logo-history

  • Muhammad Bin Qasim

Muhammad-Bin-Qasim

  • 712-1206 Advent of Islam pph

Follow Us On:

Muhammad bin Qasim was born around 695 AD. He belonged to the Saqqafi tribe; that had originated from Taif in Arabia. He grew up in the care of his mother; he soon became a great asset to his uncle Muhammad Ibn Yusuf, the governor of Yemen. His judgment, potential and skills left many other officers and forced the ruler to appoint him in the state department. He was also a close relative of Hajjaj bin Yousuf, because of the influence of Hajjaj, the young Muhammad bin Qasim was appointed the governor of Persia while in his teens, and he crushed the rebellion in that region. There is also a popular tradition that presents him as the son-in-law of Hajjaj bin Yousuf. He conquered the Sindh and Punjab regions along the Indus River for the Umayyad Caliphate.

There are both long and short term causes for the conquest of india. Arabs had trade with India and Eastern Asia. The trade was carried through sea rout; the rout was unsafe due to the plunder of the Pirates of Sindh. The Arab rebels also get refuge in Sindh. Thus the Umayyad wanted to consolidate their rule and also to secure the trade rout.  During Hajjaj’s governorship, the Mids of Debal (Pirates) plundered the gifts of Ceylon’s ruler to Hijjaj and attacked on ships of Arab that were carrying the orphans and widows of Muslim soldiers who died in Sri Lanka. Thus providing the Umayyad Caliphate the legitimate cause, that enabled them to gain a foothold in the Makran, and Sindh regions.

The Umayyad caliphate ordered Muhammad Bin Qasim to attack over Sindh. He led 6,000 Syrian cavalry and at the borders of Sindh he was joined by an advance guard and six thousand camel riders and with five catapults (Manjaniks). Muhammad Bin Qasim first captured Debal, from where the Arab army marched along the Indus. At Rohri he was met by Dahir’s forces. Dahir died in the battle, his forces were defeated and Muhammad bin Qasim took control of Sind. Mohammad Bin Qasim entered Daibul in 712 AD. As a result of his efforts, he succeeded in capturing Daibul. He continued his Victorious Progress in succession, Nirun, fortress (called Sikka), Brahmanabad, Alor, Multan and Gujrat. After the conquest of Multan, he carried his arms to the borders of Kigdom of Kashmir, but his dismissal stopped the further advance. Now Muslims were the masters of whole Sindh and a part of Punjab up to the borders of Kashmir in the north. After the conquest, he adopted a conciliatory policy, asking for acceptance of Muslim rule by the natives in return for non-interference in their religious and cultural practices. He also established peace with a strong taxation system. In return he provided the guaranty of security of life and property for the natives.  Hajjaj died in 714. When Walid Bin Abdul Malik died, his younger brother Suleman succeeded as the Caliph. He was a bitter enemy of Hajjaj’s family. He recalled Mohammad Bin Qasim from Sindh, who obeyed the orders as the duty of a general. When he came back, he was put to death on 18 th  of July, 715AD at the age of twenty.

MILITARY PERSONNEL

Muhammad bin qasim.

Photo of Muhammad bin Qasim

Muḥammad ibn al-Qāsim al-Thaqafī (Arabic: محمد بن القاسم الثقفي; (695-12-31)31 December 695–(715-07-18)18 July 715) was an Arab military commander in service of the Umayyad Caliphate who led the Muslim conquest of Sindh (and Punjab, part of ancient Sindh), inaugurating the Umayyad campaigns in India. His military exploits led to the establishment of the Islamic province of Sindh, and the takeover of the region from the Sindhi Brahman dynasty and its ruler, Raja Dahir, who was subsequently decapitated with his head sent to al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf in Basra . Read more on Wikipedia

Since 2007, the English Wikipedia page of Muhammad bin Qasim has received more than 1,795,126 page views. His biography is available in 34 different languages on Wikipedia (up from 33 in 2019) . Muhammad bin Qasim is the 238th most popular military personnel (up from 336th in 2019) , the 81st most popular biography from Saudi Arabia (up from 90th in 2019) and the 5th most popular Saudi Arabian Military Personnel .

Muhammad bin Qasim is most famous for conquering the Sindh region of modern-day Pakistan.

Memorability Metrics

Page Views (PV)

Historical Popularity Index (HPI)

Languages Editions (L)

Effective Languages (L*)

Coefficient of Variation (CV)

Page views of Muhammad bin Qasims by language

Among military personnels.

Among military personnels , Muhammad bin Qasim ranks 238 out of 1,468 .  Before him are Sejanus , Tōgō Heihachirō , Kurt Meyer , Jean-Baptiste Kléber , Erich Hoepner , and Hans von Seeckt . After him are Tokugawa Yoshinobu , Maurice Gamelin , Werner Mölders , Pedro de Alvarado , Marcus Claudius Marcellus , and Jan Henryk Dąbrowski .

Most Popular Military Personnels in Wikipedia

Photo of Sejanus

Tōgō Heihachirō

1848 - 1934

Photo of Kurt Meyer

1910 - 1961

Photo of Jean-Baptiste Kléber

Jean-Baptiste Kléber

1753 - 1800

Photo of Erich Hoepner

Erich Hoepner

1886 - 1944

Photo of Hans von Seeckt

Hans von Seeckt

1866 - 1936

Photo of Tokugawa Yoshinobu

Tokugawa Yoshinobu

1837 - 1913

Photo of Maurice Gamelin

Maurice Gamelin

1872 - 1958

Photo of Werner Mölders

Werner Mölders

1913 - 1941

Photo of Pedro de Alvarado

Pedro de Alvarado

1485 - 1541

Photo of Marcus Claudius Marcellus

Marcus Claudius Marcellus

268 BC - 208 BC

Photo of Jan Henryk Dąbrowski

Jan Henryk Dąbrowski

1755 - 1818

Contemporaries

Among people born in 695 , Muhammad bin Qasim ranks 1 .  After him are Zayd ibn Ali , Achila II , Emperor Shang of Tang , Childebrand I , and Ceolwulf of Northumbria .  Among people deceased in 715 , Muhammad bin Qasim ranks 3 .  Before him are Al-Walid I and Pope Constantine . After him are Dagobert III and Qutayba ibn Muslim .

Others Born in 695

Photo of Zayd ibn Ali

Zayd ibn Ali

Photo of Achila II

Emperor Shang of Tang

695 - Present

Photo of Childebrand I

Childebrand I

Photo of Ceolwulf of Northumbria

Ceolwulf of Northumbria

Others deceased in 715.

Photo of Al-Walid I

Pope Constantine

Photo of Dagobert III

Dagobert III

Photo of Qutayba ibn Muslim

Qutayba ibn Muslim

In saudi arabia.

Among people born in Saudi Arabia , Muhammad bin Qasim ranks 81 out of 251 .  Before him are Hasan al-Askari (846) , Mus‘ab ibn 'Umair (680) , Muhammad al-Jawad (811) , Ruqayyah bint Muhammad (598) , Zayd ibn Thabit (615) , and Ali al-Hadi (829) . After him are Talal of Jordan (1909) , Hind bint Utbah (510) , Zayd ibn Ali (695) , Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah (637) , Abu Dhar al-Ghifari (600) , and Abu Ayyub al-Ansari (576) .

Others born in Saudi Arabia

Photo of Hasan al-Askari

Hasan al-Askari

Photo of Mus‘ab ibn 'Umair

Mus‘ab ibn 'Umair

Photo of Muhammad al-Jawad

Muhammad al-Jawad

Photo of Ruqayyah bint Muhammad

Ruqayyah bint Muhammad

Photo of Zayd ibn Thabit

Zayd ibn Thabit

Photo of Ali al-Hadi

Ali al-Hadi

Photo of Talal of Jordan

Talal of Jordan

1909 - 1972

Photo of Hind bint Utbah

Hind bint Utbah

Photo of Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah

Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah

Photo of Abu Dhar al-Ghifari

Abu Dhar al-Ghifari

Photo of Abu Ayyub al-Ansari

Abu Ayyub al-Ansari

Among military personnels in saudi arabia.

Among military personnels born in Saudi Arabia , Muhammad bin Qasim ranks 5 .  Before him are Khalid ibn al-Walid (592) , Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas (595) , Abraha (600) , and Amr ibn al-As (580) . After him are Imru' al-Qais (501) and Uqba ibn Nafi (622) .

Saudi Arabian born Military Personnels

Photo of Khalid ibn al-Walid

Khalid ibn al-Walid

Photo of Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas

Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas

Photo of Abraha

Amr ibn al-As

Photo of Imru' al-Qais

Imru' al-Qais

Photo of Uqba ibn Nafi

Uqba ibn Nafi

  • Visualizations
  • Occupations
  • Occupations / Countries
  • Report Data Error
  • Privacy Policy
  • Terms of Service
  • Permissions

Datawheel

Zaki Hub

Uncovering the History of Muhammad Bin Qasim: Facts and Fiction.

Delve into the life of Muhammad Bin Qasim, a pivotal historical figure, and separate fact from fiction surrounding his conquests and legacy.

Muhammad Bin Qasim is a historical discernment of great importance – not simply inside the history of Pakistan but within the wider Islamic global as well. He is widely believed to be one of the finest military commanders of all time, and his conquests are considered by many as pivotal in shaping the Muslim world as we understand it nowadays. Despite this, an awful lot isn’t regarded approximately his existence and legacy. In this publication, we can speak the tale of Muhammad Bin Qasim to separate the information from the fiction. We will explore his life, achievements, and legacy and examine his impact on the Muslim world.

1. Introduction to Muhammad Bin Qasim .

Muhammad Bin Qasim, a younger Muslim preferred, is a celebrated discernment in the records of the Indian subcontinent. He was born in Taif, gift-day Saudi Arabia, in 695 AD. His army conquests in the 8th century AD marked the start of the Muslim presence within the Indian subcontinent.

Muhammad Bin Qasim was sent to Sindh by Caliph Al-Walid I to suppress a rebel. However, he exceeded his orders and conquered numerous local territories, including Multan and Debal. He was known for his strategic military approaches, which helped him win battles towards numerically advanced forces. His conquests have been no longer just military but additionally cultural and monetary. He is credited with introducing Islam to the region and laying the muse for Arab rule within the Indian subcontinent.

However, through the years, the tale of Muhammad Bin Qasim has been shrouded in myths and legends. Some painted him as a ruthless conqueror who massacred Hindus and destroyed temples. Others declare that he became a liberator who freed the humans of Sindh from the tyranny of their Hindu rulers. This article will discover the data and fiction surrounding the life and legacy of Muhammad Bin Qasim, dropping mild on the person at the back of the myth.

2. The early life of Muhammad Bin Qasim .

Muhammad Bin Qasim changed into born in the 12 months of 695 AD in the city of Taif, which is placed in modern-day Saudi Arabia. He belonged to the tribe of Thaqif, recognised for his bravery and military prowess. His father, Qasim bin Yusuf, was an outstanding member of the Umayyad Caliphate and governor of Yemen.

Muhammad Bin Qasim was raised in a circle of relatives who valued schooling and became knowledgeable in numerous topics. He became particularly interested in the Navy approach and procedures, which he learned from his father and other military leaders.

At a young age, Muhammad Bin Qasim showed top-notch promise as a military chief, and he changed into appointed a commander inside the Umayyad army whilst he was 17 years old. His early navy campaigns had been successful, and he fast received a reputation as a skilled and brave commander.

Muhammad Bin Qasim was given a first-rate military undertaking not long before to overcome the Sindh region, which Raja Dahir then dominated. His conquest of Sindh is considered one of the maximum sizeable events in the history of the Indian subcontinent. It marked the beginning of the Muslim rule within the area.

3. The conquest of Sindh .

The conquest of Sindh with Muhammad Bin Qasim’s aid is considered a big occasion in the history of the Indian subcontinent. It marked the start of the Islamic generation in the area and laid the rules for Muslim rule in India that lasted for hundreds of years.

According to historical accounts, Muhammad Bin Qasim was a young commander despatched through the Umayyad Caliphate to conquer Sindh in 711 AD. He led a force of 6,000-foot soldiers and launched a surprise attack on the port city of Debal, an enormous centre of change and trade. 

After conquering Debal, Muhammad Bin Qasim persevered in his campaign and captured other important towns, including Nerun and Armor. He installed navy garrisons in those cities and appointed governors to rule over them. His conquest of Sindh was rapid and decisive, and he controlled to subdue the local rulers and establish a Muslim presence inside the location.

However, many myths and legends are associated with the conquest of Sindh by Muhammad Bin Qasim. Some historians declare he became a ruthless conqueror who massacred the nearby populace and destroyed their temples and shrines. Others argue that he changed into a just ruler who reputable the religious beliefs and customs of the people he conquered.

The truth lies somewhere among these two extremes. While it’s far proper that Muhammad Bin Qasim was a Muslim conqueror who sought to spread Islam inside the area, he also showed first-rate tolerance in the direction of the non-Muslim populace of Sindh. He allowed them to exercise their faith and customs and no longer forced them to convert to Islam. This policy of non-secular tolerance was a departure from the norm in medieval length and is a testament to Muhammad Bin Qasim’s vision of a simple and inclusive society.

Also, Read This: Cooking Games: A Fun Way to Learn Cooking Basics .

4. The role of Raja Dahir .

The function of Raja Dahir in the story of Muhammad Bin Qasim is a topic of much debate among historians. Some debts advise that Dahir became a cruel tyrant who oppressed his Hindu issues and persecuted the fans of Islam. However, other reports paint an extra sympathetic picture of Dahir, portraying him as a just and noble ruler protecting his nation in opposition to foreign invaders.

The battle between Dahir and Muhammad Bin Qasim turned into a pivotal moment in the history of the Indian subcontinent. The invasion and next conquest of Sindh by the Arab forces marked the beginning of a new technology within the vicinity, as Islam began to spread unexpectedly throughout the Indian subcontinent.

Today, the legacy of Muhammad Bin Qasim remains a supply of controversy and debate. Ultimately, the authentic story of Muhammad Bin Qasim is, in all likelihood, to stay shrouded in thriller and delusion. However, his vicinity in records as discernment of tremendous significance can not accept—the controversy surrounding the treatment of prisoners.

