Hidden vs. Disabled In UX

Should you hide or disable a feature? You’ve probably been there before. Here are some considerations for hiding versus disabling, along with possible alternatives to improve UX. An upcoming part of Smart Interface Design Patterns .

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Building A User Segmentation Matrix To Foster Cross-Org Alignment

Beyond css media queries.

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Transforming the relationship between designers and developers.

Is there such a thing as harmony between designers and developers in the workplace, and if so, how can it be achieved? In this article, Chris Day explores the challenges of effective collaboration, outlines the key factors at play, and (hopefully!) empowers you to find the right solutions to help you and your team deliver to their full potential.

May 15, 2024 in Workflow , Communication , Teams

Why Designers Aren’t Understood

How do we conduct UX research when there is no or only limited access to users? Here are some workarounds to run UX research or make a strong case for it. An upcoming part of Smart Interface Design Patterns .

May 14, 2024 in UX Research , User Experience , Business

The Times You Need A Custom @property Instead Of A CSS Variable

Preethi Sam walks through an example that demonstrates where custom properties are more suitable than variables while showcasing the greater freedom and flexibility that custom properties provide for designing complex, refined animations.

May 13, 2024 in CSS , Animation , Design

The Modern Guide For Making CSS Shapes

In this comprehensive guide, Temani Afif explores different techniques for creating common shapes with the smallest and most flexible code possible.

May 10, 2024 in CSS , Tools , Guides

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The Forensics Of React Server Components (RSCs)

React Server Components (RSCs) combine the best of client-side rendering, and author Lazar Nikolov thoroughly examines how we got here with a deep look at the impact that RSCs have on the page load timeline.

May 9, 2024 in React , JavaScript , Coding

How To Run UX Research Without Access To Users

May 7, 2024 in UX Research , User Experience , Design

How To Harness Mouse Interaction Data For Practical Machine Learning Solutions

In this article, Eduard Kuric discusses mouse interaction data, what kind of magic can be done with it, and some of the hidden pitfalls to watch out for so you get a head start incorporating them in your solutions.

May 6, 2024 in Usability , User Interaction , Design

Combining CSS :has() And HTML <select> For Greater Conditional Styling

Amit Sheen demonstrates using :has() to apply styles conditionally when a certain <option> in a <select> element is chosen by the user and how we gain even more conditional styling capabilities when chaining :has() with other pseudo-classes, such as :not() — no JavaScript necessary.

May 2, 2024 in CSS , Techniques , Design

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Emma C Siegel is an inclusive designer and researcher in San Francisco. They foster a sense of belonging and empowerment through technology by creating equitable, ethical, accessible, and humanizing experiences. Currently a Senior Experience Designer at Adobe, Emma focuses on inclusion and accessibility for the global creative community. Previously, they founded Workday’s Inclusive Design Team and worked at Google on accessibility and inclusion for users in developing areas. Emma shares her knowledge as a mentor , speaker, and author . Thank you for everything you do for the community, dear Emma!

Motion In UX

May 21, 2024 — What do you need to consider when using motion in interfaces? Taras Skytskyi’s complete guide to animation in UX shares rules and principles for designing animation that enhances the user experience.

Designing Better Filters

May 17, 2024 — When well-designed, filters create a positive feeling of control and choice, even in the face of overwhelming numbers of options. Kate Moran shares tips for defining helpful filter categories and values .

Behavioral Insights Cookbook

May 16, 2024 — To help designers make better decisions, Jerome Ribot created the Coglode Cookbook , a collection of behavioral science nuggests highlighting latest research.

Rapid Group Ideation

May 15, 2024 — Do you need to generate ideas quickly to tackle product, UX, or business challenges with your team? Evan Karageorgos shares insights into the rapid group ideation process that the team at Booking.com uses.

Storytelling In UX Research Reports

May 14, 2024 — UX research insights are only as great as how effectively they are communicated. Allison Grayce Marshall explains how to write persuasive and engaging UX research reports that won’t end up in the Powerpoint graveyard.

How To Keep Figma Files Clean

May 13, 2024 — Figma hygiene is a skill that many designers overlook. Anna Oleksiyevna Gordiyevska shares valubale tips that help you keep your Figma files clean and organized.

