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MLA Citation Guide (9th Edition): No Author, No Date etc.

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On this Page

What to do when information is missing, no page numbers, no database name, how to alphabetize titles in works cited list.

If there is no author given, your citation will start with the title of the work. You must put these citations in correct alphabetical order in your Works Cited list.

When putting works in alphabetical order, ignore initial articles such as "the", "a", or "an". For example the title  The Best of Canada  would be alphabetized as if it started with the word  Best  instead of the word  The.

If the title begins with a number, alphabetize it as if the number was spelled out. For example the title  5 Ways to Succeed in Business  would be alphabetized under F as if it had started with the word  Five .

For example, this is how the following titles would be alphabetized:

Anthropology in Action  [A] The Best of Canada  [B... ignore "The"] Easy Plant Care  [E] 5 Ways to Succeed in Business  [F... 5=Five] A Special Kind of Madness  [S... ignore "A"]

If no author or creator is provided, start the citation with the title of the source you are citing instead. Do not use "Anonymous" as the author's name. Use the first one, two, or three main words from the title, in either  italics  or in "quotation marks" (the same way it is written in your Works Cited list). You should provide enough words to make it clear which work you're referring to from your Works Cited list.

"How to Teach Yourself Guitar."  eHow,  Demand Media, www.ehow.com/how_5298173_teach-yourself-guitar.html. Accessed 24 June 2016.

In-text citation would be ("How to Teach")

  Note : An author/creator won't necessarily be a person's name. It may be an organization or corporation, for example Health Canada or a username on a site such as YouTube. Also, it is possible for the author's name to be written as only initials. If the author is known only by initials, treat the initials as one unit. Use the initials in your in-text citation and list the entry under the first initial in your Works Cited page. 

If no date is provided, skip that information in your citation. It is recommended that you add the date you accessed the work at the end of the citation in your Works Cited list. Access date is given by putting the word "Accessed" followed by the date you viewed or accessed the work (format =  Day Month (shortened) Year).

Example:  

"Audit and Assurance."  Chartered Professional Accountants Canada , www.cpacanada.ca/en/business-and-accounting-resources/audit-and-assurance. Accessed 6 Sept. 2019.

Some sources, such as online materials, won't have page numbers provided. If this is the case, leave the page numbers out of the citation. For your in-text citation, just use the author's name or the title of the work if there is no author given. For your Works Cited list, just leave the page number part out.

Williamson, Jennifer. "Canada: Business: Attire."  Global Road Warrior,  World Trade Press, 2018, www.globalroadwarrior/com/#mode=country&regionId=27&uri=country-content&nid=13.08&key=country-attire. Accessed 17 July 2016.

In-text citation would be (Williamson)

  Note   If there are no page, chapter, paragraph, or section numbers in the original text, then don't include any. Never count pages or paragraphs yourself .

If you find an article through the  search bar on the main library page, you might be unsure which database the article is from, because this searches across many different databases.

You can find the name of the database a few ways:

Method 1. Click on the title of the article in the search results list. This will bring you to a page with a description of the article as well as other useful information. Scroll down to the bottom of this list of information, and you should see "Database" listed near the bottom.

Method 2. You can also find the name of the database in the summary of information just below the title of the article in the search results list. It will look something like this:

Notice the name of the database is listed at the end.

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Home / Guides / Citation Guides / MLA Format / MLA Website Citation

How to Cite a Website in MLA

If you are a student faced with creating an MLA website citation for the first time, you may be confused about where to begin. This guide is here to answer all of your questions and take the guesswork out of creating an MLA citation for websites.

All academic fields require students and researchers to document their sources. Those studying the humanities, including fields in language literature, will typically follow MLA format when structuring their papers as well as when documenting sources.

Citing your sources is a necessary part of any research paper or project. This element serves both to give credit to the researchers and authors whose work informed yours, as well as to preserve academic integrity. Any source that provided you with ideas or information that you have included in your work and which are not considered common knowledge must be included, including websites.

The Modern Language Association is not associated with this guide. All of the information, however, is based on the MLA Handbook, Ninth Edition as well as the MLA website, and is presented as guidance for students writing in this style.

If you are looking for help with APA format , our reference library can provide you with guidance for this and more styles .

What You Need

To cite a website, you should have the following information:

  • Title of source.
  • Title of the container ,
  • Other contributors (names and roles),
  • Publication date,
  • Location of the source (such as DOI, URL, or page range).

The Modern Language Association refers to these guidelines as “core elements” on page 105 of the Handbook. If your teacher has asked you to cite your sources in this format, these elements will form the foundation for each MLA website citation included in your MLA Works Cited list, as well as the entries for sources in any other format.

If one of the elements does not apply, students may omit it. Supplemental items may also be included when necessary. In addition to the supplemental details discussed below, a list of additional supplemental components can be found on the MLA website.

If it’s an APA citation website page or an APA reference page you need help with, we have many other resources available for you!

Table of Contents

This guide includes the following sections:

  • MLA9 Changes
  • Citing websites with an author
  • Citing websites with no author
  • Citing websites with no formal title
  • Citing social media websites
  • In-text citations

Changes to MLA Citation for Websites in Ninth Edition

In previous editions, students and researchers creating an MLA website citation were not required to include the URL. However, beginning with MLA 8, it is recommended that you include the URL when creating a citation for a website unless your teacher instructs you otherwise. Even though web pages and URLs can be taken down or changed, it is still possible to learn about the source from the information seen in the URL.

When including URLs in a citation, http:// and https:// should be omitted from the website’s address ( Handbook 195). Additionally, If you are creating a citation that will be read on a digital device, it is helpful to make the URL clickable so that readers can directly access the source themselves.

If the website’s publisher includes a permalink or DOI (Digital Object Identifier), these are preferable as they are not changeable in the same manner as URLs. Whether you include a URL, permalink, or DOI, this information should be included in the location portion of your citation.

Another change that occurred with the eighth edition that impacts how to cite a website in MLA is the removal of the date the website was accessed. While you may still find it useful to include this information or your teacher may request it, it is no longer a mandatory piece of your citation. Should you choose to add this optional information, you may list it after the URL in the following manner:

  • Accessed Day Month Year.
  • Accessed 2 May 1998.
  • Accessed 31 Apr. 2001.
  • Accessed 17 Sept. 2010.

For an overview of additional formatting changes in the ninth edition, including resources to help with writing an annotated bibliography , check out the rest of EasyBib.com’s writing and citation guides, and try out our plagiarism checker for help with grammar and to avoid unintentional plagiarism.

MLA 9: Citing Websites With an Author

To make an MLA 9 citation for a website, you will need the following pieces of information:

  • author’s name
  • title of the article or page
  • title of the website
  • name of the publisher (Note: Only include the name of the publisher when it differs from the name of the website.)
  • date the page or site was published (if available)

Citing a Website in MLA

Place the author’s name in reverse order, the last name first, followed by a comma, and then the first name followed by a period. The title of the web page or article is placed in quotation marks, with a period before the end quotation. The title of the website is written in italics followed by a comma. If the name of the publisher differs from the name of the website, include it after the title. Immediately following the publisher is the date that the page or article was published or posted. Finally, end with the URL, permalink, or DOI, followed by a period.

View Screenshot | Cite your source

In-text website citation with one author

The in-text citation for a website with an author is reflected as the author’s last name in parentheses, followed by a period. Unless the website includes numbered paragraphs or sections, you should not include any additional information. For the website used in the example above, the in-text citation would be written as follows:

Cite your source

An APA parenthetical citation is similar, except it also includes the year the source was published.

To learn more about formatting MLA in-text & parenthetical citations , be sure to check out the rest of EasyBib.com’s resources and citation guides.

How to cite a website with two authors in MLA 9

According to Section 5.7 of the Handbook , for a website with two authors, place the authors’ names in the same order as the source (similar to an APA citation ). The first name should be formatted in reverse order as was done for a single author. The second name, however, is written as First Name Last Name and is followed by a period, as demonstrated in the template that follows:

In-text website citation with two authors

The in-text citation for a website with two authors should include both authors’ last names, in the order in which they are listed in the source and your works cited:

How to cite a website with three or more authors in MLA 9

For a source with three or more authors, you should place the authors’ names in the same order as the source. The first name is listed in reverse order and is followed by a comma and et al. Et al is the abbreviation for et alia, a gender-neutral Latin phrase meaning “and others.”

In-text website citation with 3+ authors

The in-text citation for a website with three or more authors should contain only the first author’s last name, followed by et al. ( Handbook 232):

Click on this page if you’re looking for information on how to create an APA in-text citation .

MLA 9 Citation for Websites with No Author

Sometimes, websites do not state who wrote the information on the page. When no author is listed, you may omit the author information from the MLA citation for the website and begin, instead, with the title ( Handbook 108).

Note about web pages by organizations/corporations:  Often, web pages are published by organizations or corporations with no author indicated. In these cases, you can assume that the publisher also authored the web page (like the example above). Since the author and publisher are the same in these cases, you can skip showing an author and just indicate the organization /corporation as the publisher ( Handbook 119 ).

In-text website citation with no author

The in-text citation for a website without an author is noted with the first noun phrase or words in the title in quotations and parenthesis, followed by a period. Unless the website includes numbered paragraphs or sections, you should not include any additional information. For the website used in the example above, the in-text citation would be written as follows:

MLA 9 Citation for Websites Without a Formal Title

When citing a web page that does not include a formal title, it is acceptable to include a description of the page. Do not place the description in italics or quotation marks. Follow the description with the name of the website.

In-text website citation without a title

The in-text citation for a website without a formal title uses a shortened version of the webpage description for the in-text citation. Use the first noun phrase of the description from your Works Cited citation in parenthesis, followed by a period. For the website used in the example above, the in-text citation would be written as follows:

MLA 9 Citation for Social Media Websites

In an increasingly digital world, social media platforms have become one of the most popular sources students turn to when writing a research paper. From Black history facts , to quotes from notable people, such as Martin Luther King and Winston Churchill , social media has become a mega influence in our world.

When citing social media in your work,  follow the same format as an MLA citation for a website. Here are some examples of ways you can cite various social media platforms in your work:

How to cite Twitter in MLA 9

Many notable individuals use Twitter as a platform to share intriguing ideas. It’s a shame Twitter was unavailable to long-gone scientists, authors, and presidents such as Albert Einstein , Mark Twain , and Abraham Lincoln . Luckily, we have the Twitter profiles of today’s great minds at our fingertips!