5. The controversy surrounding the treatment of prisoners .

One of the maximum controversial subjects surrounding the records of Muhammad Bin Qasim is his remedy of prisoners at some stage in his campaigns. According to a few historical bills, he became recognised for his humane treatment of prisoners of battle, starkly contrasting the norms of the time. He is stated to have handled the prisoners with recognition and dignity, offering them meals and shelter and letting them practice their religion. This method helped to win over a lot of the local people. It facilitated the easy transition of power from the indigenous rulers to the Arab conquerors.

However, different accounts recommend that Muhammad Bin Qasim was not usually so kind to his prisoners. Some historians claim that he had many of them finished in cold blood or as punishment for resistance. There are also testimonies of enslaved prisoners compelled to build mosques and different systems for the conquerors.

The controversy surrounding the remedy of prisoners by Muhammad Bin Qasim is still debated among historians and pupils. Some argue that he became a simple, honest ruler who compassionately handled his prisoners. In contrast, others endorse that he turned into a ruthless conqueror who confirmed little mercy to people who were hostile to him.

6. The impact of Muhammad Bin Qasim’s conquest .

Muhammad Bin Qasim’s conquest of Sindh had a lasting impact on the area and beyond. Historians agree that his successful campaign opened the Indian subcontinent to the Muslim world and paved the manner for destiny Muslim rulers to set up their reign.

The conquest also had a profound impact on the local populace. While a few argue that his invasion became brutal and unleashed destruction on the indigenous people, others believe that Bin Qasim was acknowledged as an honest ruler who handled the conquered human beings with appreciation and tolerance.

One undeniable effect of the conquest was the spread of Islam within the place. Bin Qasim’s arrival added Islam to many people, many of whom would end up adherents of the faith. Sindh’s social and cultural landscape changed into converted due to this spiritual shift, with mosques and madrasas being built for the duration the vicinity.

Bin Qasim’s conquest also paved the way for an alternative between the Indian subcontinent and the Muslim world. The ports of Sindh became critical commerce facilities, connecting the vicinity with the Arab global and past. This trade brought prosperity and wealth to the region, which helped foster the growth of artwork, way of life, and architecture.

In conclusion, Muhammad Bin Qasim’s conquest of Sindh was a full-size event in the history of not the most effective Indian subcontinent but also the wider Muslim international. Its effect can nevertheless be felt nowadays, centuries after the conquest took place.

7. The legacy of Muhammad Bin Qasim .

Muhammad Bin Qasim’s legacy is a dialogue topic among historians and pupils. Some view him as a conqueror who accelerated the territory of the Umayyad Caliphate. In contrast, others view him as a hero who added Islam to the Indian subcontinent and liberated the people from the tyranny of their rulers.

Regardless of 1’s opinion of him, it’s simple that Muhammad Bin Qasim’s navy campaigns enormously impacted the place. He hooked up the first Muslim stronghold in the Indian subcontinent. He paved the manner for the subsequent Muslim invasions and conquests.

Moreover, Muhammad Bin Qasim’s legacy extends past his military conquests. He is also remembered for his just and fair rule, as he handled the human beings of Sindh with appreciation and kindness. He abolished the general oppressive caste device in the area and allowed human beings to practice their faith freely.

Muhammad Bin Qasim’s legacy conjures up humans nowadays, mainly the ones looking for justice and equality.

8. Examining the Myths and Legends .

Regarding ancient figures, it’s a commonplace for myths and legends to arise around them. The same is authentic for Muhammad bin Qasim, whose tale has been the difficulty of many elaborations.

One not unusual myth about Muhammad bin Qasim is that he turned into an extensively older man at the time of his conquest of Sindh, which is unfaithful. He turned into the most effective 17 to 18 years old at the time. Another popular legend is that he had supernatural powers and could manipulate the elements, which is not reality-based.

9. Historical Evidence and its Interpretation .

The records of Muhammad Bin Qasim are a topic that generates heated debates and discussions amongst historians, scholars, and lovers alike. The interpretation of historical evidence is important for expertise, the genuine nature of activities that occurred in the past, and the function that Muhammad Bin Qasim played in the conquest of Sindh.

Historical evidence is the number one source used to reconstruct past events. However, the interpretation of this proof may be greater complicated. The reliability of the seeds and the context in which they have been written must be considered whilst reading the proof. Additionally, the interpretation of ancient proof is frequently inspired by the historian’s biases, political and social views, and cultural history.

In the case of Muhammad Bin Qasim, historical proof comes from diverse sources, with Arab, Persian, and Indian sources. The interpretation of these sources has led to more than one opinion on his movements. Some historians view him as a ruthless conqueror who imposed Islam by pressure, even as others see him as a just ruler who introduced peace and stability to the place.

To understand the actual records of Muhammad Bin Qasim, it’s crucial to carefully examine the available historical evidence and consider the context in which it was written. That requires deep information on the cultural and social norms of the time and the political and monetary factors that shaped the activities.

In the end, the translation of historical proof is a crucial detail in uncovering the true history of Muhammad Bin Qasim. A careful analysis of the resources and context is critical to separate reality from fiction and gain extra correct expertise of this captivating historical discern.

10. Conclusion and final thoughts .

In the end, the existence and legacy of Muhammad bin Qasim have been broadly debated and discussed over the years. While a few argue that he became a conqueror who sought to expand the Islamic empire, others view him as a liberator who introduced justice and stability to the area.

Regardless of one’s interpretation, it can’t be denied that Muhammad bin Qasim played a giant position in shaping the history and culture of the Indian subcontinent. His army campaigns, administrative prowess, and spiritual tolerance left a lasting impact at the location that could nonetheless be visible today.

However, it is essential to remember that records are frequently complex and multifaceted. While we’ve tried to uncover the data and dispel the myths surrounding Muhammad bin Qasim, there may be a lot we need to study. As such, we should see technique historical figures and occasions with honest thoughts and a willingness to interact in vital inquiry.

In conclusion, this article has provided a detailed perception of the lifestyle of Muhammad Bin Qasim. When reading through the statistics and fiction surrounding his lifestyle, you better apprehend the person behind the legend. It is vital to approach historical figures with an open mind and search for the truth in the tales and myths surrounding them.

Table of Contents

2 responses to “uncovering the history of muhammad bin qasim: facts and fiction.”.

[…] Also, Read This: Uncovering the History of Muhammad Bin Qasim: Facts and Fiction. […]

jazz music helps you concentrate Avatar

jazz music helps you concentrate

Leave a Reply Cancel reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Notify me of follow-up comments by email.

Notify me of new posts by email.

Mobile Gaming: The Evolution of Entertainment on the Go

Mobile Gaming: The Evolution of Entertainment on the Go

Chicago Prayer Times Unveiled: Sacred Rhythms Guide

Chicago Prayer Times Unveiled: Sacred Rhythms Guide

Exploring the World of Pink Depression Glass

Exploring the World of Pink Depression Glass

Guiding Light: The Impact of Mental Health Clinicians

Guiding Light: The Impact of Mental Health Clinicians

  • Actor/Actress
  • Politicians
  • Hockey Players
  • Universities

Muhammad Bin Qasim

Muhammad Bin Qasim

Muhammad Bin Qasim was known by Laqab ‘Imad ad-Din.’ He was a military commander of the ‘Umayyad Caliphate’ and led the Muslim Conquest of Multan and Sindh from the last Hindu ruler Raja Dahir in a conflict with Alor. He was 1 st Muslim to capture Hindu regions successfully and started the early Muslim Rule. This article has every piece of information about him, including Muhammad Bin Qasim History.

Table of Contents

Muhammad Bin Qasim History

Muhammad Qasim is considered one of the greatest generals not only in Islamic history but also in the history of the world. Hardly anyone has done such a great job at such a young age. His conquests further expanded Islamic borders. After the conquest of Multan , He was planning to conquer India when he was ordered to return.

On his return, he was imprisoned and later martyred in prison. It was not easy to manage such a vast kingdom. Therefore, after the return of Qasim, the conquered territories were reduced to Sindh and South Punjab. The personal obstinacy of the Umayyad Caliph Sulaiman bin Abdul Malik killed a conqueror and great general Qasim.

The Islamic world lost a great general and conquests. Today, thirteen hundred years later, people still remember him as the savior and benefactor of Sindh.

Qasim Date of Birth

He opened his eyes in c—694 in Taif.

Education of Qasim

His initial training took place in Basra. He was expected to be a capable and brilliant man in the future. Unable to pursue higher education due to poverty, he enlisted in the army after completing his primary education. He trained in the art of martial arts in Damascus.

His skills and abilities led him to achieve the highest position in the military and achieved an esteemed status.

Muhammad Bin Qasim Family

He belonged to an Abu Aqil family who achieved prestige with the emergence of Al-Hajaj ibn Yousaf, the paternal 1 st cousin of Qasim’s father Al-Qasim ibn Mohammad ibn al-Hakam. His father, Qasim, was one of the prominent members of the family.

During the caliphate of the Umayyad Caliph Abdul Malik ibn Marwan, when Hajjaj ibn Yusuf was appointed governor of Iraq, he appointed prominent members of the Saqafi dynasty to various positions. Among them was Muhammad’s father, Qasim, who held the governorship of Basra.

Thus, his early training was completed in Basra, and he was only 5 years old when his father died.

Muhammad Bin Qasim history in urdu

When he was fifteen, he was given command of the army in 708 to finish the Kurdish uprising in Iran. It was the era of Waleed bin Abdul Malik, the Umayyads’ ruler and governorship of Irqa was in the hands of Hajjaj Bin Yousaf. Qasim succeeded in that campaign and made Shiraz a small cantonment.

Meanwhile, he was made the governor of Shiraz, the capital of Persia. By ruling with his skills, he marked his ability and intelligence, and when he was seventeen, he was sent as the general of Sindh. His series of conquests began in 711 and continued until 713.

He conquered important areas of Sindh and completed the conquests of Sindh by conquering Multan, but the desire to advance towards North India was not fulfilled by the circumstances.

Services in Fars

His 1 st assignment was in Fars, and he was asked to defeat a faction of Kurds. After successfully completing his mission, he was designated as Fars’s Governor. He succeeded Muhammad ibn Yousaf, the brother of al-Hajjaj, who previously served as governor.

Qasim revived the city of Shiraz. He constructed a military camp and royal villa in this city. The link between Islam and Hindu Sind was formed by Muslim missions during al-Khilāfah ar-Rāšidah. Al-Hakim, who attacked Mecran in 649 A.D., was a partisan of Abu Talib.

During Ali’s caliphate, many Jutts of Sindh came under the influence of religion Islam, with some even died for battling for Ali.

Sindh Before the Advent of Qasim

Thirteen hundred years ago, the area to which Sindh was applied was very long and wide. The country which was called Sindh during the reign of Raja Dahar before Islam, stretched from Makran in the west to the Arabian Sea and Gujarat in the south, the middle of present-day Malwa and Rajputana in the east, and from Multan in the north to the interior of southern Punjab , which Arab historians called Sindh.

This country is so ancient that it is not possible to say how long it has existed and what changes have taken place in its name. History alone shows that when Arya came to this country thousands of years ago, they named it ‘Sindhu’ because they used to call the river ‘Sindhu’ in their language.

At first, they used to call this country Sindhu, but gradually they started calling it Sindh. This name became so popular that even after thousands of years, its name is Sindh. It is said that in the beginning, all the lands conquered by the Aryans in Sindh were named after Sindh.

Rulers in Sindh

The kings who ruled in Sindh before Islam were called Rai. Before the migration of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H), there was a Rai government here, and the government lasted for one hundred and thirty-seven years. There have been five kings of this government who were devout Buddhists,

Their names are:

  • Roy Devonch
  • Rai Sehras Sani
  • Rai Sah C Sani

Muhammad Bin Qasim death reason

Attack on Caravan

The ruler of Sarandeep sent some valuable presents to Hajjaj ibn Yusuf from the island Yaqoot. Some Muslim women in the caravan boarded boats to visit the Bait Ullah. Then when the caravan reached the region of Qazrun, the winds from the opposite direction brought the boats to the shores of Debal.

Where the Nika Mara gang raided eight ships, looted property, and arrested Muslim women. The people of Sarandeep explained to them that these gifts are for the king, so you should return the goods immediately. One of the abductees escaped and reached the Hajjaj and told the Hajjaj that Muslim women were imprisoned by Raja Dahar, who was calling you for help.

Letter by Raja Dahar

In those days, the Muslims had opened the fronts of Andalusia, Spain, and Turkestan under the leadership of Musa ibn Nasir and Qutaybah ibn Muslim respectively, and there was no capacity to open a third major front. Raja Dahar wrote to the ruler of Sindh and demanded the return of the prisoners.

Muhammad Bin Qasim Popularity

Qasim’s army and managerial achievement is a remarkable milestone in the history of Indian and Pakistani Muslims. He was a skilled administrator, competent ruler, and political figure. He didn’t ruin Sindh’s system after his victory and handed over internal matters to the local people.

The Brahmins created a very pleasant atmosphere by gaining entry into the administration of the country. He also left the right to make rules of wealth etc., to these people. Not only were they happy with this, but also, they went from place to place and preached this amnesty and benevolence, which made the atmosphere even more pleasant and compelled many to obey.

The behavior of Qasim with Hindus

Qasim’s behavior with Brahmins and temples is also acknowledged by contemporary Hindu historians that he did not demolish Hindu temples.  After the assassination of Raja Dahar, when the people of India became Muslims, he declared the next day that whoever wanted to convert to Islam or stick to his ancestral religion, there would be no aggression from us.

Donation for Temples

After the conquest of Brahman Abad, the temple priest went to Qasim and said that the Hindus had reduced the number of people coming to the temples for idol worship out of fear of the Muslim soldiers, which had made a difference in our income.

The temples are not even repaired; you fix them and force the Hindus to come and worship in the temples. On hearing this, he sent a letter to the caliph asking him to worship freely in his temples. Three percent of the government expenditure was deposited in a separate treasury for the Brahmins stake.

So they can take this money from the treasury at any time for the repair of their temples and for the necessary equipment. Then he gave the title of Rana to the greatest Pandit and appointed him as the superintendent and officer of religious affairs.

Muhammad Bin Qasim Biography

Qasim as a Great Conqueror

He laid the foundations for a permanent empire in India and built Muslim settlements and mosques. He made the people aware of their rights for the first time. Muhammad Bin Qasim became the protector of their lives, property, and honor.

Qasim performed this great feat of the conquest of Sindh in this part of his life which is the time for people to play sports. No other nation in the world can offer such an example of such a young and capable general.

