What You Need to Know About Article 6 of the Paris Agreement
#ShowYourStripes graphic by Professor Ed Hawkins (University of Reading) https://showyourstripes.info/
Before we discuss Article 6, please briefly describe carbon markets. How can they curb global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fight climate change?
Carbon markets are a very important tool to reach global climate goals, particularly in the short and medium term. They mobilize resources and reduce costs to give countries and companies the space to smooth the low-carbon transition and be able to achieve the goal of net zero emissions in the most effective way possible. Carbon markets incentivize climate action by enabling parties to trade carbon credits generated by the reduction or removal of GHGs from the atmosphere, such as by switching from fossil fuels to renewable energy or enhancing or conserving carbon stocks in ecosystems such as a forest. It is estimated that trading in carbon credits could reduce the cost of implementing countries’ Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) by more than half – by as much as $250 billion in 2030 . In other words, carbon trading could facilitate the removal of 50% more emissions (about 5 gigatons of carbon dioxide per year by 2030) at no additional cost. Over time, markets are expected to become redundant as every country gets to net zero emissions and the need to trade emissions diminishes.
What is Article 6?
Article 6 of the Paris Agreement allows countries to voluntarily cooperate with each other to achieve emission reduction targets set out in their NDCs. This means that, under Article 6, a country (or countries) will be able to transfer carbon credits earned from the reduction of GHG emissions to help one or more countries meet climate targets. Within Article 6, Article 6.2 creates the basis for trading in GHG emission reductions (or “mitigation outcomes”) across countries. Article 6.4 is expected to be similar to the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol . It establishes a mechanism for trading GHG emission reductions between countries under the supervision of the Conference of Parties – the decision-making body of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. Article 6.8 recognizes non-market approaches to promote mitigation and adaptation. It introduces cooperation through finance, technology transfer, and capacity building, where no trading of emission reductions is involved.
Article 6 of the Paris Agreement allows countries to voluntarily cooperate with each other to achieve emission reduction targets set out in their NDCs.
How will Article 6 support carbon markets?
Article 6 pertains to the establishment of international compliance carbon markets governed by the rules of the Paris Agreement where countries can trade carbon credits. Under Article 6, emission reductions that have been authorized for transfer by the selling country’s government may be sold to another country, but only one country may count the emission reduction toward its NDC. It is critical to avoid double counting so that global emission reductions are not overestimated. The agreement on Article 6 established an accounting mechanism known as “corresponding adjustment,” to ensure that double counting does not occur.
Corresponding adjustment requirements may extend beyond compliance markets to the voluntary carbon markets, where demand is driven by the private sector’s voluntary commitments to reduce emissions. For example, the market-based mechanism for airlines -- the International Civil Aviation Organization’s Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA) – is expected to require corresponding adjustment for traded credits.
How is the World Bank helping countries realize the benefits of Article 6?
We are assisting in several ways.
Our Climate Warehouse Program plays a crucial role in the development of infrastructure for a globally connected international carbon market. To avoid double counting of emission reductions, the market needs secure and transparent systems that ensure changes to data are auditable. Our team is assessing the potential role of blockchain (or distributed ledger technology) to keep data secure and transparent. If information from different countries’ and global registry systems can be reflected in a common system, then you considerably reduce the potential for the same carbon credit to be sold twice. We are also exploring new technologies to address other challenges in carbon markets related to accuracy, robustness, and transaction costs. For example, digital monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) offers huge potential to reduce the time required to generate and trade an emission reduction. Digital MRV can also reduce the transaction costs to ensure that more of the carbon revenues are directed toward mitigation projects. Together, these initiatives can facilitate complete automation of the chain -- from the point of generating a credit, all the way to transacting it. The goal is a digital system that ensures transparency, increases efficiency, and ensures greater robustness and accuracy of data related to emission reductions.
Some other Bank initiatives that help countries participate in carbon markets include:
The Supporting Bank Operations for Mitigation Outcomes program creates carbon credits from the World Bank's own lending programs to help countries gain practical experience in generating credits from projects. These credits can be used for a country’s own climate goals or be sold in voluntary or compliance carbon markets.
Invest4Climate builds capacity to better understand how carbon credits can be monetized, and develops innovative approaches for structuring carbon revenues.
The Climate Market Club is piloting institutional elements of Article 6.2 needed at the national level to decide which carbon credits could be sold, how they should be priced, and how a country can ensure it's able to report on them.
The Partnership for Market Implementation supports countries to build capacity and supports scaling up of carbon pricing instruments, including international carbon markets.
The annual State and Trends of Carbon Pricing report captures key global developments in carbon pricing and carbon markets.
The Carbon Initiative for Development has implemented a programmatic crediting approach for clean energy access. The Forest Carbon Partnership Facility and the BioCarbon Fund Initiative for Sustainable Landscapes help countries reduce and remove GHGs from the forest and land-use sectors. The Transformative Carbon Asset Facility supports developing countries to implement market-based carbon pricing and create conditions for private sector investments in low-carbon technologies.
For more information, you can explore the Article 6 approach papers series developed by the World Bank, covering topics such as the carbon asset development process , country processes and institutional arrangements for Article 6 , ensuring environmental integrity , and a country policy framework for Article 6.2 .
Read: What You Need to Know About Net Zero
Website: Climate Explainer Series
Website: Climate Stories: How Countries and Communities Are Shaping A Sustainable Future
Website: World Bank - Climate Change
All debts contracted and engagements entered into, before the adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.
This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, anything in the Constitution or laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding.
The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the members of the several state legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States and of the several states, shall be bound by oath or affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States.
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The first amendment, debts, supremacy, oaths, religious tests.
Signed in convention September 17, 1787. Ratified June 21, 1788
All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.
This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.
The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.
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What is Article 6 of the Paris Agreement, and why is it important?
UNDP carbon expert Alexandra Soezer explains how cooperation mechanisms outlined by Article 6.2 of the Paris Agreement can boost climate action and the Sustainable Development Goals
November 9, 2022
Global Carbon Technical Advisor – Energy, Sustainable Energy Hub
We are already witnessing the devastating impacts of climate change across the world, and are fast approaching a 1.5°C rise in global temperature – a crucial tipping point after which irreversible damage will be done. We know what we need to do to curb global warming: greenhouse gas emissions must fall by 43% compared with 2019 levels. And yet, currently the combined Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), countries’ climate pledges under the Paris Agreement, would mean only a 10% greenhouse gas emission cut , putting the world on track for 2.5°C.
What is Article 6?
Public funds won’t be enough to finance developing countries’ NDCs. Most emission reduction activities need to be implemented and financed by the private sector. Suitable finance approaches are therefore required – and this is where Article 6 of the Paris Agreement can help.
Article 6 acknowledges that countries can pursue voluntary cooperation in the implementation of their Nationally Determined Contributions to allow for higher mitigation ambition and to promote sustainable development. Article 6.2 outlines the possibility of cooperative approaches and the transfer of Internationally Transferrable Mitigation Outcomes (ITMOs) between different actors, including countries and private sector companies, through bilateral agreements. ITMOs use a carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) metric for a new set of market provisions or other greenhouse gas mitigation outcomes that are defined under Article 6.2 of the Paris Agreement.