To cite a tweet, you will begin with the account holder’s name and their Twitter handle in square brackets, followed by a period ( Handbook 118). After this, in quotations, you should enter the full text of the tweet, including any hashtags. The publisher, Twitter, is then listed in italics, followed by the date the tweet was posted in day, month, year format. Finally, include a URL to the tweet followed by a period.

Note:  When the account name and username are similar, the username can be excluded from the citation. For example, if the account’s username was @FirstNameLastName or @OrganizationName.

In-text website citation of a Twitter post

The in-text citation for a Twitter post is reflected as the author’s last name in parentheses, followed by a period. For the tweet used in the example above, the in-text citation would be written as follows:

How to cite Instagram in MLA 9

To cite an Instagram post, begin with the account holder’s name and their username in square brackets. In quotations, list the title of the photo, if it is given. If there is no title, write a brief description of the picture but do not place it in italics or quotation marks. The publisher, Instagram, is then listed in italics. Any other contributors (such as the photographer, if it is not the same as the account holder) are then listed, after which you will add the date the photo was published and the URL.

In-text website citation of an Instagram post

The in-text citation for an Instagram post is reflected as the author’s last name or the name of the account in parentheses, followed by a period. For the Instagram post used in the example above, the in-text citation would be written as follows:

How to cite Facebook in MLA 9

To cite a Facebook post, begin with the account holder’s name or username. In quotations, list the title or caption of the post, if it is given. If there is no title or caption, write a brief description of the post, but do not place it in italics or quotation marks. Examples: Image of Malcolm X, or, Muhammed Ali headshot.

The publisher, Facebook, is then listed in italics, after which you will add the date posted and URL.

In-text website citation of a Facebook post

The in-text citation for a Facebook post is reflected as the author’s last name or the name of the account in parentheses, followed by a period. For the Facebook post used in the example above, the in-text citation would be written as follows:

Social media and website comments

Citing the comments left on social media or a website begins with the commenter’s name or username. To indicate that you are citing a comment, follow the name with a period and then the words Comment on , followed by the title of the source (for example, the name of the article) in quotation marks. This is then followed by the title of the website in italics, and the publisher, if applicable. The date is then listed, followed by the URL, permalink, or DOI.

In-text citation of a social media comment

The in-text citation for a social media comment is reflected as the author’s last name in parentheses, followed by a period. For the post used in the example above, the in-text citation would be written as follows:

In-text Citations for Websites

In-text citations generally consist of parentheses and the last names of the authors or the first few words of the web page title.

Since there are no page numbers, unless the web page includes numbered paragraphs or sections, you don’t need to include any additional information.

When you have multiple authors, place them in the same order they are listed in the source.

MLA website in-text citations

If what you really need is an APA book citation or a reference for an APA journal , there are more guides on EasyBib.com for you to explore.

Visit our EasyBib Twitter feed to discover more citing tips, fun grammar facts, and the latest product updates.

Troubleshooting

Solution #1: when and how to reference entire websites versus specific pages in mla.

Reference an entire website when your information comes from multiple pages or if you are describing the entirety of the website. If your information is only from one page, only cite the singular page.

Whole website, author known

  • Write the author’s name in last name, first name format with a period following.
  • Next, write the name of the website in italics.
  • Write the contributing organization’s name with a comma following.
  • List the date in day, month, year format with a comma following.
  • Lastly, write the URL with a period following.

Works cited example:

Night, Samuel. Food Creations , International Hypothetical Chefs’ Club, 21 May 2021,                 www.foodcreationshypotheticalwebsite.com/best_macaroni_recipe.

In-text example:

Whole website, author unknown

  • If there is no specific author, begin the citation by writing the website name in italics.

Food Creations , International Hypothetical Chefs’ Club, 21 May 2021, www.foodcreationshypotheticalwebsite.com/best_macaroni_recipe.

( Food Creations )

Webpage, author known

If information is from only a few pages or the pages cover multiple topics, reference each page

  • If an author is named, write the author’s name in last name, first name format.
  • If a title is not provided, create your own description of the page.
  • List the title of the website in italics with a comma following.
  • Write the date that the page was created followed by a comma.
  • Lastly, list the URL followed by a period.

Blake, Evan. “Best Southern Macaroni Recipe.” Food Creations , International Hypothetical Chefs’ Club, 21 May 2021, www.foodcreationshypotheticalwebsite.com/best_macaroni_recipe.

Webpage, author unknown

If an author is not named, write the name of the page in quotation marks with a period following.

“Best Southern Macaroni Recipe.” Food Creations , International Hypothetical Chefs’ Club, 21 May 2021, www.foodcreationshypotheticalwebsite.com/best_macaroni_recipe.

(“Best Southern Macaroni Recipe”)

Solution #2: Referencing a conversation on social media in MLA

The in-text citation should identify the author and talk about the format (e.g., video, post, image, etc.) in prose.

Lilly West’s photo of traditional Japanese sweets shows an example of nature influencing Japanese design.

The basic structure of a works-cited reference for social media stays the same no matter the format or the social media service (e.g., Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, etc.). Here are works- cited-list entry guidelines:

  • The name is listed in last name, first name format with a period following. If an organization, just write the organization’s name as it’s usually presented.
  • If the username is very different from the author’s real name, include it in brackets after the user’s real name but before the period.
  • Write the title, post text, or description of the post in quotation marks. End it with a period.
  • Write the website name in italics with a comma afterward.
  • List the day, month, and year that the post was created followed by a comma.
  • List the URL followed by a period. Leave out “https://” and “http://”.

Facebook example:

West, Lily. “Kyoto Japanese sweets.” Facebook , 30 May 2021, www.facebook.com/hypotheticalexample/thispostisnotreal.

Twitter reference example:

West, Lily [@lilianhypotheticalwestbest]. “Kyoto Japanese sweets.” Twitter, 30 May 2021, www.twitter.com/hypotheticalexample/thispostisnotreal.

Instagram reference example:

West, Lily [@lilianhypotheticalwestbest]. “Kyoto Japanese sweets.” Instagram , 30 May 2021,            www.instagram.com/hypotheticalexample/thisphotoisnotreal.

Solution #3: How to cite a social media post without a title or text

If there is no text or title where the title element usually goes, instead describe the post without quotation marks. Example:

West, Lily [@lilianhypotheticalwestbest]. Photo of traditional Japanese sweets on a green plate. Instagram , photographed by Bethany Lynn, 30 May 2021,   www.instagram.com/hypotheticalexample/thisphotoisnotreal.

Solution #4: How to cite a social media post with a long title or text

If the text is very long, you can shorten it by adding ellipsis at the end of the text. Example:

West, Lily [@lilianhypotheticalwestbest]. “Nothing is better in life than feeling like all of the effort you’ve invested has finally. . . .” Twitter, 17 Feb. 2021, www.twitter.com/hypotheticalexample/thispostisnotreal.

  • Works Cited

MLA Handbook . 9th ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2021.

Published October 31, 2011. Updated June 5, 2021.

Written and edited by Michele Kirschenbaum and Elise Barbeau. Michele Kirschenbaum is a school library media specialist and the in-house librarian at EasyBib.com. Elise Barbeau is the Citation Specialist at Chegg. She has worked in digital marketing, libraries, and publishing.

MLA Formatting Guide

MLA Formatting

  • Annotated Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Block Quotes
  • et al Usage
  • In-text Citations
  • Paraphrasing
  • Page Numbers
  • Sample Paper
  • MLA 8 Updates
  • MLA 9 Updates
  • View MLA Guide

Citation Examples

  • Book Chapter
  • Journal Article
  • Magazine Article
  • Newspaper Article
  • Website (no author)
  • View all MLA Examples

mla citing website without author

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No matter what citation style you’re using (APA, MLA, Chicago, etc.), the EasyBib Citation Generator can help you create the right bibliography quickly.

Yes, there’s an option to download source citations as a Word Doc or a Google Doc. You may also copy citations from the EasyBib Citation Generator and paste them into your paper.

Creating an account is not a requirement for generating MLA citations. However, registering for an EasyBib account is free, and an account is how you can save all the citations you create. This can help make it easier to manage your citations and bibliographies.

Yes! Whether you’d like to learn how to construct citations on your own, our Autocite tool isn’t able to gather the metadata you need, or anything in between, manual citations are always an option. Click here for directions on using creating manual citations.

If any important information is missing (e.g., author’s name, title, publishing date, URL, etc.), first see if you can find it in the source yourself. If you cannot, leave the information blank and continue creating your citation.

It supports MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard, and over 7,000 total citation styles.

If there is no author, the title becomes the website page’s identifier.

In-text example (no author): ( Honey Bee Medley )

Works cited example (no author): Honey Bee Medley . Hivemind Press, 2018, www.hivebees.com/honey-bees.

If there is no publication date, include an accessed date instead.

Works cited example (no author, no date): Honey Bee Medley . Hivemind Press, www.hivebees.com/honey-bees. Accessed 17 Nov. 2020.

If there is no title, briefly describe the source.

Works cited example (no author, no date, no title): Collage of honey bees. Hivemind Press, www.hivebees.com/honey-bees. Accessed 17 Nov. 2020.

To cite a website that has no page number in MLA, it is important that you know the name of the author, title of the webpage, website, and URL. The templates for an in-text citation and works-cited-list entry of a website that has no page number, along with examples, are given below:

In-text citation template and example:

You can use a time stamp if you are referring to an audio or video. Otherwise, use only the author’s surname.

(Author Surname)

Works-cited-list entry template and example:

Author or Organization Name. “Title of the Webpage.” Website Name . Publication Date, URL.

Dutta, Smita S. “What is Extra Sensory Perception?” Medindia . 16 Nov. 2019, www.medindia.net/patients/patientinfo/extra-sensory-perception.htm#3 .

Abbreviate the month in the date field.

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MLA 8 Citation Guide

  • TITLE of SOURCE
  • TITLE of CONTAINER
  • OTHER CONTRIBUTORS
  • PUBLICATION DATE
  • Works Cited
  • Journal Article with One Author
  • Journal Article with 2 Authors
  • Journal Article with 3 or more Authors
  • Magazine Article
  • Newspaper Article
  • One Author or Editor
  • Two Authors or Editors
  • Three or More Authors
  • Article or Chapter in an Edited Book
  • Article in a Reference Book
  • Reference Work
  • Basic Web Page
  • Entry in a Reference Work
  • Government or Agency Document
  • YouTube Video
  • Electronic Image
  • Figures and Charts
  • Class Lecture/Notes
  • Secondary Sources

Ask Us 24/7

mla citing website without author

Online help is available anytime via our AskUs 24/7 chat service:

Document from a web site with no author

  Name of Organization   Title of Web Document. Title of Website, Date if given ,   URL of specific document . Access date if advisable.

