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In This Article Expand or collapse the "in this article" section Cultural Heritage Presentation and Interpretation

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  • General Audiences

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Cultural Heritage Presentation and Interpretation by John H. Jameson LAST MODIFIED: 24 February 2021 DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199766567-0262

With conceptual roots going back to the first half of the 20th century, the public interpretation and presentation of cultural and archaeological heritage have become essential components in the conservation and protection of cultural heritage values and sites. By the early 21st century, the mechanisms and processes of public interpretation had reached a heightened level of sophistication and effectiveness. In the international arena, many leading organizations have emerged that are carrying the banner of interpretation principles for access, inclusion, and respect for multiple points of view. These principles emphasize the importance of dialogue facilitated by community engagement experts / laypersons, and participation in all phases of program planning, development, and delivery. Conventions and charters have been two of the most used categories of international documents to frame standards and guidelines for cultural and archaeological heritage management and presentation. International documents that specifically addressed the presentation and interpretation of archaeological heritage did not take shape until the late 20th century. The most important international document, to date, relating to interpretation and presentation of archaeological heritage sites is the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) Charter on the Interpretation and Presentation of Cultural Heritage Sites (2008). The charter lays out seven principles of interpretation and presentation about the conservation, education, and stewardship messages that represent the transcendent humanistic values of the resource. The concept of authenticity has become a central concern in the conservation and interpretation of cultural heritage. The Nara Document of 1994 ( ICOMOS 1994 , cited under Guidelines and Charters ) built on the Venice Charter ( ICOMOS 1965 , cited under Guidelines and Charters ), considering an expanding scope of cultural heritage concerns. It addresses the need for a broader understanding of cultural diversity and cultural heritage and underscores the importance of considering the cultural and social values of all societies. It emphasizes respect for other cultures, other values, and the tangible and intangible expressions that form part of the heritage of every culture. The Nara+20 text identifies five key interrelated issues highlighting prioritized actions to be developed and expanded within global, national, and local contexts by wider community and stakeholder involvement: (1) diversity of heritage processes, (2) implications of the evolution of cultural values, (3) involvement of multiple stakeholders, (4) conflicting claims and interpretations, and (5) the role of cultural heritage in sustainable development. The goal of more-inclusive interpretations requires an acceptance of divergent definitions of authenticity that depend on a level of tolerance of multiple definitions of significance with concomitant, objectively derived, assigned, and ascribed heritage values. We can hope that these efforts lead to the recognition of humanistic values that are reflected in cultural heritage narratives and heritage tourism practices as well as site commemoration and protection decisions by controlling authorities.

There are few overviews of the practice and methods of cultural heritage interpretation and presentation. Tilden 1957 pioneeringly laid down the main principles of interpretation (cultural and natural), built around the tenet of audience provocation, which have been generally followed ever since, albeit some early-21st-century scholars espouse the notion beyond Freeman Tilden’s principles of interpretation as a form of discourse within the wider community ( Silberman 2013 ). Beck and Cable 2002 , Ham 1992 , and Ham 2013 further refined the standards and examples for interpretation. Jameson 2020 covers the philosophical approaches and techniques exemplified by leading international organizations that have led to more-effective strategies for site protection and cultural heritage interpretation through enhanced public stewardship. The decades since the late 20th century have witnessed a dynamic period of evolving standards and philosophy in public archaeology and heritage interpretation. Philosophical approaches and techniques exemplified by the US National Park Service’s Interpretive Development Plan (IDP) program, the National Association for Interpretation’s (NAI’s) Certification & Training Program, and Interpret Europe’s European projects on heritage interpretation have formed a basis for the development of international definitions, standards, and collaborative approaches that lead to more-effective strategies for site protection and interpretation through enhanced public stewardship. Ham 2013 and Larsen 2011 are good examples of these broad overviews. A concentration on cultural (apart from natural) heritage interpretation has been supported by the US National Park Service (NPS) ( National Park Service 2019 ). Discussions on issues such as authenticity and inclusiveness continue to dominate international debates about the significance and proper use of sites ( ICOMOS 1994 , cited under Guidelines and Charters ). The challenges for international relevance and application posed by the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) Ename Charter initiative ( ICOMOS 2008 , cited under Guidelines and Charters ) form the center of future debates and deliberations. Silberman 2013 outlines the movement away from a “Tildenian conception of ‘heritage’” as an unquestioned good that can be unproblematically interpreted and a strictly didactic approach to a new paradigm that calls for heritage interpretation to be an informed and inclusive group activity, a facilitated dialogue among professionals and nonprofessionals. Smith 2006 and Smith 2012 contend that heritage is how the past becomes “active and alive” in the present, where authenticity is a key and underlying concept in community practice. The author rejects the Western notion of heritage as material fabric where the dominant “authorized heritage discourse” (AHD) is concomitant with the traditional power and knowledge relationships of technical experts.

Beck, Larry, and Ted T. Cable. 2002. Interpretation for the 21st century: Fifteen guiding principles for interpreting nature and culture . 2d ed. Champaign, IL: Sagamore.

This volume is a main reference for professional interpreters that enhances the reader’s understanding of how to interpret cultural and natural heritage. The fifteen guiding principles in this book assist anyone who works in parks, forests, wildlife refuges, zoos, museums, historical areas, nature centers, and tourism sites to conduct their work more effectively. The book serves as inspirational reading for students internationally and has been translated into Chinese.

Ham, Sam H. 1992. Environmental interpretation: A practical guide for people with big ideas and small budgets . Golden, CO: Fulcrum.

This is the first major “how to” book on public interpretation with an emphasis on environmental heritage. Written for those with limited resources, and drawing on decades of his own experience and his colleagues worldwide, Ham presents an unusually diverse collection of low-cost, effective techniques that really work. Readers learn how to communicate ideas more forcefully, and why these methods work. It is written for laypersons and experts alike.

Ham, Sam H. 2013. Interpretation: Making a difference on purpose . Golden, CO: Fulcrum..

This is an update to Ham’s seminal 1992 Environmental Interpretation on general interpretation methods and practice. He draws on then-recent advances in communication research and introduces the concept of the zone of tolerance (i.e., whether the thoughts expressed by the audience are within interpreter’s zone of tolerance or acceptance; if so, some changes are required in the interpreter’s approach). The book provides real-world solutions to practicing interpreters and for evaluating success.

Jameson, John H. 2020. Cultural heritage interpretation . In Encyclopedia of global archaeology . 2d ed. Edited by Claire Smith. Cham, Switzerland: Springer.

This is a comprehensive overview outlining a dynamic period from previous decades of evolving standards and philosophy. The article covers the philosophical approaches and techniques exemplified by leading international organizations that have formed a basis for the development of international definitions, standards, and collaborative approaches that lead to more-effective strategies for site protection and interpretation through enhanced public stewardship.

Larsen, David L., ed. 2011. Meaningful interpretation . 2d ed. Fort Washington, PA: Eastern National.

This book is a training and learning tool for interpreters. Using a personal-journaling format, this volume includes questions, text, exercises, and the insights of colleagues. It prompts the reader to explore the relationship of tangible resources to their intangible meanings, the role and purpose of interpretation, and the responsibilities of professionalism. It captures the philosophy, best practices, and benchmark curriculum of the NPS’s IDP.

National Park Service. 2019. Interpretation for archeologists: A guide to increasing knowledge, skills, and abilities .

Inspired by the NPS Shared Competency Module 440 of 2000, and first launched online in 2004, Interpretation for Archeologists follows a resource-based approach to interpretation that complements archaeological resources and their meanings. It shows how interpretive products use archaeological evidence to encourage the public to form meaningful, personal connections with past peoples and places and the resources that evidence their stories. The aim is to educate and to inspire, but also to engender a stewardship ethic.

Silberman, Neil A. 2013. Heritage interpretation as public discourse: Towards a new paradigm. In Understanding heritage: Perspectives in heritage studies . Edited by Marie-Theres Albert, Roland Bernecker, and Britta Rudolff, 21–34. Berlin: De Gruyter..

In this seminal paper, Silberman outlines the movement away from a “Tildenian conception of ‘heritage’” as an unquestioned good that can be unproblematically interpreted and a strictly didactic approach to increase public support for conservation. This approach, he says, flies in the face of seemingly irreconcilable conflicts over what heritage is significant and how it should be interpreted. The new paradigm calls for heritage interpretation to be an informed and inclusive group activity, a reflection of evolving community identity, and a facilitated dialogue among professionals and nonprofessionals.

Smith, Laurajane. 2006. Uses of heritage . London and New York: Routledge.

