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Annotated Bibliography Samples

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This handout provides information about annotated bibliographies in MLA, APA, and CMS.

Below you will find sample annotations from annotated bibliographies, each with a different research project. Remember that the annotations you include in your own bibliography should reflect your research project and/or the guidelines of your assignment.

As mentioned elsewhere in this resource, depending on the purpose of your bibliography, some annotations may summarize, some may assess or evaluate a source, and some may reflect on the source’s possible uses for the project at hand. Some annotations may address all three of these steps. Consider the purpose of your annotated bibliography and/or your instructor’s directions when deciding how much information to include in your annotations.

Please keep in mind that all your text, including the write-up beneath the citation, must be indented so that the author's last name is the only text that is flush left.

Sample MLA Annotation

Lamott, Anne. Bird by Bird: Some Instructions on Writing and Life . Anchor Books, 1995.

Lamott's book offers honest advice on the nature of a writing life, complete with its insecurities and failures. Taking a humorous approach to the realities of being a writer, the chapters in Lamott's book are wry and anecdotal and offer advice on everything from plot development to jealousy, from perfectionism to struggling with one's own internal critic.

In the process, Lamott includes writing exercises designed to be both productive and fun. Lamott offers sane advice for those struggling with the anxieties of writing, but her main project seems to be offering the reader a reality check regarding writing, publishing, and struggling with one's own imperfect humanity in the process. Rather than a practical handbook to producing and/or publishing, this text is indispensable because of its honest perspective, its down-to-earth humor, and its encouraging approach.

Chapters in this text could easily be included in the curriculum for a writing class. Several of the chapters in Part 1 address the writing process and would serve to generate discussion on students' own drafting and revising processes. Some of the writing exercises would also be appropriate for generating classroom writing exercises. Students should find Lamott's style both engaging and enjoyable.

In the sample annotation above, the writer includes three paragraphs: a summary, an evaluation of the text, and a reflection on its applicability to his/her own research, respectively.

For information on formatting MLA citations, see our MLA 9th Edition (2021) Formatting and Style Guide .

Sample APA Annotation

Ehrenreich, B. (2001). Nickel and dimed: On (not) getting by in America . Henry Holt and Company.

In this book of nonfiction based on the journalist's experiential research, Ehrenreich attempts to ascertain whether it is currently possible for an individual to live on a minimum-wage in America. Taking jobs as a waitress, a maid in a cleaning service, and a Walmart sales employee, the author summarizes and reflects on her work, her relationships with fellow workers, and her financial struggles in each situation.

An experienced journalist, Ehrenreich is aware of the limitations of her experiment and the ethical implications of her experiential research tactics and reflects on these issues in the text. The author is forthcoming about her methods and supplements her experiences with scholarly research on her places of employment, the economy, and the rising cost of living in America. Ehrenreich’s project is timely, descriptive, and well-researched.

The annotation above both summarizes and assesses the book in the citation. The first paragraph provides a brief summary of the author's project in the book, covering the main points of the work. The second paragraph points out the project’s strengths and evaluates its methods and presentation. This particular annotation does not reflect on the source’s potential importance or usefulness for this person’s own research.

For information on formatting APA citations, see our APA Formatting and Style Guide .

Sample Chicago Manual of Style Annotation

Davidson, Hilda Ellis. Roles of the Northern Goddess . London: Routledge, 1998.

Davidson's book provides a thorough examination of the major roles filled by the numerous pagan goddesses of Northern Europe in everyday life, including their roles in hunting, agriculture, domestic arts like weaving, the household, and death. The author discusses relevant archaeological evidence, patterns of symbol and ritual, and previous research. The book includes a number of black and white photographs of relevant artifacts.

This annotation includes only one paragraph, a summary of the book. It provides a concise description of the project and the book's project and its major features.

For information on formatting Chicago Style citations, see our Chicago Manual of Style resources.

Want to create or adapt books like this? Learn more about how Pressbooks supports open publishing practices.

Article links:

“Annotated Bibliography” provided by the authors

“Reflective Writing Prompt: Annotated Bibliography” by the authors

Chapter Preview

  • Describe the citation and annotation of an annotated bibliography.