Rapid Spread of Islam

After Qasim, no other ruler was appointed for Sindh. As a result, the advance of the Muslims stopped. However, Islam was introduced in India through Sindh. The people of Sindh converted to Islam in large numbers. Nearly three hundred years after Qasim’s conquest of Sindh and Iraq, they established Arab-Indian relations on scientific and cultural grounds.

The scholarly and cultural relationship of the people of Sindh was not allowed to be severed. The conquest of Sindh was the beginning of a democratic and enlightened era in political, cultural, and scientific terms.

There are basically five types of people who object to Qasim:

Pro-Western Liberal Secular Class

The problem of this class is not Muhammad ibn Qasim but the personality of Muhammad ibn Abdullah. Their main problem is Islam, which is the biggest obstacle in the way of global domination of their western masters. Therefore, lying, distorting history, distorting historical facts, everything is permissible, if desired, if it serves their nefarious purposes.

This class constantly presents false, fabricated stories and Western propaganda as history. On the one hand, this class claims to be the greatest religion of humanity; on the other hand, it promotes nationalism and hollows out the foundations of Islam and Pakistan.

They believe that if the spirit of Muhammad is removed from the body of Pakistan. Then the partition of Pakistan will be easier, and the world’s only Muslim nuclear power will be eliminated, and thus the nefarious intentions of their Western masters will be fulfilled.

Muhammad Bin Qasim achivements

Nationalist, racist, linguistic organizations and groups

Their problem is also basically Islam because Islam is the bearer of universal brotherhood; Islam is against all kinds of caste, color, race, and class division. They portray Qasim as the usurper and Dahir as the grandson of Sindh, but the building of their self-made history stands on a much weaker foundation.

Dahir Rule was one of the worst periods of violation of human rights and religious freedom in Sindh, and during this period, the original inhabitants of Sindh, their religion and culture were severely crushed, which is why the people of Sindh joined Qasim in overthrowing Dahir Raj, voluntarily converted to Islam in droves, and on his return made his idols and worshiped them.

Sectarian organizations and groups

This is the only group in religious garb that opposes Qasim, not because of him, but because of the differences in the early periods of Islamic history. The main argument of this group is that Abdul Malik and his nominee for governor of Iraq, Hajjaj ibn Yusuf were tyranted and oppressive ruler whose hands are stained with the blood of Shia Ali, since also belonged to the same Umayyad period so, his good is also bad.

This class has not only promoted the false propaganda of the pro-Western, liberal secular, and nationalist classes but has also laid the groundwork for a new divide among Muslims by giving it a sectarian color. One of the lies that this class has so frequently spread is that Islam in Sindh had not only come much earlier than Qasim but had also spread widely through Sadat and Sufis.

And secondly, the real purpose of Qasim’s visit to Sindh was to eradicate Sadat like Abdullah Shah Ghazi, who had made his roots in the people of Sindh.

Followers of Hinduism

Dahir’s father, Chach, overthrew Buddhism Raj in Sindh and established the Brahmanical rule, but this rule of tyranny lasted only a few years, and Qasim became the savior for the oppressed classes of Sindh. This once again promoted religious tolerance in Sindh and established a system of justice.

It inspired a large number of Sindhi Buddhists and lower-caste Hindus to become Muslims, thus ending the Brahmanical rule and Hindu domination in Sindh so it is understandable that the followers of Hinduism, especially the Brahmins, call Qasim a usurper and a looter.

People ignorant of history

This class is actually the victim of the propaganda of the first four classes; these are the Muslims and Pakistanis, who are neither familiar with Islam and Islamic history nor with the Tehreek-e-Pakistan.

Muhammad Bin Qasim Death

Muhammad Bin Qasim Death

According to Muhammad ibn Ali Abdul Hasan Hamdani, when Rai Dahir was killed, Qasim imprisoned his daughters in his palace and then sent them to his ruler Sulayman ibn Abdul Malik at the hands of his Abyssinian slaves.

When the caliph called them to his haram, the daughters of Raja Dahir lied to the caliph that they were not worthy of the caliph because Qasim had already used them. He became very angry and ordered to bring Qasim in a bull’s skin.

His order was obeyed, but Qasim died on the way due to suffocation in the skin of an ox. Later, the caliph found out about the lies of Raja Dahar’s daughters.

Related Posts

Haris rauf – icc ranking, fastest delivery, wife, age, anam tanveer, humaira asghar ali, leave a reply cancel reply.

Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.

Type above and press Enter to search. Press Esc to cancel.

write biography of muhammad bin qasim

Muhammad bin Qasim

Muhammad bin Qasim was orphaned as a child and thus the responsibility of his upbringing fell upon his mother. She supervised his religious instruction herself, and hired different teachers for his worldly education. It was the uncle, Hajjaj bin Yousaf, who taught him the art of governing and warfare.

Qasim was an intelligent and cultured young man who at the age of fifteen was considered by many to be one of his uncle’s greatest assets. As a show of faith in his nephew’s abilities, Hajjaj married his daughter to Qasim. At the age of sixteen, he was asked to serve under the great general, Qutayba bin Muslim. Under his command Muhammad bin Qasim displayed a talent for skilful fighting and military planning. Hajjaj’s complete trust in Qasim’s abilities as a general became even more apparent when he appointed the young man as the commander of the all-important invasion on Sindh, when he was only seventeen years old. Muhammad bin Qasim proved Hajjaj right when he, without many problems, managed to win all his military campaigns. He used both his mind and military skills in capturing places like Daibul, Raor, Uch and Multan. History does not boast of many other commanders who managed such a great victory at such a young age.

Besides being a great general, Muhammad bin Qasim was also an excellent administrator. He established peace and order as well as a good administrative structure in the areas he conquered. He was a kind hearted and religious person. He had great respect for other religions. Hindu and Buddhist spiritual leaders were given stipends during his rule. The poor people of the land were greatly impressed by his policies and a number of them embraced Islam. Those who stuck to their old religions erected statues in his honor and started worshiping him after his departure from their land.

Muhammad bin Qasim was known for his obedience to the ruler. Walid bin Abdul Malik died and was succeeded by his younger brother Suleman as the Caliph. Suleman was an enemy of Hajjaj and thus ordered Qasim back to the kingdom. Qasim knew of the animosity between the two. He was aware that due to this enmity, he would not be well treated. He could have easily refused to obey the Caliph’s orders and declare his independence in Sindh. Yet he was of the view that obeying ones ruler is the duty of a general and thus he decided to go back to the center. Here he became a victim to party politics. He was put behind bars where he died at age of twenty. Many historians believe that had he been given a few more years, he would have conquered the entire South Asian region.

This article was last updated on Sunday, June 01, 2003

Share This Article

Story of pakistan.

This site is based on the best-selling CD-ROM “Story of Pakistan: A Multimedia Journey”. The contents of the site focus on the political history of Islamic Republic of Pakistan.

Quick Links

Apps are coming soon.

write biography of muhammad bin qasim

© Copyright 2000 – 2024 Story Of Pakistan. All rights reserved. A product of eTeam

Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer.

To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to  upgrade your browser .

Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link.

  • We're Hiring!
  • Help Center

paper cover thumbnail

MUHAMMAD BIN QASIM:LIFE AND MESSAGE

Profile image of Saifudheen Kunju. S

Related Papers

IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science

Priyatosh Sharma

write biography of muhammad bin qasim

International Journal of History

BAHIR ABDU RAHEEM

SOUMYA CHEMBRATH

Seth Priestman

The Geography and Infrastructure of Trade in Early Islam (800-1000CE), Leverhulme Exchange Network, School of Oriental and African Studies, London, 3rd December 2015

Alexia Pavan

Afat Qiamat

Journal of IndIan Ocean Archaeology

Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean

Michal Gawlikowski

This essay evaluates the relative importance of the maritime trade between the Roman Empire and India along two routes that were in use: one started and ended on the Egyptian shore of the Red Sea, the other at the head of the Gulf. Both continued on land along caravan tracks to the Nile valley or through the Syrian desert to Palmyra. The latter land route, longer and presumably more cost-consuming, was used only during the 1st to 3rd centuries AD. The land link with the Far East, the so-called Silk Road, does not seem to have been regularly used. A document from Palmyra allows to estimate the value of the trade along the Syrian route as much smaller than that of the Red Sea traffic. It could have been mainly of local, Syrian importance, and lasted only as long as political circumstances allowed.

Fariha Tabassum

This is known to all that trade relation between India and Arabia was extensive in the period preceding the advent of Islam. This commercial relation increased after the raise of Islam. With the spread of writing tradition among the Arabs some voyagers started to preserve their experiences in the form of books. These books contain description of trade routes, seaports and commercial commodities. In this paper an attempt has been taken to present a brief account on Indian (including Bengal) commodities according to the description of early Arab geographers and travellers. It is hoped that the paper will explore the position of India and Bengal in international trade in those early days.

Michael Bonner

RELATED PAPERS

Michael Pirson

International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation

CLEMENT EDOKPAYI

Pediatric Research

MARIA RUBIO B

Thiam Gabriel

Jurnal Ners dan Kebidanan Indonesia

cholisah suralaga

Charles de Foucauld lexicographe et missionnaire

Dominique Casajus

Wiwatana Tanomkiat

Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine

Isabelle Loiret

MedEdPublish

Patricia Neville

rahmat budiman

Scientific Papers. Series A. Agronomy

Journal of Clinical Epidemiology

C. Bombardier

Sebastião Alves

Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society

Zakia Belhadj

Journal of Infection in Developing Countries

Niranjala de Silva

Universidad Empresa

Edmundo Paz Martínez

Erdelyi Társadalom

György Kocziszky

Environment International

Christopher Gidlow

Manuela Fernández Pinto

Cuban Studies

Sergio Diaz-Briquets

Reproductive Health

Joanne Mantell

The Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences

Neha Singhal

New Blackfriars

Paul Parvis

  •   We're Hiring!
  •   Help Center
  • Find new research papers in:
  • Health Sciences
  • Earth Sciences
  • Cognitive Science
  • Mathematics
  • Computer Science
  • Academia ©2024

Web Stories

  • Entertainment
  • Short Videos

Close

  • Join News9 on WhatsApp
  • Arvind Kejriwal ED
  • CBSE Board Exam 2024
  • PM Modi in UP
  • Tamil Nadu Budget 2024
  • Acharya Vidyasagar Maharaj
  • Shivaji Maharaj Jayanti
  • BULLISH ON INDIA
  • Gold and Silver
  • Personal Finance
  • Board Results
  • Entrance Exams
  • Exam Results
  • Movie Reviews
  • Regional Cinema
  • Elderly Care
  • Health Conditions
  • Mental Health
  • Sleep Disorders
  • Food & Drink
  • Relationships
  • Spirituality
  • Other Sports
  • Andhra Pradesh
  • Other States
  • Cyber Security
  • Mobile Phones
  • Gadget Review
  • Telangana Election 2023
  • Mizoram Election 2023
  • Madhya Pradesh Election 2023
  • Chhattisgarh Election 2023
  • Rajasthan Election 2023
  • Local Bodies
  • Lok Sabha Elections 2024
  • Latest News
  • Photo Gallery
  • Home » Knowledge » Muhammad bin Qasim: The Arab military commander who marked the beginning of Muslim rule in India

Muhammad bin Qasim: The Arab military commander who marked the beginning of Muslim rule in India

His exploits facilitated the establishment of the islamic province of sindh, and the takeover of the region from the sindhi brahman dynasty and its ruler, raja dahir..

14 Sep 2022 18:35:PM

Muhammad bin Qasim: The Arab military commander who marked the beginning of Muslim rule in India

Muhammad Qasim’s first task was to set up an administrative structure for Sindh. (Photo credit: Facebook) 

  • Not much is known about Muhammad Qasim's childhood and adolescence, apart from the Arab sources.
  • The conquest of Sindh was costly, but it was a major gain for the Umayyad Caliphate.
  • Hindus and Buddhists were inducted into the administration of Qasim as trusted advisors and governors.

New Delhi: Muhammad ibn al-Qasim is not a much talked about the historical figure, probably because of the fact that his exploits happened in the pre-medieval period of India . But his role in the context of the subcontinent is significant, for it was he whose conquests marked the beginning of Muslim rule in India. His exploits facilitated the establishment of the Islamic province of Sindh, and the takeover of the region from the Sindhi Brahman dynasty and its ruler, Raja Dahir. Qasim was essentially an Arab military commander in service of the Umayyad Caliphate, and he started the Umayyad campaigns in India.

The rise of Muhammad Qasim

Muhammad Qasim, as per historians, was born in 694 or 695, possibly in the Hejaz (western Arabia) or in Mecca or Medina. His tribe, the Thaqif, played the important command and economic roles during and after the early Muslim conquests, particularly in Iraq, and produced effective commanders associated with early Arab military operations against the Indian subcontinent. The tribe’s power continued to increase with the advent of the Umayyad Caliphate in 661.

Not much is known about Muhammad’s childhood and adolescence. According to modern historian Nabi Bakhsh Baloch, he possibly grew up partly in Ta’if and then Basra and Wasit, and his time in Basra, the military and intellectual centre of the Islamic world at the time may have widened Muhammad’s career horizons.

His first assignment was in the province of Fars in modern Iran, where he was asked to subjugate a group of Kurds. His success there made him the governor of Fars and revived the city of Shiraz. He built a royal villa in the city and a military camp a short distance from it.

As per Arab sources, Muhammad had a much younger brother named Al-Hajjaj, who served as an Umayyad commander during the Alid revolt of 740. According to the historian Wink, Umayyad’s interest in the region increased due to the operation of the Meds (a tribe of Scythians living in Sindh) and others. Sindh, at that time, was the wild frontier region inhabited mostly by semi-nomadic tribes whose activities disturbed much of the Western Indian Ocean. Muslim sources insist that it was these persistent activities along increasingly important Indian trade routes by Debal pirates and others which forced the Arabs to subjugate the area, in order to control the seaports and maritime routes of which Sindh was the nucleus, as well as, the overland passage.

The India invasion

Muhammad Qasim was given the command of the expedition apparently because two previous Umayyad commanders had not been successful in punishing Sindh’s ruler Raja Dahir for his failure to prevent pirates from disrupting Muslim shipping off the coast of Sindh. Al-Hajjaj superintended this campaign from Kufa by maintaining close contact with Qasim in the form of regular reports. Qasim advanced with a strong army, and while passing through the Makran desert, he had to subdue the towns of Fannazbur and Arman Belah (Lasbela).