DOI: 10.4324/9780203602263

In this seminal work, the author contends that heritage is how the past becomes “active and alive” in the present, a multilayered performance that embodies acts of remembrance and commemoration, at the same time constructing a sense of place and belonging in the present, where authenticity is a key and underlying concept. Smith rejects the Western notion of heritage as material fabric of monumentality and aesthetics, where the dominant “authorized heritage discourse” (AHD) is concomitant with the traditional power and knowledge relationships of technical experts.

Smith, Laurajane. 2012. Discourses of heritage: Implications for archaeological community practice . Nuevo Mundo / Mundos Nuevos .

DOI: 10.4000/nuevomundo.64148

This paper summarizes previous arguments about the existence and nature of a Western and Eurocentric AHD and examines the consequences this discourse has for archaeological practices associated with community engagement and outreach. This discourse frames archaeology heritage practices and works to conceive heritage as specifically “archaeological heritage.” Smith argues that archaeologists need to engage in self-conscious and explicit challenges to this discourse to facilitate meaningful community partnerships.

Tilden, Freeman. 1957. Interpreting our heritage . Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press.

This is a long-used sourcebook for those who are responsible for and who respond to interpretive materials. Tilden’s six principles, involving provocation, audience relevance, going beyond a recitation of facts, interpretation as an art form, the development of themes, and not diluting information for younger audiences, have guided both natural and cultural heritage interpretation worldwide, with only minor edification, for over half a century.

Walker, Kaye, and Gianna Moscardo. 2014. Encouraging sustainability beyond the tourist experience: Ecotourism, interpretation and values. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 22.8: 1175–1196.

DOI: 10.1080/09669582.2014.918134

This article studies the potential of interpretation within ecotourism environments to contribute to sustainability. Data collected from passengers on cruise ships explored links between aspects of the overall tourist experience and tourist perceptions of the benefits of these experiences. A value model of interpretation (VMI) is offered that attempts to integrate theories of effective interpretive practice with a goal of enhancing tourist mindfulness and reflective engagement and consequent adoption of responsible behaviors beyond the interpretation experience.

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Diverse business associates applaud presentation

9 Tips for High-Impact Presentations Across Cultures

Samuel had done it quite a few times before. He boarded a plane, headed halfway across the world from his corporation’s headquarters in New York City to deliver yet another presentation to a foreign audience. His expertise in his decade-long role as a business analyst at a large, worldwide corporation made him the perfect candidate to present sales leaders with the latest information on increasing sales efforts across cultures. As usual, Samuel used his long flight to reminisce about his past successes and shortcomings as a foreign presenter.

He remembered his first presentation in Hong Kong. Cross-cultural communication went well because of his meticulous planning, but he failed to send written copies of the sales tactics he would be presenting, which would have helped prepare his audience for the upcoming presentation and give them more time to prepare questions beforehand.

In Hong Kong, business people typically prefer presentations and proposals to begin in general terms before transitioning into the narrow details. Samuel’s presentation, although applicable for the audience, would have been more effective if he would have begun with more general terms, especially because once again he didn’t send his audience a formal or informal outline of his presentation beforehand.

Different Countries, Different Approaches

Samuel also reflected on his recent trip to Iraq. Before the trip, he spent weeks planning an in-depth sales-tactics presentation geared to sales leaders. Samuel’s company had recently purchased the latest video software, so he planned a cutting-edge interactive presentation for his audience in Baghdad. The audience appreciated his personal anecdotes and personable introduction, but he seemed to lose them at the end when he distributed a folder full of statistics, graphs and sales figures.

Studies have shown that people in present-day Iraq tend to appreciate more listening than reading when viewing a presentation. Strong images and relevant stories will resonate with them more than reading the latest statistics. Samuel’s interactive presentation went over well, but his conclusion, which involved the audience reviewing statistics placed before them on a handout, didn’t hold their attention as well as it could have. He watched his audience lose interest before his eyes, and he made a note to avoid handouts in any future presentation in Baghdad.

Samuel also remembered how the same handouts were highly effective in Japan, where he did a very similar presentation on the same sales tactics a month earlier. In Japanese culture, detailed written materials are appreciated, and audience members typically enjoy any kind of supporting documentation to supplement a presentation.

Gauging How to Speak to a Foreign Audience

Even the most experienced presenters face unique challenges when presenting information to audiences across cultures. It’s been said that great international speakers aren’t born. They’re made through:

  • Practice and a desire to fine-tune their public-speaking skills.
  • Culturally appropriate levels of confidence and passion
  • Introspection, self-awareness, and sincerity.

In short, they know how to properly engage with their foreign audience.

Much can go awry during a cross-cultural presentation if you fail to plan appropriately. You must tailor your presentation to your audience, and, in order to do so, it takes a great deal of prep work. You can’t simply work with a translator or neglect meticulous research and planning before your presentation.

Avoiding Problematic Barriers

If your goal is to deliver impactful cross-cultural presentations, it’s best to consider your presentations from all angles and learn from the advice of past successful presenters. Part of your success will depend on your ability to recognize and avoid barriers to effective intercultural communication, such as:

  • Language differences . Language barriers will likely play a role in your execution of a successful presentation to a foreign audience. You may work with an interpreter, but confusion may arise due to slang, dialects, or accents. Furthermore, words don’t always translate perfectly from one language to the other. The same word in one language may have different meanings when translated into different languages.
  • Level of context . Low-context cultures, such as Germany, Switzerland and the United States, expect verbal messages to be explicit and direct.

High-context cultures, such as Japan and Brazil, expect less emphasis on words themselves. A “maybe” or even a “yes” may actually mean no, especially in Japan, where an outright “no” or refusal can seem rude and too blunt. People in high-context cultures place more importance on nonverbal elements of communication, such as tone of voice, eye movements, and facial expressions.

  • Body language . People in one culture may take offense if you stand too close to them or too far away. For example, a Norwegian executive may feel uncomfortable and crowded if someone invades their personal space, which in their culture is a distance of up to three meters. In Saudi Arabia, the personal space requirement is much lower, and even complete strangers typically stand very close to one another to speak.

Eye contact is also a potential barrier. Those from Continental Europe, for example, are known to make more eye contact than those from Britain and the United States. Another consideration is facial expressions, such as smiling. French and Russians tend to smile less than other cultures, which can make them appear cold or unfriendly.

  • Value of time . People from different cultures place different values on time. In some cultures, such as Latin America, for example, there’s less emphasis on punctuality than there is in Switzerland. In Mexico, you’d be expected to finish a conversation with a colleague, even if it made you late to a business meeting.
  • Control of feelings and emotions . Certain cultures are more comfortable showing their emotions. In France and Italy, most people are fine with displaying their emotions outwardly, while people in Japan and the United Kingdom tend to keep tight control of their emotions in public. An excited speaker in Italy may speak loudly and emphatically, while those tactics may embarrass a Japanese listener.

Once you consider the possible barriers to effective communication, you should consider the best strategies for learning how to speak in front of a foreign audience.

Tips for Cross-Cultural Presentations

Presenting across cultures always requires adequate planning. Years of experience presenting to audiences in the Middle East won’t prepare you to deliver an effective presentation in China. If you’re communicating your tenth presentation on the latest sales software, but it’s your first time speaking to diverse audiences, it’s imperative that you tailor your approach to best suit your new audience.

The following tips for presenting cross-culturally will help you deliver a seamless, effective exposition.

1. Step Outside of Your Comfort Zone

You know that what is effective in one culture may not be effective in another, which is why it’s important to consider intercultural awareness as you prepare for your foreign presentation. Intercultural awareness is two-fold. It involves standing back from your own viewpoint and acknowledging your own cultural beliefs, as well as considering those of the other culture.

There are many factors that contribute to an effective presentation across cultures, but it’s important to begin by understanding your own cultural beliefs and recognizing you may need to step outside of your comfort zone as you prepare for your presentation. Once you’re aware of the similarities and differences, it becomes easier to plan an effective presentation across cultures.

For example, if you’re Japanese and preparing to present to a Portuguese audience, you may want to consider adding more personality to your presentation. It may be out of your comfort zone to show some emotion during your presentation or share a very personal story, but it will likely go over well in front of your Portuguese audience because they tend to appreciate creative, highly engaging presentations.

2. Decide If You’re Going to Use a Script

Using a script may be helpful when presenting to an international audience because it can direct you to stay focused on the precise language of your foreign presentation, especially if you’re presenting in a language other than your first.

If you’re not completely comfortable in the language, consider distributing a handout so readers can understand your message with certainty. Usually, speakers are advised to avoid reading from a script or from a screen, but in some cases — especially where a possible language barrier exists — it may be effective to offer your audience another way to comprehend the material.