2 03 graded assignment the annotated bibliography

https://youtu.be/R0Hsnx0l1q4

Annotated Bibliography

provided by the authors

Earlier in the text, you explored a topic that you want to further research. in this section, you’re going to find sources using formal scholarly research, evaluate and write annotations for those sources, and use MLA citation to create works cited entries.

This second major assignment for English Composition II courses is called an annotated bibliography . For this assignment you’ll find a number of sources (some of which will be scholarly, peer-reviewed and compose works cited entries and annotations for these sources. The purpose of the annotated bibliography is to give a review of the most important research you’ve found and evaluate their worthiness to be included in your research project. Your instructor will have specific guidelines for the number and types of sources to be included in this assignment.

The annotations are divided into three parts: a summary, an evaluation, and a plan to use the source. The summary should give a quick, objective description of the source, usually involving the thesis and context for the source. After that, the bulk of the annotation should be an evaluation , which you’ll conduct a critical analysis of the source, judging its credibility, accuracy, and authority as a source. You’ll end the annotation with a plan to use the source in your own research project, telling how this source can support your argument and purpose.

The annotated bibliography as a whole will be formatted using MLA 8 citation. Each source will have a works cited entry followed immediately by the annotation.

For this section we focus on critical analysis and knowledge.  Critical Analysis : “critical analysis is a careful examination and evaluation of a text, image, or other work or performance…[to] help us understand the interaction of the particular elements that contribute to a work’s power and effectiveness” (Richard Nordquist). Knowledge is “facts or ideas acquired by study, observation, or experience” (Merriam-Webster)

Context is the circumstances surrounding an issue that the rhetorician must consider in discussing the issue.  In other words, before we begin writing an argumentative research essay, we must first consider who needs to hear our message ( audience ), why they need to hear our message ( exigence ), and with whom we wish to confer in order to exchange ideas and information to form a solid foundation for our argument ( discourse community ).

Important Concepts

annotated bibliography

annotations

plan to use the source

Reflective Writing Prompt

Annotated Bibliography 

In a two-part response OR [In the format of a dialogue, create a conversation that includes you and several (2 – 3)] of your sources you selected for your Annotated Bibliography. Create a conversation] that demonstrates how you learned from your sources specific knowledge about the topic itself and the writing assignment. Use some of the following questions to guide your thinking:

Part 1: In 300-400 words: what did you learn about writing with sources from constructing this Annotated Bibliography? What kinds of rhetorical knowledge and critical analysis skills did you draw on to produce this project? Using specific details from your own writing, explain how your understanding of context contributed to your final decisions.

Part 2: In 300-400 words, which of the key terms did you use to form the basis of your theory of writing? For example, how did you draw upon an understanding of audience awareness or genre (both important features of context) in your selection of source materials? How do you see opportunities to apply this in other courses when asked to write a research project?

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Composing Ourselves and Our World,   Provided by: the authors. License:  Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)

  • Video 1: What’s an annotated bibliography?   by Brock Library .  License: Standard YouTube License.

Composing Ourselves and Our World Copyright © 2019 by Auburn University at Montgomery is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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  • What Is an Annotated Bibliography? | Examples & Format

What Is an Annotated Bibliography? | Examples & Format

Published on March 9, 2021 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on August 23, 2022.

An annotated bibliography is a list of source references that includes a short descriptive text (an annotation) for each source. It may be assigned as part of the research process for a paper , or as an individual assignment to gather and read relevant sources on a topic.

Scribbr’s free Citation Generator allows you to easily create and manage your annotated bibliography in APA or MLA style. To generate a perfectly formatted annotated bibliography, select the source type, fill out the relevant fields, and add your annotation.

An example of an annotated source is shown below:

Annotated source example

Table of contents

Annotated bibliography format: apa, mla, chicago, how to write an annotated bibliography, descriptive annotation example, evaluative annotation example, reflective annotation example, finding sources for your annotated bibliography, frequently asked questions about annotated bibliographies.

Make sure your annotated bibliography is formatted according to the guidelines of the style guide you’re working with. Three common styles are covered below:

In APA Style , both the reference entry and the annotation should be double-spaced and left-aligned.