The mechanisms set out under Article 6.2 on cooperative approaches also underline that beyond emissions reductions, climate mitigation projects can directly or indirectly yield many development benefits – including job creation, technology transfer to increase access to energy, support to livelihoods and food security, gender empowerment and more.
How does it work?
Let’s take an example of cooperative approaches that are already put in place by Switzerland, Ghana, and Vanuatu.
Ghana presented at a dedicated event at COP27 the first-ever bilaterally authorized project to be implemented under this mechanism. Vanuatu presented the first unilateral authorized project, which will pave the way for implementation. By entering these voluntary cooperation approaches through bilateral agreements with Ghana and Vanuatu, Switzerland will reduce its federal administration’s greenhouse gas emissions by using Internationally Transferrable Mitigation Outcomes (ITMOs) to accelerate the implementation of climate mitigation projects with strong development benefits in developing countries. These ITMOs will not be counted towards Switzerland’s NDC but are complementary and will be cancelled without use to any NDC.
In Ghana , the ITMO project on sustainable rice cultivation – which is the first project which will obtain formal authorization for the transfer of ITMOs from a seller country and buyer country – is supporting the training of thousands of rice farmers in climate-smart agricultural practices to reduce methane emissions and enable a more efficient use of water. Another project, for which the Ghana’s Environmental protection agency has established a Public Private Partnership with IRECOP , will generate ITMOs from four composting facilities.
In Vanuatu , the implementation of a rural electrification project for which the Department of Energy will partner with the Vanuatu National Green Energy Fund , and enable the country’s population currently without electricity to have access to reliable, affordable electricity through solar power.
Other projects under development are landfill gas to energy projects in Georgia , a large-scale climate smart agriculture project and a composting project with Emmsa in Peru. In Ukraine , UNDP is currently identifying projects with Astarta on enteric fermentation and manure management.
How is UNDP supporting this process?
UNDP helps to design and implement projects under this Article 6.2 mechanism through its Carbon Payment for Development facility (CP4D) which aims to leverage carbon markets to enable private investments in support of the SDGs. CP4D promotes learning by doing through a dual goal – building deep understanding of carbon finance at the political, regulatory and technical level while delivering climate and social impacts quickly and at scale. The CP4D is capitalized with US$ 125 million to allow for the implementation of more than 6 million ITMOs between 2022 and 2030. Through this initiative, UNDP provides direct financial incentives for ITMO project implementation and is among the first to create concrete demand for a significant volume of ITMOs. UNDP is engaging with project developers, who have the capacity to upfront invest in projects and set up public private partnerships with governments. The financial incentives are then paid ex-post based on third-party verified ITMOs. In other cases, we work with academia and beneficiaries directly to implement high impact projects, for example in the agricultural sectors in Ghana and Peru.
UNDP is also providing technical support to help countries address the new complexities of carbon markets. This consists in evaluating a country’s regulatory and institutional gaps, as well as the development of Article 6 regulatory frameworks to guide the implementation of Article 6 projects and provide a robust broader framework for carbon markets. With support from UNDP, Ghana is one of the few countries who has already developed such a framework, and we are currently supporting Georgia, Senegal, Ukraine and Uruguay to develop similar Article 6 frameworks. In order to respond to huge demand on Article 6 capacity building, we have developed, together with UNFCCC and other partners, a dedicated online course .
UNDP is also partnering with UNFCCC, the World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development to develop a digital infrastructure for carbon markets and simplify ITMO project workflows. As part of this, UNDP has set up the digital Carbon Cooperation platform which helps countries to process ITMO projects more transparently and efficiently. The platform will be linked with the World Bank Climate Action Data Trust to create an end-to-end digital system for Article 6 implementation.
The CP4D is an example of UNDP’s Sustainable Energy Hub ‘future-smart’ approach to development – harnessing new mechanisms, such as the ones detailed in Article 6, partnerships with governments and the private sector, as well knowledge and capacity building to advance integrated development outcomes. It is the kind of innovative approaches that is required to tackle the climate crisis and help put the world on sustainable development pathways that leave no-one behind.
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A Member of the United Nations who has persistently violated the Principles contained in the present Charter may be expelled from the Organization by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council.
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EU Charter of Fundamental Rights
Title ii freedoms, article 6 - right to liberty and security.
Everyone has the right to liberty and security of person.
The rights in Article 6 are the rights guaranteed by Article 5 of the ECHR, and in accordance with Article 52(3) of the Charter, they have the same meaning and scope. Consequently, the limitations which may legitimately be imposed on them may not exceed those permitted by the ECHR, in the wording of Article 5:
1. Everyone has the right to liberty and security of person. No one shall be deprived of his liberty save in the following cases and in accordance with a procedure prescribed by law: (a) the lawful detention of a person after conviction by a competent court; (b) the lawful arrest or detention of a person for non-compliance with the lawful order of a court or in order to secure the fulfilment of any obligation prescribed by law; (c) the lawful arrest or detention of a person effected for the purpose of bringing him before the competent legal authority on reasonable suspicion of having committed an offence or when it is reasonably considered necessary to prevent his committing an offence or fleeing after having done so; (d) the detention of a minor by lawful order for the purpose of educational supervision or his lawful detention for the purpose of bringing him before the competent legal authority; (e) the lawful detention of persons for the prevention of the spreading of infectious diseases, of persons of unsound mind, alcoholics or drug addicts or vagrants; (f) the lawful arrest or detention of a person to prevent his effecting an unauthorised entry into the country or of a person against whom action is being taken with a view to deportation or extradition.
2. Everyone who is arrested shall be informed promptly, in a language which he understands, of the reasons for his arrest and of any charge against him.
3. Everyone arrested or detained in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 1.c of this Article shall be brought promptly before a judge or other officer authorised by law to exercise judicial power and shall be entitled to trial within a reasonable time or to release pending trial. Release may be conditioned by guarantees to appear for trial.
4. Everyone who is deprived of his liberty by arrest or detention shall be entitled to take proceedings by which the lawfulness of his detention shall be decided speedily by a court and his release ordered if the detention is not lawful.
5. Everyone who has been the victim of arrest or detention in contravention of the provisions of this Article shall have an enforceable right to compensation.
The rights enshrined in Article 6 must be respected particularly when the European Parliament and the Council adopt legislative acts in the area of judicial cooperation in criminal matters, on the basis of Articles 82, 83 and 85 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, notably to define common minimum provisions as regards the categorisation of offences and punishments and certain aspects of procedural law.