He first annexed Debal and massacred it. From Debal, the Arab army then marched northeast taking towns such as Nerun and Sadusan (Sehwan) without fighting. Then, to take on Dahir’s armies, Muhammad returned to Nerun for reinforcements. From the east bank of the Indus, he sent emissaries and bargained with the river Jats and boatmen. He got an ally in the form of Mokah Basayah, “the King of the island of Bet”, and crossed over the river where he was joined by the forces of the Thakore of Bhatta and the western Jats.

At Rohri, Muhammad Qasim was met by Dahir’s forces and the eastern Jats in battle. Dahir died in the battle, his forces were defeated and Muhammad Qasim took control of Sindh. Soon Brahmanabad, Alor (Battle of Aror) and Multan were captured alongside other in-between towns.

The conquest of Sindh was costly, but it was a major gain for the Umayyad Caliphate. However, the Hindu kingdoms thwarted further gains during Arab campaigns. The Arabs attempted to invade India but they were defeated by North Indian kings Bappa Rawal of the Guhila dynasty, Nagabhata of the Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty and the South Indian Emperor Vikramaditya II of the Chalukya dynasty in the early 8th century.

Muhammad Qasim’s first task was to set up an administrative structure for a newly conquered alien land, inhabited by non-Muslims which would become a Muslim state. He asked the natives to accept the Muslim rule in return for non-interference in their religious practice, so long as the natives paid their taxes and tribute. The state provided protection to non-Muslim subjects from any foreign attacks and enemies. He established Islamic Sharia law, but Hindus were allowed to rule their villages and settle their disputes according to their own laws.

Also, non-Muslim natives did not have to serve in the military service and were granted relief from paying the religiously mandated tax system levied upon Muslims called Zakat. Instead, they had to pay Jizya, a tax which was taxing for the upper classes and light for the poor. Also, three per cent of government revenue was allocated to the Brahmins. Hindus and Buddhists were inducted into the administration as trusted advisors and governors.

Muhammad Qasim died on July 18, 715, in Mosul which is a part of modern-day Iraq. As per some sources, his body was transferred to Makran in Balochistan at the Hingol National Park which is part of modern-day Pakistan.

Read Latest News and Breaking News at News9 Live, Browse for more Knowledge News

Top 9 destinations in India for relaxation

  • IT executive Jigisha murder case: Delhi High Court asks authorities to decide convict Ravi Kapoor’s parole plea within10 days 18 minutes ago
  • 'Get it done within half an hour or else I'll protest': Smriti Irani criticises official during Amethi visit 25 minutes ago
  • Rahu Kaal and other inauspicious timings (20 Feb 2024): Nashik, Delhi and more 33 minutes ago
  • 'Violation of natural justice': Mamata in letter to PM Modi over ‘deactivation’ of Aadhar cards in Bengal 36 minutes ago

Anant Ambani-Radhika Merchant Lagan Lakhvanu ceremony: Step into a world of elegance with Radhika Merchant, Nita Ambani, Isha Ambani, and ...

Witness the majesty of Chhatrapati Shivaji like never before! Explore our exclusive collection of high-resolution photos, captivating posters and stunning ...

Beyoncé's love for Gaurav Gupta's designs was once again evident at New York Fashion Week. Look through the singer's photos ...

BTS’ member J-Hope aka Jung Hoseok is celebrating his 30th birthday today (Februuary 18). As the BTS Army across the ...

Check out these refreshing and happy good morning images with happy Sunday wishes, to wish a cheerful and refreshing weekend ...

Muhammad ibn al-Qasim

‘Imād ad-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Qāsim ath-Thaqafī ( Arabic : عماد الدين محمد بن القاسم الثقفي ‎‎; c. 695 – 715 [ citation needed ] ) was an Umayyad general who conquered the Sindh and Multan regions along the Indus River (now a part of Pakistan ) for the Umayyad Caliphate . He was born and raised in the city of Ta'if (in modern-day Saudi Arabia ). Qasim's conquest of Sindh and southern-most parts of Multan enabled further Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent .

A member of the Thaqif tribe of the Ta'if region, Muhammad bin Qasim's father was Qasim bin Yusuf, who died when Muhammad bin Qasim was young, leaving his mother in charge of his education and care. Umayyad governor Al-Hajjaj Ibn Yusuf Al-Thaqafi , Muhammad bin Qasim's paternal uncle, was instrumental in teaching Muhammad bin Qasim about warfare and governance. Muhammad bin Qasim married his cousin Zubaidah, Al-Hajjaj's daughter, shortly before going to Sindh .

Due to his close relationship with Al-Hajjaj, Bin Qasim was executed after the accession of Caliph Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik .

  • 1 Umayyad interest in Sindh
  • 2 The campaign
  • 3.1 Reasons for success
  • 4.1 Incorporation of ruling elite into administration
  • 4.2 Jat clashes with Muhammad bin Qasim
  • 4.3 Treatment of Jats
  • 4.4 Religion
  • 6 Controversy
  • 10 Quotes from The Chach Nama
  • 11 Quotes from The History of India as told by its own Historians
  • 13 Footnotes
  • 14 References
  • 15 External links

Umayyad interest in Sindh [ edit ]

According to Berzin, Umayyad interest in the region occurred because of attacks from Sindh Raja Dahir on ships of Muslims and their imprisonment of Muslim men and women. [1] They had earlier unsuccessfully sought to gain control of the route, via the Khyber Pass , from the Kabul Shahi of Gandhara . [1] But by taking Sindh, Gandhara's southern neighbour, they were able to open a second front against Gandhara; a feat they had, on one occasion, attempted before. [1]

According to Wink, Umayyad interest in the region was galvanized by the operation of the Meds (a tribe of Scythians living in Sindh) and others. [2] Meds had pirated upon Sassanid shipping in the past, from the mouth of the Tigris to the Sri Lankan coast, in their bawarij and now were able to prey on Arab shipping from their bases at Kutch , Debal and Kathiawar . [2] At the time, Sindh was the wild frontier region of al-Hind, inhabited mostly by semi-nomadic tribes whose activities disturbed much of the Western Indian Ocean . [2] Muslim sources insist that it was these persistent activities along increasingly important Indian trade routes by Debal pirates and others which forced the Arabs to subjugate the area, in order to control the seaports and maritime routes of which Sindh was the nucleus, as well as, the overland passage. [3] During Hajjaj 's governorship, the Meds of Debal in one of their raids had kidnapped Muslim women travelling from Sri Lanka to Arabia , thus providing a casus belli to the rising power of the Umayyad Caliphate that enabled them to gain a foothold in the Makran , Balochistan and Sindh regions. [2] [4]

Also cited as a reason for this campaign was the policy of providing refuge to Sassanids fleeing the Arab advance and to Arab rebels from the Umayyad consolidation of their rule.

These Arabs were imprisoned later on by the Governor Deebal Partaab Raye. A letter written by an Arab girl who escaped from the prison of Partab Raye asked Hajjaj Bin Yusuf for help. When Hajjaj asked Dahir for the release of prisoners and compensation, the latter refused on the ground that he had no control over those. Al-Hajjaj sent Muhammad Bin Qasim for action against the Sindh in 711. [ citation needed ]

The mawali ; new non-Arab converts; who were usually allied with Al-Hajjaj's political opponents and thus were frequently forced to participate in battles on the frontier of the Umayyad Caliphate — such as Kabul , Sindh and Transoxania . [5] An actual push into the region had been out of favor as an Arab policy since the time of the Rashidun Caliph Umar bin Khattab , who upon receipt of reports of it being an inhospitable and poor land, had stopped further expeditionary ventures into the region. [ citation needed ]

The campaign [ edit ]

Muhammad bin Qasim's expedition was actually the third attempt, the first two having failed due to stiffer-than-expected opposition as well as heat, exhaustion. [ citation needed ]

Hajjaj had put more care and planning into this campaign than the first campaign [5] under Badil bin Tuhfa. [ citation needed ] Hajjaj superintended this campaign from Kufa by maintaining close contact with Muhammad bin Qasim in the form of regular reports for which purpose special messengers were deputed between Basra and Sindh . [5] The army which departed from Shiraz in 710 CE under Muhammad bin Qasim was 6,000 Syrian cavalry and detachments of mawali from Iraq . [5] At the borders of Sindh he was joined by an advance guard and six thousand camel riders and later reinforcements from the governor of Makran transferred directly to Debal by sea along with five catapults [5] ("manjaniks"). The army that eventually captured Sindh would later be swelled by the Gurjars and Meds as well as other irregulars that heard of successes in Sindh. [5] When Muhammad bin Qasim passed through Makran while raising forces, he had to re-subdue the restive Umayyad towns of Fannazbur and Arman Belah ( Lasbela ) [6] The first town assaulted was Debal and upon the orders of Al-Hajjaj, he exacted a bloody retribution on Debal by giving no quarter to its residents or priests and destroying its great temple . [5]

From Debal the Arab army then marched north taking towns such as Nerun and Sadusan ( Sehwan ) peacefully. [5] often using their components; additionally one-fifth of the booty including slaves were dispatched to Hajjaj and the Caliph. [5] The conquest of these towns was accomplished easily; however, Raja Dahir 's armies being prepared on the other side of the Indus [7] were yet to be fought. [5] In preparation to meet them, Muhammad bin Qasim moved back to Nerun to resupply and receive reinforcements sent by Hajjaj. [5] Camped on the east bank of the Indus, Qasim sent emissaries and bargained with the river Jats and boatmen. [5] Upon securing the aid of Mokah Basayah, "the King of the island of Bet", Muhammad bin Qasim crossed over the river where he was joined by the forces of the Thakore of Bhatta and the western Jats. [5]

At Ar-rur ( Rohri ) he was met by Dahir's forces and the eastern Jats in battle. [5] Dahir died in the battle, his forces were defeated and a triumphant Muhammad bin Qasim took control of Sindh. [5] In the wake of the battle enemy soldiers were put to death — but not artisans, merchants or farmers — and Dahir and his chiefs, the "daughters of princes" and the usual fifth of the booty and slaves was sent on to Hajjaj. [5] Soon the capitals of the other provinces, Brahmanabad , Alor ( Aror ) and Multan , were captured alongside other in-between towns with only light Muslim casualties. [5] Usually after a siege of a few weeks or months the Arabs gained a city through the intervention of heads of mercantile houses with whom subsequent treaties and agreements would be settled. [5] After battles all fighting men were executed and their wives and children enslaved in considerable numbers and the usual fifth of the booty and slaves were sent to Hajjaj. [5] The general populace was encouraged to carry on with their trades and taxes and tributes settled. [5]

The conquest of Sindh, in modern-day Pakistan, although costly, was major gain for the Umayyad Caliphate. However, further gains were halted by Hindu kingdoms during the Caliphate campaigns in India . The Arabs tried to invade India but they were defeated by the north Indian king Nagabhata of the Gurjara Pratihara Dynasty and by the south Indian Emperor Vikramaditya II of the Chalukya dynasty in the early 8th century. After the failure of further expeditions on Kathiawar, the Arab chroniclers admit that the Caliph Mahdi "gave up the project of conquering any part of India." [8]

Military and political strategy [ edit ]

The military strategy had been outlined by Al-Hajjaj in a letter sent to Muhammad bin Qasim: [9]

My ruling is given: Kill anyone belonging to the ahl-i-harb (combatants); arrest their sons and daughters for hostages and imprison them. Whoever does not fight against us...grant them aman (safety) and settle their tribute [ amwal ] as dhimmah (protected person)...

The Arabs' first concern was to facilitate the conquest of Sindh with the fewest casualties while also trying to preserve the economic infrastructure. [9] Towns were given two options: submit to Islamic authority peacefully or be attacked by force ( anwattan ), with the choice governing their treatment upon capture. [9] The capture of towns was usually accomplished by means of a treaty with a party from among the enemy, who were then extended special privileges and material rewards. [10] There were two types of such treaties, " Sulh " or " ahd-e-wasiq (capitulation)" and " aman (surrender/ peace)". [10] Among towns and fortresses that were captured through force of arms, Muhammad bin Qasim performed executions as part of his military strategy, but they were limited to the ahl-i-harb (fighting men), whose surviving dependents were also enslaved. [10]

Where resistance was strong, prolonged and intensive, often resulting in considerable Arab casualties, Muhammad bin Qasim's response was dramatic, inflicting 6,000 deaths at Rawar, between 6,000 and 26,000 at Brahmanabad, 4,000 at Iskalandah and 6,000 at Multan. [11] Conversely, in areas taken by sulh , such as Armabil, Nirun, and Aror, resistance was light and few casualties occurred. [11] Sulh appeared to be Muhammad bin Qasim's preferred mode of conquest, the method used for more than 60% of the towns and tribes recorded by Baladhuri and the Chach Nama . [11] At one point, he was actually berated by Al-Hajjaj for being too lenient. [11] Meanwhile, the common folk were often pardoned and encouraged to continue working; [10] Al-Hajjaj ordered that this option not be granted to any inhabitant of Debal, yet Qasim still bestowed it upon certain groups and individuals. [11]

After each major phase of his conquest, Muhammad bin Qasim attempted to establish law and order in the newly conquered territory by showing religious tolerance and incorporating the ruling class – the Brahmins and Shramanas  – into his administration. [10]

Reasons for success [ edit ]

Muhammad bin Qasim's success has been partly ascribed to Dahir being an unpopular Hindu king ruling over a Buddhist majority who saw Chach of Alor and his kin as usurpers of the Rai Dynasty . [4] This is attributed to having resulted in support being provided by Buddhists and inclusion of rebel soldiers serving as valuable infantry in his cavalry-heavy force from the Jat and Meds . [12] Brahman, Buddhist, Greek, and Arab testimony however can be found that attests towards amicable relations between the adherents of the two religions up to the 7th century. [13]

Along with this were:

  • Superior military equipment; such as siege engines and the Mongol bow . [4] [14]
  • Troop discipline and leadership. [4]
  • The concept of Jihad as a morale booster. [4]
  • Religion; the widespread belief in the prophecy of Muslim success. [4] [13]
  • The Samanis being persuaded to submit and not take up arms because the majority of the population was Buddhist who were dissatisfied with their rulers, who were Hindu. [13]
  • The laboring under disabilities of the Lohana Jats. [13]
  • Defections from among Dahirs chiefs and nobles. [13]

Administration by Muhammad bin Qasim [ edit ]