The reference entry itself should have a hanging indent . The annotation follows on the next line, and the whole annotation should be indented to match the hanging indent. The first line of any additional paragraphs should be indented an additional time.

APA annotated bibliography

In an MLA style annotated bibliography , the Works Cited entry and the annotation are both double-spaced and left-aligned.

The Works Cited entry has a hanging indent. The annotation itself is indented 1 inch (twice as far as the hanging indent). If there are two or more paragraphs in the annotation, the first line of each paragraph is indented an additional half-inch, but not if there is only one paragraph.

MLA annotated bibliography

Chicago style

In a  Chicago style annotated bibliography , the bibliography entry itself should be single-spaced and feature a hanging indent.

The annotation should be indented, double-spaced, and left-aligned. The first line of any additional paragraphs should be indented an additional time.

Chicago annotated bibliography

Scribbr Citation Checker New

The AI-powered Citation Checker helps you avoid common mistakes such as:

  • Missing commas and periods
  • Incorrect usage of “et al.”
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  • Missing reference entries

2 03 graded assignment the annotated bibliography

For each source, start by writing (or generating ) a full reference entry that gives the author, title, date, and other information. The annotated bibliography format varies based on the citation style you’re using.

The annotations themselves are usually between 50 and 200 words in length, typically formatted as a single paragraph. This can vary depending on the word count of the assignment, the relative length and importance of different sources, and the number of sources you include.

Consider the instructions you’ve been given or consult your instructor to determine what kind of annotations they’re looking for:

  • Descriptive annotations : When the assignment is just about gathering and summarizing information, focus on the key arguments and methods of each source.
  • Evaluative annotations : When the assignment is about evaluating the sources , you should also assess the validity and effectiveness of these arguments and methods.
  • Reflective annotations : When the assignment is part of a larger research process, you need to consider the relevance and usefulness of the sources to your own research.

These specific terms won’t necessarily be used. The important thing is to understand the purpose of your assignment and pick the approach that matches it best. Interactive examples of the different styles of annotation are shown below.

A descriptive annotation summarizes the approach and arguments of a source in an objective way, without attempting to assess their validity.

In this way, it resembles an abstract , but you should never just copy text from a source’s abstract, as this would be considered plagiarism . You’ll naturally cover similar ground, but you should also consider whether the abstract omits any important points from the full text.

The interactive example shown below describes an article about the relationship between business regulations and CO 2 emissions.

Rieger, A. (2019). Doing business and increasing emissions? An exploratory analysis of the impact of business regulation on CO 2 emissions. Human Ecology Review , 25 (1), 69–86. https://www.jstor.org/stable/26964340

An evaluative annotation also describes the content of a source, but it goes on to evaluate elements like the validity of the source’s arguments and the appropriateness of its methods .

For example, the following annotation describes, and evaluates the effectiveness of, a book about the history of Western philosophy.

Kenny, A. (2010). A new history of Western philosophy: In four parts . Oxford University Press.

Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.

A reflective annotation is similar to an evaluative one, but it focuses on the source’s usefulness or relevance to your own research.

Reflective annotations are often required when the point is to gather sources for a future research project, or to assess how they were used in a project you already completed.

The annotation below assesses the usefulness of a particular article for the author’s own research in the field of media studies.

Manovich, Lev. (2009). The practice of everyday (media) life: From mass consumption to mass cultural production? Critical Inquiry , 35 (2), 319–331. https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/596645

Manovich’s article assesses the shift from a consumption-based media culture (in which media content is produced by a small number of professionals and consumed by a mass audience) to a production-based media culture (in which this mass audience is just as active in producing content as in consuming it). He is skeptical of some of the claims made about this cultural shift; specifically, he argues that the shift towards user-made content must be regarded as more reliant upon commercial media production than it is typically acknowledged to be. However, he regards web 2.0 as an exciting ongoing development for art and media production, citing its innovation and unpredictability.

The article is outdated in certain ways (it dates from 2009, before the launch of Instagram, to give just one example). Nevertheless, its critical engagement with the possibilities opened up for media production by the growth of social media is valuable in a general sense, and its conceptualization of these changes frequently applies just as well to more current social media platforms as it does to Myspace. Conceptually, I intend to draw on this article in my own analysis of the social dynamics of Twitter and Instagram.