People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. Animals Used for Food. PETA , 2008 ,  www.peta.org/issues/animals-used-for-food/

(Name of organization, Page or paragraph number if available)

( People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals )

----------------------------------------------------------------

If, however, there is no specific organization responsible for the web site's content , follow this format:

Title or Appropriate Title of Specific Document .   Title of Website, Date if given ,  URL of the Site. Accessed date as appropriate.

Osteoarthritis Overview . eMedicineHealth.com, 2017, www.emedicinehealth.com/osteoarthritis/article_em.htm#osteoarthritis_overview. Accessed 2 March 2018.

("Title of Specific Document" page or paragraph number if available)

("Osteoarthritis overview")

  • When citing sources that you find on the Internet you only need to include a accessdate if the information you use is likely to change over time
  • Sometimes websites are missing pieces of information that you would typically use when citing them, like an author or a date.  In that case, just adjust citation

Citing Web Resources

Purdue Owl the the Web

mla citing website without author

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Quetext

How To Cite a Website Without an Author: APA, MLA, and Chicago Style

  • Posted on April 19, 2022 April 15, 2022

Today, a staggering majority of our information is found online. In fact, it’s rare not to head to the internet when you start researching a topic. This is true even for students who have been well-trained in the use of primary sources and physical references: books, magazines, and newspapers, among others.

Of course, if you have any experience at all with research, you already know how common it is to find online information with no author attributed. This can occur for a variety of reasons, for example, if an article was written by a whole team of employees, or if the work was a combination of both the website staff work and newswire material. When there is absolutely no author name to be found in the content, you still must cite the source accurately.

Similarly, sometimes online information won’t disclose an author’s name but instead lists “anonymous” as the author. Writers occasionally chose to publish anonymously, as it removes their reputation and personal ties from the work. This might be useful if the writer is branching into a new field of study, or if they need to hide their identity for safety reasons. However, as long as the source is reliable and the information is vital to your work it is still seen as appropriate and professional to cite an anonymous source.

Although an article without an author and an article written anonymously may seem similar, they actually have different citation formats across the different styles. The sections below will serve as a guide for properly accrediting the un-named authors in both of these scenarios.

How to Cite a Website Without an Author

Depending on your class subject or industry, you might use APA, MLA or Chicago Styles, all of which differ in what information is necessary for a proper citation. In lieu of the author’s last name, you will need other basic identifiers such as website name, the title of the article, date of publication, access date, and HTML address.

Additionally, depending on your citation style you may require additional information, such as:

  • Day month year
  • The entire website or specific headings
  • Page numbers

Any type of source, including journal article, newspaper article, magazine article, or research paper, may fall under this reference type if there is no author listed on the website. For our purposes, let’s assume you are dealing with a basic website, with no author or an anonymous author, and look at the three basic formatting approaches now.

Named for the American Psychological Association, APA style is commonly used in the social and behavioral sciences, such as psychology, education, and social work. Here is the correct APA citation format for a website without an author. This complete citation is placed at the end of a work, typically in a reference page:

Title. (Year, Month Day). Retrieved from URL of the specific document

An example looks like this:

Chiweenies take over Manhattan for midsummer parade. (2013, October 14). Retrieved from http://www.hellodoggy.com/id/576768/chiweenies-manhattan-midsummer-parade

Note that for an APA reference, there is no period at the end of the citation and no italics are needed. Additionally, and sentence case is used- where only the first word of the title is capitalized. Since the title takes the place of the author’s name, you do not need to list the website separately from the URL.

In-text citations are a shortened version of the above citation placed within the written work to accompany information from the source. APA in-text citations include an abbreviated title, in quotes, followed by the year, in parentheses. An in-text citation for the same example as above is provided here:

(“Chiweenies take over Manhattan,” 2013).

MLA format is another citation style based on a handbook published by Modern Language Association and is most typically used in the humanities. The MLA citation style differs from APA in that it does require the name of the website as well as the organization if there is one. A template for an MLA citation for a website without an author is provided below. This longer citation is placed at the end of the article, on the works cited page:

Name of Organization. Title of Web Document. Title of Website, year if given, URL of specific document. Accessed access date.

Formatted properly, it looks like this:

I Heart Chiweenies. Chiweenies Take Over Manhattan for Midsummer Parade. Hello Doggy, 2013, http://www.hellodoggy.com/id/576768/chiweenies-manhattan-midsummer-parade . Accessed March 2, 2021.

If you do not have a parent organization name that is separate from the website name, you should leave it out and put nothing in the author slot.

For an in-text citation or parenthetical citation, cite only the organization name and page or paragraph number, unless you do not have an organization name, in which case the style requires quotes around the title. Different from APA, MLA uses titlecase for all website citations.

A template for an organization name with paragraph number:

(I Heart Chiweenies, Paragraph 5).

A template for no organization name and no page number:

(“Chiweenies Take Over Manhattan for Midsummer Parade”).

Chicago Style

Chicago Style is another method for citation and is most frequently seen in the history field, but occasionally used by the humanities as well. For a Chicago-style reference list entry, you must differentiate between a footnote and a bibliography entry. A footnote does not require anything in the author slot, and a template looks like:

“Title,” Website Name, accessed date. URL.

For example:

“Chiweenies Take Over Manhattan for Midsummer Parade,” Hello Doggy, accessed March 2, 2021, http://www.hellodoggy.com/id/576768/chiweenies-manhattan-midsummer-parade .

A bibliography citation, on the other hand, does require the name of the website to take the place of an author’s name. An example would look like this:

Hello Doggy. “Chiweenies Take Over Manhattan for Midsummer Parade.” Accessed March 2, 2021, http://www.hellodoggy.com/id/576768/chiweenies-manhattan-midsummer-parade .

In all cases where the title comes first, and the title begins with an article (such as a, an, the), omit the article and begin with the first word. In our example, this is not applicable, but if the correct title began with “The Chiweenies Take Over … ” you would omit the “The.” Additionally, Chicago Style uses title case but does not feature italics or include the parent organization in any citations.

For an in-text citation, the title of the website goes first, followed by a title abbreviation in quotation marks. An example would be:

(Hello Doggy, “Chiweenies Take Over Manhattan”).

Citing a Website with an Anonymous Author

As mentioned previously, sometimes an author may not want their name associated with their work for a variety of reasons. This is common on blogs with guest posters or on forums, where instead of a name in the author slot it simply states “Anonymous”, “Author” or “Unknown Contributor.”

The citation should still include the title of the webpage, date, and so forth. However, some of the citation styles treat this situation differently than an article with no author.

Whether you’re writing a paper for a boss or adhering to the highest Harvard referencing standards, you want to make sure your citation formats are correct. The different citation formats are listed below.

In APA format, citing a website without a specified author but with a placeholder displaying Anonymous is relatively simple. The one adjustment is to switch out the author’s name with the designation found on the webpage, as shown in the template below:

Designation. (Year, Month Date). Title of page. Site name. URL

Again, there is no period at the end of the URL and no access date in the citation. With a designation of simply “Author,” an example would look like this:

Author. (2013, October 14). Chiweenies take over Manhattan for midsummer parade. Hello Doggy. Retrieved from http://www.hellodoggy.com/id/576768/chiweenies-manhattan-midsummer-parade

An in-text citation uses the designation and year, or if there is an applicable page or paragraph number that information should also be included.

(Author, 2013) Or (Author, 2013, p. 120)

MLA style dictates that you do not use Anonymous, Author or any other nonspecific designation in place of an actual author’s name. The style states you should treat these “names” as though they do not exist, and default to the standard referencing guides as listed above. As a reminder, the template for this citation is provided below:

As with MLA format, Chicago Style asks you to omit the anonymous designation and stick to the reference format used for a webpage with no author. A template and example for a footnote are restated below:

As a reminder, the format changes for the bibliography page, as you should use the name of the website in place of the Anonymous distinction. A sample citation is provided here:

Creating Citations for a Website Without an Author

All of the above citation styles can be performed manually by plugging in the correct variables to the specified format for long-form (bibliographies, works cited, footnotes) and short-form (in-text) citations. However, as the number of sources you use grows this can become tedious work.

Plus, it leaves you open to a few dangers. First, if you do not format a citation correctly your grade will suffer as a result. The second, more considerable, hazard is that if you do it incorrectly and no one can find your reference, they might think you are making it up. Or, in the case of a website, when someone does a search for that content and finds it verbatim without a proper citation, they might think you are plagiarizing.

Unfortunately, accidental plagiarism is almost as serious as intentional plagiarism in school. In the business world, there is no difference as both can lead to an equally serious lawsuit.

You can avoid that danger by using Quetext’s citation generator for effortless and perfect citations, created automatically. All you do is plug the webpage into the generator, choose your style and hit go. The citation guide will immediately spit out perfectly formatted references that match your needed format.

Final Steps Before Submitting Your Work

No matter how you create your citations, make sure to check your work in full before submitting it to a teacher or manager. That way, you know exactly what you’re turning in and can stand behind your work with confidence knowing you have not committed plagiarism through poor paraphrasing or citations.

If you’re still not confident, you can use software such as Quetext’s plagiarism checker to ensure you have not unintentionally plagiarized from one of your sources. That way, even if you accidentally left out a reference, the system will spot it for you and make sure you give credit where credit is due.

Sign Up for Quetext Today!

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Citing a website in MLA style

When citing a website in MLA style, your citation should follow one of the basic formats below.

Webpage with an individual author

When citing websites, MLA usually requires you to abbreviate the names of months to three letters. For example, January becomes Jan.

Author Last Name, First Name. “Title.” Title of Site , Sponsor or Publisher [include only if different from website title or author], Day Month Year, URL.

Hamilton, Jon. “Think You’re Multitasking? Think Again.” National Public Radio , 2 Oct. 2008, www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=95256794 .

Webpage with no author or group author

If no author is available, or the webpage is authored by a group or organization, begin with the title of the webpage. If the title of the site is the same as the sponsor or publisher, omit the sponsor or publisher.

“Title.” Title of Site , Sponsor or Publisher, Day Month Year, URL.