- Cyprus / Supreme Court, First Instance Jurisdiction / Civil application No. 147/2022 Re. the application of K.K., in possession of a Greek identity card for permit to file for a certiorari order Decision date: 26 September 2022 Deciding body type: National Court/Tribunal Deciding body: Cyprus Supreme Court, First Instance Jurisdiction Type: Decision Policy area: Justice, freedom and security ECLI (European case law identifier): ECLI:CY:AD:2022:D365
- Lithuania / Supreme Administrative Court Applicant M.A. v. State Border Guard Service of the Republic of Lithuania Decision date: 28 July 2022 Deciding body type: National Court/Tribunal Deciding body: Supreme Administrative Court Type: Decision Policy area: Justice, freedom and security, Asylum and migration ECLI (European case law identifier):
- CJEU Case C-156/21 / Judgment Hungary v European Parliament and Council of the European Union Decision date: 16 February 2022 Deciding body type: Court of Justice of the European Union Deciding body: Court (Full Court) Type: Decision Policy area: Institutional affairs ECLI (European case law identifier): ECLI:EU:C:2022:97
- CJEU Case C-157/21 / Judgment Republic of Poland v European Parliament and Council of the European Union Decision date: 16 February 2022 Deciding body type: Court of Justice of the European Union Deciding body: Court (Full Court) Type: Decision Policy area: Internal market ECLI (European case law identifier): ECLI:EU:C:2022:98
- France / Council of State / 393099 La Quadrature du Net, French Data Network, Igwan.net, Fédération des fournisseurs d'accès à internet associatifs, Free Mobile and Free v. France Decision date: 21 April 2021 Deciding body type: National Court/Tribunal Deciding body: Council of State Type: Decision Policy area: ECLI (European case law identifier): ECLI:FR:CEASS:2021:393099.20210421
- CJEU Case C-649/19 / Judgment Criminal proceedings against IR Decision date: 28 January 2021 Deciding body type: Court of Justice of the European Union Deciding body: Court (Fifth Chamber) Type: Decision Policy area: Justice, freedom and security ECLI (European case law identifier): ECLI:EU:C:2021:75
- CJEU Case C-220/20 / Order XX v OO Decision date: 10 December 2020 Deciding body type: Court of Justice of the European Union Deciding body: Court (Tenth Chamber) Type: Decision Policy area: Employment and social policy ECLI (European case law identifier): ECLI:EU:C:2020:1022
- CJEU Joined Cases C-511/18, C-512/18 and C-520/18 / Judgment La Quadrature du Net and Others v Premier ministre and Others Decision date: 06 October 2020 Deciding body type: Court of Justice of the European Union Deciding body: Court (Grand Chamber) Type: Decision Policy area: Information society ECLI (European case law identifier): ECLI:EU:C:2020:791
- CJEU Case C-36/20 PPU / Judgment Ministerio Fiscal v VL. Decision date: 25 June 2020 Deciding body type: Court of Justice of the European Union Deciding body: Court (Fourth Chamber) Type: Decision Policy area: Asylum and migration ECLI (European case law identifier): ECLI:EU:C:2020:495
- CJEU Case C-808/18 / Opinion European Commission v Hungary Decision date: 25 June 2020 Deciding body type: Court of Justice of the European Union Deciding body: Advocate General Type: Policy area: Irregular migration and return ECLI (European case law identifier): ECLI:EU:C:2020:493
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Artikel 15 1. Buiten de gevallen bij of krachtens de wet bepaald mag niemand zijn vrijheid worden ontnomen.2. Hij aan wie anders dan op rechterlijk bevel zijn vrijheid is ontnomen, kan aan de rechter zijn invrijheidstelling verzoeken. Hij wordt in dat geval door de rechter gehoord binnen een bij de wet te bepalen termijn. De rechter gelast de onmiddellijke invrijheidstelling, indien hij de vrijheidsontneming onrechtmatig oordeelt. 3. De berechting van hem aan wie met het oog daarop zijn vrijheid is ontnomen, vindt binnen een redelijke termijn plaats. 4. Hij aan wie rechtmatig zijn vrijheid is ontnomen, kan worden beperkt in de uitoefening van grondrechten voor zover deze zich niet met de vrijheidsontneming verdraagt.
Article 8 (1) Personal liberty is guaranteed. (2) No one may be prosecuted or deprived of her liberty except on the grounds and in the manner specified by law. No one may be deprived of her liberty merely on the grounds of inability to fulfill a contractual obligation. (3) A person accused of or suspected of having committed a criminal act may be detained only in cases specified by law. A person who is detained shall be immediately informed of the grounds for the detention, questioned, and within forty-eight hours at the latest, either released or turned over to a court. A judge must question the detained person and decide, within twenty-four hours of receiving her, whether the person shall be placed in custody or released. (4) A person accused of a criminal act may be arrested only on the basis of a warrant issued by a judge in writing and stating the grounds for the arrest. The arrested person shall be turned over to a court within twenty-four hours. A judge shall question the arrested person and decide, within twenty-four hours, whether the person shall be placed or released. (5) Nobody may be placed in custody, except on the grounds and for the period of time laid down in a law, and only on the basis of a judicial decision. (6) The law shall specify the cases in which a person may be committed to or kept in a medical institution without her consent. A court must be notified within twenty-four hours that such a measure has been taken, and it shall decide on such placement within seven days.
Článek 8 (1) Osobní svoboda je zaručena. (2) Nikdo nesmí být stíhán nebo zbaven svobody jinak než z důvodů a způsobem, který stanoví zákon. Nikdo nesmí být zbaven svobody pouze pro neschopnost dostát smluvnímu závazku. (3) Obviněného nebo podezřelého z trestného činu je možno zadržet jen v případech stanovených v zákoně. Zadržená osoba musí být ihned seznámena s důvody zadržení, vyslechnuta a nejpozději do 48 hodin propuštěna na svobodu nebo odevzdána soudu. Soudce musí zadrženou osobu do 24 hodin od převzetí vyslechnout a rozhodnout o vazbě, nebo ji propustit na svobodu. (4) Zatknout obviněného je možno jen na písemný odůvodněný příkaz soudce. Zatčená osoba musí být do 24 hodin odevzdána soudu. Soudce musí zatčenou osobu do 24 hodin od převzetí vyslechnout a rozhodnout o vazbě nebo ji propustit na svobodu. (5) Nikdo nesmí být vzat do vazby, leč z důvodů a na dobu stanovenou zákonem a na základě rozhodnutí soudu. (6) Zákon stanoví, ve kterých případech může být osoba převzata nebo držena v ústavní zdravotnické péči bez svého souhlasu. Takové opatření musí být do 24 hodin oznámeno soudu, který o tomto umístění rozhodne do 7 dnů.
See ECHR provisions of Article 5 which have been incorporated into UK law by the Human Rights Act 1998. Right to liberty and security 1Everyone has the right to liberty and security of person. No one shall be deprived of his liberty save in the following cases and in accordance with a procedure prescribed by law: (a)the lawful detention of a person after conviction by a competent court;
(b)the lawful arrest or detention of a person for non-compliance with the lawful order of a court or in order to secure the fulfilment of any obligation prescribed by law;
(c)the lawful arrest or detention of a person effected for the purpose of bringing him before the competent legal authority on reasonable suspicion of having committed an offence or when it is reasonably considered necessary to prevent his committing an offence or fleeing after having done so;
(d)the detention of a minor by lawful order for the purpose of educational supervision or his lawful detention for the purpose of bringing him before the competent legal authority;
(e)the lawful detention of persons for the prevention of the spreading of infectious diseases, of persons of unsound mind, alcoholics or drug addicts or vagrants;
(f)the lawful arrest or detention of a person to prevent his effecting an unauthorised entry into the country or of a person against whom action is being taken with a view to deportation or extradition.