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Website Developmemt Technologies: A Review

Abstract: Service Science is that the basis of knowledge system and net services that judge to the provider/client model. This paper developments a technique which will be utilized in the event of net services like websites, net applications and eCommerce. The goal is to development a technique that may add structure to a extremely unstructured drawback to help within the development and success of net services. The new methodology projected are going to be referred to as {the net|the online|the net} Development Life Cycle (WDLC) and tailored from existing methodologies and applied to the context of web development. This paper can define well the projected phases of the WDLC. Keywords: Web Development, Application Development, Technologies, eCommerce.

Analysis of Russian Segment of the Web Development Market Operating Online on Upwork

The Russian segment of the web services market in the online environment, on the platform of the Upwork freelance exchange, is considered, its key characteristics, the composition of participants, development trends are highlighted, and the market structure is identified. It is found that despite the low barriers to entry, the web development market is very stable, since the composition of entrenched firms that have been operating for more than six years remains. The pricing policy of most Russian companies indicates that they work in the middle price segment and have low budgets, which is due to the specifics of the foreign market and high competition.

Farming Assistant Web Services: Agricultor

Abstract: Our farming assistant web services provides assistance to new as well as establish farmers to get the solutions to dayto-day problems faced in the field. A farmer gets to connect with other farmers throughout India to get more information about a particular crop which is popular in other states. Keywords: Farmers, Assistance, Web Development

Tradução de ementas e histórico escolar para o inglês: contribuição para participação de discentes do curso técnico em informática para internet integrado ao ensino médio em programas de mobilidade acadêmica / Translation of summary and school records into english: contribution to the participation of high school with associate technical degree on web development students in academic mobility programs

Coded websites vs wordpress websites.

This document gives multiple instructions related to web developers using older as well as newer technology. Websites are being created using newer technologies like wordpress whereas on the other hand many people prefer making websites using the traditional way. This document will clear the doubt whether an individual should use wordpress websites or coded websites according to the users convenience. The Responsiveness of the websites, the use of CMS nowadays, more and more up gradation of technologies with SEO, themes, templates, etc. make things like web development much much easier. The aesthetics, the culture, the expressions, the features all together add up in order make the designing and development a lot more efficient and effective. Digital Marketing has a tremendous growth over the last two years and yet shows no signs of stopping, is closely related with the web development environment. Nowadays all businesses are going online due to which the impact of web development has become such that it has become an integral part of any online business.

Cognitive disabilities and web accessibility: a survey into the Brazilian web development community

Cognitive disabilities include a diversity of conditions related to cognitive functions, such as reading, understanding, learning, solving problems, memorization and speaking. They differ largely from each other, making them a heterogeneous complex set of disabilities. Although the awareness about cognitive disabilities has been increasing in the last few years, it is still less than necessary compared to other disabilities. The need for an investigation about this issue is part of the agenda of the Challenge 2 (Accessibility and Digital Inclusion) from GranDIHC-Br. This paper describes the results of an online exploratory survey conducted with 105 web development professionals from different sectors to understand their knowledge and barriers regarding accessibility for people with cognitive disabilities. The results evidenced three biases that potentially prevent those professionals from approaching cogni-tive disabilities: strong organizational barriers; difficulty to understand user needs related to cognitive disabilities; a knowledge gap about web accessibility principles and guidelines. Our results confirmed that web development professionals are unaware about cognitive disabilities mostly by a lack of knowledge about them, even if they understand web accessibility in a technical level. Therefore, we suggest that applied research studies focus on how to fill this knowledge gap before providing tools, artifacts or frameworks.

PERANCANGAN WEB RESPONSIVE UNTUK SISTEM INFORMASI OBAT-OBATAN

A good information system must not only be neat, effective, and resilient, but also must be user friendly and up to date. In a sense, it is able to be applied to various types of electronic devices, easily accessible at any whereand time (real time), and can be modified according to user needs in a relatively easy and simple way. Information systems are now needed by various parties, especially in the field of administration and sale of medicines for Cut Nyak Dhien Hospital. During this time, recording in books has been very ineffective and caused many problems, such as difficulty in accessing old data, asa well as the information obtained was not real time. To solve it, this research raises the theme of the appropriate information system design for the hospital concerned, by utilizing CSS Bootstrap framework and research methodology for web development, namely Web Development Life Cycle. This research resulted in a responsive system by providing easy access through desktop computers, tablets, and smartphones so that it would help the hospital in the data processing process in real time.