“Turmeric.” National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health , Sep. 2016, nccih.nih.gov/health/turmeric/ataglance.htm.

Webpage with no date

If the webpage does not have any date information, or the page updates its content frequently (e.g., a wiki site), you should include an accessed date at the end of your citation to indicate when you were viewing the content.

Author Last Name, First Name. “Title.” Website name , URL. Accessed Day Month Year.

Gillingham, Kim. “How to Use the Dewey Decimal System.” Wikihow , https://www.wikihow.com/Use-the-Dewey-Decimal-System . Accessed 6 July 2023.

More information

To see more examples and other situations of citing books in MLA style, see the library's online MLA Citation Guide . You can also find the MLA Handbook (9th edition) in the Knowledge Center’s reference collection and in the Book Stacks. Purdue’s Online Writing Lab also has a comprehensive guide to MLA style .

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MLA Citation (7th edition)

  • Citing a book
  • Citing the Parts of a Books
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In Text Citations

Basic website citation, article from a website, work from the web also published in print.

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Visit the Writing Center for help with brainstorming, organization, revising, citations, and other writing assistance! 

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Book an appointment  with a Writing Center consultant. 

For an overview of the ways to cite electronic information in text in MLA style, see the Purdue OWL , which provides an overview of the basic in text citation formats.

To cite items found on the open Internet, provide as much of the following information as possible. For more specific information, please see the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th Ed.) .

Author's last name, Author's first name.   "Title of the Work."   Title of  Overall Website.   Publisher of the website or N.p. if

          no  publisher is indicated, date of publication or n.d. if no date is indicated.   Medium of  publication.  Day Month

          Year page was accessed.

Valdes, Robert.   "How Autopsies Work."   How Stuff Works .   Discovery  Communications, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2009.

"Africa Top 10 Internet Countries."   Table.  Internet World Stats. Miniwatts Marketing Group, March 2009.  Web.  18 June 2009.

Bell, Alexander Graham.   The Multiple Telegraph, Invented by A.  Graham Bell.   Boston: Rand, 1876.  Google Book

          Search.   Web.  18 June 2009.

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Citing a Website Without Authors

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Using articles published on websites as sources in academic papers is an increasingly common practice, and for good reason. They are easy to access and can contain a breadth of valuable information. It can be challenging, however, to properly cite websites when there is no clear author for the article, or if there are numerous authors listed. So how can you go about creating accurate references for these types of sources? Read on for informative tips that will help you create citations like these for your next paper.

Below are formulas and examples for how to cite a web page in MLA formatting , APA style , and Harvard referencing, which are some of the most popular styles on Cite This For Me. (The Harvard example in this article adheres to the rules in Harvard – Cite Them Right style specifically). The examples for “many authors” assume that there are six or more authors listed in the source.

How to cite a web page in MLA style with no author

“Title of the Article or Individual Page.” Title of the website , Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL.

“Facts About Giant Pandas.” Smithsonian National Zoological Park , Smithsonian Institute, 2004, www.nationalzoo.si.edu/animals/giantpandas/pandafacts.

How to cite a web page in MLA style with many authors

First Author Last Name, First Name, et al. “Title of the Article or Individual Page.” Title of the website , Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL.

Smith, Martha, et al. “The Early Works of Emily Dickinson.” Dickinson Electronic Archives, University of Maryland, 1994, www.emilydickinson.org/index.html .

How to cite a web page in APA style with no author

Title of web page. (Year, Month Date of publication). Retrieved from URL

India: Country specific information. (2013, October 3). Retrieved from http://travel.state.gov/travel/cis_pa_tw/cis/cis_1139.html

How to cite a web page in APA style with many authors

Author 1 Last Name, First Middle Initial, Author 2 Last Name, First Middle Initial, Author 3 Last Name, First Middle Initial, Author 4 Last Name, First Middle Initial, Author 5 Last Name, First Middle Initial, Author 6 Last Name, First Middle Initial . . . Final Author Last Name, First Middle Initial. (Year, Month Date of publication). Retrieved from URL.

Satalkar, B., Choi, M.J., Angeli, L.L., Harland, A.A., Stamos, J.A., Thomas, S.T., . . . Rubin, J.H. (2010, July 15). Water aerobics. Retrieved from http://www.buzzle.com  

How to cite a web page in Harvard style with no author

Web page title (Year published) Available at: URL (Accessed: Day Month Year).

Palladio’s Italian villas (2005) Available at: http://www.boglewood.com/palladio/ (Accessed: 23 December 2018).

*Need more help? Check out our Harvard referencing tool .

How to cite a web page in Harvard style with many authors

Author Last Name, First Middle Initial et al. (Year published) Web page title. Available at: URL (Accessed: Day Month Year).

Burton, P.A et al. (2012) The world’s oldest castles. Available at: http://www.castlesofspain.co.uk/ (Accessed: 14 December 2018).

Need help learning how to write an annotated bibliography ? Trying to make an in-text citation for a website ? Cite This For Me has citing guides and tools to help you with this and more!

If the webpage’s author is not available, use the title of the webpage in the in-text citation. For a webpage title, enclose the title in double quotation marks and use title case, not sentence case, in the in-text citation.

In case the title is too long, use a shortened version.

Webpage Example In-Text Citation With No Author:

“Nephrology in 2020 and Beyond” 2020 states… (paraphrase)

The article “Nephrology in 2020 and Beyond” (2020) states that…

Parenthetical:

The article explains the theory that future nephrology will focus on proactive kidney disease diagnoses (“Nephrology in 2020 and Beyond,” 2020).

For a shortened version, use only the noun in the noun phrase of the title:

(“Nephrology,” 2020).

If the webpage’s author is not available, use the title of the webpage first in the reference entry.

Webpage Example Reference Entry With No Author:

Nephrology. (2022, January 25). In Wikipedia . https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nephrology

When a webpage does NOT have an author, use the title of the article or webpage to reference it within the text. Unlike other formats, do not include the year in which the webpage was created. If the title is long, use a shortened form, creating a noun phrase and excluding beginning articles. The phrase must include the first words shown in its citation on the Works Cited page.

Format: Parenthetical Citation

(“Title of the article”)

( Title of the Webpage )

Example: Parenthetical Citation

(“All Things Elon”)

( Writing Characters )

Format: Narrative Citation

According to “Title of the Article,” it is known that . . .

According to Title of the Webpage , it is . . .

Example: Narrative Citation

According to “A Crow’s Voice,” the crow is one of the most intelligent of all birds out there.

According to Investing in NFTs , these digital assets are one of the fastest growing sectors.

As per the MLA 9 handbook, if you don’t find an author’s name, don’t state it as “Anonymous.”  Instead, omit the author’s name and fill in the next element of the works-cited entry: the name of the webpage.

“Title of the Article or Individual Page.” Website Name , Publisher, Day Month Year Published, URL.

“Stanley Crane Dies at Smithsonian’s National Zoo.” Smithsonian’s National Zoo & Conservation Biology Institute , Smithsonian Institute, 9 Feb. 2022,

https://nationalzoo.si.edu/news/stanley-crane-dies-smithsonians-national-zoo

For footnotes for a webpage with no authors, include as much of the following information as possible: the title or description of the page, the title of the website, the owner or sponsor of the site, and the URL. If available, include the publication date or modification date; if not available, include the access date.

“Title of the Webpage,” Title of the Website, Owner of the Site, Published/Updated/Accessed Month Day, Year, URL.

15. “Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Pandemic,” World Health Organization, WHO, last modified October 14, 2021, accessed February 19, 2022, https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019.

For a bibliography entry for a webpage with no author, include as much of the following information as possible: the title or description of the page, the title of the website, the owner or sponsor of the site, and the URL. If available, include the publication date or modification date; if not available, include the access date in your citation. When formatting the citation for your bibliography, include the site owner at the beginning of your citation in the author field.

Website Owner Name. “Webpage Name.” Website Name. Published/Updated/Accessed Month Day, Year. URL.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. “New Era of Smarter Food Safety.” FDA. Last modified January 27, 2022. https://www.fda.gov/food/new-era-smarter-food-safety.

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Generate accurate citations in MLA format automatically, with MyBib!

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😕 What is an MLA Citation Generator?

An MLA citation generator is a software tool designed to automatically create academic citations in the Modern Language Association (MLA) citation format. The generator will take information such as document titles, author, and URLs as in input, and output fully formatted citations that can be inserted into the Works Cited page of an MLA-compliant academic paper.

The citations on a Works Cited page show the external sources that were used to write the main body of the academic paper, either directly as references and quotes, or indirectly as ideas.

👩‍🎓 Who uses an MLA Citation Generator?

MLA style is most often used by middle school and high school students in preparation for transition to college and further education. Ironically, MLA style is not actually used all that often beyond middle and high school, with APA (American Psychological Association) style being the favored style at colleges across the country.

It is also important at this level to learn why it's critical to cite sources, not just how to cite them.

🙌 Why should I use a Citation Generator?

Writing citations manually is time consuming and error prone. Automating this process with a citation generator is easy, straightforward, and gives accurate results. It's also easier to keep citations organized and in the correct order.

The Works Cited page contributes to the overall grade of a paper, so it is important to produce accurately formatted citations that follow the guidelines in the official MLA Handbook .

⚙️ How do I use MyBib's MLA Citation Generator?

It's super easy to create MLA style citations with our MLA Citation Generator. Scroll back up to the generator at the top of the page and select the type of source you're citing. Books, journal articles, and webpages are all examples of the types of sources our generator can cite automatically. Then either search for the source, or enter the details manually in the citation form.

The generator will produce a formatted MLA citation that can be copied and pasted directly into your document, or saved to MyBib as part of your overall Works Cited page (which can be downloaded fully later!).

MyBib supports the following for MLA style:

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Daniel is a qualified librarian, former teacher, and citation expert. He has been contributing to MyBib since 2018.

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On This Page: When Information is Missing

No page numbers, no database name.

If no author or creator is provided, start the citation with the title of the source you are citing instead. Use the first one, two, or three main words from the title, in either  italics  or in "quotation marks" (the same way it is written in your Works Cited list). You should provide enough words to make it clear which work you're referring to from your Works Cited list.

"How to Teach Yourself Guitar."  eHow,  Demand Media, www.ehow.com/how_5298173_teach-yourself-guitar.html. Accessed 24 June 2016.