Chapter 2 - Fundamental rights and freedoms: Article 7 No Swedish citizen may be deported from or refused entry into the Realm. No Swedish citizen who is domiciled in the Realm or who has previously been domiciled in the Realm may be deprived of his or her citizenship. It may however be prescribed that children under the age of eighteen shall have the same nationality as their parents or as one parent.; Article 8 Everyone shall be protected in their relations with the public institutions against deprivations of personal liberty. All Swedish citizens shall also in other respects be guaranteed freedom of movement within the Realm and freedom to depart the Realm; Article 9 If a public authority other than a court of law has deprived an individual of his or her liberty on account of a criminal act or because he or she is suspected of having committed such an act, the individual shall be entitled to have the deprivation of liberty examined before a court of law without undue delay. This shall not, however, apply where the matter concerns the transfer to Sweden of responsibility for executing a penal sanction involving deprivation of liberty according to a sentence in another state. (...)
2 kapitlet - Grundläggande fri- och rättigheter: 7 § Ingen svensk medborgare får landsförvisas eller hindras att resa in i riket. Ingen svensk medborgare som är eller har varit bosatt i riket får fråntas sitt medborgarskap. Det får dock föreskrivas att barn under arton år i fråga om sitt medborgarskap ska följa föräldrarna eller en av dem; 8 § Var och en är gentemot det allmänna skyddad mot frihetsberövanden. Den som är svensk medborgare är även i övrigt tillförsäkrad frihet att förflytta sig inom riket och att lämna det; 9 § Om en annan myndighet än en domstol har berövat någon friheten med anledning av brott eller misstanke om brott, ska han eller hon kunna få frihetsberövandet prövat av domstol utan oskäligt dröjsmål. Detta gäller dock inte när det är fråga om att till Sverige flytta över verkställighet av en frihetsberövande påföljd enligt en dom i en annan stat. (...)
Artículo 171. Toda persona tiene derecho a la libertad y a la seguridad. Nadie puede ser privado de su libertad, sino con la observancia de lo establecido en este artículo y en los casos y en la forma previstos en la ley. 2. La detención preventiva no podrá durar más del tiempo estrictamente necesario para la realización de las averiguaciones tendentes al esclarecimiento de los hechos, y, en todo caso, en el plazo máximo de setenta y dos horas, el detenido deberá ser puesto en libertad o a disposición de la autoridad judicial. 3. Toda persona detenida debe ser informada de forma inmediata, y de modo que le sea comprensible, de sus derechos y de las razones de su detención, no pudiendo ser obligada a declarar. Se garantiza la asistencia de abogado al detenido en las diligencias policiales y judiciales, en los términos que la ley establezca. 4. La ley regulará un procedimiento de "habeas corpus" para producir la inmediata puesta a disposición judicial de toda persona detenida ilegalmente.Asimismo, por ley se determinará el plazo máximo de duración de la prisión provisional.
Article 171. Every person has the right to freedom and security. No one may be deprived of his or her freedom except in accordance with the provisions of this section and in the cases and in the manner provided for by the law.2. Preventive arrest may last no longer than the time strictly necessary in order to carry out the investigations aimed at establishing the events; in any case the person arrested must be set free or handed over to the judicial authorities within a maximum period of seventy-two hours. 3. Every person arrested must be informed immediately, and in a way understandable to him or her, of his or her rights and of the grounds for his or her arrest, and may not be compelled to make a statement. The arrested person shall be guaranteed the assistance of a lawyer during police and judicial proceedings, under the terms to be laid down by the law. 4. An habeas corpus procedure shall be provided for by law in order to ensure the immediate handing over to the judicial authorities of any person illegally arrested. Likewise, the maximum period of provisional imprisonment shall be determined by law.
Article 19 Everyone has the right to personal liberty. No one may be deprived of his liberty except in such cases and pursuant to such procedures as are provided by law.Anyone deprived of his liberty must be immediately informed in his mother tongue, or in a language which he understands, of the reasons for being deprived of his liberty. Within the shortest possible time thereafter, he must also be informed in writing of why he has been deprived of his liberty. He must be instructed immediately that he is not obliged to make any statement, that he has the right to immediate legal representation of his own free choice and that the competent authority must, on his request, notify his relatives or those close to him of the deprivation of his liberty.Article 20A person reasonably suspected of having committed a criminal offence may be detained only on the basis of a court order when this is absolutely necessary for the course of criminal proceedings or for reasons of public safety.Upon detention, but not later than twenty-four hours thereafter, the person detained must be handed the written court order with a statement of reasons. The person detained has the right to appeal against the court order, and such appeal must be decided by a court within forty-eight hours. Detention may last only as long as there are legal reasons for such, but no longer than three months from the day of the deprivation of liberty. The Supreme Court may extend the detention a further three months.If no charges are brought by the end of these terms, the suspected person shall be released.
19. člen Vsakdo ima pravico do osebne svobode. Nikomur se ne sme vzeti prostosti, razen v primerih in po postopku, ki ga določa zakon. Vsakdo, ki mu je odvzeta prostost, mora biti v materinem jeziku ali v jeziku, ki ga razume, takoj obveščen o razlogih za odvzem prostosti. V čim krajšem času mu mora biti tudi pisno sporočeno, zakaj mu je bila prostost odvzeta. Takoj mora biti poučen o tem, da ni dolžan ničesar izjaviti, da ima pravico do takojšnje pravne pomoči zagovornika, ki si ga svobodno izbere, in o tem, da je pristojni organ na njegovo zahtevo dolžan o odvzemu prostosti obvestiti njegove bližnje.
20. člen Oseba, za katero obstaja utemeljen sum, da je storila kaznivo dejanje, se sme pripreti samo na podlagi odločbe sodišča, kadar je to neogibno potrebno za potek kazenskega postopka ali za varnost ljudi. Ob priporu, najkasneje pa v 24 urah po njem, mora biti priprtemu vročena pisna, obrazložena odločba. Proti tej odločbi ima priprti pravico do pritožbe, o kateri mora sodišče odločiti v 48 urah. Pripor sme trajati samo toliko časa, dokler so za to dani zakonski razlogi, vendar največ tri mesece od dneva odvzema prostosti. Vrhovno sodišče sme pripor podaljšati še za nadaljnje tri mesece. Če do izteka teh rokov obtožnica ni vložena, se obdolženca izpusti.
Article 17(1) Personal freedom is guaranteed. (2) No one shall be prosecuted or deprived of freedom other than for reasons and in a manner which shall be laid down by law. No one may be deprived of freedom solely because of his inability to fulfil a contractual obligation. (3) The person charged or suspected of a criminal offence may be detained only in cases laid down by law. A detained person must be immediately informed of the reasons for the detainment, and after interrogation at the latest within 48 hours and, in crimes of terrorism within 96 hours, must be either released or brought before the court. The judge must question the detained person and decide on his custody or release within 48 hours and, for especially serious criminal offences within 72 hours from the hand over. (4) An accused person may be arrested only upon a written, substantiated order of a judge. The arrested person must be brought before the court within 24 hours. The judge must question the arrested person and decide on his custody or release within 48 hours and, for especially serious offences within 72 hours from the hand over. (5) A person may be taken into custody only for reasons and for a period laid down by law and on the basis of a court ruling. (6) The law shall lay down in which cases a person can be admitted to, or kept in, a health care institution without his consent. Such measures must be reported within 24 hours to the court which will then decide on this placement within five days. (7) The mental state of a person accused of a criminal act may be examined only on the basis of a written court order.
