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Words that introduce Quotes or Paraphrases

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Remember that you are required to cite your sources for paraphrases and direct quotes. For more information on MLA Style, APA style, Chicago Style, ASA Style, CSE Style, and I-Search Format, refer to our Gallaudet TIP Citations and References  link.

Words that introduce Quotes or Paraphrases are basically three keys verbs:

  • Neutral Verbs( here )
  • Stronger Verbs( here )
  • Inference Verbs( here )

Neutral Verbs: When used to introduce a quote, the following verbs basically mean “says”

Examples of Neutral Verbs

The author  says. The author  notes. The author  believes. The author  observes. The author  comments. The author  relates. The author  declares. The author  remarks. The author  discusses. The author  reports. The author  explains. The author  reveals. The author  expresses. The author  states. The author  mentions. The author  acknowledges. The author  suggests. The author  thinks. The author  points out. The author  responds. The author  shows. The author  confirms.

Sample Sentences

  • Dr. Billow  says  that being exposed to television violence at a young age desensitizes children to violence in real life (author’s last name p.##).
  • As the author  notes , “In an ideal classroom, both gifted children and learning disabled children should feel challenged” (p.##).
  • Burdow  believes  that being able to write using proper English grammar is an important skill (author’s last name p.##).
  • Dr. Patel  observes  that “most people tend to respond well to hypnotherapy” (p. ##).
  • We see this self doubt again in the second scene, when Agatha comments , “Oh, times like this I just don’t know whether I am right or wrong, good or bad” (p. ##).
  • Goeff then relates  that his childhood was “the time he learned to live on less than bread alone” (p. ##).
  • The author declares , “All people, rich or poor, should pay the same taxes to the government” (p. ##).
  • Godfried remarks , “Ignorance is a skill learned by many of the greatest fools” (author’s last name p.##).
  • The article discusses the qualities of a good American housewife in the 1950s (author’s last name p.##).
  • After the war is over, the General reports that “It seemed a useless battle to fight even from the start” (p.##).
  • Danelli explains , “All mammals have hair” (p.##).
  • The author reveals his true feelings with his ironic remark that we should “just resort to cannibalism to defeat world hunger” (p. ##).
  • Forton expresses disapproval of the American welfare system (author’s last name, year, p. ##).
  • The author states that “More than fifty percent of all marriages end in divorce” (p. ##).
  • He also mentions , “Many children grow up feeling responsible for their parents’ mistakes” (p. ##).
  • Jones acknowledges that although the divorce rate is increasing, most young children still dream of getting married (author’s last name, year, p. ##).
  • The author suggests that we hone our English skills before venturing into the work force (author’s last name, year, p. ##).
  • The author thinks that the recent weather has been too hot (author’s last name, year, p. ##).
  • Folsh points out that there were hundreds of people from varying backgrounds at the convention (author’s last name, year, p. ##).
  • Julia Hertz responded to allegations that her company was aware of the faulty tires on their cars (author’s last name, year, p. ##).
  • His research shows that 7% of Americans suffer from Social Anxiety Disorder (author’s last name, year, p. ##).
  • Jostin’s research confirmed his earlier hypothesis: mice really are smarter than rats (author’s last, year, name p. ##).

Stronger Verbs: These verbs indicate that there is some kind of argument, and that the quote shows either support of or disagreement with one side of the argument.

Examples of Stronger Verbs The author agrees . . .The author rejects . The author argues . The author compares . (the two studies) The author asserts . The author admits . The author cautions . The author disputes . The author emphasizes . The author contends . The author insists . The author denies . The author maintains . The author refutes . The author claims . The author endorses .

Sample Sentences MLA Style

  • Despite criticism, Johnston agrees that smoking should be banned in all public places (author’s last name p.##).
  • The author argues that “subjecting non-smokers to toxic second-hand smoke is not only unfair, but a violation of their right to a safe environment” (p.##).
  • Vick asserts that “cigarette smoke is unpleasant, and dangerous” (p.##).
  • The author cautions that “people who subject themselves to smoky bars night after night could develop illnesses such as emphysema or lung cancer” (p.##).
  • Rosentrhaw emphasizes that “second-hand smoke can kill” (p.##).
  • Still, tobacco company executives insist that they “were not fully aware of the long term damages caused by smoking” when they launched their nationwide advertising campaign (author’s last name p.##).
  • Though bar owners disagree, Johnston maintains that banning smoking in all public places will not negatively affect bar business (author’s last name p.##).
  • Jefferson claims that banning smoking in public places will hurt America’s economy (author’s last name p.##).
  • Johnson refutes allegations that his personal finances have been in trouble for the past five years (author’s last name, year, p. ##).
  • Whiley rejects the idea that the earth could have been formed by a massive explosion in space (author’s last name, year, p. ##).
  • Lucci compares the house prices in Maryland, Virginia, and the District of Columbia (author’s last name, year, p. ##).
  • Although they have stopped short of admitting that smoking causes cancer in humans, tobacco companies have admitted that “smoking causes cancer in laboratory rats” (p. ##).
  • For years, local residents have been disputing the plans to build a new highway right through the center of town (author’s last name, year, p. ##).
  • Residents contend that the new highway will lower property values (author’s last name, year, p. ##).
  • The Department of Transportation denies claims that the new bridge will damage the fragile ecosystem of the Potomac River (author’s last name, year, p. ##).
  • Joley endorses the bridge, saying “our goal is to make this city more accessible to those who live outside of it” (p. ##).