In-text citation would be ("How to Teach")

  Note : An author/creator won't necessarily be a person's name. It may be an organization or corporation, for example Health Canada or a username on a site such as YouTube. Also, it is possible for the author's name to be written as only initials. If the author is known only by initials, treat the initials as one unit. Use the initials in your in-text citation and list the entry under the first initial in your Works Cited page. 

If and only if an item is signed as being created by Anonymous, use "Anonymous" where you'd normally put the author's name. Otherwise, if it is an unknown author, start your citation with the title of the work.

For more information on how to cite an author's name known only by initials, check out the MLA Style Center blog . 

If no date is provided, skip that information in your citation. It is recommended that you add the date you accessed the work at the end of the citation in your Works Cited list. Access date is given by putting the word "Accessed" followed by the date you viewed or accessed the work (format =  Day Month (shortened) Year).

Example:  

"Audit and Assurance."  Chartered Professional Accountants Canada , www.cpacanada.ca/en/business-and-accounting-resources/audit-and-assurance. Accessed 6 Sept. 2019.

Some sources, such as online materials, won't have page numbers provided. If this is the case, leave the page numbers out of the citation. For your in-text citation, just use the author's name or the title of the work if there is no author given. For your Works Cited list, just leave the page number part out.

Williamson, Jennifer. "Canada: Business: Attire."  Global Road Warrior,  World Trade Press, 2018, www.globalroadwarrior/com/#mode=country&regionId=27&uri=country-content&nid=13.08&key=country-attire. Accessed 17 July 2016.

In-text citation would be (Williamson)

  Note   If there are no page, chapter, paragraph, or section numbers in the original text, then don't include any. Never count pages or paragraphs yourself .

If you find an article through the  search bar on the main library page, you might be unsure which database the article is from, because this searches across many different databases.

You can find the name of the database a few ways:

Method 1. Click on the title of the article in the search results list. This will bring you to a page with a description of the article as well as other useful information. Scroll down to the bottom of this list of information, and you should see "Database" listed near the bottom.

Method 2. You can also find the name of the database in the summary of information just below the title of the article in the search results list. It will look something like this:

Notice the name of the database is listed at the end.

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In-text citation

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The MLA 9th style uses author-date in-text citations, used when quoting or paraphrasing people’s work. 

Two types of in-text citations

1. author prominent format .

Use this format if you want to emphasise the author. Their name becomes part of your sentence.

"It was the best of times, it was the worst of times," wrote Charles Dickens of the eighteenth century (5).

2. Information prominent format

Use this format if you want to emphasise the information. It cites the author’s name, typically at the end of a sentence.

as demonstrated in the opening line, "it was the best of times, it was the worst of times" (Dickens 5).

Examples of in-text citations

Less than three lines of text.

If a prose quotation is no more than four lines and does not require special emphasis, put it in quotation marks and incorporate it into the text. Include the page number(s) in brackets.

"It was the best of times it was the worst of times" wrote Charles Dickens of the eighteenth century (5).

  • See Plays and Poetry sections below for how to cite these in-text.

More than three lines of text

If a quotation is longer than three lines, set it off from your text by beginning a new line, indenting half an inch from the left margin. Quotation marks around the text are not required. Introduce the quotation with a colon. Place the parenthetical reference after the last line. For example, the above discusses John Corner in his book, The Art of Record: A Critical Introduction to Documentary , which refers to Brian Winston's revaluation of the documentary tradition in the writings of John Grierson.

Winston's reassessment of Grierson finds the play-off between creativity and realness unconvincing: Grierson's taxonomic triumph was to make his particular species of non-fiction film, the non-fiction genre while at the same time allowing the films to use the significant fictionalising technique of dramatisation. (Winston 103)

This is a usefully provocative point, though agreement with it will largely rest on certain, contestable ideas about 'fictionalisation' and 'dramatisation'. The issue is dealt with directly in Chapter Two, as part of considering the debate around drama-documentary forms, and it occurs in relation to specific works throughout this book.

Two authors

In prose, the first time the two authors are mentioned, use both first and second names. In a parenthetical citation use 'and', not '&' to connect the two surnames.

Others, like Cheryl Brown and Laura Czerniewicz argue that the idea of a generation of ‘digital natives’ is flawed (359). The Brown and Czerniewicz article focuses on…

(Brown and Czerniewicz 359)

Three or more authors

When citing a source with three or more authors in prose you only refer to the first coauthor and can follow the additional authors by “and others“ or “and colleagues.” A parenthetical citation requires the first author's surname, followed by et al.

Laura Czerniewicz and colleagues argue…

(Czerniewicz et al. 53)

Different authors, same surname

If you use works from more than one author with the same last name, eliminate any ambiguity by including the author's first initial as well (or if the initial is also the same, the full first name).

(N. Palmer 45)

(N. Palmer 45; M. Palmer 102)

Citing more than one author

If you are citing more than one source at the same point, place them in the same parentheses, separated by a semi-colon.

(Jackson 41; Smith 150)

Same author, two or more works

If you cite multiple works by the same author, include a shortened title in each in-text citation to establish which work you are referring to. To avoid overly lengthy in-text citations, shorten the title to a simple noun phrase, or a few words.

The first example references Said's book, so the title is italicised. The second example references Said's journal article, so it is in quotation marks.

For more tips on how to abbreviate titles of sources, see 6.10 of the MLA Handbook .

..."the Orient was a scholar's word, signifying what modern Europe had recently made of the still peculiar East" (Said, Orientalism 92).

..."there is something basically unworkable or at least drastically changed about the traditional frameworks in which we study literature" (Said, "Globalizing Literary Study" 64).

Anonymous or no author

For works that are anonymously authored, or have no author, include a shortened version of the title in the in-text citation (do not list the author as "anonymous", nor as "anon.").

It has been argued that the hat symbolised freedom (Wandering Merchant 157).

Corporate author

Abbreviate terms that are commonly abbreviated (e.g. Department becomes Dept.), so as to not disrupt the flow of your text with overly long in-text citations.

If the corporate author is identified in the works-cited list by the names of administrative units separated by commas, give all the names in the parenthetical citation.

The Australian Research Council found that there are limited policies and procedures in place to manage foreign interference (4).

(Monash University 176)

Citing an author within another source

An indirect source is a source that is cited in another source. To quote this second-hand source, use “qtd. in” (quoted in), and then include the information of the source you actually consulted. Similarly, for the reference list use the source that you actually consulted (i.e. the indirect source). Keep in mind that it is good academic practice to seek out and use the original source, rather than the second-hand one, however this is not always possible.

For the below example, the student is using Petrarch's quote which is found in Hui. The page number refers to the source actually consulted (Hui), and the reference list would only list Hui, as shown below:

Hui, Andrew. The Poetics of Ruins in Renaissance Literature. Fordham UP, 2016.

For more information, see section 6.77 of the MLA Handbook .

Petrarch laments that Cicero’s manuscripts are “in such fragmentary and mutilated condition that it would perhaps have been better for them to have perished” (qtd. in Hui 4).

Author in a translation

If you think your audience would require a translation for your quoted material, then provide one. Give the source of the translation, as well as the source of the quote.

If you did the translation yourself, then insert my trans. where you would usually put the translation source, as shown in the example above.

If you're quoting in a language that does not use the Latin alphabet (Arabic, Chinese, Japanese, etc.), then consistently use the original writing system for your quotes or romanisation. Note that proper nouns are usually romanised.

For more information, see 6.75 Translations of Quotations in the MLA Style Guide .

Mme d'Aulnoy's heroine is "la chatte blanche" ("the white cat"; my trans.; 56)

Poetry - Short quotations

Quotations from poetry from part of a line up to three lines in length, which do not need particular emphasis, may be added, placed in quotation marks, within your text as part of a sentence. Use a slash with a space on either side ( / ) to indicate a new line of poetry.

If the poem you are referencing has line numbers, then omit page numbers all-together and cite by line number instead. Do not use the abbreviation l. or ll. , but instead in your first citation, use the word line, or lines as shown in the example below. After the first citation, it can be assumed that the numbers refer to lines, so you can include the numbers alone.

More's distress that she had not written about the problems of the slave trade earlier are expressed in the poem: "Whene'er to Afric's shores I turn my eyes, / Horrors of deepest, deadliest guilt arise" (line 5).

Poetry - Block quotations

When quoting a block of poetry, introduce it in the same manner as a prose block quotation, i.e. begin the quote on a new line and indent each line as below. There is no need to add quotation marks. A reference to the page or line number should be included in parenthesis at the end of the last line. If the original text is creatively spaced or indented, then try to replicate the original as best you can.

Judith Wright 's poetry explores the Australian environment:

And have we eaten in the heart of the yellow wheat the sullen unforgetting seed of fire? And now, set free by the climate of man's hate, that seed sets time ablaze (14)

If you quote the lines of more than one actor or if the piece you are quoting is long, the quotation should not be integrated into your text. The rules in MLA for presenting this text are:

  • Leave a line between your text and the quotation
  • Begin each part of the dialogue with the character's name, indented half an inch from the margin, in upper case and with a full-stop, e.g. BODYGUARDS.
  • Start dialogue after full-stop or match spacing shown in original source
  • Indent all dialogue an additional amount, as shown below
  • End each piece of dialogue with a full-stop
  • End the last line of the quotation with a full-stop and then add the section and line numbers in parentheses.

For more information, see section 6.40 of the MLA 9th Handbook .

TARTUFFE. Yes, my brother, I am a sinner, a guilty man. An unhappy sinner full of iniquity. (III. vi.)

In-text citation general checklist

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Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts

MLA Works Cited Page: Books

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MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (9 th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.

When you are gathering book sources, be sure to make note of the following bibliographic items: the author name(s), other contributors such as translators or editors, the book’s title, editions of the book, the publication date, the publisher, and the pagination.

The 8 th  edition of the MLA handbook highlights principles over prescriptive practices. Essentially, a writer will need to take note of primary elements in every source, such as author, title, etc. and then assort them in a general format. Thus, by using this methodology, a writer will be able to cite any source regardless of whether it’s included in this list.

Please note these changes in the new edition:

  • Commas are used instead of periods between Publisher, Publication Date, and Pagination.
  • Medium is no longer necessary.
  • Containers are now a part of the MLA process. Commas should be used after container titles.
  • DOIs should be used instead of URLS when available.
  • Use the term “Accessed” instead of listing the date or the abbreviation, “n.d."