After the conquest, Muhammad bin Qasim's task was to set up an administrative structure for a stable Muslim state that incorporated a newly conquered alien land, inhabited by non-Muslims. [15] He adopted a conciliatory policy, asking for acceptance of Muslim rule by the natives in return for non-interference in their religious practice, [15] so long as the natives paid their taxes and tribute. [4] In return, the state provided protection to non-Muslim from any foreign attacks and enemies. He established Islamic Sharia law over the people of the region; however, Hindus were allowed to rule their villages and settle their disputes according to their own laws, [4] and traditional hierarchical institutions, including the Village Headmen ( Rais ) and Chieftains ( dihqans ) were maintained. [15] A Muslim officer called an amil was stationed with a troop of cavalry to manage each town on a hereditary basis [15]

Everywhere taxes ( mal ) and tribute ( kharaj ) were settled and hostages taken — occasionally this also meant the custodians of temples. [10] Non-Muslim natives were excused from military service and from payment of the religiously mandated tax system levied upon Muslims called Zakat , [15] the tax system levied upon them instead was the jizya - a progressive tax , being heavier on the upper classes and light for the poor. [15] In addition, three percent of government revenue was allocated to the Brahmins . [4]

Incorporation of ruling elite into administration [ edit ]

During his administration, Hindus and Buddhists were inducted into the administration as trusted advisors and governors. [4] A Hindu, Kaksa, was at one point the second most important member of his administration. [16] Dahir's prime minister and various chieftains were also incorporated into the administration. [17]

Jat clashes with Muhammad bin Qasim [ edit ]

Significant medieval Muslim chronicles such as the Chachnama , Zainul-Akhbar and Tarikh-I-Baihaqi have recorded battles between the Jats and forces of Muhammad bin Qasim . [18]

Treatment of Jats [ edit ]

The narrative in the Chach Nama conveys that Chach of Alor humiliated the Jats and Lohanas. He compelled them to agree to only carry sham swords, to wear no undergarments of shawl, velvet or silk; only wear silk outer garments provided they were red or black in color, to put no saddles on their horses, to take their dogs when they went out, to furnish guides and spies and carry firewood for the royal kitchen. Qasim maintained these regulations, declaring that the Jats resembled the savages of Persia and the mountains. He also fixed their tribute. Jats of Ghasul who had submitted to the Arab rule garrisoned the Ságara and the island of Bait. [19] [ unreliable source? ]

Religion [ edit ]

There are conflicting views regarding religious policy in his reign. According to some historians, no mass conversions were attempted and the destruction of temples such as the Sun Temple of Multan was forbidden. [20] Lane-Poole writes that, " as a rule Muslim government was at once tolerant and economic". [21] But other historians like Elliot, Cousens, Majumdar and Vaidya have held the view that there was coercive conversion during his reign and destruction of temples was a reflection of the more basic, religiously motivated intolerance. [11]

A small minority who converted to Islam were granted exemption from Jizya in lieu of paying the Muslim mandated Zakat . [15] Hindus and Buddhists were given the status of Dhimmi (protected people). [4]

An eccelastical office, " sadru-I-Islam al affal" , was created to oversee the secular governors. [15] While some proselytization occurred, the social dynamics of Sindh were no different from other regions newly conquered by Muslim forces such as Egypt , where conversion to Islam was slow and took centuries. [15]

Death [ edit ]

Muhammad bin Qasim had begun preparations for further expansions when Hajjaj died, as did Caliph Al-Walid I , who was succeeded by Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik , who then took revenge against all who had been close to Hajjaj. Sulayman owed political support to opponents of Hajjaj and so recalled both of Hajjaj's successful generals Qutaibah bin Muslim and Qasim. He also appointed Yazid ibn al-Muhallab , once tortured by Hajjaj and a son of Al Muhallab ibn Abi Suffrah , as the governor of Fars , Kirman , Makran , and Sindh ; he immediately placed Qasim in chains. [22]

There are two different accounts regarding the details of Qasim's fate:

  • According to Al-Baladhuri , a 9th-century Persian historian, Qasim was killed due to a family feud with the governor of Iraq. After the death of the caliph Al-Walid I , his brother Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik became the new caliph. Sulayman became hostile against Qasim because apparently he had followed the order of Hajjaj to declare Sulayman's right of succession void in all territories conquered by him. When Qasim received the news of the death of Hajjaj he returned to Aror. Qasim was later arrested under the orders of the caliph by the successor governor of Sindh, Yazid ibn Kabsha as-Sasaki, who worked under the new governor of Iraq, Yazid ibn al-Muhallab , and the new fiscal manager, Salih ibn Abd ar-Rahman. Salih, whose brother was executed by Hajjaj, tortured Qasim and his relatives to death. The account of his death by Al-Baladhuri is very brief compared to the one in Chachanama. [4] [23] [24]
  • The Chachnama narrates a tale in which Qasim's demise is attributed to the daughters of King Dahir who had been taken captive during the campaign. Upon capture they had been sent on as presents to the Khalifa for his harem in the capital. The account relates that they then tricked the caliph into believing that Muhammad bin Qasim had violated them before sending them on and as a result of this subterfuge, Muhammad bin Qasim was wrapped and stitched in oxen hides, [25] and returned to Syria , which resulted in his death en route from suffocation. [26] This narrative attributes their motive for this subterfuge to securing vengeance for their father's death. Upon discovering this subterfuge, the Khalifa is recorded to have been filled with remorse and ordered the sisters buried alive in a wall. [13] [23] [27]

Controversy [ edit ]

There is controversy regarding the conquest and subsequent conversion of Sindh. This is usually voiced in two antagonistic perspectives viewing Qasim's actions: [11]

His conquest, as described by Stanley Lane-Poole, in Medieval India (Published in 1970 by Haskell House Publishers Ltd), was "liberal". He imposed the customary poll tax, took hostages for good conduct and spared peoples' lives and lands. He even left their shrines undesecrated: 'The temples;, he proclaimed, 'shall be inviolate, like the churches of the Christians, the synagogues of the Jews and altars of the Magians'. [28] In the same text, however, it is mentioned that "Occasional desecration of Hindu fanes took place...but such demonstrations were probably rare sops to the official conscience..".

  • Coercive conversion has been attributed to early historians such as Elliot, Cousens, Majumdar and Vaidya. [11] They hold the view that the conversion of Sindh was necessitated. Qasim's numerical inferiority is said to explain any instances of apparent religious toleration, with the destruction of temples seen as a reflection of the more basic, religiously motivated intolerance. [11]
  • Voluntary conversion has been attributed to Thomas W. Arnold and modern Muslim historians such as Habib and Qureishi. They believe that the conquest was largely peaceful, and the conversion entirely so, and that the Arab forces enacted liberal, generous and tolerant policies. [11] These historians mention the "praiseworthy conduct of Arab Muslims" and attribute their actions to a "superior civilizational complex". [29]

Various polemical perceptions of Islam, Hinduism and Buddhism are also reflected in this debate. [29] Elliot perceived Islam as a religion of "terror, devastation, murder and rapine" where the conquering Arabs were characterized as "ruthless bigots" and "furious zealots" motivated by "plunder and proselytism". [11] The period of Qasim's rule has been called by U.T. Thakkur "the darkest period in Sind history", with the records speaking of massive forced conversions, temple destruction, slaughters and genocides; the people of Sindh, described as inherently pacifist due to their Hindu/Buddhist religious inclinations, had to adjust to the conditions of "barbarian inroad". [30] On one extreme, the Arab Muslims are seen as being compelled by religious stricture to conquer and forcibly convert Sindh, but on the other hand, they can be seen as being respectful and tolerant of non-Muslims as part of their religious duty, with conversion being facilitated by the vitality, equality and morals of the Islamic religion. [29] Citations of towns taken either violently or bloodlessly, reading back into Arab Sindh information belonging to a later date and dubious accounts such as those of the forcible circumcision of Brahmins at Debal or Qasims consideration of Hindu sentiment in forbidding the slaughter of cows are used as examples for one particular view or the other. [29]

Some historians strike a middle ground, saying that Qasim was torn between the political expediency of making peace with the Hindus and Buddhists; having to call upon non-Muslims to serve under him as part of his mandate to administer newly conquered land; and orthodoxy by refraining from seeking the co-operation of "infidels". It is contended that Qasim may have struck a middle ground, conferring the status of Dhimmi upon the native Sindhis and permitting them to participate in his administration, but treating them as "noncitizens" (i.e. in the Khilafat , but not of it). [15]

Legacy [ edit ]

  • Qasim's presence and rule was very brief. His conquest for the Umayyads brought Sindh into the orbit of the Muslim world. [31]
  • During the troubles between the Abbasid Caliphate and the Umayyad Caliphate the local emirs shook off all allegiance to the caliphs and by the 10th century the region the Umayyad control was destroyed by Mahmud of Ghazni . The Abbasids took this opportunity to set up their own government in Sindh. The Soomra dynasty ruled Sindh as the functionary of the Abbasid Caliphate until the Siege of Baghdad (1258) . Mansurah was the capital of the Soomra Dynasty. [32]
  • Coastal trade and a Muslim colony in Sindh allowed for cultural exchanges and the arrival of Sufi missionaries to expand Muslim influence. [33] From Debal , which remained an important port until the 12th century, commercial links with the Persian Gulf and the Middle East intensified as Sindh became the "hinge of the Indian Ocean Trade and overland passway." [31]
  • Muhammad bin Qasim is often referred to as the first Pakistani according to Pakistan Studies curriculum . [34] Muhammad Ali Jinnah also acclaimed Muhammad Bin Qasim and claimed that the Pakistan movement started when the first Muslim put his foot on the soil of Sindh , the Gateway of Islam in India. [35]
  • Yom-e Bab ul-Islam is observed in Pakistan, in honor of Muhammad bin Qasim. [36]
  • Port Qasim , Pakistan's second major port is named in honor of Muhammad bin Qasim. [37]
  • Bagh Ibne Qasim is the largest park in Karachi , Sindh , Pakistan named in honor of Muhammad bin Qasim.
  • Ibn-e-Qasim Bagh Stadium , Multan is a multi-use stadium named after Muhammad bin Qasim.
  • The Pakistan Naval Station Qasim, or PNS Qasim , is the major naval special operations base for the Amphibious Special Operations Forces in the Pakistan Navy named after Muhammad bin Qasim.
  • Bin Qasim Town in Karachi is named after Muhammad bin Qasim.
  • Muhammad bin Qasim Road/avenue in Karachi is named after Muhammad bin Qasim.
  • Mohammad Bin Qasim Library in Sujawal , Thatta is named after Muhammad bin Qasim.

See also [ edit ]

  • Jat people in Islamic history
  • Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent
  • Caliphate campaigns in India
  • Qutaibah bin Muslim
  • Abdullah Shah Ghazi
  • Shaikh Habib Al-Raee

Quotes [ edit ]

  • Andre Wink, Al Hind, Vol. I, p. 161

Quotes from The Chach Nama [ edit ]

  • The Chach Nama , translated into English by Mirza Kalichbeg Fredunbeg. Delhi Reprint, 1979, pp. 179-80.
  • The Chach Nama , in: Elliot and Dowson, Vol. I : Elliot and Dowson, History of India as told by its own Historians, 8 Volumes, Allahabad Reprint, 1964. p. 158.
  • Muhammad bin Qasim, letter to Hajjaj, his uncle and governor of Iraq . Elliot and Dowson, History of India as told by its own Historians, Volume I, p. 164. (The Chach Nama)
  • The Chach Nama , in: Elliot and Dowson, History of India as told by its own Historians, Volume I, p. 172-173.
  • The Chach Nama , in: Elliot and Dowson, History of India as told by its own Historians, Volume I, p. 176-181.
  • The Chach Nama , in: Elliot and Dowson, History of India as told by its own Historians, Volume I, p. 176-182.
  • The Chach Nama , in: Elliot and Dowson, History of India as told by its own Historians, Volume I, p. 190
  • The Chach Nama , in: Elliot and Dowson, History of India as told by its own Historians, Volume I, p. 205
  • The Chach Nama , in: Elliot and Dowson, Vol. I : Elliot and Dowson, History of India as told by its own Historians, 8 Volumes, Allahabad Reprint, 1964. pp. 205-06.
  • Elliot and Dowson, Vol. I : Elliot and Dowson, History of India as told by its own Historians, 8 Volumes, Allahabad Reprint, 1964. p. 211

Quotes from The History of India as told by its own Historians [ edit ]

  • Elliot and Dowson, Vol. I : Elliot and Dowson, History of India as told by its own Historians, 8 Volumes, Allahabad Reprint, 1964. p. 120-21.
  • Elliot and Dowson, Vol. I : Elliot and Dowson, History of India as told by its own Historians, 8 Volumes, Allahabad Reprint, 1964. p. 122-123
  • Elliot and Dowson, Vol. I : Elliot and Dowson, History of India as told by its own Historians, 8 Volumes, Allahabad Reprint, 1964. pp. 470.
  • Lal, K. S. (1994). Muslim slave system in medieval India. New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan.
  • Naipaul, V. S. (1981). Among the believers: An Islamic journey. New York: Knopf.
  • Tarikh-i-Firishta, translated into English by John Briggs under the title History of the Rise of the Mahomedan Power in India, 4 Volumes, New Delhi Reprint, 1981. p. 234-238

Footnotes [ edit ]