Inference Verbs: These verbs indicate that there is some kind of argument, and that the quote shows either support of or disagreement with one side of the argument. Examples of Inference Verbs The author implies . The author suggests . The author thinks . Sample Sentences MLA Style

  • By calling them ignorant, the author implies that they were unschooled and narrow minded (author’s last name p.##).
  • Her preoccupation with her looks suggests that she is too superficial to make her a believable character (author’s last name p.##).
  • Based on his research, we can assume Hatfield thinks that our treatment of our environment has been careless (author’s last name p.##).

One phrase that is often used to introduce a quotation is: According to the author, . . .

  • According to the author, children with ADD have a shorter attention span than children without ADD (author’s last name, year, p. ##).

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  • Transition Words & Phrases | List & Examples

Transition Words & Phrases | List & Examples

Published on May 29, 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on August 23, 2023.

Transition words and phrases (also called linking words, connecting words, or transitional words) are used to link together different ideas in your text. They help the reader to follow your arguments by expressing the relationships between different sentences or parts of a sentence.

The proposed solution to the problem did not work. Therefore , we attempted a second solution. However , this solution was also unsuccessful.

For clear writing, it’s essential to understand the meaning of transition words and use them correctly.

Table of contents

When and how to use transition words, types and examples of transition words, common mistakes with transition words, other interesting articles.

Transition words commonly appear at the start of a new sentence or clause (followed by a comma ), serving to express how this clause relates to the previous one.

Transition words can also appear in the middle of a clause. It’s important to place them correctly to convey the meaning you intend.

Example text with and without transition words

The text below describes all the events it needs to, but it does not use any transition words to connect them. Because of this, it’s not clear exactly how these different events are related or what point the author is making by telling us about them.

If we add some transition words at appropriate moments, the text reads more smoothly and the relationship among the events described becomes clearer.

Germany invaded Poland on September 1, 1939. Consequently , France and the United Kingdom declared war on Germany. The Soviet Union initially worked with Germany in order to partition Poland. However , Germany invaded the Soviet Union in 1941.

Don’t overuse transition words

While transition words are essential to clear writing, it’s possible to use too many of them. Consider the following example, in which the overuse of linking words slows down the text and makes it feel repetitive.

In this case the best way to fix the problem is to simplify the text so that fewer linking words are needed.

The key to using transition words effectively is striking the right balance. It is difficult to follow the logic of a text with no transition words, but a text where every sentence begins with a transition word can feel over-explained.

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There are four main types of transition word: additive, adversative, causal, and sequential. Within each category, words are divided into several more specific functions.

Remember that transition words with similar meanings are not necessarily interchangeable. It’s important to understand the meaning of all the transition words you use. If unsure, consult a dictionary to find the precise definition.

Additive transition words

Additive transition words introduce new information or examples. They can be used to expand upon, compare with, or clarify the preceding text.

Adversative transition words

Adversative transition words always signal a contrast of some kind. They can be used to introduce information that disagrees or contrasts with the preceding text.

Causal transition words

Causal transition words are used to describe cause and effect. They can be used to express purpose, consequence, and condition.

Sequential transition words

Sequential transition words indicate a sequence, whether it’s the order in which events occurred chronologically or the order you’re presenting them in your text. They can be used for signposting in academic texts.

Transition words are often used incorrectly. Make sure you understand the proper usage of transition words and phrases, and remember that words with similar meanings don’t necessarily work the same way grammatically.

Misused transition words can make your writing unclear or illogical. Your audience will be easily lost if you misrepresent the connections between your sentences and ideas.

Confused use of therefore

“Therefore” and similar cause-and-effect words are used to state that something is the result of, or follows logically from, the previous. Make sure not to use these words in a way that implies illogical connections.

  • We asked participants to rate their satisfaction with their work from 1 to 10. Therefore , the average satisfaction among participants was 7.5.

The use of “therefore” in this example is illogical: it suggests that the result of 7.5 follows logically from the question being asked, when in fact many other results were possible. To fix this, we simply remove the word “therefore.”

  • We asked participants to rate their satisfaction with their work from 1 to 10. The average satisfaction among participants was 7.5.

Starting a sentence with also , and , or so

While the words “also,” “and,” and “so” are used in academic writing, they are considered too informal when used at the start of a sentence.

  • Also , a second round of testing was carried out.

To fix this issue, we can either move the transition word to a different point in the sentence or use a more formal alternative.