Before you can write your annotations, you’ll need to find sources . If the annotated bibliography is part of the research process for a paper, your sources will be those you consult and cite as you prepare the paper. Otherwise, your assignment and your choice of topic will guide you in what kind of sources to look for.

Make sure that you’ve clearly defined your topic , and then consider what keywords are relevant to it, including variants of the terms. Use these keywords to search databases (e.g., Google Scholar ), using Boolean operators to refine your search.

Sources can include journal articles, books, and other source types , depending on the scope of the assignment. Read the abstracts or blurbs of the sources you find to see whether they’re relevant, and try exploring their bibliographies to discover more. If a particular source keeps showing up, it’s probably important.

Once you’ve selected an appropriate range of sources, read through them, taking notes that you can use to build up your annotations. You may even prefer to write your annotations as you go, while each source is fresh in your mind.

An annotated bibliography is an assignment where you collect sources on a specific topic and write an annotation for each source. An annotation is a short text that describes and sometimes evaluates the source.

Any credible sources on your topic can be included in an annotated bibliography . The exact sources you cover will vary depending on the assignment, but you should usually focus on collecting journal articles and scholarly books . When in doubt, utilize the CRAAP test !

Each annotation in an annotated bibliography is usually between 50 and 200 words long. Longer annotations may be divided into paragraphs .

The content of the annotation varies according to your assignment. An annotation can be descriptive, meaning it just describes the source objectively; evaluative, meaning it assesses its usefulness; or reflective, meaning it explains how the source will be used in your own research .

A source annotation in an annotated bibliography fulfills a similar purpose to an abstract : they’re both intended to summarize the approach and key points of a source.

However, an annotation may also evaluate the source , discussing the validity and effectiveness of its arguments. Even if your annotation is purely descriptive , you may have a different perspective on the source from the author and highlight different key points.

You should never just copy text from the abstract for your annotation, as doing so constitutes plagiarism .

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

Caulfield, J. (2022, August 23). What Is an Annotated Bibliography? | Examples & Format. Scribbr. Retrieved September 4, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/citing-sources/annotated-bibliography/

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Annotated Bibliography Assignment

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Note to instructors: This annotated bibliography assignment may be used as a stand-alone project, or it may be used as part of an ongoing research project. You are encouraged to adopt, adapt, or remix these guidelines to suit your goals for your class. 

Due dates 

Rough Draft:  Peer Review:  Final Draft:  

 This assignment will help you become aware of how writers and researchers review and become familiar with previous work on a topic before they begin additional research.  

  • Skills : This assignment will help you practice skills essential to success in and beyond this course:  Locate a variety of scholarly print and digital sources that represent multiple perspectives on a topic.   Analyze sources by critically reading, annotating, engaging, comparing, and drawing implications.
  • Methods for conducting research
  • Analytical reading and writing strategies   

An annotated bibliography is an alphabetized list of source citations that includes an annotation underneath each entry. In your annotated bibliography, each of your source citations will include an annotation summarizing the source and describing the aim, purpose, and relevance to your research project.  

You will develop an annotated bibliography containing five academic sources as well as a discussion of what you learned from your research. Your annotated bibliography should have three parts: an introduction, a discussion of sources, and a conclusion. 

  Introduction, 150-200 words 

In the introduction, present your research topic. Consider the following: Why does this topic interest you personally? (Finding a topic that interests you leads to a better paper.) Why should others care about this topic? Why is your topic worth researching? What were your research questions? 

 Discussion of Sources, 150-200 words per source 

Gather at least five sources on your topic. Two of these sources must come from academic journals (peer-reviewed, scholarly, found using GALILEO), but the others may come from credible newspapers and magazines. One of the sources may be chosen from a website, but this site should be from a reliable organization like The Associated Press or the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Articles from GALILEO databases are not considered internet sources. Read and reread each source carefully.    Once you have selected your sources and read them carefully, write annotations for each. Each annotation should . . . 

  • Include a brief summary of the source.
  • Evaluate the source and its use in your research.
  • Discuss relation of the source to your other sources. Consider whether sources agree or disagree with/contradict each other.
  • Comment on the source’s reliability. 