Web Development and performance comparison of Web Development Technologies in Node.js and Python

“tom had us all doing front-end web development”: a nostalgic (re)imagining of myspace, assessment of site classifications according to layout type in web development, export citation format, share document.

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Ravi Shukla

Exploring the 10 Latest Web Design Trends of 2023

Stay ahead of the curve with top 10 latest web design trends for 2023. Discover the innovative techniques and cutting-edge styles that are reshaping the digital landscape. From immersive experiences to minimalistic designs, this article covers the must-know trends that will elevate your website's aesthetics and user experience in the year ahead.

latest research topics in web design

Having a website is not enough; it's essential to have a captivating website design that stands out. But with a vast array of web design trends, how do you know which ones to follow?

Don't worry, we've got you covered. 

To help you navigate these trends, we have curated the ultimate list of the top 10 web design trends for 2023.

With content-rich websites on the rise, typography takes center stage in web design trends for 2023.

Designers are finding innovative ways to present a large amount of content, allowing for customization and experimentation with fonts that create distinct and impactful website designs.

3D Graphics & Animation

Incorporating 3D elements into web design adds a modern and unique touch to make your website stand out.

From abstract 3D centerpieces in hero sections to captivating visual experiences, 3D design elements are becoming more accessible with various platforms and pre-built libraries available.

AR & VR

Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) are transforming user experiences by bringing a touch of reality to the digital world.

Particularly beneficial for e-commerce websites, AR and VR technologies enhance user trust by allowing them to visualize products and make informed buying decisions.

Glassmorphism

The frosted glass effect combined with rich content creates an impactful and visually appealing web design trend.

Glassmorphism adds depth and texture to websites, while the blurred elements contribute to a dynamic and readable user experience.

Interactions & Animations

Interactions and animations continue to captivate users' attention, making them a top trend for 2023.

Particularly effective for e-commerce websites, micro-interactions and animations enhance engagement, create personalized experiences, and drive conversions.

Custom Illustrations

Custom illustrations bring originality and relatability to web designs, helping brands connect with users and create a welcoming environment.

Unique and custom illustrations instill a sense of personality and encourage exploration on websites.

Parallax Scrolling

Transforming scrolling into an engaging experience, parallax scrolling allows designers to experiment and innovate with their designs.

By creating depth as users scroll through the page, this trend adds a dynamic and visually appealing element to websites.

Colors play a vital role in web design, and gradients offer endless possibilities for creating visually striking designs.

Whether used in combination with other trends or as standalone features, gradients evoke emotions, add vibrancy, and create a sense of movement in minimalistic layouts.

Claymorphism

Inspired by Neumorphism, Claymorphism is a trend that combines colors, bold typography, gradients, and 2D/3D illustrations.

With a whimsical and soft finish, Claymorphism is best suited for websites when infused with animations and interactions.

Memphis Design

Taking a nostalgic trip back to the '80s, Memphis Design is an aesthetic with a modern twist gaining popularity in web design trends.

The use of contrasting color schemes, abstract UI elements, and vibrant tones adds a playful and dramatic effect to websites.

In conclusion, the web design trends of 2023 encourage designers to step out of their comfort zones and experiment.

By incorporating these innovative trends into your web design, you can create captivating and unique experiences that leave a lasting impression on users.

So, embrace the newest web design trends of 2023 and unleash your creativity.

Author Profile

Ravi Shukla

I am a passionate UX Designer with a keen eye for detail and a deep understanding of user-centered design principles. With a background in psychology and a love for creativity, I strive to create seamless and intuitive user experiences that make a meaningful impact. I thrive on solving complex problems and collaborating with cross-functional teams to bring innovative ideas to life. My goal is to design products that not only meet user needs but also delight and inspire. Together, let's create user-centric experiences that make a difference.

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6 modern web design trends to inspire you in 2024

Web design is dynamic. As soon as you think you’ve figured out what great design looks like, a hot new trend pops up—and makes even the best teams question themselves. Should we rethink our current design? Does it work with our brand identity? Will our customers like it? 

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latest research topics in web design

Using design trends can help you draw on the latest techniques to meet user needs—but you also need to ask questions and weigh which trends will most benefit your particular users and brand. This article will guide you through the most important design trends of 2024—and show you how to decide which are best for your site.

Discover design trends that align with your brand and users

Use Hotjar tools to get user feedback on web design trends and improve UX.