There are many ways to use a script without boring your audience, such as:

  • Knowing the material well . If you decide to read from a script or allow the audience to follow along using a handout or screen, don’t neglect to skim over the material as you prepare. You’re the expert, and you should exude an appropriate level of confidence as well as have the knowledge to answer possible questions about the material.

You may work with a professional writer or translator as you prepare for your presentation, but that doesn’t mean you can skip any steps in the research and preparation phase. Simply reading from your script won’t be effective. You must know the material, maintain eye contact and intonation that’s appropriate for your audience, and be prepared to answer questions.

  • Personalizing your message . Using a script doesn’t have to equate to a boring, dry presentation. Eliminate any words that don’t sound like you. Inject personal stories where it makes sense to do so. Many speakers have no trouble injecting a personal touch to the beginning of their scripted speech, but then they fail to maintain their personality throughout it. Instead of sliding into a script after the introduction, aim to add your personality from the beginning to the end.
  • Learning to emphasize appropriately . A monotone presentation read from a script is a sure way to bore your audience, regardless of their cultural backgrounds. The vocal variety will add dimension to your speech, especially if you’re following a script.

If you’re reading in a language other than your native language, be sure to study proper pronunciation and listen to other speakers enunciate in that language. Become aware of your own vocal patterns, so you can vary your volume, pitch, and tone in a way that’s appropriate for your target audience.

It may be beneficial to label your script, so you know when to effectively take a breath, pause to allow your audience time to process information, or stop to ask a question. You can also underline words you should emphasize as you’re reading. You can appropriately emphasize by changing your pitch or inflection, varying your pace, increasing your volume or altering your rhythm.

  • Treating your script as an extended conversation . Instead of talking to your audience, aim to talk with  them. When you’re reading from a script, it can seem like your presentation is forced, rigid, and lacking any personality. Using culturally-appropriate gestures, eye contact, and language, you can take your audience on a journey with you through your script, instead of simply reading to them.

3. Know What to Expect from Your Audience

Regardless of where you’re presenting, you will feed off of your audience’s energy or how you’re perceiving their reactions to your presentation. If they’re frowning back at you or don’t participate when you ask a question, it can negatively affect your confidence, and your entire presentation could suffer. It’s important to know what to expect from your audience in the context of the given culture. Audiences around the world outwardly respond to presentations in different ways, so it’s helpful if you’re aware of what to expect before you begin.

For example, if you’re presenting in Japan, the audience will likely nod their heads slightly up and down to show concentration and approval — and they may even slightly close their eyes. Rest assured you aren’t putting them to sleep; they’re showing you that they’re with you. At the same time, a Japanese audience will not likely interrupt you to ask questions or provide comments, even if you prompt them to do so.

As a general rule, applause is a universal sign of approval after you finish a presentation. However, there are other signs to look for as well, depending on where you are. In parts of Austria and Germany, if you’re presenting around a table, your audience may knock on the table to show their approval when you’ve finished. You may hear whistles of approval if you’ve done especially well in the United States, but whistling signifies disapproval in some European countries. It’s also wise to be aware that no one receives standing ovations in Australia.

4. Learn About the Local Culture

If you’re presenting to a homogenous foreign audience — meaning everyone is from the same cultural background — you should consider studying the local culture before your presentation. The following are excellent resources for discovering cultural norms and important local information:

  • Recent books and travel guides . Without a clear understanding of the audience’s culture, you’re taking a risk that your presentation won’t be effective. Access resources available to you, such as recently published literature about the culture, travel guides, and websites directed to foreign travelers.
  • Local news . Be aware of news and current events. You should also be able to access local news by finding the most popular domains online for the geographic region or speaking with someone who can direct you to a trustworthy local news source. Connect with someone in your organization who is familiar with the culture in which you’ll be presenting and ask for their input. Beyond the local culture, consider hot topics within the organization itself, as company culture can be equally as important as local culture.
  • The CIA Factbook . While not specifically about culture, the Factbook provides information about 267 world entities, touching on topics of people, history, government, communications, transportation, and more.
  • Aperian ® . An industry-leading cultural intelligence resource, Aperian offers in-depth information on more than 95 nations around the world. It provides a section on how to give a presentation in each of the 95 nations. The resource offers extensive research, interviews with experts, and guidance for conducting business successfully across cultural boundaries. The GlobeSmart ® Profile helps bridge the gaps with other cultures and colleagues.

5. Pace Yourself Appropriately

You should tailor your pace and progression to your audience’s expectations to experience positive results when delivering an intercultural presentation. Never rush through a presentation, but be aware different cultures have different preferences for receiving information.

Be mindful of language barriers as you’re presenting as well. If you’re speaking in a non-native language, slower speech will help your audience better comprehend your words. If you’re speaking in your native language, but your audience is listening in their non-native language, it’s also wise to talk slower to increase comprehension. Always give your audience time to process information that may be new to them.

Expectations are always changing, but historically there are guidelines to follow when it comes to how certain cultures prefer to process information. Although this may be changing over time, it’s safe to assume Asians prefer to more details when compared to Americans and Canadians, where audiences tend to appreciate a faster pace.

6. Modify Your Nonverbal Communication

The way you communicate nonverbally to a foreign audience is equally as important as the words you choose to use. Here are a few tips for appropriately modifying your nonverbal communication during a cross-cultural presentation:

  • Be conscious of your hand gestures . A “thumbs up” is a positive signal in the United States, but it has negative connotations in the Middle East, Australia, and Greece. Similarly, gesticulating doesn’t always translate across cultures. It can add personality to a presentation in the United States, but it can be seen as rude and distracting in Japan.
  • Be aware of eye contact expectations . A certain level of eye contact is important in all presentations, but the expectation is different depending on the audience’s culture. For example, Canadians, Germans, and Americans expect more eye contact than Hispanic and Japanese audiences do.
  • Use an appropriate level of animation . Your body movements and facial expressions can either emphasize your presentation or undercut it. Perceptions of facial expressions vary across cultures, so a basic understanding of what’s considered appropriate in a specific setting will help you adequately prepare for your presentation. For instance, East Asians and Western Caucasians perceive happy and angry expressions differently, so it’s important to be aware of your own facial expressions.

7. Be Careful When Selecting Visuals

Your graphics should be free of any culturally inappropriate images. It’s also important to consider color because it can carry different symbolic meanings from culture to culture. For example, red is a high-energy color used as a warning or to elicit feelings of excitement, passion, or even anger in Western cultures, but it’s used as a color of mourning in South Africa. Similarly, red represents good fortune in China but can mean anger in Japan. Another example is yellow, which is the color of mourning in Myanmar (Burma), but it signifies happiness and prosperity in the Middle East.

Besides color, be sure your visual aids make appropriate use of words and symbols for the culture in which you’re presenting. For example, Asian cultures tend to prefer pictures, numbers, and symbols whereas Europeans typically favor text with logical bullet points.

8. Be Cautious in Your Use of Humor

Only use humor when you’re certain it’s appropriate. Jokes will not likely translate well between cultures. If you’re not sure if a joke will go over well, avoid it. In many cases, your attempt at humor will be lost in translation, or worse. It could be taken offensively.

Here are a few reminders when it comes to humor in a cross-cultural presentation:

  • Be aware that technology can pose challenges in relation to humor . Using humor across cultures is difficult, but using humor virtually and cross-culturally is even more problematic. If you’re using cameras in a face-to-face situation, you can immediately see your audience’s reaction to your attempt at humor. If you’re giving a virtual presentation and can’t see your audience, your feedback will be limited, so it’s important to know beforehand whether your attempt at humor will be well received.
  • Carefully review all graphics and texts . If you’re utilizing handouts, slides, or any media that contains written text, be sure it’s carefully reviewed for cultural appropriateness. There should be no culturally offensive reference, nor should there be any words or phrases that are lost — or become offensive — in translation. For example, the word “fanny” means different things in the United States — one’s rear end — and Britain — a female’s private parts.
  • Consider the style of humor . The capacity to laugh at things is universal, but everyone is different when it comes to what they think is actually funny. There are more gray areas where culture is involved, as well. For example, irony is usually well understood in British culture, but it’s not as understood in direct-speaking cultures such as Germany, the Netherlands, and Switzerland.

Sarcasm typically goes over well in Israel and India, but it can be offensive in Latin America. Making fun of oneself is often considered humorous in the West, but may cause Asians to feel uncomfortable and empathetic. Similarly, physical humor — like slipping on a banana peel — will likely go over well in Italy or France, but not in Malaysia.