Write citations in MLA, 9th edition, format. Summarize the articles using your own words. List your entries alphabetically and check them carefully for mistakes in MLA documentation.    Here are two sample annotations: link.  

 Conclusion, 150-200 words 

In the conclusion, detail the most important contributions your sources make to your research topic; you may also point out commonalities, conflicts, or problems. Include a discussion of what your review of your sources has demonstrated about the topic. Consider the following: What is your preliminary thesis? Did your research create new questions for you? What sources (in addition to those listed in your discussion) do you need to find? What possible conclusions to your questions do you foresee? 

  Final Directions 

Remember to properly cite any information from your sources that you use in your introduction and conclusion. Be sure that your summaries are very different from the abstracts of the articles you have read.  

 Formatting requirements 

Follow MLA format. Use black Calibri or Times New Roman font in size 12. Double-space the entire document. Use 1-inch margins on all sides.  

Criteria for Success

 general criteria: .

  • The writing is clear and coherent/makes sense.
  • The tone and language are appropriate for the audience.
  • The writer has gone through the entire writing process, revising substantially and thoughtfully.
  • The writing adheres to grammar and punctuation rules. 

 In the introduction, you should . . . 

  • Present your research topic.
  • Clarify why this topic matters and is worth researching.
  • Ensure your introduction is 150-200 words. 

In the source discussion section, you should . . . 

  • Include at least five scholarly sources from reliable sources.  
  • Alphabetize your entries.  
  • Ensure each annotation includes complete and accurate works cited information following MLA format.
  • Briefly summarize each source.
  • Ensure each annotation contains an explanation of how the source will be used in your research project.
  • Note difference of opinions among sources.
  • Comment on the reliability of each source.
  • Ensure annotations are in your own words, not copied from abstracts or the source itself.
  • Ensure each annotation is 150-200 words. 

In the conclusion, you should . . . 

  • Detail the most important contributions your sources make to your research topic.
  • Include a discussion of what your review of your sources has demonstrated about your research topic.
  • Identify your preliminary thesis.
  • Identify new questions that have arisen as a result of your research.
  • Discuss sources (in addition to those listed in your discussion) you still need to find.
  • Identify any possible conclusions to your questions that you foresee. 

 The annotated bibliography should adhere to all formatting criteria: 

  • Follow MLA format for all citations.
  • The entire document should be double-spaced.  
  • The font should be Calibri or Times New Roman in size 12.
  • The margins should be one inch on all sides.

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Beyond Plagiarism:

Best Practices for the Responsible Use of Sources

Writing an Annotated Bibliography

Unlike a regular bibliography, which is simply a list of source citations, an annotated bibliography contains annotations (notes):

  • What a source argues
  • What kinds of evidence the source uses
  • Your evaluation of how you might use the source

Annotated bibliographies are useful ways of keeping track of both primary and secondary sources, though the information you include for each kind of source may differ. In writing an annotation, you should try to put the ideas of the text you are reading into your own language, which you may then re-use in your eventual paper (with citations, of course!).

Each annotated bibliography entry is usually a half-page to a page long. It is a synthesis of the process outlined in Section 1. Your entry should include the information below. These questions will look familiar to you since they summarize the techniques you learned in Section A:

Bibliographic Citation

Make your life easier by putting this citation in whatever form you will eventually need for your bibliography ( See Module II ).

Brief Summary

Rather than narrating what happens in the text itself (“First the author writes about X, then Y”), you should focus on the overarching ideas in the text (“The author explores X question and comes to Y conclusion”).

Primary Sources:

What does it focus on?

Who wrote it?

When was it produced/published?

Secondary Sources:

What topics are covered?

What is the point of this book or article?

Why does its argument matter?

What makes it unique?

What does it suggest about the historical moment in which it originated or was used?

How well does it prove that argument?

Is the source persuasive?

Is the use of evidence convincing?

What are the gaps in the source – what does it leave unaddressed?

How does this source compare to other sources in your bibliography?

Why or why not?

How does it fit into your research?

What sort of research questions can the source help you address?

Has this source shaped or changed the way you think about your topic?

What sort of research questions can the text help you discuss?

If it has, how?

What arguments can this source serve as evidence for?

What room for further research does this source create – that is, what does it leave unaddressed that your essay could discuss?