Below is the general format for any citation:

Author. Title. Title of container (do not list container for standalone books, e.g. novels), Other contributors (translators or editors), Version (edition), Number (vol. and/or no.), Publisher, Publication Date, Location (pages, paragraphs URL or DOI). 2 nd  container’s title, Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date, Location, Date of Access (if applicable).

Basic Book Format

The author’s name or a book with a single author's name appears in last name, first name format. The basic form for a book citation is:

Last Name, First Name. Title of Book . City of Publication, Publisher, Publication Date.

* Note: the City of Publication should only be used if the book was published before 1900, if the publisher has offices in more than one country, or if the publisher is unknown in North America.

Book with One Author

Gleick, James. Chaos: Making a New Science . Penguin, 1987.

Henley, Patricia. The Hummingbird House . MacMurray, 1999.

Book with More Than One Author

When a book has two authors, order the authors in the same way they are presented in the book. Start by listing the first name that appears on the book in last name, first name format; subsequent author names appear in normal order (first name last name format).

Gillespie, Paula, and Neal Lerner. The Allyn and Bacon Guide to Peer Tutoring . Allyn and Bacon, 2000.

If there are three or more authors, list only the first author followed by the phrase et al. (Latin for "and others") in place of the subsequent authors' names. (Note that there is a period after “al” in “et al.” Also note that there is never a period after the “et” in “et al.”).

Wysocki, Anne Frances, et al. Writing New Media: Theory and Applications for Expanding the Teaching of Composition . Utah State UP, 2004.

Two or More Books by the Same Author

List works alphabetically by title. (Remember to ignore articles like A, An, and The.) Provide the author’s name in last name, first name format for the first entry only. For each subsequent entry by the same author, use three hyphens and a period.

Palmer, William J. Dickens and New Historicism . St. Martin's, 1997.

---. The Films of the Eighties: A Social History . Southern Illinois UP, 1993.

Book by a Corporate Author or Organization

A corporate author may include a commission, a committee, a government agency, or a group that does not identify individual members on the title page.

List the names of corporate authors in the place where an author’s name typically appears at the beginning of the entry.

American Allergy Association. Allergies in Children . Random House, 1998.

When the author and publisher are the same, skip the author, and list the title first. Then, list the corporate author only as the publisher.

Fair Housing—Fair Lending. Aspen Law & Business, 1985.

Book with No Author

List by title of the book. Incorporate these entries alphabetically just as you would with works that include an author name. For example, the following entry might appear between entries of works written by Dean, Shaun and Forsythe, Jonathan.

Encyclopedia of Indiana . Somerset, 1993.

Remember that for an in-text (parenthetical) citation of a book with no author, you should provide the name of the work in the signal phrase and the page number in parentheses. You may also use a shortened version of the title of the book accompanied by the page number. For more information see the In-text Citations for Print Sources with No Known Author section of In-text Citations: The Basics .

A Translated Book

If you want to emphasize the work rather than the translator, cite as you would any other book. Add “translated by” and follow with the name(s) of the translator(s).

Foucault, Michel. Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason . Translated by Richard Howard, Vintage-Random House, 1988.

If you want to focus on the translation, list the translator as the author. In place of the author’s name, the translator’s name appears. His or her name is followed by the label, “translator.” If the author of the book does not appear in the title of the book, include the name, with a “By” after the title of the book and before the publisher. Note that this type of citation is less common and should only be used for papers or writing in which translation plays a central role.

Howard, Richard, translator. Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason . By Michel Foucault, Vintage-Random House, 1988.

Republished Book

Books may be republished due to popularity without becoming a new edition. New editions are typically revisions of the original work. For books that originally appeared at an earlier date and that have been republished at a later one, insert the original publication date before the publication information.

For books that are new editions (i.e. different from the first or other editions of the book), see An Edition of a Book below.

Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble . 1990. Routledge, 1999.

Erdrich, Louise. Love Medicine . 1984. Perennial-Harper, 1993.

An Edition of a Book

There are two types of editions in book publishing: a book that has been published more than once in different editions and a book that is prepared by someone other than the author (typically an editor).

A Subsequent Edition

Cite the book as you normally would, but add the number of the edition after the title.

Crowley, Sharon, and Debra Hawhee. Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students . 3rd ed., Pearson, 2004.

A Work Prepared by an Editor

Cite the book as you normally would, but add the editor after the title with the label "edited by."

Bronte, Charlotte. Jane Eyre,  edited by Margaret Smith, Oxford UP, 1998.

Note that the format for citing sources with important contributors with editor-like roles follows the same basic template:

...adapted by John Doe...

Finally, in the event that the source features a contributor that cannot be described with a past-tense verb and the word "by" (e.g., "edited by"), you may instead use a noun followed by a comma, like so:

...guest editor, Jane Smith...

Anthology or Collection (e.g. Collection of Essays)

To cite the entire anthology or collection, list by editor(s) followed by a comma and "editor" or, for multiple editors, "editors." This sort of entry is somewhat rare. If you are citing a particular piece within an anthology or collection (more common), see A Work in an Anthology, Reference, or Collection below.

Hill, Charles A., and Marguerite Helmers, editors. Defining Visual Rhetorics . Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004.

Peterson, Nancy J., editor. Toni Morrison: Critical and Theoretical Approaches . Johns Hopkins UP, 1997.

A Work in an Anthology, Reference, or Collection

Works may include an essay in an edited collection or anthology, or a chapter of a book. The basic form is for this sort of citation is as follows:

Last name, First name. "Title of Essay." Title of Collection , edited by Editor's Name(s), Publisher, Year, Page range of entry.

Some examples:

Harris, Muriel. "Talk to Me: Engaging Reluctant Writers." A Tutor's Guide: Helping Writers One to One , edited by Ben Rafoth, Heinemann, 2000, pp. 24-34.

Swanson, Gunnar. "Graphic Design Education as a Liberal Art: Design and Knowledge in the University and The 'Real World.'" The Education of a Graphic Designer , edited by Steven Heller, Allworth Press, 1998, pp. 13-24.

Note on Cross-referencing Several Items from One Anthology: If you cite more than one essay from the same edited collection, MLA indicates you may cross-reference within your works cited list in order to avoid writing out the publishing information for each separate essay. You should consider this option if you have several references from a single text. To do so, include a separate entry for the entire collection listed by the editor's name as below:

Rose, Shirley K, and Irwin Weiser, editors. The Writing Program Administrator as Researcher . Heinemann, 1999.

Then, for each individual essay from the collection, list the author's name in last name, first name format, the title of the essay, the editor's last name, and the page range:

L'Eplattenier, Barbara. "Finding Ourselves in the Past: An Argument for Historical Work on WPAs." Rose and Weiser, pp. 131-40.

Peeples, Tim. "'Seeing' the WPA With/Through Postmodern Mapping." Rose and Weiser, pp. 153-67.

Please note: When cross-referencing items in the works cited list, alphabetical order should be maintained for the entire list.

Poem or Short Story Examples :

Burns, Robert. "Red, Red Rose." 100 Best-Loved Poems, edited by Philip Smith, Dover, 1995, p. 26.

Kincaid, Jamaica. "Girl." The Vintage Book of Contemporary American Short Stories , edited by Tobias Wolff, Vintage, 1994, pp. 306-07.

If the specific literary work is part of the author's own collection (all of the works have the same author), then there will be no editor to reference:

Whitman, Walt. "I Sing the Body Electric." Selected Poems, Dover, 1991, pp. 12-19.

Carter, Angela. "The Tiger's Bride." Burning Your Boats: The Collected Stories, Penguin, 1995, pp. 154-69.

Article in a Reference Book (e.g. Encyclopedias, Dictionaries)

For entries in encyclopedias, dictionaries, and other reference works, cite the entry name as you would any other work in a collection but do not include the publisher information. Also, if the reference book is organized alphabetically, as most are, do not list the volume or the page number of the article or item.

"Ideology." The American Heritage Dictionary.  3rd ed. 1997. 

A Multivolume Work

When citing only one volume of a multivolume work, include the volume number after the work's title, or after the work's editor or translator.

Quintilian. Institutio Oratoria . Translated by H. E. Butler, vol. 2, Loeb-Harvard UP, 1980.

When citing more than one volume of a multivolume work, cite the total number of volumes in the work. Also, be sure in your in-text citation to provide both the volume number and page number(s) ( see "Citing Multivolume Works" on our in-text citations resource .)

Quintilian. Institutio Oratoria . Translated by H. E. Butler, Loeb-Harvard UP, 1980. 4 vols.

If the volume you are using has its own title, cite the book without referring to the other volumes as if it were an independent publication.

Churchill, Winston S. The Age of Revolution . Dodd, 1957.

An Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterword

When citing an introduction, a preface, a foreword, or an afterword, write the name of the author(s) of the piece you are citing. Then give the name of the part being cited, which should not be italicized or enclosed in quotation marks; in italics, provide the name of the work and the name of the author of the introduction/preface/foreword/afterword. Finish the citation with the details of publication and page range.

Farrell, Thomas B. Introduction. Norms of Rhetorical Culture , by Farrell, Yale UP, 1993, pp. 1-13.

If the writer of the piece is different from the author of the complete work , then write the full name of the principal work's author after the word "By." For example, if you were to cite Hugh Dalziel Duncan’s introduction of Kenneth Burke’s book Permanence and Change, you would write the entry as follows:

Duncan, Hugh Dalziel. Introduction. Permanence and Change: An Anatomy of Purpose, by Kenneth Burke, 1935, 3rd ed., U of California P, 1984, pp. xiii-xliv.

Book Published Before 1900

Original copies of books published before 1900 are usually defined by their place of publication rather than the publisher. Unless you are using a newer edition, cite the city of publication where you would normally cite the publisher.

Thoreau, Henry David. Excursions . Boston, 1863.

Italicize “The Bible” and follow it with the version you are using. Remember that your in-text (parenthetical citation) should include the name of the specific edition of the Bible, followed by an abbreviation of the book, the chapter and verse(s). (See Citing the Bible at In-Text Citations: The Basics .)

The Bible. Authorized King James Version , Oxford UP, 1998.

The Bible. The New Oxford Annotated Version , 3rd ed., Oxford UP, 2001.

The New Jerusalem Bible. Edited by Susan Jones, Doubleday, 1985.

A Government Publication

Cite the author of the publication if the author is identified. Otherwise, start with the name of the national government, followed by the agency (including any subdivisions or agencies) that serves as the organizational author. For congressional documents, be sure to include the number of the Congress and the session when the hearing was held or resolution passed as well as the report number. US government documents are typically published by the Government Printing Office.