6 innovative web design trends to inspire you in 2024

Make customer delight the driving force behind your design trend decisions. Speak to your customers before and after you make any big design decisions to ensure those website changes solve their problems and create an optimal user experience (UX).

As you make your way through our list, ask yourself which trends will provide the most value to your users and meet their specific needs.

1. Emphasizing negative space

Using a healthy amount of white, blank, or negative space around your design elements has long been a popular minimalist design trend. But it’s becoming even more important in 2024, with more and more users seeking a streamlined, app-like web experience.

Integrating plenty of negative space into your site design can help:

Guide customers’ focus: when you surround website elements with white space, it’s clear to users where you're trying to draw their attention

Make your site more responsive: the demand for simple, streamlined user interfaces (UIs) is growing—largely due to users needing websites to work as well on mobiles and tablets as they do on desktops. If your site interface embraces white space rather than cramming in too many elements, it’ll be more responsive and easier to optimize for different screen sizes.

Create a better navigation experience: negative space makes it much easier for users to interact with your site and process the information you present, increasing usability and delivering great UX.

The negative space trend is easy for any business to integrate on their site. In fact, adding just a little more white space to your finished design is one of the top web design best practices you can implement. For SaaS and ecommerce brands that need to present a great deal of information in an easy, intuitive way, it’s vital to include a healthy amount of white space.

#Ecommerce brand Donni uses negative space and a minimalist color palette to make their product images—and calls to action—pop.

Pro tip: use Hotjar's Observe products to understand how white space affects your users’ browsing experience. Use Heatmaps to see whether site elements attract more attention when surrounded by white space—then go deeper with Session Recordings to watch entire playbacks of customer sessions and see where they click, scroll, and move.

2. Streamlined hero sections

Hero sections are the oversized banners right below the top menu on your homepage. Since they’re the first thing customers see on your site, they need to make an impact.

#VideoAsk keeps their hero section simple other than an informative, helpful product video.

Many brands try to give their users as much information on the homepage as they can—as a result, there’s often too much going on in their hero sections. But teams have realized that bombarding people with different images, videos, headings, and buttons right off the bat can be a major UX design mistake.

In 2024, streamlined hero sections that include only the most important information are in style as a way of reducing friction in the customer journey and making your site easier to navigate.

"While hero sections with media can be attention-grabbing, they can also be overwhelming and cause users to leave the website before they've even had a chance to explore it. By reducing the amount of media in hero sections, designers can create a more balanced and less overwhelming design that still captures users' attention."

It can be tricky for ecommerce brands and creative agencies to simplify their hero sections because their businesses rely so heavily on visuals—but this trend is perfectly suited to SaaS websites looking to put the focus on their main product for conversion rate optimization .

Try these best practices to create an effective, straightforward hero section:

A strong, eye-catching heading that makes your unique selling proposition (USP) and product positioning clear

A streamlined paragraph of copy providing more context about your product

Calls-to-action (CTAs) that prompt users to convert

One key image or video

Pro tip: Hotjar's Observe tools—like Heatmaps and Session Recordings —can help you streamline your hero section and show you which website elements get the most attention from users, so you can prioritize what’s most important and move or delete the rest.  After you make your changes, use tools like Feedback widgets to ask users how they feel about your adjustments.

latest research topics in web design

Watch Hotjar Session Recordings to find out which parts of your hero section grab users' attention and which they overlook to help you make website changes.

 3. Bold and loud typography

Oversized typography transforms simple, written content into a captivating visual element. It’s a trendy way to communicate key information while giving your website a unique, visually compelling feel.

#Squarespace makes a statement with oversized typography on their homepage. Source: Squarespace

Depending on the kind of statement you want to make, you can go all-in on the extra-large text trend or use it more subtly.

Instead of relying on images, consider using a stylized slogan to communicate the most impactful task your product or service accomplishes for users. Be sure to keep your color contrast high and your background simple so your message stands out and doesn’t clutter your UI.

To try out a softer version of the oversized type trend, check out ecommerce retailer Roots ’ homepage for inspiration. They’ve supersized the name of their collection but used a simple font so the text doesn’t overwhelm the page, and product images are still highlighted.

#Roots takes a toned-down approach to the oversized type trend on their homepage.

4. Nostalgic design

Sometimes great web design isn’t about looking forward—but looking back. Retro-style websites made a comeback in 2024 to create emotional connections with users by appealing to past memories and aesthetics.