Čl. 17(1) Osobná sloboda sa zaručuje.(2) Nikoho nemožno stíhať alebo pozbaviť slobody inak, ako z dôvodov a spôsobom, ktorý ustanoví zákon. Nikoho nemožno pozbaviť slobody len pre neschopnosť dodržať zmluvný záväzok. (3) Obvineného alebo podozrivého z trestného činu možno zadržať len v prípadoch ustanovených zákonom. Zadržaná osoba musí byť ihneď oboznámená s dôvodmi zadržania, vypočutá a najneskôr do 48 hodín a pri trestných činoch terorizmu do 96 hodín prepustená na slobodu alebo odovzdaná súdu. Sudca musí zadržanú osobu do 48 hodín a pri obzvlášť závažných trestných činoch do 72 hodín od prevzatia vypočuť a rozhodnúť o väzbe alebo o jej prepustení na slobodu. (4) Obvineného možno zatknúť iba na odôvodnený písomný príkaz sudcu. Zatknutá osoba musí byť do 24 hodín odovzdaná súdu. Sudca musí zatknutú osobu do 48 hodín a pri obzvlášť závažných trestných činoch do 72 hodín od prevzatia vypočuť a rozhodnúť o väzbe alebo o jej prepustení na slobodu. (5) Do väzby možno vziať iba z dôvodov a na čas ustanovený zákonom a na základe rozhodnutia súdu. (6) Zákon ustanoví, v ktorých prípadoch možno prevziať osobu do ústavnej zdravotníckej starostlivosti alebo ju v nej držať bez jej súhlasu. Takéto opatrenie sa musí do 24 hodín oznámiť súdu, ktorý o tomto umiestnení rozhodne do piatich dní. (7) Skúmanie duševného stavu osoby obvinenej z trestného činu je možné iba na písomný príkaz súdu.
Articolul 23(1) Libertatea individuala si siguranta persoanei sunt inviolabile. (2) Perchezitionarea, retinerea sau arestarea unei persoane sunt permise numai în cazurile si cu procedura prevazute de lege. (3) Retinerea nu poate depasi 24 de ore. (4) Arestarea preventiva se dispune de judecator si numai în cursul procesului penal. (5) În cursul urmaririi penale arestarea preventiva se poate dispune pentru cel mult 30 de zile si se poate prelungi cu câte cel mult 30 de zile, fara ca durata totala sa depaseasca un termen rezonabil, si nu mai mult de 180 de zile. (6) În faza de judecata instanta este obligata, în conditiile legii, sa verifice periodic, si nu mai târziu de 60 de zile, legalitatea si temeinicia arestarii preventive si sa dispuna, de îndata, punerea în libertate a inculpatului, daca temeiurile care au determinat arestarea preventiva au încetat sau daca instanta constata ca nu exista temeiuri noi care sa justifice mentinerea privarii de libertate. (7) Încheierile instantei privind masura arestarii preventive sunt supuse cailor de atac prevazute de lege. (8) Celui retinut sau arestat i se aduc de îndata la cunostinta, în limba pe care o întelege, motivele retinerii sau ale arestarii, iar învinuirea, în cel mai scurt termen; învinuirea se aduce la cunostinta numai în prezenta unui avocat, ales sau numit din oficiu. (9) Punerea în libertate a celui retinut sau arestat este obligatorie, daca motivele acestor masuri au disparut, precum si în alte situatii prevazute de lege. (10) Persoana arestata preventiv are dreptul sa ceara punerea sa în libertate provizorie, sub control judiciar sau pe cautiune. (13) Sanctiunea privativa de libertate nu poate fi decât de natura penala.
Article 23(1) Individual freedom and security of a person are inviolable. (2) Search, detainment, or arrest of a person shall be permitted only in the cases and under the procedure provided by law. (3) Detention shall not exceed twenty-four hours. (4) Preventive custody shall be ordered by a judge and only in the course of criminal proceedings. (5) During the criminal proceedings, the preventive custody may only be ordered for 30 days at the most and extended for 30 days at the most each, without the overall length exceeding a reasonable term, and no longer than i80 days. (6) After the lawsuit has begun, the court is bound, according to the law, to check, on a regular basis and no later than 60 days, the lawfulness and grounds of the preventive custody, and to order at once the release of the defendant if the grounds for the preventive custody have ceased to exist or if the court finds there are no new grounds justifying the continuance of the custody. (7) The decisions by a court of law on preventive custody may be subject to the legal proceedings stipulated by the law. (8) Any person detained or arrested shall be promptly informed, in a language he understands, of the grounds for his detention or arrest, and notified of the charges against him, as soon as practicable; the notification of the charges shall be made only in the presence of a lawyer of his own choosing or appointed ex officio. (9) The release of a detained or arrested person shall be mandatory if the reasons for such steps have ceased to exist, as well as under other circumstances stipulated by the law. (10) A person under preventive custody shall have the right to apply for provisional release, under judicial control or on bail. (13) The freedom deprivation sanction can only be based on criminal grounds.
Artigo 27.º (Direito à liberdade e à segurança) 1. Todos têm direito à liberdade e à segurança. 2. Ninguém pode ser total ou parcialmente privado da liberdade, a não ser em consequência de sentença judicial condenatória pela prática de acto punido por lei com pena de prisão ou de aplicação judicial de medida de segurança. 3. Exceptua-se deste princípio a privação da liberdade, pelo tempo e nas condições que a lei determinar, nos casos seguintes: a) Detenção em flagrante delito; b) Detenção ou prisão preventiva por fortes indícios de prática de crime doloso a que corresponda pena de prisão cujo limite máximo seja superior a três anos; c) Prisão, detenção ou outra medida coactiva sujeita a controlo judicial, de pessoa que tenha penetrado ou permaneça irregularmente no território nacional ou contra a qual esteja em curso processo de extradição ou de expulsão; d) Prisão disciplinar imposta a militares, com garantia de recurso para o tribunal competente; e) Sujeição de um menor a medidas de protecção, assistência ou educação em estabelecimento adequado, decretadas pelo tribunal judicial competente; f) Detenção por decisão judicial em virtude de desobediência a decisão tomada por um tribunal ou para assegurar a comparência perante autoridade judiciária competente; g) Detenção de suspeitos, para efeitos de identificação, nos casos e pelo tempo estritamente necessários; h) Internamento de portador de anomalia psíquica em estabelecimento terapêutico adequado, decretado ou confirmado por autoridade judicial competente. 4. Toda a pessoa privada da liberdade deve ser informada imediatamente e de forma compreensível das razões da sua prisão ou detenção e dos seus direitos. 5. A privação da liberdade contra o disposto na Constituição e na lei constitui o Estado no dever de indemnizar o lesado nos termos que a lei estabelecer.