<templatestyles src="Reflist/styles.css" />

  • ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 Alexander Berzin, "Part I: The Umayyad Caliphate (661 - 750 CE), The First Muslim Incursion into the Indian Subcontinent" , The Historical Interaction between the Buddhist and Islamic Cultures before the Mongol Empire Last accessed September 11, 2007 [archive]
  • ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Wink (2002), pg.164
  • ↑ Wink (2002), 51-52
  • ↑ 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 Nicholas F. Gier, FROM MONGOLS TO MUGHALS: RELIGIOUS VIOLENCE IN INDIA 9TH-18TH CENTURIES , Presented at the Pacific Northwest Regional Meeting American Academy of Religion, Gonzaga University, May, 2006 [1] [archive]
  • ↑ 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18 5.19 Wink (2004) pg 201-205
  • ↑ Wink (2004) pg 131
  • ↑ The Indus River during this time flowed to the east of Nerun, but a 10th-century earthquake caused the river to change to its course.
  • ↑ Sailendra Nath Sen (1999-01-01), Ancient Indian History and Civilization [archive] , New Age International, pp. 343–, ISBN   978-81-224-1198-0 <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • ↑ 9.0 9.1 9.2 Derryl pg. 37-39
  • ↑ 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 Wink (2002) pg. 204-206
  • ↑ 11.00 11.01 11.02 11.03 11.04 11.05 11.06 11.07 11.08 11.09 11.10 Derryl pg.22-29
  • ↑ "The fall of Multan laid the Indus valley at the feet of the conqueror. The tribes came in, 'ringing bells and beating drums and dancing,' in token of welcome. The Hindu rulers had oppressed them heavily, and the Jats and Meds and other tribes were on the side of the invaders. The work of conquest, as often happened in India, was thus aided by the disunion of the inhabitants, and jealousies of race and creed conspired to help the Muslims. To such suppliants Mohammad Kasim gave the liberal terms that the Arabs usually offered to all but inveterate foes. He imposed the customary poll-tax, took hostages for good conduct, and spared the people's lands and lives. He even left their shrines undesecrated: 'The temples,' he proclaimed, 'shall be inviolate, like the churches of the Christians, the synagogues of the Jews, and the altars of the Magians.'" Stanley Lane-Poole, Medieval India under Mohammedan Rule , 712-1764, G.P. Putnam's Sons. New York, 1970. p. 9-10
  • ↑ 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 The Chachnamah, An Ancient History of Sind, Giving the Hindu period down to the Arab Conquest . (1900). Translated from the Persian by Mirza Kalichbeg Fredunbeg. Karachi: Commissioners Press.
  • ↑ The Evolution of the Artillery in India quoting Ibid 342 [archive]
  • ↑ 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6 15.7 15.8 15.9 Appleby. pg. 291-292
  • ↑ H. M. Elliot and John Dowson, The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians , (London, 1867-1877), vol. 1, p. 203. "Kaksa took precedence in the army before all the nobles and commanders. He collected the revenue of the country and the treasury was placed under his seal. He assisted Muhammad ibn Qasim in all of his undertakings..."
  • ↑ The Chach-Nama . English translation by Mirza Kalichbeg Fredunbeg. Delhi Reprint, 1979. Online version [archive] , last accessed 3 October 2006
  • ↑ Chapter by S Jabir Raza Passages in the Chachnama, Zainul-Akhbar And Tarikh-i-Baihaqi , Text and Translation, from the book The Jats, Their Role and contribution to the socio-Economic Life and Polity of North and North-West India , Volume 2, pp. 43–52
  • ↑ page 358 Volume 11 A Glossary of the Tribes and castes of the Punjab and North -West Frontier Province compiled by H. A. Rose and based on the Census Report for the Punjab 1883. Published By the Asian Educational Services
  • ↑ Schimmel pg.4
  • ↑ Medieval India by Stanly Lane-Poole, Pub 1970, Page 10.
  • ↑ Wink (2002) pg. 53
  • ↑ 23.0 23.1 Keay, pg. 185
  • ↑ https://books.google.com/books?id=g2m7_R5P2oAC&pg=PA207&lpg=PA207&focus=viewport&dq=al+baladhuri+qasim&output=html_text [archive]
  • ↑ Pakistan, the cultural heritage by Aḥmad Shujāʻ Pāshā Sang-e-Meel Publications, 1998, Page 43
  • ↑ BALOUCH, AKHTAR (16 September 2015). "Muhammad Bin Qasim: Predator or preacher?" [archive] . DAWN . Retrieved 10 January 2017 . <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • ↑ Iqtidar Husain Siddiqi (2010). "Indo-Persian Historiography Up to the Thirteenth Century" [archive] . Primus Books. p. 32. ISBN   9788190891806 . <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • ↑ Medieval India by Stanley Lane-Poole, Published by Haskell House Publishers Ltd. NY 1970. Page 10
  • ↑ 29.0 29.1 29.2 29.3 Derryl pg.31-33
  • ↑ Sindhi Culture by U.T. Thakkur, University of Bombay 1959
  • ↑ 31.0 31.1 Markovits, Claude The Global World of Indian Merchants, 1750-1947: Traders of Sind from Bukhara to Panama , Cambridge University Press, June 22, 2000, ISBN 0-521-62285-9, pg. 34.
  • ↑ Akbar, M.J, The Shade of Swords , Routledge (UK), December 1, 2003, ISBN 0-415-32814-4, pg. 102.
  • ↑ Federal Research Division. "Pakistan a Country Study" , Kessinger Publishing, June 1, 2004, ISBN 1-4191-3994-0 pg.45.
  • ↑ "History books contain major distortions" [archive] . Daily Times. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • ↑ "Pakistan Movement" [archive] . cybercity-online.net. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • ↑ APP (November 7, 2003). "KARACHI: Babul Islam day observed" [archive] . Dawn . Retrieved May 20, 2012 . <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • ↑ Cheesman, David Landlord Power and Rural Indebtedness in Colonial Sind , Routledge (UK), February 1, 1997, ISBN 0-7007-0470-1

References [ edit ]

  • Alexander Berzin, "Part I: The Umayyad Caliphate (661 - 750 CE), The First Muslim Incursion into the Indian Subcontinent" , The Historical Interaction between the Buddhist and Islamic Cultures before the Mongol Empire [archive]
  • The Chachnamah, An Ancient History of Sind, Giving the Hindu period down to the Arab Conquest . (1900). Translated from the Persian by Mirza Kalichbeg Fredunbeg. Karachi: Commissioners Press.
  • Nicholas F. Gier, FROM MONGOLS TO MUGHALS: RELIGIOUS VIOLENCE IN INDIA 9TH-18TH CENTURIES , Presented at the Pacific Northwest Regional Meeting American Academy of Religion, Gonzaga University, May, 2006 [2] [archive]
  • Stanley Lane-Poole, Medieval India under Mohammedan Rule, 712-1764 , G.P. Putnam's Sons. New York, 1970
  • Schimmel, Annemarie Schimmel, Religionen — Islam in the Indian Subcontinent , Brill Academic Publishers, Jan 1, 1980, ISBN 90-04-06117-7
  • Appleby, R Scott & Martin E Marty, Fundamentalisms Comprehended , University of Chicago Press, May 1, 2004, ISBN 0-226-50888-9
  • Wink, Andre, Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World , Brill Academic Publishers, August 1, 2002, ISBN 0-391-04173-8
  • Wink, Andre, Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World , Brill Academic Publishers, 2004, ISBN 90-04-09249-8
  • Keay, John, India: A History , Grove Press, May 1, 2001, ISBN 0-8021-3797-0
  • Maclean, Derryl N. Religion and Society in Arab Sind , Brill Academic Publishers, 1989 ISBN 90-04-08551-3

External links [ edit ]

  • The Chachnamah, An Ancient History of Sind, Giving the Hindu period down to the Arab Conquest [archive] . (1900). Translated from the Persian by Mirza Kalichbeg Fredunbeg. Karachi: Commissioners Press. (Online at: Persian Packhum)
  • Online Version of the History of the Rise of Mahommedan Power in India by Ferishta, "MAHOMED KASIM." , Last accessed 12 September 2007 [archive] - Muhammad Bin Qasim Story [archive]
  • Religion and Society in Arab Sind By Derryl N. Maclean [archive]

https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Muhammad_bin_Qasim&curid=433738&diff=660248182&oldid=660150097 [archive]

  • Pages with broken file links
  • Articles containing Arabic-language text
  • All articles with unsourced statements
  • Articles with unsourced statements from January 2014
  • Articles with invalid date parameter in template
  • Articles with unsourced statements from September 2015
  • Articles with unsourced statements from July 2011
  • Articles with unsourced statements from September 2007
  • Articles to be expanded from March 2009
  • All articles to be expanded
  • Articles using small message boxes
  • All articles lacking reliable references
  • Articles lacking reliable references from December 2015
  • Arab generals
  • History of Islam in Pakistan
  • History of Sindh
  • Umayyad generals
  • Umayyad governors of Sind
  • Banu Thaqif

Navigation menu

History of Islam

History of Islam

An encyclopedia of Islamic history

The Conquest of Sindh

Contributed by Prof. Dr. Nazeer Ahmed, PhD

Islam was introduced into the southwestern part of the Subcontinent,  the Malabar coast, through trade. It was introduced into the northwestern part, Sindh and Multan, through an accident of history.

The conquest of Sindh, located in  Pakistan, happened in stages. During the Caliphate of Omar ibn al Khattab (r), Muslim armies approached the coast of Makran, but Omar (r) withdrew the troops in response to reports of a harsh and inhospitable terrain. Emir Muawiya subdued eastern Afghanistan and the Northwest Frontier areas. However, it was not until the reign of Walid I (705-713) that much of what is today Pakistan was brought under Muslim rule.

From pre-Islamic times, there was a brisk trade between the eastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula and the western coast of India and Sri Lanka. Ships rode the eastern monsoons to the coast of Malabar and Sri Lanka to pick up spices and returned home riding on the western monsoons. Spices were in great demand throughout West Asia, North Africa and southern Europe and transactions were extremely profitable. This trade continued to thrive and expand with the advent of Muslim rule in West Asia and North Africa. It was through these merchants that Islam was first introduced into Kerala in southwestern India and Sri Lanka, located near the tip of India.

Sindh was notorious for its pirates in those times. These pirates would wait in ambush for merchant ships on the coast of Sindh and would raid them for booty. In the fateful year 707, these pirates attacked one of the Muslim merchant ships sailing back from Sri Lanka to the Persian Gulf. The men, women and children on board the ship were captured and taken inland to Sindh, where the Raja imprisoned them.

Hajjaj bin Yusuf Saqafi was the Omayyad governor of Iraq. When reports reached him of this incident, he wrote to Raja Dahir demanding that the captives be released and the responsible pirates punished. Dahir refused. This refusal set the stage for the onset of hostilities. It was the responsibility of the Caliphate to protect its citizens and to fight against injustice no matter what quarter it came from. Hajjaj bin Yusuf had that responsibility as a governor representing the Caliph. He sent an expedition under Ubaidullah bin Binhan to free the captives but Ubaidullah was defeated and killed in combat by troops of the Raja.

Determined that the provocations meet an appropriate response, Hajjaj dispatched an army of 7,000 seasoned cavalrymen under Muhammed bin Qasim Saqafi. Muhammed bin Qasim was only a young man of seventeen but was one of the most capable generals of the era. Paying attention to detailed planning, he sent heavy assault engines and army supplies by sea while the cavalry advanced by land through Baluchistan.

The success of an assault requires that the offensive weapons be superior to the defensive weapons. By the year 700, the Muslims had improved upon the various engines of war they had encountered in their advance through Persia, Byzantium and Central Asia. One specific assault engine was the minjanique , a catapult that could throw large stones at enemy forces and fortifications. The catapult, as a weapon of war, was in use in China as early as the 4 th century. Muslim engineers made two specific improvements on the Chinese design. First, they added a counterweight to one end of the cantilever, so as to harness the potential energy of the counterweight as the catapult was let go. Second, they mounted the entire mechanism on wheels so that the lateral reaction of the throw did not reduce the range of the machine. The minjaniques could project rounded stones weighing more than two hundred pounds over distances greater than three hundred yards. Persistent pounding by such large stones could bring down the sturdiest walls in the forts in existence at that time.

After capturing Panjgore and Armabel, Muhammed bin Qasim advanced towards the port of Debal, which was located near the modern city of Karachi. The Raja of Debal closed the city gates and a long siege ensued. Once again, the means for offensive warfare proved to be more powerful than the means for defense, enabling the Arab armies to continue their global advance towards military and political centralization. As was the pattern with Arab conquests, the minjaniques threw heavy projectiles at the fort and demolished its walls. After a month, Debal fell. The local governor fled and the Muslim prisoners who had been held there were freed.

From Debal, Muhammed bin Qasim continued his advance to the north and east. All of Baluchistan and Sindh fell including Sistan, Bahraj, Kutch, Arore, Kairej and Jior. Raja Dahir was killed in the Battle of Jior. One of his sons, Jai Singh resisted Muhammed bin Qasim at the Battle of Brahnabad, but he too was defeated and had to flee. Muhammed bin Qasim founded a new city near the present city of Karachi, built a mosque there and advanced northwards to western Punjab. Multan was his target. Gour Singh was the Raja of Multan. His large army was reinforced by contingents from neighboring rajas. The Indians excelled in static warfare with armored elephants and foot soldiers but these were no match against swift, hard hitting cavalry. Realizing the advantage enjoyed by Muhammed bin Qasim’s cavalry in mobile warfare, the Raja locked himself in the fort of Multan. A siege ensued. Once again the technology of minjaniques proved decisive. The heavy machines destroyed the fort and the raja surrendered. Multan was added to the Arab empire in the year 713.

The conquest of Sindh brought Islamic civilization face to face with the ancient Vedic civilization of the Indo-Gangetic Plains. In later centuries, there was much that Muslim scholarship would learn from India—mathematics, astronomy, iron smelting-to name but a few subjects. (Muslim scholarship has focused more on the interaction between Islam and the West and has neglected the interaction between Islamic civilization and the East. This is a surprise considering that until the 18 th century, there was little that the West had to offer the more advanced Islamic civilization. The flow of knowledge was almost always from Islam to the West. By contrast, the Muslims learned a great deal from India).

Soon, the borders of the Omayyad Empire extended to the borders of China and the Muslims acquired a great many advanced technologies from the Chinese, including the processing and manufacture of silk, porcelain, paper and gunpowder. The Prophet himself said: “Seek knowledge even onto China”. The addition of what is today Pakistan consolidated an empire extending from the Pyrenees to the Indus and the Gobi desert. This vast empire was now rubbing elbows with the ancient civilizations of India and China. From this vantage point, the Muslims were in a superb position to absorb, transform and develop knowledge from Persia, Greece, India and China.

Muhammed bin Qasim was eager to continue his advance into northern and eastern Punjab but events in far away Damascus overtook events in Pakistan. Caliph Walid I died in 713. In the ensuing political turbulence, Muhammed bin Qasim was summoned back to Iraq, just as Musa bin Nusair was summoned from Spain at about the same time.