Here are some nostalgic design elements you can use to take users back to their 'golden days':

Simple shapes

Unique linework

Two-toned color schemes

Vintage-style typography

Old-school textures

Cartoon-style illustrations

To let your retro design really shine, keep other design elements—like the navigation menu, search bar, and cart icons—simple, clear, and intuitive.

Nostalgic design works best if it aligns with either your overall brand identity, or a specific product. Take Notorious Nooch , an online shop that sells flavored artificial yeast: while their product is a niche in the market, they use familiar flavors and packaging to make customers think of the kinds of snacks they might have enjoyed as a kid. Their retro typography, color scheme, and quirky characters make their site feel nostalgic and add delight to the browsing experience.

#Notorious Nooch is a great example of nostalgic design done right.

5. Collage-style graphics

Collages are an aesthetic and practical way to incorporate many different images into one graphic or interface while making sites unique and memorable.

Tech PR & media agency the Bulleit Group , for example, features a collage-style image in their hero section. They’ve chosen overlapping playful yet futuristic images which support their mission to ' tell stories about the nexus of tech and culture.' The variety of colors, textures, styles, and shapes they’ve included adds a layer of dynamism and sophistication to their interface.

To follow their example, choose visuals that align with your brand and tell users who you are for hero-section collages .

#The collage-style graphic on the Bulleit Group’s homepage embodies their futuristic mission.

G-Star Raw uses a totally different kind of collage graphic on their site that takes up the full background of their homepage. With several calls-to-action (CTAs) incorporated within the collage, their approach is more product-centric and less artistic, but it still feels fresh and different. In particular, the texture they’ve included in the background adds a unique touch, giving the feel of images on poster board.

For ecommerce and retail sites, with several images to feature, a collage-style homepage is a great way to make a strong visual impression on users while keeping your site fresh and uncluttered.

latest research topics in web design

6. Horizontal scrolling

While vertical scrolling is the norm for desktop browsing, more and more websites are integrating horizontal scrolling in 2024.

Horizontal scrolling gives users:

A unique, memorable experience interacting with your website

The ability to seamlessly scroll through a large gallery of images

An intuitive experience on devices, like smartphones, with swiping functionalities

“One of the main reasons why this trend will be taking off is that there's something very familiar about horizontal scrolling. When you think back to the first websites you ever browsed, they were probably all horizontal. Then as we got used to scrolling vertically on our computer screens, it became the norm. But as more and more people start browsing on their phones and tablets, we're seeing a resurgence of this familiar way of navigating websites.”

Horizontal scrolling is a great web design trend for companies looking to share lots of visual content with users— it gives you more space on your webpage and avoids a cluttered UI. Horizontal scrolling is also effective if you have large, interactive elements like maps you want to put on display.

But be cautious: horizontal scrolling can also cause usability issues if it isn’t implemented correctly. It’s a good idea to try horizontal scrolling on just one webpage first, and use Hotjar tools like Session Recordings to analyze exactly how your customers are clicking, scrolling, and moving, so you can see whether users are successfully interacting with your interface or getting confused. Then, you can make improvements before rolling it out across the whole site.

For inspiration, take a look at clothing brand Paloma Wool . They use horizontal scrolling on their product pages to include several different photos of their pieces. To make the scrolling experience more intuitive, they’ve put a horizontal bar at the bottom of their pages to guide users in their journey.

#Paloma Wool uses horizontal scrolling to share large galleries of photos on their product pages, showing their designs from different perspectives.

Freshen up your web design by trying a new trend in 2024

To effectively navigate web design trends, you’ll need to make sure the concepts you choose align with your brand and please your users—and make sure you don’t jump on board with short-lived fads.

To successfully implement the web design trends we’ve outlined in this article, keep your customers at the center of your decision-making process . Consider whether your new design ideas will improve your user's experience, and test and collect feedback before and after making any significant changes.

FAQs about web design trends

What’s the biggest web design trend of 2024.

The six biggest web design trends in 2024 are:

Emphasizing negative space

Streamlined hero sections

Oversized typography

Nostalgic design

Collage-style graphics

Horizontal scrolling

What’s the future of web design?

It’s hard to predict the exact future of web design, but one thing’s for certain—user-centered web design is key for a successful site, both now and moving forward. Trends come and go, but if you get to know your customers and identify and empathize with their problems and pain points, you’ll design an optimal product that looks amazing, works well, fulfills user needs, and keeps customers coming back. The future of web design is user-centric.