Article 27 (Right to freedom and security) (1) Everyone has the right to freedom and security. (2) No one may be wholy or partially deprived of their freedom, except as a consequence of a judicial sentence imposed for the practise of an act that is punishable by law with a prison term or the imposition by a court of a security measure. (3) The following cases of deprivation of freedom for such time and under such conditions as the law may determine shall be exceptions to this principle: (a) Detention in flagrante delicto; (b) Detention or remand in custody where there is strong evidence of the commission of a serious crime punishable by imprisonment for a maximum term of more than three years; (c) The imposition of imprisonment, detention or any other coercive measure subject to judicial control, on a person who improperly entered or is improperly present in Portuguese territory, or who is currently the object of extradition or deportation proceedings; (d) The imposition of disciplinary imprisonment on military personnel. Such imprisonment shall be subject to appeal to the competent court; (e) The subjection of a minor to measures intended to protect, assist or educate him in a suitable establishment, when ordered by the competent court of law; (f) Detention under a court order for disobeying a court ruling or to ensure appearance before a competent judicial authority; (g) Detentions of suspects for identification purposes, in such cases and for such time as may be strictly necessary; (h) Committal of a person suffering from a psychic anomaly to an appropriate therapeutic establishment, when ordered or confirmed by a competent judicial authority. (4) Every person who is deprived of his freedom shall immediately be informed in an understandable manner of the reasons for his arrest, imprisonment or detention and of his rights. (5) Deprivation of freedom contrary to the provisions of this Constitution and the law shall place the state under a duty to compensate the aggrieved person in accordance with the law.
Article 41.1. Personal inviolability and security shall be ensured to everyone. Any deprivation or limitation of liberty may be imposed only in accordance with principles and under procedures specified by statute.2. Anyone deprived of liberty, except by sentence of a court, shall have the right to appeal to a court for immediate decision upon the lawfulness of such deprivation. Any deprivation of liberty shall be immediately made known to the family of, or a person indicated by, the person deprived of liberty.3. Every detained person shall be informed, immediately and in a manner comprehensible to him, of the reasons for such detention. The person shall, within 48 hours of detention, be given over to a court for consideration of the case. The detained person shall be set free unless a warrant of temporary arrest issued by a court, along with specification of the charges laid, has been served on him within 24 hours of the time of being given over to the court's disposal.4. Anyone deprived of liberty shall be treated in a humane manner.5. Anyone who has been unlawfully deprived of liberty shall have a right to compensation.
Art. 41.1. Każdemu zapewnia się nietykalność osobistą i wolność osobistą. Pozbawienie lub ograniczenie wolności może nastąpić tylko na zasadach i w trybie określonych w ustawie.2. Każdy pozbawiony wolności nie na podstawie wyroku sądowego ma prawo odwołania się do sądu w celu niezwłocznego ustalenia legalności tego pozbawienia. O pozbawieniu wolności powiadamia się niezwłocznie rodzinę lub osobę wskazaną przez pozbawionego wolności. 3. Każdy zatrzymany powinien być niezwłocznie i w sposób zrozumiały dla niego poinformowany o przyczynach zatrzymania. Powinien on być w ciągu 48 godzin od chwili zatrzymania przekazany do dyspozycji sądu. Zatrzymanego należy zwolnić, jeżeli w ciągu 24 godzin od przekazania do dyspozycji sądu nie zostanie mu doręczone postanowienie sądu o tymczasowym aresztowaniu wraz z przedstawionymi zarzutami. 4. Każdy pozbawiony wolności powinien być traktowany w sposób humanitarny. 5. Każdy bezprawnie pozbawiony wolności ma prawo do odszkodowania.
Article 34(1) No person shall be deprived of his personal liberty save as may be authorised by law in the following cases, that is to say - (a) in consequence of his unfitness to plead to a criminal charge; (b) in execution of the sentence or order of a court, whether in Malta or elsewhere, in respect of a criminal offence of which he has been convicted; (c) in execution of the order of a court punishing him for contempt of that court or of another court or tribunal or in execution of the order of the House of Representatives punishing him for contempt of itself or of its members or for breach of privilege; (d) in execution of the order of a court made to secure the fulfilment of any obligation imposed on him by law; (e) for the purpose of bringing him before a court in execution of the order of a court or before the House of Representatives in execution of the order of that House; (f) upon reasonable suspicion of his having committed, or being about to commit, a criminal offence; (g) in the case of a person who has not attained the age of eighteen years, for the purpose of his education or welfare; (h) for the purpose of preventing the spread of an infectious or contagious disease; (i) in the case of a person who is, or is reasonably suspected to be, of unsound mind, addicted to drugs or alcohol, or a vagrant, for the purpose of his care or treatment or the protection of the community; or (j) for the purpose of preventing the unlawful entry of that person into Malta, or for the purpose of effecting the expulsion, extradition or other lawful removal of that person from Malta or the taking of proceedings relating thereto or for the purpose of restraining that person while he is being conveyed through Malta in the course of his extradition or removal as a convicted prisoner from one country to another. (2) Any person who is arrested or detained shall be informed at the time of his arrest or detention, in a language that he understands, of the reasons for his arrest or detention: Provided that if an interpreter is necessary and is not readily available or if it is otherwise impracticable to comply with the provisions of this sub-article at the time of the person’s arrest or detention, such provisions shall be complied with as soon as practicable. (3) Any person who is arrested or detained - (a) for the purpose of bringing him before a court in execution of the order of a court; or (b) upon reasonable suspicion of his having committed, or being about to commit, a criminal offence, and who is not released, shall be brought not later than forty-eight hours before a court; and if any person arrested or detained in such a case as is mentioned in paragraph (b) of this sub-article is not tried within a reasonable time, then, without prejudice to any further proceedings which may be brought against him, he shall be released either unconditionally or upon reasonable conditions, including in particular such conditions as are reasonably necessary to ensure that he appears at a later date for trial or for proceedings preliminary to trial. (4) Any person who is unlawfully arrested or detained by any other person shall be entitled to compensation therefore from that person. (5) Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this article to the extent that the law in question authorises the taking during such a period of public emergency as is referred to in paragraph (a) or (c) of sub-article (2) of article 47 of this Constitution of measures that are reasonably justifiable for the purpose of dealing with the situation that exists during that period of public emergency. (6) If any person who is lawfully detained by virtue only of such a law as is referred to in the last foregoing sub-article so requests at any time during the period of that detention not earlier than six months after he last made such a request during that period, his case shall be reviewed by an independent and impartial tribunal established by law and composed of a person or persons each of whom holds or has held judicial office or is qualified to be appointed to such office in Malta. (7) On any review by a tribunal in pursuance of the last foregoing sub-article of the case of any detained person, the tribunal may make recommendations concerning the necessity or expediency of continuing his detention to the authority by whom it was ordered, but, unless it is otherwise provided by law, that authority shall not be obliged to act in accordance with any such recommendations.
Article 12. La liberté individuelle est garantie. - Nul ne peut être poursuivi que dans les cas prévus par la loi et dans la forme qu’elle prescrit. - Nul ne peut être arrêté ou placé que dans les cas prévus par la loi et dans la forme qu’elle prescrit. - Hors le cas de flagrant délit, nul ne peut être arrêté qu’en vertu de l’ordonnance motivée du juge, qui doit être signifiée au moment de l’arrestation, ou au plus tard dans les vingt-quatre heures. - Toute personne doit être informée sans délai des moyens de recours légaux dont elle dispose pour recouvrer sa liberté.