9. Utilize the Best Resources

The easy part of preparing a presentation across cultures is gathering content for the topic itself. After all, you’re the expert and you were chosen to deliver a presentation based on your knowledge and experiences. The difficult part of preparing a cross-cultural presentation is ensuring you convey that content in a culturally appropriate manner that will resonate with your audience.

Aperian, an industry-leading online cultural intelligence resource, offers advice on giving presentations for over 95 countries – among 50 other business topics.

Access the free trial of Aperian to explore on your own!

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How to Get Beyond Talk of “Culture Change” and Make It Happen

Experts outline their roadmap for intentionally changing the culture of businesses, social networks, and beyond.

February 20, 2024

presentation of culture

Calls for cultural transformation have become ubiquitous in the past few years, encompassing everything from advancing racial justice and questioning gender roles to rethinking the American workplace. Hazel Rose Markus recalls the summer of 2020 as a watershed for those conversations. “Everybody was saying, ‘Oh, the culture has to change,’” says Markus, a professor of psychology at Stanford. “It was just rolling off everybody’s lips in every domain.” Yet no one seemed to know what exactly that might entail or how to get started.

As they followed these discussions, Markus and her colleagues Jennifer Eberhardt and MarYam Hamedani wondered what they could contribute at this moment as experts with years of experience studying how communities and organizations can turn the desire for change into something real. “Culture is all around us, but at the same time, it feels out of reach for a lot of people,” says Eberhardt, a professor of organizational behavior at Stanford Graduate School of Business and of psychology in the School of Humanities and Sciences.

Markus and Eberhardt are the faculty co-directors of Stanford SPARQ , a “do tank” that brings researchers and practitioners together to apply the lessons of behavioral science to combating bias and disparities; Hamedani is its executive director and senior research scientist. Recently, along with associate director of criminal justice partnerships Rebecca Hetey , they published an evidence-based roadmap to intentional cultural change in American Psychologist . They hope, Hamedani says, to illustrate “a path forward and to make the claim that culture change is possible.”

Stanford Business spoke with Eberhardt, Hamedani, and Markus to discuss the complexities of changing a culture and how leaders and readers who are committed to doing things differently can get started.

You start the paper with the “four I’s,” categories you believe can help people map their cultures and see where there might be tensions or mismatches. Using organizational cultures as an example, can you take us through those?

Hazel Rose Markus: There are the ideas , the big ideologies that are foundational for any organization: This is how we do things, what’s good, and what we value. Then the institutional parts, which are the everyday policies and practices that people use to do their work. Often, those have been in place for a long time and people tend to follow them as if they were the natural order of things. Another I is the interactions, which have to do with what’s going on in the office every day, in your relationships with your colleagues, with the people you supervise, with those you answer to. And finally, the fourth part is your own individual attitudes, feelings, and actions.

presentation of culture

Is there a way to sum up your roadmap for changing culture?

MarYam Hamedani: The first key idea is because we built it, we can change it. There are many forces out there that are out of our control, but the societies we build and pass on — the organizations, the institutions, the way we live our lives — those are things that are human-made. And so we should feel empowered by that inheritance because that’s the thing that gives us the ability to make change.

The second part is that culture change usually involves a series of power struggles and clashes and divides. You have different groups that feel like they’re winning and losing. There’s a lot at stake for people. It’s important to try to have strategies to deal with that.

Finally, culture change can be unpredictable and have unintended consequences. Yet the dynamics can also follow patterns — for example, backlash happens. Timing matters. So you have to be nimble; you have to realize that cultural change never ends. It’s a sustainable process that you have to stay on top of, and that’s OK.

Markus: Yes, changemakers can’t be discouraged when they see backlash. Also, we want to help people remember that yes, they are individuals, but they are also making culture through their actions. How our everyday actions can contribute to a larger culture and to its change is something I think we are less likely to think about in our individualistic system.

Hamedani: Right. We are individuals and in charge of our own behavior, but then we are powerful as a group.

Markus: With each other, what are we modeling? What are we putting our efforts behind? What’s the impact on the workplace?

Your paper was written with the problem of social inequality in mind. What message does it have for business leaders?

Jennifer Eberhardt: As business leaders, you have both a lot of power and, I think, a lot of obligation to understand the workings of culture. You have the power to pull the levers of change. You dictate what the social environment is like for everyone else. So you have a heavy hand in creating and sustaining the culture that is there — but you can also have a heavy hand in changing that culture for the better.

Markus: When culture change is on the agenda, you often hear leaders — like those in the tech industry — and the first thing they often say is, “OK, I’m going on a listening tour.” But you rarely hear about what they’re going to listen for or what they heard from those who report to them or how they’re going to put that into action.

Listening is valuable because it conveys empathy, but it is useful to listen specifically for what people understand as the important values of our organization, the undergirding ideas. What are we about? What are we trying to be as an organization? And, very importantly, do our policies and practices reflect these ideas and values and our mission? We can say we’re about one thing or another, but how is it materialized? How does it show up in our everyday work? Is there a general alignment across the four I’s of the culture?

You worked with Nextdoor on a project to change its culture. How did that go?

Eberhardt: They reached out to me and other researchers trying to figure out how to curb racial profiling on their platform. In the tech industry, people are focused on building products that are easy to use, products that are intuitive, so that users don’t really have to think too hard. But those are also conditions under which racial bias might thrive. So we encouraged them to slow users down, to increase friction rather than trying to take friction away.

Quote As business leaders, you have both a lot of power and, I think, a lot of obligation to understand the workings of culture. You have the power to pull the levers of change. Attribution Jennifer Eberhardt

They accomplished this by creating a checklist for users to review before posting on a Nextdoor forum. The first thing they ask people to consider is that a person’s race is not an indication of their criminal activity. And also when they describe a person, you don’t just describe their race, you describe their behavior. What are they doing that seems suspicious? Nextdoor found that just simply slowing people down in this way, based on these social psychological principles, they were able to reduce profiling by over 75%.

They were trying to solve for something at the interaction level. What they could change was what the experience was like for users at the institutional level. Just by making these simple tweaks to the platform itself and how they presented information, they changed these negative interactions that were taking place that then could also shape people’s ideas about race.

You also talk in the paper about the example of investment firms struggling to become more diverse.

Markus: Typically this has been the territory of white men with economics degrees from Harvard, Yale, Stanford, Princeton. It was a closed and locked world. In studies we did in the investing domain, we found that race can influence professional investors’ financial judgments. Many people in the industry would like to create a culture that is more open and inclusive, but there is a powerful default assumption at work that acts as a barrier. In a lot of these firms, the default is still, “I know in my gut what a successful idea is and who is likely to build a company that can grow. I can see it and feel it, and either you match or you don’t match.”

It seems like a point of tension where the institutional level says it wants change, but at the interaction level, this is still a relationship-driven industry. So what do you do about that?

Hamedani: It depends where in the culture map you want to start. Let’s say you diversify the students coming in and getting MBAs. Then you have to look at how are they’re being mentored and supported through their schooling experience, through the internships and job opportunities that they have. Are you simply assuming that they should assimilate to the default? Are you training a new, exciting, and diverse group of people to act like those that have been there all along? Or are you incorporating their ideas and diverse ways of being that might look or sound different and affording them the same respect and status? Are you teaching them how to do a pitch a certain way because there’s only one right way to do a pitch? Or might they have other styles of communication or ways of selling an idea?

At the GSB, Jennifer has a class, Racial Bias and Structural Inequality , where she brings in all these amazing CEOs who are women and people of color. Most of the students, they’ve never seen it before. And that’s what happens to people in these investment firms: They haven’t seen it before. Even that intervention of seeing, week after week, these leaders coming in and the students get to ask them questions and have a conversation with them — that’s an interaction .

Eberhardt: I had Sarah Friar , MBA ’00, the CEO of Nextdoor, come in. I had the president of Black Entertainment Television, Scott Mills , come in; I had the police chief of San Francisco, William Scott , come in — they are both African American.

And the hope is that these students who will go on to work in the business world will have a broader definition of what is a “culture fit”?

Hamedani: Exactly right. And more specifically, a “leader fit.” And for women and students of color, that they can also see themselves as leaders. But it takes things happening at all levels in the culture map to make that happen. You’re seeding this change and then the levels are reinforcing each other to help it grow.

What would you recommend as a starting place for readers who are thinking that they want to spark intentional cultural change wherever they are?

