information with the kindergarten teacher; having an initial understanding of students’ oral language, alphabet knowledge, and print awareness allows the kindergarten teacher to act quickly to deliver responsive intervention for students who may need it.
- Home literacy practices: When children begin kindergarten, families should continue nightly shared reading and regular library visits. It is important for children to view literacy experiences as enjoyable and motivating, especially as they begin to read as the process can be challenging for many children. Allowing children to choose books to read and using those books as time for engaging dialogue and sharing keeps these experiences meaningful and light for children.
The evidence on the benefits of early literacy development is clear – children who have strong oral language skills, alphabet knowledge, and beginning print awareness are more likely to become proficient readers in early elementary school (National Reading Panel, 2000). Fortunately, there are many promising practices that school districts, private, public and home-based preschools, and families can implement to support preschoolers’ literacy development. I outline recommendations below.
- Provide ongoing teacher training. A range of training exists for preschool teachers including professional developments on emergent literacy practices and on implementation of specific curricula (Piasta, 2016). Teachers who receive high quality training in shared book reading practices and language development strategies are more likely to feel confident in their instruction and have greater effects on students’ literacy development (Green et al., 2006; Piasta, 2016; Wasik, 2010). Organizations like the National Association for the Education of Young Children and Reading Rockets offer a host of online resources and accessible modules.
- Create structures for public, private, and home-based preschool providers to connect with district kindergarten teachers. Because kindergarten is often most students’ first interaction with the public school system, kindergarten teachers often lack critical information about students’ previous literacy experiences (Purtell et al., 2020). The school district can mitigate this gap by providing communication structures or professional development opportunities for preschool and kindergarten teachers to share information about curriculums and student progress.
- Host multiple family literacy opportunities. Preschool teachers are uniquely positioned to support family literacy opportunities because they interact with caregivers daily during pick up and drop off. Teachers and preschools can use these moments to emphasize the importance of reading and language development by offering book sharing programs and shared reading examples. In addition, schools can support the community-based nature of literacy by hosting family literacy nights and regular library visits to immerse children and families in fun, meaningful literacy activities.
- Read with children nightly. Research literature (e.g. Scarborough et al. 1991; Snow, 2006) consistently ranks family shared book reading as the most impactful literacy development activity. Families can borrow books from local libraries, from preschools, or use digital options (see Reading Rockets for links).
 Throughout this brief, the term preschool refers to public school, private, and home-based programs.
Shannon Kelley is a doctoral candidate in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction at the University of Connecticut. Shannon’s research applies lenses from neo-institutional theory to understand how middle and high schools conceptualize and organize reading programs for students with persistent reading difficulty. Shannon has also engaged in research on teacher preparation, multisyllabic word reading instruction, and dyslexia discourse. Prior to graduate school, she taught high school English and middle school special education for almost a decade. In addition to her studies, Shannon currently teaches undergraduate and master’s-level courses on literacy instructional methods and works with local districts to design and implement high school reading intervention courses.
CEPARE produces high-quality research, evaluation, and policy analysis that informs leaders and policymakers on a range of pressing issues, with a particular focus on enhancing social justice and equity across p-20 educational settings in Connecticut and beyond. CEPARE produced this brief as part of the SETER Alliance, which aims to strengthen and support learning opportunities in Connecticut’s Alliance districts. Learn more about CEPARE cepare.uconn.edu . Access the original PDF of this brief (including all references and appendices).
- Grade Retention After COVID-19: Evidence-Based Guidance
- The Payoff of Preschool: Investing in CT’s Youngest Residents
- The Prevalence and Price of Police in Schools
- Reducing Racism in Schools: The Promise of Anti-Racist Policies
Some content on this website may require the use of a plug-in, such as Adobe Acrobat Viewer .
The Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP) accredits the Neag School of Education at the University of Connecticut. Read more about CAEP Accreditation, including the programs covered and the accountability measures .
- Support the Neag School
Neag School of Education 249 Glenbrook Road, Unit 3064 Charles B. Gentry Building Storrs, CT 06269-3064
860-486-3815 [email protected]
- Essay Database >
- Essay Examples >
- Essays Topics >
- Essay on Environment
Example Of Article Review On Early Childhood
Type of paper: Article Review
Topic: Environment , Children , Teenagers , Community , Childhood , Family , Sociology , Infrastructure
ORDER PAPER LIKE THIS
The main idea in regard to the article is an early childhood inclusion. The term definition doesn't have a concrete definition that clearly describes the inclusion in childhood, but it is used as a blueprint, to aid in the inclusion practice. Specifically, the term can be said to be the practice, process and value that support an infant and young child, both with and without disabilities in participation of broad activities in a societal and world framework. This is meant to involve the child as a full family member of the community. In this regard, there are three concepts that are derived from this definition. They include the following; Access, this is a provision of a wide range of learning opportunities be it in community framework or social settings and environment. This provides a learning environment for the child that makes him or her develop mentally. The second concept is participation. In every young child, adult’s participation plays a crucial role in guiding and designing the child behavior towards the family set ups. A child's behavior is formulated depending on the social environment the child participates. Support is the last main concept whereby it entails the infrastructure and resources to support the child. Despite the child provided with participation and assess services, the resources are required to strengthen the child inclusion. The bias in the article reveals itself in the sense that not all families are set in a social community. Income constraints may make all the said processes difficult to achieve. The article provides clear guidelines in relation to the inclusion process which are crucial but it should incorporate other aspects in the family framework and social standards such as poverty and intellectual levels.
Cite this page
Share with friends using:
Finished papers: 738
This paper is created by writer with
If you want your paper to be:
Well-researched, fact-checked, and accurate
Original, fresh, based on current data
Eloquently written and immaculately formatted
275 words = 1 page double-spaced
Get your papers done by pros!
Florida term papers, example of network forensics research paper, free cardiovascular system essay example, how elevation affects tree height essay sample, sample critical thinking on lean accounting, panting essays, godliness essays, thomas friedman essays, spiritual healing essays, naturopathic medicine essays, cord essays.
Password recovery email has been sent to [email protected]
Use your new password to log in
You are not register!
Now you can download documents directly to your device!
Check your email! An email with your password has already been sent to you! Now you can download documents directly to your device.
or Use the QR code to Save this Paper to Your Phone
The sample is NOT original!
Short on a deadline?
Don't waste time. Get help with 11% off using code - GETWOWED
No, thanks! I'm fine with missing my deadline