After the death of Caliph Walid I, the end of Muhammed bin Qasim was even more tragic than that of Musa bin Nusair. Muhammed bin Qasim was a nephew of Hajjaj bin Yusuf, also known as Hajjaj the Cruel, the governor of Iraq. The new Caliph Sulaiman had a personal dislike of Hajjaj but Hajjaj died before Sulaiman could punish him. So, Sulaiman turned instead against Hajjaj’s relatives. Muhammed bin Qasim was dismissed and sent back to Iraq. The new governor of Iraq, Saleh bin Abdur Rahman hated Hajjaj because the latter had killed Saleh’s brother. But since Hajjaj had died, Saleh also turned against Hajjaj’s relatives. Muhammed bin Qasim was arrested and sent to prison for no fault but that he was a nephew of Hajjaj. In prison, Muhammed bin Qasim was blinded, tortured and killed. Thus ended the life of two of the most brilliant generals of the 8 th century.

The fate of Musa bin Nusair and Muhammed bin Qasim is a lesson of historical importance. With the ascension of Muawiya, legitimacy of rule was no longer by consent of the masses; it was by force. Sultan after sultan arose and established himself by dictate or by virtue of inheritance from soldier-conquerors. When a ruler was competent and just, as happened with Omar bin Abdul Aziz, the common people enjoyed some freedoms. When he was a tyrant, as happened with Sulaiman bin Abdul Malik, the people suffered. Since the period of the first fourCaliphs, Muslims have not shown an institutional capability to evolve and nourish their political leadership from among the masses. When the body politic throws up its first echelon of leadership, the tendency has been to destroy that leadership, unless the leader survives through shrewd maneuvering or ruthless imposition. This inability to cultivate and nourish political leadership from the bottom up has defined the limits of Muslim power and in a broader sense, the achievements of Islamic civilization. The survival of potential leaders has always depended on the whims of the despot at the top or of his local political cronies.

A second lesson from the tragic deaths of these two outstanding generals is that the internal dialectic of the world of Islam has defined the limits of its reach. Having completed the conquest of Spain, Musa bin Zubair was ready to launch an invasion of France when he was called back. He might well have succeeded in this goal because there was as yet no strong leader into resist a determined assault. By the time the Muslims did come around to venture into central France, Gaul had a strong leader in Charles Martel and the Muslims were forced to turn around at the Battle of Tours (737). Similarly, Muhammed bin Qasim had successfully penetrated the Indian defenses in the IndusRiver basin. Given a green signal from Damascus and Kufa, he might well have extended the dominions of the Caliphate into the Gangetic plains. This was not to be. Mohammed bin Qasim was called back from Multan just as he prepared to launch a major thrust beyond the Indus River. Northern India remained in Rajput hands for the time being. It was not until the victory of Mohammed Ghori at the Battle of Panipat (1191) that the Muslims captured Delhi. In both cases, it was the internal turmoil in the Muslim body politic that was the determining factor in the arrest of the Muslim advance.

Share this:

DAWN.COM Logo

Today's Paper | February 19, 2024

Muhammad bin qasim: predator or preacher.

write biography of muhammad bin qasim

We all know that Arab General Muhammad Bin Qasim conquered Sindh in 712 AD. However, the facts surrounding this conquest, and the ill fate that followed for the conqueror is known to few among us.

According to researcher and historian Dr Mubarak Ali, the war between Muhamad Bin Qasim and Raja Dahar was never a war of faith versus infidelity. He further says that it is not correct that Muhammad Bin Qasim’s men included Hindus of scheduled castes fighting for him.

It was after Muhammad Bin Qasim had conquered Sindh and had marched further ahead that locals started joining the Arab forces due to poverty and joblessness. According to Dr Mubarak Ali, the Arabs started ruling under the umbrella of an ancient elite class, thus their behaviour towards the lower and humbler communities never changed.

As such, the taking over of the reigns of Hind and Sindh by the Arabs never changed a thing for the already oppressed and victimised classes of society, which is claimed to be the focus of Islamic governance.

So, who is to decide if Muhammad Bin Qasim was a predator or a preacher?

No glory in death

Chachnama , a Sindhi book published by the Sindhi Adabi Board in 2008, speaks of Muhammad bin Qasim's demise on page 242 to 243. I will try to summarise it for you.

After Raja Dahar was killed, two of his daughters were made captive, whom Muhammad Bin Qasim sent to the capital Damascus. After a few days, the Caliph of the Muslims called the two young women to his court. The name of the elder daughter of Raja Dahar was Suryadevi, while the younger one’s name was Pirmaldevi.

Caliph Waleed Bin Abdul Malik fell for Suryadevi’s extraordinary beauty. He ordered for her younger sister to be taken away. The Caliph then began to take liberties with Suryadevi, pulling her to himself.

It is written that Suryadevi sprang up and said: “May the king live long: I, a humble slave, am not fit for your Majesty's bedroom, because Muhammad Bin Qasim kept both of us sisters with him for three days, and then sent us to the caliphate. Perhaps your custom is such, but this kind of disgrace should not be permitted by kings.”

Hearing this, the Caliph’s blood boiled as heat from anger and desire both compounded within him.

Blinded in the thirst of Suryadevi’s nearness and jealousy of Bin Qasim who had robbed him of the purity he would otherwise have had, the Caliph [sic] immediately sent for pen, ink and paper, and with his own hands wrote an order, directing that, “Muhammad (Bin) Qasim should, wherever he may be, put himself in raw leather and come back to the chief seat of the caliphate.”

Muhammad Bin Qasim received the Caliph’s orders in the city of Udhapur. He directed his own men to wrap him in raw leather and lock him in a trunk before taking him to Damascus.

En route to the capital, Muhammad Bin Qasim, conqueror to some, predator to others, breathed his last and his soul departed to meet with the Creator in whose name he claimed to crusade in Sindh.

When the trunk carrying Muhammad Bin Qasim’s corpse wrapped in raw leather reached the Caliph’s court, the Caliph called upon Dahar’s daughters, asking them to bear witness to the spectacle of obedience of his men for the Caliph.

One of Dahar’s daughter’s then spoke in return and said: “The fact is that Muhammad Qasim was like a brother or a son to us; he never touched us, your slaves, and our chastity was safe with him. But in as much as he brought ruin on the king of Hind and Sind, desolated the kingdom of our fathers and grandfathers, and degraded us from princely rank to slavery, we have, with the intention of revenge and of bringing ruin and degradation to him in return, misrepresented the matter and spoken a false thing to your majesty against him.”

The author of the Chachnama then writes that had Muhammad Bin Qasim not lost his senses in the passion of obedience, he could have made the whole journey normally, while wrapping himself in raw leather and locking himself in a trunk only when a part of the journey remained to be covered.

He could have then proven himself innocent in the Caliph’s court and saved himself from such a fate.

Translated by Ayaz Laghari

Akhtar Balouch is a senior journalist, writer and researcher. He is currently a council member of the HRCP. Sociology is his primary domain of expertise, on which he has published several books.

Akhtar Balouch

K-Solar, Faysal Bank, and Bulleh Shah Packaging collaborate to launch a 7.36 MW solar power project

‘ہر سال 80 لاکھ بچے پیدا ہوں گے تو انسانی ترقی کا کوئی منصوبہ کارآمد نہیں رہے گا’

‘ہر سال 80 لاکھ بچے پیدا ہوں گے تو انسانی ترقی کا کوئی منصوبہ کارآمد نہیں رہے گا’

کنڈر گارٹن کی اصطلاح کو فارسی میں ‘کودکستان’ کیوں کہتے ہیں؟

کنڈر گارٹن کی اصطلاح کو فارسی میں ‘کودکستان’ کیوں کہتے ہیں؟

قومی اسمبلی کے 24 حلقوں میں مسترد شدہ ووٹ جیت کے مارجن سے زیادہ رہنے کا انکشاف

قومی اسمبلی کے 24 حلقوں میں مسترد شدہ ووٹ جیت کے مارجن سے زیادہ رہنے کا انکشاف

Why Are Farmers Protesting In India?

Why Are Farmers Protesting In India?

People Are Sick And Tired Of Political Engineering

People Are Sick And Tired Of Political Engineering

Can Gaza War Stop Global Production Of F-35 Fighter Jets?

Can Gaza War Stop Global Production Of F-35 Fighter Jets?

Top News Stories: 60.6M Pakistanis Exercised Right To Vote On Feb 8: Fafen

Top News Stories: 60.6M Pakistanis Exercised Right To Vote On Feb 8: Fafen

When Will Pakistan Get A New Govt?

When Will Pakistan Get A New Govt?

Pakistan General Election: “Nobody Is Talking About The Economy”

Pakistan General Election: “Nobody Is Talking About The Economy”

Top News: Imran Khan Warns Against Misadventure Of Forming Govt With Stolen Votes

Top News: Imran Khan Warns Against Misadventure Of Forming Govt With Stolen Votes

What’s Happening In Rafah?

What’s Happening In Rafah?

Latest stories.

Election outcome, political uncertainty may complicate Pakistan’s new IMF deal: Fitch

Election outcome, political uncertainty may complicate Pakistan’s new IMF deal: Fitch

‘It’s not ceasefire now, it’s ceasefire forever’: KLF panel stresses need for long-term truce in Gaza

‘It’s not ceasefire now, it’s ceasefire forever’: KLF panel stresses need for long-term truce in Gaza

PTI-backed independents to join Sunni Ittehad Council: Barrister Gohar

PTI-backed independents to join Sunni Ittehad Council: Barrister Gohar

‘Putin killed my husband,’ says Alexei Navalny’s widow

‘Putin killed my husband,’ says Alexei Navalny’s widow

Shares at PSX rally 500 points on hopes of consensus on forming new govt

Shares at PSX rally 500 points on hopes of consensus on forming new govt

Pakistan’s debt profile ‘alarming’, borrowing and spending habits ‘unsustainable’: report

Pakistan’s debt profile ‘alarming’, borrowing and spending habits ‘unsustainable’: report

Celebrating some of the best celebrity girl dads on the internet

Celebrating some of the best celebrity girl dads on the internet

Yasir hussain doesn’t think much of pakistani dramas.

Blogger Mystapaki gives a lesson on using your privilege the right way

Blogger Mystapaki gives a lesson on using your privilege the right way

Most popular.

Official shunted after rigging bombshell

Official shunted after rigging bombshell

‘Army has tested everyone’: GDA foresees martial law

‘Army has tested everyone’: GDA foresees martial law

PTI demands CEC, CJP resign after ‘revelations’

PTI demands CEC, CJP resign after ‘revelations’

Rawalpindi commissioner says poll results ‘manipulated’ under his watch; ECP rejects claims

Rawalpindi commissioner says poll results ‘manipulated’ under his watch; ECP rejects claims

Chaos unfolding.

‘Fascist and shameful’: Political analysts, lawyers condemn PTI candidate Salman Akram Raja’s arrest in Lahore

‘Fascist and shameful’: Political analysts, lawyers condemn PTI candidate Salman Akram Raja’s arrest in Lahore

Courts must exercise caution in matters of faith: CJP

Courts must exercise caution in matters of faith: CJP

PPP, PML-N unable to finalise ‘give and take’ in coalition talks

PPP, PML-N unable to finalise ‘give and take’ in coalition talks

Ring Road SL-3 opens to traffic

Ring Road SL-3 opens to traffic

Pakistan’s elections in numbers — low turnout, gender inequality and voting mishaps

Pakistan’s elections in numbers — low turnout, gender inequality and voting mishaps

Editorial: It is time for all political stakeholders to respect the split verdict given by the people

Editorial: It is time for all political stakeholders to respect the split verdict given by the people

Uncertainty is set to continue with no sign of temporary truce between feuding political parties

Uncertainty is set to continue with no sign of temporary truce between feuding political parties

Is the rupee poised to depreciate?

Is the rupee poised to depreciate?

Contenders for the next finance minister

Contenders for the next finance minister

Hard road ahead

Hard road ahead

Ruptures in 2024

Ruptures in 2024

Young voters

Young voters

Let students thrive

Let students thrive

Blackout to backlash

Blackout to backlash

Pml-n challenge, democracy’s decline, banning festivity, fafen report, power protests, a just transition.

A just transition

logo

  • Future of Pakistan
  • Geopolitics
  • Ghazwa Hind
  • Proof of Dream

Who was Muhammad Qasim?

Sayyid Muhammad Qasim

  • Name : Muhammad Qasim
  • Gender : Male
  • Place/Tgl Lahi : Pakistan, 05 July 1976
  • Address : Lahore, Pakistan
  • Religion : Islam (Sunni)
  • Father's Name : Abdul Karim
  • Nasab : Descendants of the Quraysh tribe father's path

About Muhammad Qasim

Judging from the language, the meaning of Muhammad means commendable (which is honored). Qasim means the one who gives (divides). Abdul means servant and Karim means your majesty. So Muhammad Qasim bin Abdul Karim means a person who is commendable and likes to give (divide), the son of a servant of Allah His Majesty. Another name and at the same time the name of kuniyah (nickname) which is most often mentioned on the Prophet (SAW) is Abul Qasim . Abdul Karim in Arabic has almost the same meaning as the name Abdullah .

Muhammad Qasim once got an explanation from his late father (while he was alive) and also his family that he came from the descendants of bani Quraysh from the path of his late father,

Muhammad Qasim explained that:

  • Allah (swt) has been present (behind the veil) in his dreams more than 500 times.
  • The Prophet was present in his dream more than 300 times.

At the age of 12 or 13 years, Allah SWT and Prophet Muhammad began to come in his dreams. Then after that in 1993 when he was 17 years old, Allah SWT and Prophet Muhammad (SAW) came regularly and constantly. Since then, the two have come into their dreams more often. Allah (SWT) and the Prophet (SAW) commanded him to spread his dream.

Muhammad Qasim had no attachment to any organization. Even before spreading his dream, Muhammad Qasim did not know much about the hadiths of the last days, Al-Mahdi, Malhamah Qubra, Dajjal and Ya'juj Ma'juj and others.

Muhammad Qasim only learned about the hadiths of the last days after starting to spread his dreams, because people began to associate him with the figure of the Mahdi (the one who got the clue). But until now he did not want to be associated with the figure of the Mahdi. Muhammad Qasim explained that he was not Al-Mahdi and did not want to be Al-Mahdi.

Even in the early days of spreading his dream, he admitted that he did not routinely perform tahajud prayers, praying and not being religious. It all shows that he is an ordinary Sunni man.