Markus: It would begin with mapping the culture: What matters to us, what do we value? And then, to the extent that there’s some consensus about our culture, reflecting on whether our ways of doing things reflect this. In so many organizations we’re working with now, there’s really a gap between what leaders feel their values are, what they care about, and what the employees are experiencing. What we see is that it’s important to give the employees chances to get together to talk about this and have some company time, some paid time, to discuss these issues —

Hamedani: — to vision the future. Because there’s that virtue signaling, “OK, we care about that, but really we’re so busy and we have all these things to do. We have to hit our targets for the quarter or for the year.” Of course, those things are important, but are people — employees and leaders alike — participating in visioning that future and laying out the goals and objectives together? Can you make some small or even larger changes such that people feel empowered that they’re part of building that culture together?

This conversation has been edited for length and clarity.

For media inquiries, visit the Newsroom .

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presentation of culture

We Built This Culture (so We Can Change It): Seven Principles for Intentional Culture Change MarYam G. Hamedani Hazel Rose Markus Rebecca C. Hetey Jennifer Eberhardt

May 30, 2023 Will a Police Stop End in Arrest? Listen to Its First 27 Seconds. Researchers have identified a linguistic signature that can predict whether encounters with cops will escalate. Black drivers hear this pattern as well.

August 01, 2023 Follow the Leader: How a CEO’s Personality Is Reflected in Their Company’s Culture There’s no ideal personality type for executives — but businesses need the right one for success.

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Blog – Creative Presentations Ideas

Blog – Creative Presentations Ideas

infoDiagram visual slide examples, PowerPoint diagrams & icons , PPT tricks & guides

How to Illustrate Culture Idea in a Presentation concept visualization

How to Illustrate Culture Idea in a Presentation [concept visualization]

Last Updated on January 5, 2021 by Anastasia

Do you need to discuss culture concept? Whether you plan to describe elements of popular culture, the arts, or values we suggest using visual metaphor icons to make your points effectively.

Flat or creative graphics will take your presentations to the next level and will help you create audience-capturing slides. Check out our favorite icons, and choose the style which fits your presentation best.

Use Outline or Modern Graphics Representing a Culture

culture concept outline symbols visualization

Outline style icons are light and elegant. Modern style icons are more neutral, but are still professional and sophisticated. Think about which style of culture concept graphics would suit your next presentation context best.

  • Use a speaker or instrument to represent the pop culture or popular music.
  • Violins, comedy and tragedy masks, books , paintings and shoes can all represent high cultures such as theater, poetry, literature, fashion, and art.
  • Building and architecture icons can represent the culture of a particular country or ethnicity.
  • Religious symbols can bring to mind religious cultural identities as well as cultural values.
  • A handshake or person giving a speech icon can visualize the concept of customs and speech within a culture.

Use Hand-Drawn Culture Concept Graphics

culture concept hand drawn scribble icons ppt

Hand-drawn icons are creative and fun. These icons bring creativity and energy to any culture concept presentation and will help you to be more personal. Not sure how you might present culture as a concept? Let our ideas inspire your next project:

  • Music notes and speakers can represent elements of mass culture, popular culture, and the music itself.
  • A person with a paintbrush or a museum icon can be used to help your audience visualize art or the arts.
  • Icons that show a handshake or a person giving a gift can represent customs within a culture or habits people have.
  • Building icons are perfect for visualizing architecture and other culture concepts.

Do you have new ideas for your next culture presentation? We hope so! Use the visual metaphors above to present the culture concepts or think up your own.

Make more impactful presentations when you make culture visual for your audience. With a subscription to InfoDiagram you can download slides from any graphic collection on our website.

Get inspired by other concept blogs

Did our culture concept visual metaphors blog help you? Learn other ways to present difficult topics visually. Visit our Concept Visualization Master List blog page and see what big concepts we can help you share.

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Cultures of the World

Cultures of the world presentation, free google slides theme and powerpoint template.

We live in a world full of rich and varied cultures. Isn't that a nice topic to talk about in a presentation? Customize this template and take your audience to lots of places. The pictures feature a duotone effect and the backgrounds contain some brushstrokes. Enjoy editing these slides and make a good impression on everybody.

Features of this template

  • 100% editable and easy to modify
  • 31 different slides to impress your audience
  • Contains easy-to-edit graphics such as graphs, maps, tables, timelines and mockups
  • Includes 500+ icons and Flaticon’s extension for customizing your slides
  • Designed to be used in Google Slides and Microsoft PowerPoint
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Company Culture Presentation template

Good company culture can be the difference between landing top talent and losing them to the competition. When an employee finds a company that matches their values, they tend to form better relationships with their colleagues in turn making them more motivated and productive. A company culture presentation helps you define things like your work environment, values and mission, and expectations of employees for the sake of the onboarding process and beyond. Companies can create a universal standard with Beautiful.ai’s company culture template.    

Our template has everything you need to set your company culture guidelines and share them with internal teams. A successful company culture presentation can help HR managers and teams align on values for a more balanced workplace. 

Our company culture template can also help you:

  • Define company culture standards and guidelines
  • Onboard new hires more efficiently
  • Host annual or quarterly trainings as a refresher to existing employees

Use our template to create an effective company culture presentation

A company culture presentation helps employers encourage and meet employees needs and values. Our template is carefully curated to include everything you need to create inspiring company culture slides. Those slides include:

Title Slide

Quick tips to make an impactful company culture presentation

As you use this template to build your own company culture presentation, keep these do’s and don’ts in mind:

Company culture is an exciting component to joining a new team, so make sure your presentation reflects that. Don’t be afraid to put some personality in your slides.

Picking the right photos and images is essential to the overall success of your presentation. Add photos of team members so new hires know whom to connect with and can put a face to the name.

Is this deck a refresher for existing employees or an onboarding asset for new hires? Consider what information your employees need most, and what questions they may have about company culture during your presentation.

Conversations around company culture should be fun. Include fun facts about the team, talk about company perks, and share your team values in new, engaging ways.

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Lesson for Oral Presentations of Culture in Foreign Language Class

Culture: “big c” and “little c”.

First, students need to understand that when we speak of culture, we can mean two things, in the broadest terms. “Culture with a big C ” refers to literature, music and the arts whereas “culture with a little c ” refers to the anthropological meaning of culture: the rules, written and unwritten, by which a society operates – its myths and so forth. Both aspects of culture are fair game for the student who is assigned or who volunteers to do a 2-3 minute oral presentation about the culture. This presentation follows the one about the economy.

The student should be directed to material originally written in the target language about culture. This material may be found in some intermediate foreign-language textbooks. However, I have found it useful for other educational reasons to encourage them to go to the library or even to the web – citing sources and even bringing me the printouts of webpages. Not only does this teach them to do some work looking things up but it discourages plagiarism. The types of questions they should answer, prior to working on the presentation itself include:

1. Does the country have an art form for which it is known internationally? Mexico, for instance, is famous for its baile folclórico and its muralist painters; Argentina is known for the tango and hierba mate ; Spain for flamenco , etc.

2. Does the country have living musicians whose work is known beyond their borders? Are they pop artists or do they preserve traditional music of their country?

3. Does the country have internationally known writers? Who are they and what have they written? Is there a written form for which the country is famous? This may be a tough question for some students, but if they look in the Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics under a given country, they can find information or leads – to sources in the target language.

4. Does the country have a cuisine that is famous? For French students, this may be a gift – but they might be encouraged to focus on a region.

5. Folk customs and beliefs, founding myths – if any can be found, they can enliven the presentation a bit. Encourage them or remind them to be respectful of the culture they are studying.

6. Finally, the student should conclude with some positive observations about the value of the country’s contribution to humanity through its art, music and so forth.

After gathering answers to these questions, noting the sources of the answers, the student needs to put them in a coherent format, adding appropriate transistional phrases or sentences to link them up or otherwise sequence them, introducing and concluding them more smoothly than would be the case if they simply read off the answers as if in a workbook or textbook exercise.

This oral presentation, like the other three, must be done in front of the class, and so should be practiced considerably, at least once in front of only the teacher.

One last suggestion for the teacher: you could turn these presentations into genuine competitions. For an intermediate Spanish class, there are at least 20 countries to pick from. A class of 12 would be able to do only three at a time, allowing for a series of presentations and playoffs to determine the winner. Remember: keep technology to a minimum – use it, but for effect. Do not let it dominate the class. The class needs to be student and language centered!

Good luck / Buena suerte…

This post is part of the series: Lesson Plans for Intermediate Foreign Language Classes

This series of four articles shows how to use national data of different kinds to move students from the textbook to using their second language to find, assemble and present meaningful information – in short, to begin to master their second language.