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Article 82 (ex Article 31 TEU)
1. Judicial cooperation in criminal matters in the Union shall be based on the principle of mutual recognition of judgments and judicial decisions and shall include the approximation of the laws and regulations of the Member States in the areas referred to in paragraph 2 and in Article 83. The European Parliament and the Council, acting in accordance with the ordinary legislative procedure, shall adopt measures to: (a) lay down rules and procedures for ensuring recognition throughout the Union of all forms of judgments and judicial decisions; (b) prevent and settle conflicts of jurisdiction between Member States; (c) support the training of the judiciary and judicial staff; (d) facilitate cooperation between judicial or equivalent authorities of the Member States in relation to proceedings in criminal matters and the enforcement of decisions.
2. To the extent necessary to facilitate mutual recognition of judgments and judicial decisions and police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters having a cross-border dimension, the European Parliament and the Council may, by means of directives adopted in accordance with the ordinary legislative procedure, establish minimum rules. Such rules shall take into account the differences between the legal traditions and systems of the Member States. They shall concern: (a) mutual admissibility of evidence between Member States; (b) the rights of individuals in criminal procedure; (c) the rights of victims of crime; (d) any other specific aspects of criminal procedure which the Council has identified in advance by a decision; for the adoption of such a decision, the Council shall act unanimously after obtaining the consent of the European Parliament. Adoption of the minimum rules referred to in this paragraph shall not prevent Member States from maintaining or introducing a higher level of protection for individuals.
3. Where a member of the Council considers that a draft directive as referred to in paragraph 2 would affect fundamental aspects of its criminal justice system, it may request that the draft directive be referred to the European Council. In that case, the ordinary legislative procedure shall be suspended. After discussion, and in of a consensus, the European Council shall, within four months of this suspension, refer the draft back to the Council, which shall terminate the suspension of the ordinary legislative procedure. Within the same timeframe, in of disagreement, and if at least nine Member States wish to establish enhanced cooperation on the basis of the draft directive concerned, they shall notify the European Parliament, the Council and the Commission accordingly. In such a case, the authorisation to proceed with enhanced cooperation referred to in Article 20(2) of the Treaty on European Union and Article 329(1) of this Treaty shall be deemed to be granted and the provisions on enhanced cooperation shall apply.
Article 83 (ex Article 31 TEU)
1. The European Parliament and the Council may, by means of directives adopted in accordance with the ordinary legislative procedure, establish minimum rules concerning the definition of criminal offences and sanctions in the areas of particularly serious crime with a cross-border dimension resulting from the nature or impact of such offences or from a special need to combat them on a common basis. These areas of crime are the following: terrorism, trafficking in human beings and sexual exploitation of women and children, illicit drug trafficking, illicit arms trafficking, money laundering, corruption, counterfeiting of means of payment, computer crime and organised crime. On the basis of developments in crime, the Council may adopt a decision identifying other areas of crime that meet the criteria specified in this paragraph. It shall act unanimously after obtaining the consent of the European Parliament.
2. If the approximation of criminal laws and regulations of the Member States proves essential to ensure the effective implementation of a Union policy in an area which has been subject to harmonisation measures, directives may establish minimum rules with regard to the definition of criminal offences and sanctions in the area concerned. Such directives shall be adopted by the same ordinary or special legislative procedure as was followed for the adoption of the harmonisation measures in question, without prejudice to Article 76.
3. Where a member of the Council considers that a draft directive as referred to in paragraph 1 or 2 would affect fundamental aspects of its criminal justice system, it may request that the draft directive be referred to the European Council. In that case, the ordinary legislative procedure shall be suspended. After discussion, and in of a consensus, the European Council shall, within four months of this suspension, refer the draft back to the Council, which shall terminate the suspension of the ordinary legislative procedure. Within the same timeframe, in of disagreement, and if at least nine Member States wish to establish enhanced cooperation on the basis of the draft directive concerned, they shall notify the European Parliament, the Council and the Commission accordingly. In such a case, the authorisation to proceed with enhanced cooperation referred to in Article 20(2) of the Treaty on European Union and Article 329(1) of this Treaty shall be deemed to be granted and the provisions on enhanced cooperation shall apply.
Article 85 (ex Article 31 TEU)
1. Eurojust's mission shall be to support and strengthen coordination and cooperation between national investigating and prosecuting authorities in relation to serious crime affecting two or more Member States or requiring a prosecution on common bases, on the basis of operations conducted and information supplied by the Member States' authorities and by Europol. In this context, the European Parliament and the Council, by means of regulations adopted in accordance with the ordinary legislative procedure, shall determine Eurojust's structure, operation, field of action and tasks. These tasks may include: (a) the initiation of criminal investigations, as well as proposing the initiation of prosecutions conducted by competent national authorities, particularly those relating to offences against the financial interests of the Union; (b) the coordination of investigations and prosecutions referred to in point (a); (c) the strengthening of judicial cooperation, including by resolution of conflicts of jurisdiction and by close cooperation with the European Judicial Network. These regulations shall also determine arrangements for involving the European Parliament and national Parliaments in the evaluation of Eurojust's activities.
2. In the prosecutions referred to in paragraph 1, and without prejudice to Article 86, formal acts of judicial procedure shall be carried out by the competent national officials.
Migration has been a constant feature of human history with a profound impact on European society, its economy and its culture. With a well-managed system, migration can contribute to growth, innovation and social dynamism. Key societal challenges faced by the world today – demography, climate change, security, the global race for talent, and inequality – all have an impact on migration. Policy imperatives such as free movement in the Schengen area, safeguarding fundamental rights, ensuring security, and filling skills gaps, all call for an effective migration policy. The task facing the EU and its Member States, while continuing to address urgent needs, is to build a system that manages and normalises migration for the long term and which is fully grounded in European values and international law.