Click Here >>> Muhammad Qasim's Dream Collection Book

write biography of muhammad bin qasim

Postingan Terbaru

  • Islam was insulted in the midst of the Israel-Hamas war
  • Nawaz Sharif returns from 4 years of exile
  • Viral! Shooting Stars and Their Relationship to Disasters on Earth
  • GAZA Coordinates with BIN
  • Slow Running Car
  • Muhammad Qasim’s Dream for Mufti Menk and People Who Insulted His Dreams
  • Victory Getting Closer? Muhammad Qasim’s Dream Was Introduced at the Headquarters of the Indonesian Da’wah Council
  • The GAZA Assembly again made a movement for the unity of Islam and the Indonesian nation

Black History Month: Select Books 30% Off

A Book of Conquest

A Book of Conquest

The Chachnama and Muslim Origins in South Asia

Manan Ahmed Asif

Harvard University Press books are not shipped directly to India due to regional distribution arrangements. Buy from your local bookstore, Amazon.co.in, or Flipkart.com.

This book is not shipped directly to country due to regional distribution arrangements.

Pre-order for this book isn't available yet on our website.

This book is currently out of stock.

Edit shipping location

Dropdown items

  • Barnes and Noble
  • Bookshop.org
  • Waterstones

ISBN 9780674660113

Publication date: 09/19/2016

Request exam copy

The question of how Islam arrived in India remains markedly contentious in South Asian politics. Standard accounts center on the Umayyad Caliphate’s incursions into Sind and littoral western India in the eighth century CE. In this telling, Muslims were a foreign presence among native Hindus, sowing the seeds of a mutual animosity that presaged the subcontinent’s partition into Pakistan and India many centuries later.

But in a compelling reexamination of the history of Islam in India, Manan Ahmed Asif directs attention to a thirteenth-century text that tells the story of Chach, the Brahmin ruler of Sind, and his kingdom’s later conquest by the Muslim general Muhammad bin Qasim in 712 CE. The Chachnama has long been a touchstone of Indian history, yet it is seldom studied in its entirety. Asif offers a close and complete analysis of this important text, untangling its various registers and genres in order to reconstruct the political vision at its heart.

Asif challenges the main tenets of the Chachnama ’s interpretation: that it is a translation of an earlier Arabic text and that it presents a history of conquest. Debunking both ideas, he demonstrates that the Chachnama was originally Persian and, far from advancing a narrative of imperial aggression, is a subtle and sophisticated work of political theory, one embedded in both the Indic and Islamic ethos. This social and intellectual history of the Chachnama is an important corrective to the divisions between Muslim and Hindu that so often define Pakistani and Indian politics today.

This is an innovative, refreshing, and provocative intellectual history that makes a major intervention in debates surrounding the question of Islam’s ‘advent’ in the South Asian subcontinent. In A Book of Conquest , Manan Ahmed Asif aims at dismantling the dominant origin myth that portrays Islam’s encounter with India as a conquest. —Ayesha Jalal, Tufts University
A Book of Conquest is an important study that joins a growing conversation about precolonial India, moving beyond both colonial and nationalist tropes concerning the place and origins of Muslims in Indian society. Manan Ahmed Asif’s radical re-reading of the Chachnama aims to correct portrayals of the Muslims of India as descendants of foreign conquerors. —Richard Eaton, University of Arizona
Ahmed’s re-reading will no doubt provoke scholars in both Pakistan and India. It cuts against the grain of the way the Chachnama has been discussed and taught for centuries. Though its rigorously argued style may not help win the readership it deserves outside academia, the book comes at a pivotal time. —Kanishk Tharoor, The Hindu Business Line
A thorough and detailed study of the early-thirteenth-century Persian narrative Chachnama , by Muhammad Ali Kufi of Uch. Asif’s reading of the narrative seeks to dislodge earlier—particularly colonial and nationalist—interpretations that labeled the Chachnama a book of conquest…By reading the Chachnama as a whole and within its context, Asif convincingly argues that it is a political tract focused on the ethics of political and social relationships and accommodating sacral and other differences. —Chitralekha Zutshi, American Historical Review
  • Manan Ahmed Asif is Associate Professor of History at Columbia University and the author of A Book of Conquest (Harvard).

Book Details

  • 6-1/8 x 9-1/4 inches
  • Harvard University Press

From this author

The Loss of Hindustan

The Loss of Hindustan

Recommendations.

A Social Theory of Corruption

A Social Theory of Corruption

The Emperor Who Never Was

The Emperor Who Never Was

An Appeal to the Ladies of Hyderabad

An Appeal to the Ladies of Hyderabad

The Economics of Religion in India

The Economics of Religion in India

       

Sorry, there was an error adding the item to your shopping bag.

Expired session

Sorry, your session has expired. Please refresh your browser's tab.

Main navigation

An item has been added to the cart

Added to shopping bag

  • Copy to clipboard

Set your location

It looks like you're in   . Would you like to update your location?

Unavailable

Harvard University Press titles are not shipped directly to India due to local distribution arrangements.

Unavailable in country .

Shopping Bag

Your shopping bag is currently empty. Add items to your shopping bag, to complete check out.

IMAGES

  1. Muhammad bin Qasim Biography

    write biography of muhammad bin qasim

  2. Muhammad Bin Qasim A Biography By Maqsood Sheikh Pdf Free Download

    write biography of muhammad bin qasim

  3. Muhammad Bin Qasim by Sadiq Hussain Siddiqui

    write biography of muhammad bin qasim

  4. Muhammad bin qasim

    write biography of muhammad bin qasim

  5. Muhammad Bin Qasim

    write biography of muhammad bin qasim

  6. मोहम्मद बिन कासिम Muhammad Bin Qasim

    write biography of muhammad bin qasim

VIDEO

  1. Muhammad Bin Qasim Was Great।। Untill He Met His Father😈😈😈#shorts#hindu#sanatani#hindutva#facts

  2. death of Muhammad bin qasim

  3. history, Muhammed bin qasim

  4. History Of Muhammad Bin Qasim|Ep 2|Muhammad Bin Qasim Or Raja Dahir|Antul Islam|

  5. MUHAMMAD BIN QASIM 712 AD [DOWNLOAD LINK BELOW] CSS/PMS/FPSC/PPSC/UPSC

  6. Muhammad Bin Qasim r.a Ka WaQia by Peer Ajmal Raza Qadri

COMMENTS

  1. Muhammad ibn al-Qasim

    Muḥammad ibn al-Qāsim al-Thaqafī ( Arabic: محمد بن القاسم الثقفي; 31 December 695- 18 July 715) was an Arab military commander in service of the Umayyad Caliphate who led the Muslim conquest of Sindh (and Punjab, part of ancient Sindh), inaugurating the Umayyad campaigns in India.

  2. Muhammad Bin Qasim

    Mahmood Ghaznavi Muhammad bin Qasim was born around 695 AD. He belonged to the Saqqafi tribe; that had originated from Taif in Arabia. He grew up in the care of his mother; he soon became a great asset to his uncle Muhammad Ibn Yusuf, the governor of Yemen.

  3. Muhammad bin Qasim Biography

    Muhammad bin Qasim Muḥammad ibn al-Qāsim al-Thaqafī (Arabic: محمد بن القاسم الثقفي; (695-12-31)31 December 695- (715-07-18)18 July 715) was an Arab military commander in service of the Umayyad Caliphate who led the Muslim conquest of Sindh (and Punjab, part of ancient Sindh), inaugurating the Umayyad campaigns in India.

  4. Muhammad ibn al-Qasim

    Muhammad bin Qasim al-Thaqafi ( Arabic: محمد بن قاسم) was an Arab general of the Islamic Umayyad Caliphate who attacked the Sindh and Punjab regions along the Indus River (now a part of Pakistan ).

  5. Uncovering the History of Muhammad Bin Qasim: Facts and Fiction

    1. Introduction to Muhammad Bin Qasim. Muhammad Bin Qasim, a younger Muslim preferred, is a celebrated discernment in the records of the Indian subcontinent. He was born in Taif, gift-day Saudi Arabia, in 695 AD. His army conquests in the 8th century AD marked the start of the Muslim presence within the Indian subcontinent.

  6. Muhammad Bin Qasim

    He was 1 st Muslim to capture Hindu regions successfully and started the early Muslim Rule. This article has every piece of information about him, including Muhammad Bin Qasim History. Table of Contents Muhammad Bin Qasim History Qasim Date of Birth Education of Qasim Muhammad Bin Qasim Family Career Services in Fars

  7. PDF Muhammad Bin Qasim

    mind when writing this series of books has, in a large manner, been achieved. These books have met a real need of Muslim youth both inside and outside the country and abroad. They have now been thoroughly revised. Modifications and useful additions have been made where necessary. In their present form they will certainly make more enlightening ...

  8. Muhammad

    Category: History & Society In full: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim Born: c. 570, Mecca, Arabia [now in Saudi Arabia] Died: June 8, 632, Medina (aged 62) Notable Family Members: spouse Khadījah spouse ʿĀʾishah daughter Fāṭimah Subjects Of Study: Islam Qurʾān

  9. Muhammad bin Qasim

    Qasim was an intelligent and cultured young man who at the age of fifteen was considered by many to be one of his uncle's greatest assets. As a show of faith in his nephew's abilities, Hajjaj married his daughter to Qasim. At the age of sixteen, he was asked to serve under the great general, Qutayba bin Muslim.

  10. Muhammad

    Muhammad (Arabic: مُحَمَّد, romanized: Muḥammad; English: /moʊˈhɑːməd/; Arabic: [mʊˈħæm.mæd]; c. 570 - 8 June 632 CE) was an Arab religious, social, and political leader and the founder of Islam. According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet divinely inspired to preach and confirm the monotheistic teachings of Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets.

  11. MUHAMMAD BIN QASIM:LIFE AND MESSAGE

    Hajjaj bin Yusuf was his paternal uncle and his teacher of warfare and governing. Muhammad bin Qasim was an intelligent and cultured young man who at the age of fifteen was considered by many to be one of his uncle's greatest assets. As a show of faith in his nephew's abilities, Hajjaj married his daughter, Zubaidah to Muhammad.

  12. Muhammad-bin-Qasim

    Muhammad-bin-Qasim (December 31, 695 - July 18, 715) was an Arab military commander in the service of the Umayyad Caliphate who led the Muslim conquest of Sindh during the Umayyad campaigns in India.

  13. Qasim ibn Muhammad

    Qasim ibn Muhammad. Qāsim ibn Muḥammad ( Arabic: القاسم بن محمد) was the eldest of the sons of Muhammad and Khadija bint Khuwaylid. He died in 601 CE (before the start of his father's prophethood in 609), after his third birthday, [1] and is buried in Jannat al-Mu'alla cemetery, Mecca. Ibn Majah mentioned that he died before ...

  14. Muhammad bin Qasim: The Arab military commander who marked the

    Muhammad bin Qasim: The Arab military commander who marked the beginning of Muslim rule in India His exploits facilitated the establishment of the Islamic province of Sindh, and the takeover of the region from the Sindhi Brahman dynasty and its ruler, Raja Dahir. Written By: News9Live Staff Updated On: 14 Sep 2022 18:35:PM

  15. Muhammad ibn al-Qasim

    Muhammad ibn al-Qasim. Conquest of Sindh and Multan for the Umayyads. 'Imād ad-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Qāsim ath-Thaqafī ( Arabic: عماد الدين محمد بن القاسم الثقفي ‎‎; c. 695 - 715 [citation needed]) was an Umayyad general who conquered the Sindh and Multan regions along the Indus River (now a part of Pakistan ...

  16. The Conquest of Sindh

    After the death of Caliph Walid I, the end of Muhammed bin Qasim was even more tragic than that of Musa bin Nusair. Muhammed bin Qasim was a nephew of Hajjaj bin Yusuf, also known as Hajjaj the Cruel, the governor of Iraq. The new Caliph Sulaiman had a personal dislike of Hajjaj but Hajjaj died before Sulaiman could punish him. So, Sulaiman ...

  17. Qasim ibn Muhammad

    Qasim ibn Muhammad ( Arabic: قاسم بن محمد ), was the son of Muhammad and Khadija bint Khuwaylid. He died in 601 CE (before the start of his father's prophethood in 609), after his third birthday [1] and is buried in Jannat al-Mu'alla cemetery, Mecca, Saudi Arabia. He was Muhammad's first child.

  18. Muhammad bin Qasim / محمد بن قاسم by Naseem Hijazi

    Naseem Hijazi. 4.25. 978 ratings63 reviews. Ummayyad ruler Hajjaj Bin Yusuf sent his Nephew, General Muhammad Bin Qasim, to rescue pilgrims who had been captured when Raja Dahir's forces from Sindh, Indus River Valley, attacked their ship. Muhammad Bin Qasim conquered Sindh introducing Islam to South Asia and giving Sindh the title of Bab-ul ...

  19. Muhammad Bin Qasim: Predator or preacher?

    Chachnama, a Sindhi book published by the Sindhi Adabi Board in 2008, speaks of Muhammad bin Qasim's demise on page 242 to 243.I will try to summarise it for you. After Raja Dahar was killed, two ...

  20. Who was Muhammad Qasim?

    About Muhammad Qasim. Judging from the language, the meaning of Muhammad means commendable (which is honored).Qasim means the one who gives (divides).Abdul means servant and Karim means your majesty. So Muhammad Qasim bin Abdul Karim means a person who is commendable and likes to give (divide), the son of a servant of Allah His Majesty. Another name and at the same time the name of kuniyah ...

  21. A Book of Conquest

    A thorough and detailed study of the early-thirteenth-century Persian narrative Chachnama, by Muhammad Ali Kufi of Uch.Asif's reading of the narrative seeks to dislodge earlier—particularly colonial and nationalist—interpretations that labeled the Chachnama a book of conquest…By reading the Chachnama as a whole and within its context, Asif convincingly argues that it is a political ...

  22. Sultan bin Muhammad Al-Qasimi

    Sheikh Sultan bin Muhammad Al-Qasimi (Arabic: سلطان بن محمد القاسمي; born 2 July 1939) is the ruler of the Emirate of Sharjah and a member of the Federal Supreme Council of the United Arab Emirates.. He has ruled Sharjah continuously since January 1972, apart from a seven-day period in June 1987, during an attempted coup led by his elder brother Sheikh Abdulaziz bin Mohammed ...

  23. Sheikh Sulṭān ibn Muḥammad al-Qāsimī

    Sheikh Sulṭān ibn Muḥammad al-Qāsimī, (born July 1, 1939), Ruler of the emirate of Al-Shariqah (Sharjah) in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) from 1972. He succeeded his brother, who was assassinated. A political moderate, he favoured strengthening the federal government of the UAE.