  • Group Project Idea for a Foreign Language Class: Geography of a Country
  • Oral Presentation Idea for Intermediate Foreign Language Students: History of a Country
  • How to Study the Economics of a Country: Intermediate Spanish Lesson Plan
  • Lesson Plans for Intermediate Foreign Language Students: Arts & Culture of a Country

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Free Culture Presentation Templates

Spice up your culture presentation with vibrant, ready-made free culture powerpoint templates and google slides themes. pick a stunning template, add your info, and wow your audience. share your heritage, celebrate traditions, and explore diversity – all with just a click. drop the boring, embrace the beautiful find your perfect free culture theme now.

Culture

  • Cultural diversity: Present the dazzling diversity of African American culture, Korean customs, or Filipino festivities.
  • Heritage journeys: Trace the footsteps of ancestors through Indian culture , classical dance, historical landmarks, or regional traditions.
  • Global Celebrations: Bring the world's joyous occasions to life. Share the stories behind the traditions, their cultural significance, and the way they connect us across continents.
  • And so much more! The possibilities are endless. From the intricate patterns of indigenous art to the bustling streets of a bustling Asian market, our collection offers a kaleidoscope of cultural experiences waiting to be explored.
  • Colorful creative infographics: Make your presentations energetic and engaging.
  • Effortless customization: Edit, resize, and personalize every element to match your unique story.
  • Multiple formats: Switch between 4:3 and 16:9 orientations, portrait or landscape, for perfect presentation harmony.
  • Free to explore: Start with our free templates, then unlock more captivating designs.
  • Use colorful pictures and fun graphics. ️
  • Tell short stories and interesting facts.
  • Ask easy questions to keep them thinking. 
  • Let them see different places and people.
  • Make it feel like a trip around the world! 
  • Bonus tip: Use our colorful Culture Presentation Slides!

We're here to help you!

What kind of culture presentation templates are available.

We offer a wide range, from world cultures and festivals to specific country themes, art & music, and historical periods.

Do I require any design expertise to utilize these templates?

Absolutely not! Our templates are easy to edit, even for beginners. Just add your text, and images, and personalize it your way.

Can I use these templates for commercial presentations?

Yes, you can use these templates for personal, educational, and commercial presentations.

How can I find the perfect template for my topic?

Use our powerful search bar with keywords related to your culture topic. You can also browse by category or filter by color, node, and popularity.

Can I customize the templates?

Absolutely! Change colors, fonts, images, and layouts to perfectly fit your needs. Add your own text, photos, and videos to make it truly your own.

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Choose your favorite template, click "Download," and save it to your device. You can then edit it in PowerPoint or Google Slides depending on your choice.

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Lent: February 20th

Tuesday of the first week of lent.

Other Commemorations: St. Jacinta Marto (RM)

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MASS READINGS

February 20, 2024 (Readings on USCCB website)

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Collect prayer.

Tuesday of the First Week of Lent: Look upon your family, Lord, that, through the chastening effects of bodily discipline, our minds may be radiant in your presence with the strength of our yearning for you. Through our Lord Jesus Christ, your Son, who lives and reigns with you in the unity of the Holy Spirit, God, for ever and ever.

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Meditation—Tuesday of the First Week of Lent: In the liturgical texts for today is hidden the mystery of the Mother of God, intimately connected with that of the incarnation of the Son of God. Let us look at the texts, and begin with the reading from the prophet Isaiah.

So shall my word be that goes forth from my mouth: it shall not return to me empty (55, 11)

We want to get out of this one-sided outlook belonging to Western activism in order not to degrade the Church to a product of our doing and planning. The Church is not a finished artefact but always living from God, needing to develop and achieve maturity. For this she requires the Marian mystery, just as she herself is the mystery of Mary. She can train herself to that fecundity only if she submits to that sign; only then does she become holy soil for the word. We should adopt the symbol of the fertile soil, we should become people who hope, harvesting their own inner lives, persons who, deep within their prayer, their longing and their faith, make room for growth. —Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger (Pope Benedict XVI), Journey Towards Easter

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Adapt Your Presentation for Different Cultures

presentation of culture

Language can be a communication barrier, but it is not the only barrier that public speakers have to overcome when presenting to other cultures. While delivering a message across language barriers comes with its own challenges, there are cultural differences that exist even among those who speak or understand the same language. Culture is a common root of many miscommunications, as it influences how we interpret messages and how we participate in group settings. To reach your intended audience effectively, your presentation must be delivered with an understanding of the lens through which your audience will view it.

Develop Awareness

A handshake may be standard in the United States, but in other countries, such as France, a peck on the cheek among business associates is common practice. Implementing the proper greeting for the culture to which you are presenting will offer a good first impression and encourage your audience to be more receptive.

However, developing awareness of another culture is not limited to greetings and physical contact. How you set up the room can also be critical. Space, positioning, and even the time of day for which the presentation is scheduled should all be determined by the culture of your audience. Scheduling an 8-a.m. presentation in New York for those who flew in from Asia and are severely jetlagged will significantly reduce chances of your message being heard. And scheduling presentations that disrupt holidays important to other cultures can appear insensitive and rude. Would you attend a presentation on Christmas Day or Yom Kippur?

Know Your Audience

It’s important to know your audience’s style of reasoning . Americans work from an “applications-first reasoning,” basing conclusions on factual observations from the real world. The focus is on the “why” rather than the “how.” Conversely, European cultures work from a “principles-first reasoning,” basing conclusions from general principles or concepts. There is a focus on the “why” and less concern for the “how.”

Why is this knowledge important to your presentation? If your audience is rooted in a “principles-first” culture and you are speaking from an “applications-first” perspective, everyone in the room will struggle. You’ll wonder why your audience seems to be targeting you with specific questions regarding how you came to your conclusions, and the audience will feel as if they have missed a main idea. Conversely, an American audience could be immensely bored by a “principles-first” presentation, wondering when you will get to your point. Knowing your audience determines the direction and format of your message content.

Furthermore, in striving to know your audience, it’s important to determine if they appreciate a personal touch or would rather get down to business. If you are not certain, ask questions of colleagues or conference hosts prior to your presentation, to ensure that your approach will positively engage and not offend your audience.

Are You Listening?

A well-delivered presentation requires you to actively listen. Brief pauses can allow you to assess whether your audience is receptive to your message or if they are somehow confused regarding the point of your message. Pay attention to both verbal and non-verbal forms of communication, and be open to questions at any time. Be adaptable. If your presentation is not delivering the intended message, properly adjust how you are communicating.

When it comes to adapting your presentation for different cultures, sometimes  what you say is not nearly as important as how you say it. Without clarity and an understanding of your audience’s cultural expectations, you may as well be speaking another language. Adhere to the basics of limiting humor and speaking slowly, but be mindful of the more intricate aspects of communication when presenting across cultures.

Franchetti Communications delivers accelerated results by designing power-packed media interview and presentation training sessions around your unique goals, in person and via teleconference. Franchetti Communications works with corporations and business leaders to develop communication strategy, messaging, and PR strategy. Follow Franchetti Communications on  LinkedIn , and be sure to download our special report:  6 Ways to Guarantee Your Message Cuts Through the Clutter .

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the evolution of culture

The Evolution of Culture

Jul 31, 2014

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The Evolution of Culture. Language (code) as cultural evolution Some scientists believe that culture and language evolve using the same patterns and principles as genetic evolution. Genes are replicators that pass on DNA. The best are all strong on:

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The Evolution of Culture • Language (code) as cultural evolution Some scientists believe that culture and language evolve using the same patterns and principles as genetic evolution. Genes are replicators that pass on DNA. The best are all strong on: i. Fecundity – speed of transmission (and amount of transmitted material) ii. Fidelity – accuracy of transmission iii. Longevity – life-span of replicator

The Evolution of Culture • Recent scientific developments in this area include: - sociobiology - evolutionary psychology - computer sciences - ‘gene-culture coevolution’ (E.O. Wilson & Lumsden) - ‘cultural co-direction of evolution’ (Boyd & Richerson) - ‘culture and niche construction’ (Boyd & Richerson / Laland ‘99) - ‘memes & memetics’ (Dawkins, Blackmore, et al)

The Evolution of Culture b. Whereas the “gene” is the unit of transmission in biological evolution, the “meme” is the unit of transmission in cultural evolution. “Meme” is a shortened version of the Greek word “mimeme”, which means “imitation” or “mimicry”.