A good annotated bibliography will help you to get to the point of the text you have read, and give you a clear reminder of how this text relates to your big research question(s).

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Annotated Bibliography

What is an annotated bibliography.

An annotated bibliography provides an overview or a brief account of the available research on a given topic. It is a list of research sources that takes the form of a citation for each source, followed by an annotation - a short paragraph sumarising and evaluating the source. An annotated bibliography may be a stand-alone assignment or a component of a larger assignment. 

Purpose of an annotated bibliography

When set as an assignment, an annotated bibliography allows you to get acquainted with the material available on a particular topic.

Depending on your specific assignment, an annotated bibliography might:

  • review the literature of a particular subject;
  • demonstrate the quality and depth of reading that you have done;
  • exemplify the scope of sources available—such as journals, books, web sites and magazine articles;
  • highlight sources that may be of interest to other readers and researchers;
  • explore and organise sources for further research.

What does an annotated bibliography look like?

Each entry in an annotated biliography has two components: 

  • a bibliographic citation followed by 
  • a short paragraph (an annotation) that includes concise descriptions and evaluations of each source. 

The annotation usually contains a brief summary of content and a short analysis or evaluation. Depending on your assignment you may be asked to summarise, reflect on, critique, evaluate or analyse each source. While an annotation can be as brief as one sentence, a paragraph is more usual.  An example is provided below.

As with a normal reference list or bibliography, an annotated bibliography is usually arranged alphabetically according to the author’s last name.

An annotated bibliography summary should be about 100 - 200 words per citation—check with your lecturer/tutor as this may vary between faculties and assessments. Please also check with your lecturer about the elements each annotation should include.

Steps to writing an annotated bibliography

  • Choose your sources - locate and record citations to sources of research that may contain useful information and ideas on your topic.
  • Review the items that you’ve collected in your search.
  • Write the citation using the correct style.
  • Write the annotation. 

Questions to consider when selecting sources

The sources for your annotated bibliography should be carefully selected. Start by reading abstracts or skimming to help you identify and select relevant sources. Also keep in mind that, while annotated bibliographies are often ‘stand alone’ assignments, they can also be preliminary research about a particular topic or issue, and further research or a longer literature review may follow. Try to choose sources which together will present a comprehensive review of the topic.

Keep the following questions in mind to help clarify your choices

  • What topic/ problem am I investigating?
  • What question(s) am I exploring? (Identify the aim of your literature research). 
  • What kind of material am I looking at and why? Am I looking for journal articles, reports, policies or primary data? 
  • Am I being judicious in my selection of sources? Does each one relate to my research topic and assignment requirements?
  • Have I selected a range of sources? Choose those sources that provide a variety of perspectives on your topic
  • What are the essential or key works about my topic? Am I finding them? Are the sources valuable or often referred to in other sources?

Surveying the sources

Take notes on your selected texts as you read. Pay attention to:

  • the author’s theoretical approach.
  • which parts of the topic are covered.
  • main points or findings on the topic.
  • the author’s position or argument. 

Evaluate and ask questions as you read

Record evaluations in your notes and consider:

  • How, and how effectively, does this source address the topic?
  • Does it cover the topic thoroughly or only one aspect of it?
  • Do the research methods seem appropriate?
  • Does the argument seem reasonable?
  • Where does it stand in relation to other studies? Agree with or contradict?

How should I write the annotations?

  • Each annotation should be concise. Do not write too much—annotations should not extend beyond one paragraph (unless assignment guidelines say otherwise). 
  • The summary should be a brief outline of argument(s) and main ideas. Only mention details that are significant or relevant, and only when necessary. 
  • Any information apparent in the title of thesourcel can be omitted from the annotation.
  • Background materials and references to previous work by the same author usually are not included. As you are addressing one text at a time, there is no need to cross reference or use in-text citations to support your annotation.
  • Find out what referencing style you need to use for the bibliographic citations, and use it consistently.
  • In-text citations would usually only be necessary for quotations or to draw attention to information from specific pages.
  • Unless otherwise stipulated, you should write in full sentences using academic vocabulary.

Contents of an annotated bibliography

An annotation may contain all or part of the following elements depending on the word limit and the content of the sources you are examining.