United States, Congress, Senate, Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. Hearing on the Geopolitics of Oil . Government Printing Office, 2007. 110th Congress, 1st session, Senate Report 111-8.

United States, Government Accountability Office. Climate Change: EPA and DOE Should Do More to Encourage Progress Under Two Voluntary Programs . Government Printing Office, 2006.

Cite the title and publication information for the pamphlet just as you would a book without an author. Pamphlets and promotional materials commonly feature corporate authors (commissions, committees, or other groups that does not provide individual group member names). If the pamphlet you are citing has no author, cite as directed below. If your pamphlet has an author or a corporate author, put the name of the author (last name, first name format) or corporate author in the place where the author name typically appears at the beginning of the entry. (See also Books by a Corporate Author or Organization above.)

Women's Health: Problems of the Digestive System . American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2006.

Your Rights Under California Welfare Programs . California Department of Social Services, 2007.

Dissertations and Master's Theses

Dissertations and master's theses may be used as sources whether published or not. Unlike previous editions, MLA 8 specifies no difference in style for published/unpublished works.

The main elements of a dissertation citation are the same as those for a book: author name(s), title (italicized) , and publication date. Conclude with an indication of the document type (e.g., "PhD dissertation"). The degree-granting institution may be included before the document type (though this is not required). If the dissertation was accessed through an online repository, include it as the second container after all the other elements.

Bishop, Karen Lynn. Documenting Institutional Identity: Strategic Writing in the IUPUI Comprehensive Campaign . 2002. Purdue University, PhD dissertation.

Bile, Jeffrey. Ecology, Feminism, and a Revised Critical Rhetoric: Toward a Dialectical Partnership . 2005. Ohio University, PhD dissertation.

Mitchell, Mark. The Impact of Product Quality Reducing Events on the Value of Brand-Name Capital: Evidence from Airline Crashes and the 1982 Tylenol Poisonings.  1987. PhD dissertation.  ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.

List the names of corporate authors in the place where an author’s name typically appears at the beginning of the entry if the author and publisher are not the same.

Fair Housing—Fair Lending. Aspen Law & Business, 1985.

How do I cite a video game?

To cite a video game, follow the template of core elements , as you would for any other source. Below we provide in-depth explanations for each element in a video game citation.

In establishing our guidance for citing video games, we consulted Eric Kaltman, Stacey Mason, and Noah Wardrip-Fruin’s “ The Game I Mean: Game Reference, Citation and Authoritative Access, ” and we encourage you to read their work for further discussion on the nuances of referring to and citing video games. 

Title of Source Element

Begin with the title of the video game. Always include the full title and subtitle of a game, like you do for any other titled source. 

The Witcher 3: Wild Hunt Final Fantasy XIII: Lightning Returns

Since game developers “are responsible for the game’s storyline and feel” (Zegarra), you may wonder why a works-cited-list entry for a game would begin with the game’s title, rather than with the game developer’s name in the Author element. The developer’s name is instead placed in the Publisher element, along with the publisher’s name. See the section on the Publisher element below for details.

Contributor Element

List the director of a video game in the Contributor slot, as you would a film director. Some games may not credit someone as a director, in which case you would not include that element in your entry.

Alan Wake 2 . Directed by Sam Lake and Kyle Rowley, Remedy Entertainment / Epic Games, 2023. Sony PlayStation 5 game. 

If you focus your discussion on a voice or motion capture actor’s performance in a video game, include the actor’s name along with the director’s in the Contributor element, the same way you would for actors in a film:

Death Stranding . Directed by Hideo Kojima, performances by Norman Reedus and Mads Mikkelsen, Kojima Productions / Sony Interactive Entertainment, 2019. Sony PlayStation 4 game.

Version Element

Modern games are frequently updated after they are released. Those updates, also known as patches, can result in significant differences in games, such as bug fixes or new game content. Including the version number is not required in your citation, but if the game’s version is relevant to your discussion (e.g., you are discussing how a patch added new content to a game), include the version or patch number in the Version element of your entry:

Alan Wake 2 . Directed by Sam Lake and Kyle Rowley, version 1.000.014, Remedy Entertainment / Epic Games, 2023. Sony PlayStation 5 game. 

Where you find the version number will vary based on the game or on the platform used to access a game. For example, recent game consoles often allow users to inspect a game file’s technical information, and the version number may be included in that type of information screen. So if you are using a recent game console, the console’s instruction manual may provide guidance on how to access that type of information about a game file. Another place you might find the version number is somewhere on a game’s start or title screen, though not all games display the version information there.

Publisher Element

Include a video game’s developer and publisher in the Publisher element of your entry. There are two reasons for including the developer in the Publisher element. First, a video game’s in-game credits or physical box might not make it clear how much input the game’s publisher also had in creating the creative elements of a game. 1 So including the game developer’s name and the publisher’s name together in the Publisher element eliminates any possible confusion about a publisher’s role. Second, it may be difficult to determine who is the publisher and who is the developer of a game when you are looking at the game. It’s possible that you might find text that says “Developed by” or “Published by” in a few different places: on the video game’s physical disc, on the back of its box, in its instruction booklet or manual, in the in-game start or title screen, in the in-game credits, and so on. However, some games, particularly ones that were created many years ago, may not include such identifying text. So including both names in the Publisher element eliminates the need for any guesswork.

If a game is developed and published by the same company, only one name would need to be included in the Publisher element, and if the developer and publisher are not the same company, separate the names with a slash.

Here is an entry for a game that was developed and published by the same company (Cyan):

Firmament . Cyan, 2023. Microsoft Windows game.

Here is an entry for a game that has a different developer and publisher (Next Level Games is the developer and Nintendo is the publisher):

Luigi’s Mansion 3 . Directed by Bryce Holliday, Next Level Games / Nintendo, 2019. Nintendo Switch game.

Some games may display the name of the developer or publisher near the name of its game engine, which “is a specialized piece of software that allows a development studio to combine all of their work into a finished product” (Martin).  In MLA style, you should not include the software that a work is built with or runs on in your works-cited-list entry, so the game engine name should not be included in your entry. If you are unsure whether a name is for a game engine or publisher, you may need to do a Google search to check. If the game engine was relevant to your discussion of the work, you could include that information in the body of your essay or in a note.

Publication Date Element

Include the year that the video game was published. Similar to the name of the game developer or publisher, you may find the publication date for a game in several different locations, such as the game’s physical disc or cartridge, on the back of its box, in its instruction booklet or manual, in the in-game start or title screen, or in the in-game credits.

Final Supplemental Element

Identify the platform you play a video game on (e.g., Sony PlayStation 5, Nintendo Switch, Windows PC, etc.) in the final supplemental element of your entry. That information is important in identifying the game that you are citing, since some games are released on multiple platforms simultaneously. Even if a game is exclusive to one platform when it is first released, games can be ported to different platforms later, so it is helpful to identify the platform even in those cases.

1. For an in-depth discussion of the similarities and differences between game developers and game publishers and their roles, see Zegarra.

Works Cited

Kaltman, Eric, et al. “The Game I Mean: Game Reference, Citation and Authoritative Access.” Games Studies , vol. 21, no. 3, Sept. 2021, gamestudies.org/2103/articles/kaltman_mason_wardripfruin.

Martin, Jennifer. “What Is a Game Engine?”  University of Silicon Valley , 20 Oct. 2020, usv.edu/blog/what-is-a-game-engine/.

Zegarra, Tomas. “Game Developers vs Game Publishers: What’s the Difference?”  HP , 19 July 2020, www.hp.com/us-en/shop/tech-takes/game-developers-vs-game-publishers.

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  • Knowledge Base

Author Names in MLA | Citing One or Multiple Authors

Published on March 27, 2019 by Courtney Gahan . Revised on October 3, 2023 by Shona McCombes.

In MLA style , up to two authors are included in a citation. For sources with more than two authors, the citation is shortened with “ et al. ”

In the Works Cited list , the first author’s name is inverted (surname followed by first name). In an MLA in-text citation , only surnames are included.

The author element specifies the main creator of the source. For audiovisual sources, this may be the director, composer, or painter, for example. The author may also be an organization.

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Table of contents

Sources with multiple authors, sources with corporate authors, sources with no author, citing contributors other than authors, double surnames, hyphens, titles, and suffixes, pseudonyms and simplified names, foreign-language names, frequently asked questions about authors in mla.

For each source, list the authors in the order they appear in the source itself ( not in alphabetical order).

Multiple authors in the Works Cited

The first author’s name is always inverted. The last name comes first, followed by a comma, then the first name (and any middle initials, if relevant).

When there are two authors , the second author’s name is not inverted:

When there are three or more authors , only list the first author, followed by a comma and “et al.”:

Multiple authors in in-text citations

In an MLA in-text citation, you may name the author either in parentheses or in the main text.

When there are two authors , simply cite both surnames, separated by “and”.

When there are  three or more authors , cite the first author’s surname followed by “et al.” if the citation appears in parentheses. If you cite in the main text, instead of “et al.”, write “and colleagues” or “and others”.

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mla citing website without author

Sometimes sources are created by corporate authors, such as institutions, government agencies, and other organizations, with no individual authors credited. In this case, simply cite the name of the organization in place of the author name.

When citing corporate authors, omit articles (the/a/an) at the start of organization names.

In this example, the publisher is separate from the organization. Sometimes, an organization is both the author and the publisher. In this situation, do not list the organization as author. Instead, start the citation with the source title , and list the organization as the publisher only.

Publications from government agencies

If you are citing a publication from a government agency, start with the name of the government and follow with the name of the agency. Always arrange the entities from largest to smallest.

Note that in the in-text citation, you should abbreviate names longer than four words.

If a source does not specify any author, begin the reference with the title of the work . In the in-text citation, if the title is longer than four words, abbreviate it to the first noun phrase, and ensure that the first word matches the first word of the Works Cited entry.

Some sources are created by many different people. If your discussion of the source focuses on the contribution of someone other than the main author (e.g. when analyzing an actor’s performance or comparing translations of a text), you may cite them in the author position with a label specifying their role (e.g. performer or translator). Don’t include this label in the in-text citation.

Citing the editor of a collection

Usually, when citing an edited collection, you should cite the author of the specific chapter or work . However, if you want to cite an entire collection or anthology, cite the editor(s) in the author position, followed by a label specifying their role. Don’t include the label in the in-text citation.

Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.