The Evolution of Culture c. What is a Meme? “ a replicator that conveys the idea of a unit of cultural transmission, or a unit of imitation” --Richard Dawkins - or - “an information pattern, held in an individual's memory, which is capable of being copied to another individual's memory.” -- F. Heylighen

The Evolution of Culture d. A meme unit is the smallest ideas or (idea sets) that get copied completely. Examples of memes or meme units: • The first four note of Beethoven’s 4th Symphony • Advertising slogans • Internet jokes that are passed around

The Evolution of Culture e. On the comparison of cultural to biological evolution... • Even Darwin noticed the similarities (diversity, ‘inheritance’); • Both are ‘trans-generational’, but cultural transmission is ‘multi-directional’ (not just parent-to-offspring); • Cultural transmission is underpinned by imitation and teaching; • Culture ‘accumulates’ over generations; • According to the social anthropologist George Murdoch, about 90% of a culture’s content is ‘borrowed’ from other cultures; • Genes promote adaptation ... but so does culture (all of it?) - eg tools and hunting skills - knowing what is edible and what is poisonous - rules and activities that sustain co-operation and sharing - attitudes to inventiveness and conformity, etc; • Cultural change (eg, marriage norm) influences gene transmission.

E.5. The Evolution of Culture Related or unrelated previous generation Idea / skill in brain Gene in parent Peer brains Gene Transmission Unrelated next generation brains Meme Transmission Gene in progeny Offspring brain

E.5. The Evolution of Culture f. Questions about the “memeplex”: • “Just as genes propagate themselves in the gene pool by leaping from body to body via sperms or eggs, so memes propagate themselves in the meme pool by leaping from brain to brain via ... imitation.” (Dawkins). How do memes “leap from brain to brain”? • Memes “compete … for space in our memories” (Blackmore, 1999) … and form ‘co-adapted memeplexes’ that sometimes act like parasites ‘by propagating themselves at the expense of their hosts’ (Dawkins). What is an example of a “self-destructive meme”? • “Contagion” is another concept debated in this context …. (see A. Lynch). Can you think of a meme you have been “contaminated” with, which you don’t want influencing you (but nonetheless does?) What are the implications?

A New Theory of How We Think & Communicate The Evolution of Culture The burgeoning literature ... Journal of Memetics online … And finally … a great web site …

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Evolution of patient safety culture in Belgian hospitals

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The Evolution Of

Always check to be sure that the organization you select to the training has a superb reputation in the region. You are not waiting around for the electrical business to repair the power lines like the remainder of your neighbors. Also, it's counted at the bestElectrical Companies in Dubai There is not any need to be worried if you happen across such a problem. Only the sensible and fiscally savy businesses remain around for any duration of time. Most recognized company will supply you with a quotation in advance so there aren't any surprises. Over the previous decades, and due to the rising number of deadly accidents, the key electrical companies all around the world have requested a product that is capable of protecting their operators while still doing their day-to-day tasks. You do not need to be concerned about it since your solar power procedure is supplying all the power you will need. Solar electricity is not more or less convenience. It also provides a feeling of independence. Electrical services offer a expert approach for the problem to repair it. Also check that you're taking the services of NICEIC approved company. When it has to do with providing significant electrical services to your residence or business it is a good idea to understand the skill level of the company you're calling. To procure more specific feedback, you may also get in touch with your commercial electrician right to ask references from past industrial projects which are much like the present project you're undertaking. It is crucial that your commercial electrician has the ability to fulfill the requirements of commercial electric work both in regard to knowledge and operational capacity. Your commercial plumber will counsel you about the size generator unit you're going to need, indicate the best place for your unit to be put and the sort of fuel it needs to function. An excellent business electrician will range out the region and be comfortable working in a variety of environments.

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The Evolution Of

Attempt to take the time to select which college you would like. If you would like to locate a reputed driving school, you are able to confirm with your own insurance policy provider. A driving school is the perfect place to learn driving, the schools have the proficient instructors, who can steer you through all your courses and can assist you in getting your license immediately. If you want to find out more about our driving school and the kind of courses we offer check us out at on our site. Just as a school is providing the least expensive rates, it will not necessarily signify you should select them. It is extremely easy to find driving schools today. Going to the school should also supply you with the opportunity to find out what facilities are available and figure out in the event the equipment in place, for instance, vehicle itself, are modern and not the previous ones. Some driving school will supply the pupil the option of working with an automatic or manual motor vehicle. A reputed driving college features everyone with a suitable understanding of driving at a shorter length of time that you spend together. Regardless of what area you're, you're going to have the ability to discover great driving schools armed with highly-skilled and experienced driving instructors. Your path lets you start and stop as often as you wish to, and that means that you won't ever become frustrated or overwhelmed with an inordinate quantity of info. It features the procedure and requirements for Texas to get your permit and drivers license, including what files you will need. Students who have failed a couple of courses the preceding semester aren't qualified to take driver education. It isn't necessary to complete the internet course before beginning the driving course. Some of the greatest online motorists Ed course offer you checklist with driving permit certificate as soon as you compete the initial six hours of the curricula. Students may complete driver instruction in 1 quarter. They need to be at least 14 decades old and possess a valid driver's permit by the first day of class. Quite a few of the students decide to v adult class in 1 day.

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The Evolution Of

Medical spas provide facials for guys who possess various needs and enjoy all types of lifestyles. Our Med Spa offers a choice of services to fulfill your desires to help achieve a look. Medical Spas are an sort of care. They are known by an assortment of terms. They provide remedies which were performed in the office of a physician. The expression medical spa clarifies a choice of cosmetic procedures which work to not rejuvenate the epidermis but the body and mind. Discounts and supplies are readily available. Furthermore, medical wellness spa prices might be less expensive than finding the very same services at the office of a physician. The price of therapy is going to be reviewed during your very first consultation. Now much told about the advantages and you could be wondering what sorts of gains are obtained by the therapy. The advantages consist of results and one remedy can provide semi-permanent filling of outlines. It is simple to gain from the convenient and affordable services. Three to six treatments are advised for outcomes. A health spa may be the place for you if you're interested in studying body treatments. While surgery can provide results for your look sometimes similar results can be offered by non-surgical procedures without the additional prep and recovery. If you're considering our healthcare spa solutions as well as Denver cosmetic surgery, have a minute to see our surgery specialization website. When you've have found the remedy which you will have to get a more specific advice or would love to receive, we welcome you to visit us to talk about your cosmetic objectives. It is very important to follow techniques of hair development when it has to do with hair regrowth treatments.

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Political Culture & Evolution of the State: Political Geography

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Best BAFTAs moments: Michael J. Fox gets standing ovation, 'Oppenheimer' sweeps

VIDEO: Oppenheimer wins big at BAFTAs

"Oppenheimer" swept at the star-studded 77th British Academy Film Awards, as Christopher Nolan, Cillian Murphy and Robert Downy Jr. all took home wins Sunday night at the Royal Festival Hall in London's Southbank Centre.

PHOTO: British film producer and director Christopher Nolan poses with the award for Best film and Best director for "Oppenheimer" during the BAFTA British Academy Film Awards ceremony in London, on February 18, 2024.

The film garnered a total of 7 wins on the evening, including Best Film, Leading Actor, Supporting Actor and Director.

"I want to thank my fellow nominees and my oppen-homies," Murphy said with a laugh at his attempt to rhyme.

Murphy's co-star and Best Supporting Actor winner Robert Downey Jr. gave a special shoutout in his acceptance speech to his wife: "I place this at the feet of my alpha and omega, Susan Downey."

presentation of culture

And Nolan hinted at the cast and crew's bright outlook for the rest of awards season.

"The BAFTAs are often seen as an indicator of what’s to come at the academy awards," the winning director said.

The cast of the dark comedy fantasy "Poor Things" also notched multiple victories, five on the night, including Best Actress for Emma Stone.

"I really want to just thank my mom. Because she's the best person I know in the whole world and she inspires me every single day and she's always made me believe this kind of crazy idea that I could do something like this and I'm beyond grateful," Stone said. "Without her none of this exists. Including my life, so thank you for that too mom."

PHOTO: Da'Vine Joy Randolph poses in the winner's room with her award for Supporting Actress for "The Holdovers" during the 2024 British Academy of Film and Television Awards (BAFTA) in London, February 18, 2024.

Da'Vine Joy Randolph continued her awards season sweep after winning at both the Golden Globes and Critic's Choice Awards, she tearfully accepted the BAFTA for Best Supporting Actress for her role as Mary Lamb in “The Holdovers."

"There have been countless Marys throughout history who have never got the chance to wear a beautiful gown and stand on this stage here in London," she said. "Telling her story is a responsibility that I do not take lightly."

To close out the night on a high note, the crowd gave Michael J. Fox a standing ovation as he introduced the night's top honors with the award for Best Film.

presentation of culture

There was also royalty on the red carpet, with Prince William, who arrived solo as Princess Kate continues to recover from abdominal surgery.