Is web design in demand?

Yes, web design is in high demand in 2022. With the number of competing websites constantly growing, businesses have to create better sites than ever to stand out.  Web designers need to work hard to keep up with industry standards, but they also have many opportunities for growth. In fact, employment for web developers and digital designers is projected to grow by 13% between 2020 and 2030, according to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics.

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24 Top Web Design Trends 2024

latest research topics in web design

Rapid advancements in technology have significantly impacted website design trends for 2024. Design components and features that were once considered cutting-edge have now become worn out, overused, and trite. The last thing you want when visitors land on your site is to lose potential conversions due to an outdated appearance or non-compliance with essential web standards.

Thankfully, our web design agency stays up to date with the latest website design trends, developing highly functional, user-friendly websites that perform exceptionally and boast an impressive aesthetic. We’d like to present some of the most recent breakthroughs, digital technology trends, standards, and projections for 2024.

The latest web design trends and standards

Web Design Trends 2024

Certain aspects of web design will always remain crucial, such as user-friendly navigation, data security, and swift loading times. However, you can maintain your site’s cutting-edge status and search engine prominence by incorporating some of these inventive features and elements set to gain traction in 2024.

  • 1 Scrolling Animations
  • 2 Micro-Interactions
  • 3 Micro-Animations
  • 4 Dynamic Cursors
  • 5 Interactive 3D Models and Content
  • 6 Gamified Design
  • 7 Material Design
  • 8 Isometric Design & Illustration
  • 9 Claymorphism
  • 10 Art Deco
  • 11 Organic Shapes
  • 12 Smart Video
  • 13 Text-Only Hero Images
  • 14 Custom Illustrations
  • 15 Full-Page Headers
  • 16 Dark Mode
  • 17 Data Visualization
  • 18 Full Height Homepage Hero
  • 19 Blending Photos With Graphical Elements
  • 20 Frosted Glass Effects
  • 21 Progressive Lead Nurturing Forms Integrated With Your CRM Tool
  • 22 Chatbots More Like “Chatbuds”
  • 23 Voice-Activated Interface
  • 24 Virtual Reality

1. Scrolling Animations 

Scrolling animations add a dynamic, engaging element to a website’s user experience, as different animations and effects are triggered in response to a user’s scrolling actions.

This can involve elements fading in or out, changing color, or moving into place, creating a visually captivating experience that encourages users to continue exploring the site.

Notice in the example below on The Cookery School’s website, the small circle of text rotates as you scroll down the page.

2. Micro-Interactions

On a website, micro-interactions are small animations that offer subtle feedback to users.

One of the most commonly used micro-interactions is seeing a link change colors when a user mouses over it.

With the focus on micro-interactions, that same experience might be given more attention to stand out.

Imagine a gradient slowly shifting hues as you scroll down a page, or a pop of color exploding from your mouse after you click an element.

These are prime examples of elevated micro-interactions that you’ll see more often.

3. Micro-Animations

As you might have guessed from the name, micro animations are small animations. But in this case, small doesn’t mean insignificant. Micro animations are extremely helpful when it comes to guiding users through their interactions with your website. They can also add an element of playfulness to your site like Smashmallow did with the micro animations in their hero image.

Micro animations have been popular for a few years, but in 2024, it’ll be about using them organically. As our UI/production designer explained, we’ll be thinking about how things move, if they’re on a curve or wheel instead of on a flat plane.

One of the latest web design trends for ecommerce sites is using micro animations to enhance user experience and give shoppers a more dynamic vision of their products. This yoga clothing store is using micro animations to show shoppers how their clothes fit and move on real people.

4. Dynamic Cursors

A creative way to enhance your users’ experience on your website is by customizing how they interact with your web elements, including their cursors. This 2024 web design trend has charmed users with its unanticipated subtlety. By altering the cursor’s shape or introducing cursor-triggered animations, visitors can enjoy engaging with diverse scrolling behaviors or on-click actions.

5. Interactive 3D Models And Content

Thanks to maturing web technology and web designers wanting to stand out from the average webpage, 3D elements that users can interact with have been increasingly used.

The results can be breathtaking – like the use of interactive 3D content on the Campo Alle Comete website.