  • Provide the full bibliographic citation.
  • Indicate the background of the author(s).
  • Indicate the content or scope of the text.
  • Outline the main argument.
  • Indicate the intended audience.
  • Identify the research methods if applicable.
  • Identify any conclusions made by the author/s.
  • Discuss the reliability of the text.
  • Highlight any special features of the text that were unique or helpful e.g. charts, graphs etc.
  • Discuss the relevance or usefulness of the text for your research.
  • Point out in what way the text relates to themes or concepts in your course.
  • State the strengths and limitations of the text.
  • Present your view or reaction to the text.

Sample annotation 

The citation goes first and is followed by the annotation. Make sure that you follow your faculty’s preferred citation style. The summary needs to be concise. Please note the following example is entirely fictitious.

In the sample annotation below, each element is numbered (see Key).

Essay and assignment writing guide

  • Essay writing basics
  • Essay and assignment planning
  • Answering assignment questions
  • Editing checklist
  • Writing a critical review
  • Annotated bibliography
  • Reflective writing
  • ^ More support

Study Hacks Workshops | All the hacks you need! 5 – 28 Sep 2023

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  4. Annotated Bibliography Assignment by English Decisions and Revisions

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  6. How to write an annotated bibliography step-by-step with examples

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  1. IITMadras BS Degree maths week 7 and 8 graded assignment #iitmadras #datascience #iit

  2. What is An Annotated Bibliography

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  4. APA Annotated Bibliography

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  6. Assignment On IV Cannulation||Front page to Bibliography||Easy and Effective Assignment Idea

COMMENTS

  1. 2.03 Graded Assignment Annotated Bibliography and Process Paper.docx

    History | Graded Assignment | Annotated Bibliography and Process Paper Name: Tyler Watson Date: 10/17/2022 Graded Assignment Annotated Bibliography and Process Paper Total score: ____ of 75 points (Score for Question 1: ___ of 25 points) 1. An annotated bibliography contains all the sources that provided information for your research project.

  2. S2

    Graded Assignment The Annotated Bibliography Date: 8.25.2018 Name: Tracy Pham An annotated bibliography contains all the sources that provided information for your research project. It differs from a regular bibliography in that each entry includes a brief explanation about how the source was used, how it helped you understand your topic, and whether it is a primary or secondary resource.

  3. 2.03 Graded Assignment: The Annotated Bibliography An

    Expert Answer Transcribed image text: 2.03 Graded Assignment: The Annotated Bibliography An annotated bibliography contains all the sources that provided information for your research project.

  4. S2

    Name: Afton McKinney US History HIS02-i-0815-0-0011 Graded Assignment The Annotated Bibliography An annotated bibliography contains all the sources that provided information for your research project.

  5. Annotated Bibliography Samples

    Overview Below you will find sample annotations from annotated bibliographies, each with a different research project. Remember that the annotations you include in your own bibliography should reflect your research project and/or the guidelines of your assignment.

  6. 13.1 The Annotated Bibliography Assignment

    This second major assignment for English Composition II courses is called an annotated bibliography. For this assignment you'll find a number of sources (some of which will be scholarly, peer-reviewed and compose works cited entries and annotations for these sources.

  7. 2.03 The Annotated Bibliography.docx

    ENGLISH 1 2.03 The Annotated Bibliography.docx - Graded Assignment The Annotated Bibliography An annotated bibliography contains all the sources that provided 2.03 The Annotated Bibliography.docx - Graded Assignment... School University Of Arizona Course Title ENGLISH 1 Uploaded By neon11 Pages 2 Ratings 100% (1)

  8. 2.03 Graded Assignment The Annotated Bibliography-Anthony Gibson.docx

    History | Graded Assignment | The Annotated Bibliography Name: Date: Graded Assignment The Annotated Bibliography An annotated bibliography contains all the sources that provided information for your research project.

  9. Graded Assignment Annotated Bibliography

    Expert Answer Transcribed image text: Graded Assignment Annotated Bibliography HST3038/304B: U.S. History | 2.03 Name out 2.03 Graded Assignment: The Annotated Bibliography An annotated bibliography contains all the sources that provided information for your research project.