The Prince of Wales serves as president of the British Academy of Film and Television Arts, which presents the annual awards.

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Leatherby Libraries

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“First Gen: A Memoir” A Campus-Wide Book Club Initiative Celebrating First-Gen Panthers

February 22, 2024

Calling all readers across campus! Faculty, staff, and students, are you interested in learning about and engaging with the perspectives of first-generation college students? Are you a first-generation student or graduate who would like to share your experiences with others?

If so, you may be interested in a new campus-wide book club celebrating First-Gen Panthers hosted by the  First-Generation Promising Futures Program , the Office of Diversity, Equity and Inclusion , and the Leatherby Libraries !

This year’s book selection is First Gen: A Memoir by Alejandra Campoverdi. Alejandra is a nationally recognized women’s health advocate, founder, producer, writer, and former Obama White House official. This memoir details Campoverdi’s experience as a first-generation Mexican American university student who graduated from Harvard and became a candidate for Congress. It explores what it means to be a trailblazer, including the emotional and mental struggles faced while navigating social mobility. ( https://www.alejandracampoverdi.com/first-gen-a-memoir )

This initiative aims to promote a greater understanding of the perspectives and experiences of first-generation university students within the Chapman University community.

First Gen: A Memoir by Alejandra Campoverdi Join the Discussion Participate in the Meetings Bring Your Voice Complimentary copies of the book are available at the Cross-Cultural Center.

presentation of culture

From First Gen by Alejandra Campoverdi, copyright © 2023. Reprinted by permission of Grand Central Publishing, an imprint of Hachette Book Group, Inc.

Student Book Club Meetings Meeting 1:  The first student meeting will take place on  Tuesday, March 5, 2024 , in the  Cross-Cultural Center in Argyros Forum 304  at  12 p.m.  Lunch will be provided for this event, so please make sure to include any dietary restrictions or food allergies in your RSVP form. Meeting 2:  The second student meeting will occur on  Tuesday, April 2, 2024 , in LL420, located in Leatherby Libraries’ Administration Office  on the fourth floor  at  12 p.m.  Attendees will receive lunch at this event.

presentation of culture

Staff & Faculty Book Club Meetings Meeting 1:  The first meeting for staff and faculty will take place on  Thursday, March 7, 2024 , in  LL420 in the Leatherby Libraries’ Administration Office  on the fourth floor at  12 p.m.  Lunch will be provided for this event, so please make sure to include any dietary restrictions or food allergies in your RSVP form. Meeting 2:  The second staff and faculty meeting will be  on Thursday, April 4, 2024 , in the  Cross-Cultural Center in Argyros Forum 304 at   12 p.m.  Attendees will receive lunch at this event.

Those interested in participating in this Book Club can RSVP  here . Complimentary copies of  First Gen: A Memoir are available for Book Club participants at the Cross-Cultural Center, courtesy of the First-Generation Promising Futures Program.

If you have any questions, please email  [email protected]

About the Cross-Cultural Center

The Cross-Cultural Center (CCC)  is a resource hub that advocates for and supports all students at Chapman University. We encourage students to explore, celebrate, and share their diverse cultures, ideologies, and traditions. We do this through:

  • Advocacy, intercultural programming, advisement, leadership development, and student retention.
  • Establishing a welcoming community and a physical space designed to be your home away from home.
  • Participating in academic exploration, fostering connections, socializing, and cultivating relationships with peers, staff, and faculty.

If you have any questions, please email [email protected] .

The  Leatherby Libraries’ Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion efforts  align with the  Chapman University Strategic Plan for Diversity & Inclusion , fostering a diverse and inclusive campus climate.

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Presentation Studio:

November 27, 2023 by Alyssa Castanon | Resources

Introducing Presentation Studio, the newest technology upgrade at the Leatherby Libraries! Our Presentation Studio is a state-of-the-art room, custom-designed to provide a private area to record high-quality presentations. This room has been created to include acoustic wall panels, blackout shades, and dimmable lighting to give presenters control over how they want their presentation recording to

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The Leatherby Libraries Introduces Meta Quest Pro Virtual Reality Headsets

February 15, 2024 by Alyssa Castanon | Events

Attention Rinker students and faculty, are you ready to jump into the world of virtual and augmented reality? If so, stop by the Rinker Campus Study Commons to check out one of the Leatherby Libraries’ brand-new Meta Quest Pro headsets. The Leatherby Libraries Health Sciences Librarians have added four Meta Quest Pro headsets to the

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Brunswick center to host Malaga Island presentation Feb. 29

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presentation of culture

Pejepscot History Center is set to host a presentation on the history of nearby Malaga Island. Shown is the home of “Ex-King” McKinney on Malaga Island, now owned by the state of Maine. This photograph, taken prior to the eviction of Malaga’s residents in 1912, is from the collection of Pejepscot History Center. Submitted photo

BRUNSWICK — Pejepscot History Center is set to host a presentation on the history of nearby Malaga Island and the role PHC staff played two decades ago in highlighting the injustices endured by its inhabitants.

The event is set for 6-7:30 p.m. Thursday, Feb. 29, 2 at NOMAD, 14 Maine St. A half-hour reception with cash bar precedes the presentation.

presentation of culture

Kate McBrien is the Maine state archivist.

Kate McBrien, Maine state archivist since 2020, leads the presentation. McBrien’s involvement with the story of Malaga Island dates back two decades, to her tenure as curator at Pejepscot History Center.

Following in the footsteps of the late Maine historian Bill Barry, who published a groundbreaking story on Malaga in a 1980 Down East magazine article, McBrien’s research continued to shed light on the tragic events surrounding Malaga Island. She later curated the acclaimed exhibit “Malaga Island, Fragmented Lives,” while on staff at the Maine State Museum, according to a news release from the history center.

Malaga’s white, Black, and mixed-race residents were evicted from the island, off the coast of Phippsburg, in 1912. Eight residents were institutionalized at the Maine School for the Feeble Minded, which today is a portion of New Gloucester’s Pineland Farms agriculture, education, and recreation center. Maine Gov. John Baldacci finally apologized for the state’s conduct in 2010.

Prior to the evening reception and presentation, the center will conduct a short annual business meeting to elect new trustees and officers. Anyone who becomes a member of PHC prior to Feb. 29, or that evening, may arrive at 5:30 p.m. and participate in the business meeting.

Tickets cost $20 for the general public and includes NOMAD’s wood-fired Neopolitan pizza. Member tickets are $12; annual membership starts at $40 for individuals.

To register, visit pejepscothistorical.org . Memberships can be purchased at that site or by calling 207-729-6606.

Check out other upcoming area events!

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    2. Evaluate the four functions of culture within an organization. 3. Explain the relationship between organizational culture and performance. 4. Describe five ways leaders reinforce organizational culture. 5. Describe the three stages of organizational socialization and the ways culture is communicated in each step.

  23. Tuesday of the First Week of Lent

    Other Commemorations: St. Jacinta Marto (RM) February 20, 2024 (Readings on USCCB website) Tuesday of the First Week of Lent: Look upon your family, Lord, that, through the chastening effects of ...

  24. Adapt Your Presentation for Different Cultures

    Culture is a common root of many miscommunications, as it influences how we interpret messages and how we participate in group settings. To reach your intended audience effectively, your presentation must be delivered with an understanding of the lens through which your audience will view it. Develop Awareness

  25. PPT

    The Evolution of Culture. Language (code) as cultural evolution Some scientists believe that culture and language evolve using the same patterns and principles as genetic evolution. Genes are replicators that pass on DNA. The best are all strong on: Slideshow 2737435 by tait.

  26. Best BAFTAs moments: Michael J. Fox gets standing ovation, 'Oppenheimer

    British film producer and director Christopher Nolan poses with the award for Best film and Best director for "Oppenheimer" during the BAFTA British Academy Film Awards ceremony at the Royal Festival Hall, Southbank Centre, in London, on February 18, 2024.

  27. "First Gen: A Memoir" A Campus-Wide Book Club Initiative Celebrating

    Student Book Club Meetings. Meeting 1: The first student meeting will take place on Tuesday, March 5, 2024, in the Cross-Cultural Center in Argyros Forum 304 at 12 p.m. Lunch will be provided for this event, so please make sure to include any dietary restrictions or food allergies in your RSVP form. Meeting 2: The second student meeting will occur on Tuesday, April 2, 2024, in LL420, located ...

  28. Brunswick center to host Malaga Island presentation Feb. 29

    brunswick maine, Events, feature. BRUNSWICK — Pejepscot History Center is set to host a presentation on the history of nearby Malaga Island and the role PHC staff played two decades ago in ...