Preamble ‘(10) Vulnerable persons need appropriate assistance and support during criminal proceedings. For that purpose, the legal representative of a vulnerable suspect or accused person or an appropriate adult should be informed as soon as possible of the criminal proceedings against him, of the nature of the accusation, the procedural rights and the available remedies. The legal representative or an appropriate adult should be notified as soon as possible of the deprivation of liberty and be informed about the reasons for it, unless it is contrary to the person's best interests.‘ Right to medical assistance ‘12. Vulnerable persons should have access to systematic and regular medical assistance throughout criminal proceedings if they are deprived of liberty.‘ Deprivation of liberty ‘14. Member States should take all steps to ensure that deprivation of liberty of vulnerable persons before their conviction is a measure of last resort, proportionate and taking place under conditions suited to the needs of the vulnerable person. Appropriate measures should be taken to ensure that vulnerable persons have access to reasonable accommodations taking into account their particular needs when they are deprived of liberty.‘
Article 10 - Limitation of deprivation of liberty ‘1. Member States shall ensure that deprivation of liberty of a child at any stage of the proceedings is limited to the shortest appropriate period of time. Due account shall be taken of the age and individual situation of the child, and of the particular circumstances of the case. 2. Member States shall ensure that deprivation of liberty, in particular detention, shall be imposed on children only as a measure of last resort. Member States shall ensure that any detention is based on a reasoned decision, subject to judicial review by a court. Such a decision shall also be subject to periodic review, at reasonable intervals of time, by a court, either ex officio or at the request of the child, of the child's lawyer, or of a judicial authority which is not a court. Without prejudice to judicial independence, Member States shall ensure that decisions to be taken pursuant to this paragraph are taken without undue delay. ‘ Article 11 - Alternative measures ‘Member States shall ensure that, where possible, the competent authorities have recourse to measures alternative to detention (alternative measures).‘ Article 12 - Specific treatment in the case of deprivation of liberty ‘1. Member States shall ensure that children who are detained are held separately from adults, unless it is considered to be in the child's best interests not to do so. 2. Member States shall also ensure that children who are kept in police custody are held separately from adults, unless: (a) it is considered to be in the child's best interests not to do so; or (b) in exceptional circumstances, it is not possible in practice to do so, provided that children are held together with adults in a manner that is compatible with the child's best interests. 3. Without prejudice to paragraph 1, when a detained child reaches the age of 18, Member States shall provide for the possibility to continue to hold that person separately from other detained adults where warranted, taking into account the circumstances of the person concerned, provided that this is compatible with the best interests of children who are detained with that person. 4. Without prejudice to paragraph 1, and taking into account paragraph 3, children may be detained with young adults, unless this is contrary to the child's best interests. 5. When children are detained, Member States shall take appropriate measures to: (a) ensure and preserve their health and their physical and mental development; (b) ensure their right to education and training, including where the children have physical, sensory or learning disabilities; (c) ensure the effective and regular exercise of their right to family life; (d) ensure access to programmes that foster their development and their reintegration into society; and (e) ensure respect for their freedom of religion or belief. The measures taken pursuant to this paragraph shall be proportionate and appropriate to the duration of the detention. Points (a) and (e) of the first subparagraph shall also apply to situations of deprivation of liberty other than detention. The measures taken shall be proportionate and appropriate to such situations of deprivation of liberty. Points (b), (c), and (d) of the first subparagraph shall apply to situations of deprivation of liberty other than detention only to the extent that is appropriate and proportionate in the light of the nature and duration of such situations. 6. Member States shall endeavour to ensure that children who are deprived of liberty can meet with the holder of parental responsibility as soon as possible, where such a meeting is compatible with investigative and operational requirements. This paragraph shall be without prejudice to the nomination or designation of another appropriate adult pursuant to Article 5 or 15.‘
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Article 5 – Right to liberty and security
1 Everyone has the right to liberty and security of person. No one shall be deprived of his liberty save in the following cases and in accordance with a procedure prescribed by law:
a the lawful detention of a person after conviction by a competent court;
b the lawful arrest or detention of a person for non-compliance with the lawful order of a court or in order to secure the fulfilment of any obligation prescribed by law;
c the lawful arrest or detention of a person effected for the purpose of bringing him before the competent legal authority on reasonable suspicion of having committed an offence or when it is reasonably considered necessary to prevent his committing an offence or fleeing after having done so;
d the detention of a minor by lawful order for the purpose of educational supervision or his lawful detention for the purpose of bringing him before the competent legal authority;
e the lawful detention of persons for the prevention of the spreading of infectious diseases, of persons of unsound mind, alcoholics or drug addicts or vagrants;
f the lawful arrest or detention of a person to prevent his effecting an unauthorised entry into the country or of a person against whom action is being taken with a view to deportation or extradition.
2 Everyone who is arrested shall be informed promptly, in a language which he understands, of the reasons for his arrest and of any charge against him.
3 Everyone arrested or detained in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 1.c of this article shall be brought promptly before a judge or other officer authorised by law to exercise judicial power and shall be entitled to trial within a reasonable time or to release pending trial. Release may be conditioned by guarantees to appear for trial. 4 Everyone who is deprived of his liberty by arrest or detention shall be entitled to take proceedings by which the lawfulness of his detention shall be decided speedily by a court and his release ordered if the detention is not lawful. 5 Everyone who has been the victim of arrest or detention in contravention of the provisions of this article shall have an enforceable right to compensation.
Article 14 – Liberty and security of person
1. States Parties shall ensure that persons with disabilities, on an equal basis with others: a) Enjoy the right to liberty and security of person; b) Are not deprived of their liberty unlawfully or arbitrarily, and that any deprivation of liberty is in conformity with the law, and that the existence of a disability shall in no justify a deprivation of liberty.
2. States Parties shall ensure that if persons with disabilities are deprived of their liberty through any process, they are, on an equal basis with others, entitled to guarantees in accordance with international human rights law and shall be treated in compliance with the objectives and principles of the present Convention, including by provision of reasonable accommodation.
1. Everyone has the right to liberty and security of person. No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest or detention. No one shall be deprived of his liberty except on such grounds and in accordance with such procedure as are established by law.
2. Anyone who is arrested shall be informed, at the time of arrest, of the reasons for his arrest and shall be promptly informed of any charges against him.
3. Anyone arrested or detained on a criminal charge shall be brought promptly before a judge or other officer authorized by law to exercise judicial power and shall be entitled to trial within a reasonable time or to release. It shall not be the general rule that persons awaiting trial shall be detained in custody, but release may be subject to guarantees to appear for trial, at any other stage of the judicial proceedings, and, should occasion arise, for execution of the judgement.
4. Anyone who is deprived of his liberty by arrest or detention shall be entitled to take proceedings before a court, in order that that court may decide without delay on the lawfulness of his detention and order his release if the detention is not lawful.
5. Anyone who has been the victim of unlawful arrest or detention shall have an enforceable right to compensation.
1. All persons deprived of their liberty shall be treated with humanity and with respect for the inherent dignity of the human person.
2. (a) Accused persons shall, save in exceptional circumstances, be segregated from convicted persons and shall be subject to separate treatment appropriate to their status as unconvicted persons; (b) Accused juvenile persons shall be separated from adults and brought as speedily as possible for adjudication.
3. The penitentiary system shall comprise treatment of prisoners the essential aim of which shall be their reformation and social rehabilitation. Juvenile offenders shall be segregated from adults and be accorded treatment appropriate to their age and legal status.
- Human Rights Committee, General Comment No. 35 - Article 9: Liberty and Security of person URL (Human Rights Committee, General Comment No. 35)
- UN General Assembly Resolution 70/175 (2015) - United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners (the Nelson Mandela Rules) URL (the Nelson Mandela Rules)
Fundamental Rights Report 2022 – FRA opinions
Crime, safety and victims' rights – summary - fundamental rights survey, the european border and coast guard and fundamental rights, bias in algorithms - artificial intelligence and discrimination, establishing national independent mechanisms to monitor fundamental rights compliance at eu external borders, directive (eu) 2017/541 on combating terrorism ― impact on fundamental rights and freedoms - summary, children as suspects or accused persons in criminal proceedings — procedural safeguards, fundamental rights report 2022, unaccompanied children outside the child protection system – case study: pakistani children in greece, directive (eu) 2017/541 on combating terrorism ― impact on fundamental rights and freedoms.