  10. 2.03 Annotated Bibliography.docx

    Graded Assignment The Annotated Bibliography An annotated bibliography contains all the sources that provided information for your research project. It differs from a regular bibliography in that each entry includes a brief explanation about how the source was used, how it helped you understand your topic, and whether it is a primary or secondary resource.

  11. What Is an Annotated Bibliography?

    An annotated bibliography is a list of source references that includes a short descriptive text (an annotation) for each source. It may be assigned as part of the research process for a paper, or as an individual assignment to gather and read relevant sources on a topic.

  12. The Annotated Bibliography

    An annotated bibliography is a list of citations to books, articles, and documents. Each citation is followed by a brief (usually about 150 words) descriptive and evaluative paragraph, the annotation. The purpose of the annotation is to inform the reader of the relevance, accuracy, and quality of the sources cited. ...

  13. Assignment 2

    Gouré, D. (2018). Winning future wars: Modernization and a 21st century defense industrial base. Retrieved from heritage/military-strength/topical-essays/winning- future-wars-modernization-and-21st-century-defense This essay was written for Heritage's section on military strength.

  14. Annotated Bibliography Assignment

    An annotated bibliography is an alphabetized list of source citations that includes an annotation underneath each entry. In your annotated bibliography, each of your source citations will include an annotation summarizing the source and describing the aim, purpose, and relevance to your research project.

  15. How to Write an Annotated Bibliography

    An annotated bibliography is an organized list of sources (like a reference list). It differs from a straightforward bibliography in that each reference is followed by a paragraph length annotation, usually 100-200 words in length. Depending on the assignment, an annotated bibliography might have different purposes:

  16. 2.03 Graded Assignment: The Annotated Bibliography An annotated

    Question Asked by CaptainInternetKangaroo21 2.03 Graded Assignment: The Annotated Bibliography An annotated... 2.03 Graded Assignment: The Annotated Bibliography An annotated bibliography contains all the sources that provided information for your research project.

  17. Annotated Bibliography Resources

    In addition to the citation, the annotated bibliography includes an annotation — a brief description of the journal article, book chapter, or other source. This description of the source is usually short (around 50 to 200 words) and tells why the source is relevant and might tell something about the quality of the source, and whether you ...

  18. Annotated Bibliography Rubric

    Turnitin Teaching and Learning Innovations Team. Rubric suitable for annotated bibliography assignments in higher education, but may be adapted for high school. Use this rubric when asking students to cite valid evidence for a chosen topic, summarize and analyze sources, and present annotations in the format of an annotated bibliography.

  19. 2.03 Graded Assignment: The Annotated Bibliography An annotated…

    2.03 Graded Assignment: The Annotated Bibliography An annotated bibliography contains all the sources that provided information for your research project. It differs from a regular bibliography in that each entry includes a brief explanation about how the source was used, how it helped you understand your topic, and whether it is a primary or ...

  20. Writing an Annotated Bibliography

    In writing an annotation, you should try to put the ideas of the text you are reading into your own language, which you may then re-use in your eventual paper (with citations, of course!). Each annotated bibliography entry is usually a half-page to a page long. It is a synthesis of the process outlined in Section 1.

  21. LibGuides: English 1301 and 1302: Annotated Bibliography

    An annotated bibliography is a list of citations for various books, articles, and other sources on a topic. The annotated bibliography looks like a Works Cited page but includes an annotation after each source cited. An annotation is a short summary and/or critical evaluation of a source. Annotated bibliographies can be part of a larger ...

  22. Annotated Bibliography

    An annotated bibliography provides an overview or a brief account of the available research on a given topic. It is a list of research sources that takes the form of a citation for each source, followed by an annotation - a short paragraph sumarising and evaluating the source. An annotated bibliography may be a stand-alone assignment or a ...

  23. Module 03 Written Assignment Annotated Bibliography.docx

    Annotated Bibliography: Electronic Health Records Benefits and drawbacks of electronic health records. Nir Menachemi and Taleah H Collum Risk Manag Healthc Policy. 2011; 4: 47-55. Published online 2011 May 11 Electronic health record (EHR) systems have the potential to transform the health care system from a mostly paper-based industry to one that utilizes clinical and other pieces of ...