  • A second round of testing was also carried out.
  • Additionally , a second round of testing was carried out.

Transition words creating sentence fragments

Words like “although” and “because” are called subordinating conjunctions . This means that they introduce clauses which cannot stand on their own. A clause introduced by one of these words should always follow or be followed by another clause in the same sentence.

The second sentence in this example is a fragment, because it consists only of the “although” clause.

  • Smith (2015) argues that the period should be reassessed. Although other researchers disagree.

We can fix this in two different ways. One option is to combine the two sentences into one using a comma. The other option is to use a different transition word that does not create this problem, like “however.”

  • Smith (2015) argues that the period should be reassessed, although other researchers disagree.
  • Smith (2015) argues that the period should be reassessed. However , other researchers disagree.

And vs. as well as

Students often use the phrase “ as well as ” in place of “and,” but its usage is slightly different. Using “and” suggests that the things you’re listing are of equal importance, while “as well as” introduces additional information that is less important.

  • Chapter 1 discusses some background information on Woolf, as well as presenting my analysis of To the Lighthouse .

In this example, the analysis is more important than the background information. To fix this mistake, we can use “and,” or we can change the order of the sentence so that the most important information comes first. Note that we add a comma before “as well as” but not before “and.”

  • Chapter 1 discusses some background information on Woolf and presents my analysis of To the Lighthouse .
  • Chapter 1 presents my analysis of To the Lighthouse , as well as discussing some background information on Woolf.

Note that in fixed phrases like “both x and y ,” you must use “and,” not “as well as.”

  • Both my results as well as my interpretations are presented below.
  • Both my results and my interpretations are presented below.

Use of and/or

The combination of transition words “and/or” should generally be avoided in academic writing. It makes your text look messy and is usually unnecessary to your meaning.

First consider whether you really do mean “and/or” and not just “and” or “or.” If you are certain that you need both, it’s best to separate them to make your meaning as clear as possible.

  • Participants were asked whether they used the bus and/or the train.
  • Participants were asked whether they used the bus, the train, or both.

Archaic transition words

Words like “hereby,” “therewith,” and most others formed by the combination of “here,” “there,” or “where” with a preposition are typically avoided in modern academic writing. Using them makes your writing feel old-fashioned and strained and can sometimes obscure your meaning.

  • Poverty is best understood as a disease. Hereby , we not only see that it is hereditary, but acknowledge its devastating effects on a person’s health.

These words should usually be replaced with a more explicit phrasing expressing how the current statement relates to the preceding one.

  • Poverty is best understood as a disease. Understanding it as such , we not only see that it is hereditary, but also acknowledge its devastating effects on a person’s health.

Using a paraphrasing tool for clear writing

With the use of certain tools, you can make your writing clear. One of these tools is a paraphrasing tool . One thing the tool does is help your sentences make more sense. It has different modes where it checks how your text can be improved. For example, automatically adding transition words where needed.

If you want to know more about AI for academic writing, AI tools, or writing rules make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

 Academic Writing

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Other students also liked, using conjunctions | definition, rules & examples, transition sentences | tips & examples for clear writing, how to write topic sentences | 4 steps, examples & purpose, what is your plagiarism score.

IMAGES

  1. Linking words and phrases to improve your English writing skills

    paraphrase linking words

  2. 120+ Linking Words and Phrases in English

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  3. Linking Words and Transitional Phrases in English

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  4. Useful Linking Words for Writing Essay in English

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  5. How To Paraphrase In Six Easy Steps

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  6. Linking Words Chart in English

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VIDEO

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  5. HOW TO PARAPHRASE

  6. Discussion Text and Linking Words

COMMENTS

  1. Paraphrasing Tool

    QuillBot's AI-powered paraphrasing tool will enhance your writing. Your words matter, and our paraphrasing tool is designed to ensure you use the right ones. With unlimited Custom modes and 8 predefined modes, Paraphraser lets you rephrase text countless ways.

  2. Words that introduce Quotes or Paraphrases

    Words that introduce Quotes or Paraphrases are basically three keys verbs: Neutral Verbs ( here) Stronger Verbs ( here) Inference Verbs ( here) Neutral Verbs: When used to introduce a quote, the following verbs basically mean “says”.

  3. Paraphrasing Tool

    Advertisement Paraphrasing Tool Paraphraser is the best AI paraphrasing tool that helps you accurately paraphrase sentences, paragraphs, and essays using state-of-the-art technology. Features of Paraphraser

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    Text Summarizer Summarize your paraphrased text AI Proofreader Fix your entire paper in minutes Plagiarism Checker Avoid accidental plagiarism Proofreading & Editing by professional proofreaders Avoid plagiarism in your paraphrased text Free assessment People are in love with our paraphrasing tool What's a paraphrasing tool?

  5. Transition Words & Phrases

    Transition words and phrases (also called linking words, connecting words, or transitional words) are used to link together different ideas in your text. They help the reader to follow your arguments by expressing the relationships between different sentences or parts of a sentence. Transition words example