If an author has more than one surname, include all of them in the surname position. For example, Federico Garcia Lorca would be listed in the works cited as Garcia Lorca, Federico , and in an in-text citation as ( Garcia Lorca ).

If there is a hyphen in the author’s name, keep the hyphen exactly as it appears in the source.

Do not include titles, affiliations, and degrees in source citations. For example, Sir Walter Scott would be listed as Scott, Walter .

If an author has a name with an essential suffix (one that distinguishes them from identically named members of the same family, such as “Jr.” or a roman numeral), include this at the end of the name. For example, John D. Rockefeller IV would be listed as Rockefeller, John D., IV .

When writing in MLA, it is acceptable to use pseudonyms and simplified names of famous authors. It’s usually best to list all of an author’s works under one consistent name, even if different names appear in the sources themselves.

Commonly accepted pseudonyms and simplified names include:

  • Dante Alighieri → Dante
  • Mary Ann Evans → George Eliot
  • Samuel Clemens → Mark Twain

Names from languages that do not use the Latin alphabet, such as Chinese or Russian, may vary in spelling. If this is the case, find the most authoritative variant (i.e. the variant favored by an authoritative source, such as an academic or government publication) and apply that throughout your Works Cited list and in-text citations.

Asian languages

In Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese, the author name will often appear with the surname first, followed by the first name. In this case, do not include a comma between the surname and first name when creating the source reference, as the name is already inverted.

The various articles in French have different rules, which can even depend on the number of syllables in the name.

* English-language context means when the author writes in English but happens to have a French name.

For German names, von is usually considered part of the first name. However, in an English-language context, the von stays with the surname. For example, Von Trapp, Maria .

For Italian names, da , de , del , della , di and d’ are capitalized and treated as part of the surname. For example, Di Costanzo, Angelo .

For Spanish names, de is not treated as part of the surname. For example, Rueda, Lope de . However, del stays with the surname and is always capitalized. For example, Del Rio, Angel .

You may come across some Spanish authors with more than one surname. Often these authors are commonly known by one part of their surname, but you must include the entire last name—and alphabetize according to that—in your Works Cited list. For example, Garcia Lorca, Federico (commonly known as Lorca).

If a source has two authors, name both authors in your MLA in-text citation and Works Cited entry. If there are three or more authors, name only the first author, followed by et al.

If a source has no author, start the MLA Works Cited entry with the source title . Use a shortened version of the title in your MLA in-text citation .

If a source has no page numbers, you can use an alternative locator (e.g. a chapter number, or a timestamp for a video or audio source) to identify the relevant passage in your in-text citation. If the source has no numbered divisions, cite only the author’s name (or the title).

If you already named the author or title in your sentence, and there is no locator available, you don’t need a parenthetical citation:

  • Rajaram  argues that representations of migration are shaped by “cultural, political, and ideological interests.”
  • The homepage of The Correspondent describes it as “a movement for radically different news.”

A standard MLA Works Cited entry  is structured as follows:

Only include information that is available for and relevant to your source.

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If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

Gahan, C. (2023, October 03). Author Names in MLA | Citing One or Multiple Authors. Scribbr. Retrieved February 15, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/mla/authors/

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  1. Cite Online Article Mla No Author

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  2. MLA Formatting: How to Cite a Webpage without an Author

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  5. Mla in text citation no author

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  6. Websites

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  2. Citing Books in MLA

  3. Citing Books in MLA 9th Edition

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COMMENTS

  1. How do I cite a source that has no author?

    When a work is published without an author's name, begin the works-cited-list entry with the title of the work. Do not use Anonymous in place of an author's name: "English Language Arts Standards." Common Core State Standards Initiative, 2017, www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/. "An Homily against Disobedience and Wylful Rebellion." 1570.

  2. MLA In-Text Citations: The Basics

    MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the page number (s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page.

  3. How to Cite a Website in MLA

    Revised on January 17, 2024. An MLA website citation includes the author's name, the title of the page (in quotation marks), the name of the website (in italics), the publication date, and the URL (without "https://"). If the author is unknown, start with the title of the page instead.

  4. MLA Works Cited: Electronic Sources (Web Publications)

    Cite Using citation machines responsibly Powered by Best Practices for Managing Online Sources Because online information can change or disappear, it is always a good idea to keep personal copies of important electronic information whenever possible. Downloading or even printing key documents ensures you have a stable backup.

  5. How to Cite a Website with No Author

    "Giant Panda" (2022) MLA 9 Works Cited Entry Template: "Title of the Webpage/Entry." Title of the Website, Name of the publisher (if different from the website name), Date of publication, URL. Example: "Taiwan Cool to China Panda-plomacy." CNN.com, 6 Jan. 2006, http://www.cnn.com/2006/WORLD/asiapcf/01/06/china.taiwan.ap/index.html

  6. MLA

    A citation on an MLA works cited page usually begins with the last name of the source's author. However, there are times when an author isn't stated. There are also times when instead of an individual, an organization or company is stated as the author. The guidelines below follow rules from the 9th edition of the MLA Handbook. No Author in MLA

  7. MLA Citation Guide (9th Edition): No Author, No Date etc

    How Do I Cite? In-Text Citation Works Quoted in Another Source Works Cited List & Sample Paper On this Page What To Do When Information is Missing No Author If no author or creator is provided, start the citation with the title of the source you are citing instead. Do not use "Anonymous" as the author's name.

  8. MLA In-text Citations

    Revised on May 19, 2022. An MLA in-text citation provides the author's last name and a page number in parentheses. If a source has two authors, name both. If a source has more than two authors, name only the first author, followed by " et al. " If the part you're citing spans multiple pages, include the full page range.

  9. How to Cite a Website in MLA

    How to Cite a Website in MLA: A Complete Guide | EasyBib Citations Certain features require a modern browser to function. Please use a different browser, like Chrome Citation Generator APA Citation Generator MLA Citation Generator Harvard Referencing Generator Writing Resources Grammar Guides Plagiarism Guide Writing a Paper Videos & Infographics

  10. Research Guides: MLA 8 Citation Guide: No Author

    If no author name is given, but the page is from a domain that includes .org, you may be able to list the name of the organization as the author, like this: Reference list: Name of Organization Title of Web Document. Title of Website, Date if given, URL of specific document. Access date if advisable. Example:

  11. How should a website with no author or clear ...

    If a website has no author or it is unclear what organization produced it, use the title of the site in your in-text citation. You might, however, think twice about using a source when you do not know who is responsible for its content. Filed Under: anonymous works, in-text citations, websites Published 9 May 2018

  12. How To Cite a Website Without an Author: APA, MLA, and ...

    How To Cite a Website Without an Author: APA, MLA, and Chicago Style by Quetext Posted on April 19, 2022April 15, 2022 How To Cite a Website Without an Author: APA, MLA, and Chicago Style Today, a staggering majority of our information is found online. In fact, it's rare not to head to the internet when you start researching a topic.

  13. MLA citations when there is no author

    For the works cited list, you can start the reference with the title of the source when the author's name is not listed. Books with no authors listed. In-text citation format and example: (Title of the book page number) (Norse Tales of Legends 22) Works cited list citation template and example: Title of the book: Subtitle. Publisher, Year.

  14. Citing a website in MLA style

    Webpage with an individual author. When citing websites, MLA usually requires you to abbreviate the names of months to three letters. For example, January becomes Jan. Author Last Name, First Name. "Title.". Title of Site, Sponsor or Publisher [include only if different from website title or author], Day Month Year, URL.

  15. Research Guides: MLA Citation (7th edition): Citing a Website

    Every Monday: Saurwein 232 Tuesday-Sunday in Campus Center 313: The Owen Center In Text Citations For an overview of the ways to cite electronic information in text in MLA style, see the Purdue OWL, which provides an overview of the basic in text citation formats. Basic Website Citation

  16. Citing a Website Without Authors

    How to cite a web page in MLA style with no author Formula: "Title of the Article or Individual Page." Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL. Example: "Facts About Giant Pandas." Smithsonian National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institute, 2004, www.nationalzoo.si.edu/animals/giantpandas/pandafacts.

  17. MLA Formatting and Style Guide

    MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (9 th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.

  18. Free MLA Citation Generator

    MLA is one of the most common citation styles used by students and academics. This quick guide explains how to cite sources according to the 9th edition (the most recent) of the MLA Handbook. You can also use Scribbr's free citation generator to automatically generate references and in-text citations. An MLA citation has two components:

  19. Free MLA Citation Generator [Updated for 2024]

    An MLA citation generator is a software tool designed to automatically create academic citations in the Modern Language Association (MLA) citation format. The generator will take information such as document titles, author, and URLs as in input, and output fully formatted citations that can be inserted into the Works Cited page of an MLA ...

  20. MLA Citation Guide (8th Edition): No author, no date etc

    No Author. If no author or creator is provided, start the citation with the title of the source you are citing instead. Use the first one, two, or three main words from the title, in either italics or in "quotation marks" (the same way it is written in your Works Cited list). You should provide enough words to make it clear which work you're ...

  21. How do I cite a source with no date in MLA style?

    Scribbr, www.scribbr.com/category/mla/. Accessed 28 Mar. 2021. For offline sources with no publication date shown, don't use an access date—just leave out the date. Frequently asked questions: MLA Style When should I use footnotes in MLA style? Should I use footnotes to cite sources in MLA style? How should I format the Works Cited page?

  22. In-text citation

    If two or more works by the same author appear in the Works cited list, add a title to your in-text citation, e.g. author mentioned in text: (Beloved 35), author's name and title in text: (35), author's name and title not included in text (Morrison, Beloved 35).

  23. MLA Works Cited Page: Books

    Cite book Using citation machines responsibly Powered by Please note these changes in the new edition: Commas are used instead of periods between Publisher, Publication Date, and Pagination. Medium is no longer necessary. Containers are now a part of the MLA process. Commas should be used after container titles.

  24. How do I cite a video game?

    To cite a video game, follow the template of core elements, as you would for any other source.Below we provide in-depth explanations for each element in a video game citation. In establishing our guidance for citing video games, we consulted Eric Kaltman, Stacey Mason, and Noah Wardrip-Fruin's "The Game I Mean: Game Reference, Citation and Authoritative Access," and we encourage you to ...

  25. Author Names in MLA

    When there are two authors, simply cite both surnames, separated by "and". When there are three or more authors, cite the first author's surname followed by "et al." if the citation appears in parentheses. If you cite in the main text, instead of "et al.", write "and colleagues" or "and others". Number of authors.