3D model animations can also be used for products to offer a more true-to-life representation, allowing site visitors to see every detail from every angle, as if they were viewing the product in person. This enhances the online shopping experience, increasing customer confidence, and potentially improving conversion rates.

6. Gamified Design

Gamification is adding game-like elements to your website such as points, rewards, and challenges to entice the user to spend more time on your site and potentially provide information about themselves.

Adding interactive sections to your website is a great way to provide value for visitors, get them to engage with your website, and learn more about them.

Suppose you were a realtor and added a mortgage calculator to your website. You’re offering value to your visitors while also learning more about them based on the data being inputted into your calculator.

Examples of interactive marketing include:

  • Assessments like quizzes
  • Polls and surveys
  • Calculators

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7. Material Design

Material design is a design language that was introduced by Google back in 2014. Traditional web design looks flat. Material design is about using color and shadows to mimic the physical world and its textures and creating a consistent and appealing user interface.

Google’s icons for its software suite are an excellent example of material design:

The shadows on the Gmail envelope and the calendar are especially good examples of material design. It’s very subtle but goes a long way in making the icons look three-dimensional.

Google-Icons-Design

8. Isometric Design & Illustration

Similar to material design, isometric design makes 2D elements look 3D using angles and shadows. There are no converging lines and objects are presented as they are, not how the human eye sees them. Isometric design is done at a 30 degree angle, give the user a bird’s eye view of the object. Isometric design is the opposite of flat design.

9. Claymorphism

Claymorphism uses two inner shadows and an outer shadow to achieve a 3D and floating effect. In web design, it is used for elements such as call to action buttons, charts, cards, icons to give them a dimensional but soft effect.

10. Art Deco

Art Deco, a design style originating in the 1920s, has emerged as a significant web design trend for 2024, resonating with modern aesthetics while evoking a sense of nostalgia and timeless elegance. This resurgence can be attributed to its distinctive features: geometric shapes, bold lines, and lavish ornamentation, which align seamlessly with the digital era’s emphasis on clean, structured designs and user-friendly interfaces.

The trend’s appeal in web design lies in its ability to blend classic luxury with contemporary minimalism, offering a visually striking and memorable user experience. Moreover, the Art Deco style’s adaptability allows it to be infused with modern color palettes and digital design techniques, making websites appear both sophisticated and cutting-edge.

11. Organic Shapes

Geometric shapes were a big website design trend in 2020, but in 2024, it’s all about organic shapes. Organic or fluid shapes are anything that doesn’t involve straight lines. Think of the shapes that happen in nature, like hills, and the edges of a lake or river, and how they are asymmetrical and winding.

Fluid shapes are a great way to break up sections of a website without harsh lines or angles. They’re also great to use in the background, like how Android uses circles behind products on their homepage:

Web Design Trends Example: Organic Shapes

12. Smart Video

Video has long been touted as a must-have for websites. People love videos because they are engaging and some users prefer to watch a video than read text. Videos can also build trust and drive conversions.

While video is great, it needs to be thought out. That’s what smart video is about: video with a purpose and meaning. Gone are the days of embedding a YouTube video on your site just to have one. One well-thought-out, high-quality video is better than a dozen haphazardly assembled ones.

We recommend creating informative videos that directly answer questions that you hear often from your prospects and clients. This will make your website an valuable resource and also help to establish your brand as an authority in your industry.

13. Text-Only Hero Images

Newspapers always put their most eye-catching, important information “above the fold” to increase sales. The website equivalent of this is at the top of a page and is called the “hero section.” A current trend to catch internet users’ attention who are bombarded by different web pages every day is removing the typical background image in the hero section and replacing it with eye-catching typography. A bold, unique font could be just the thing to get a user’s attention quickly.

Web Design Trends Example: Text-Only Hero Images

14. Custom Illustrations

Stock images are out, custom graphics are in! Illustrations help to bring your company’s image to life. Custom illustrations are expected to lead the way as cookie-cutter stock graphics take a backseat.

Web Design Trends Example: Illustrations

15. Full-Page Headers

Full-page headers are expected to remain popular in web design in 2024. A common approach includes placing important text or call-to-action buttons on the left of the header and using enticing graphics to the right. This is because visitors tend to spend most of their attention on the top-left portion of your page.

16. Dark Mode

Dark mode web designs serve a couple of different functions. On the practical end, they help reduce eye strain, a concern for many as we are spending more and more time looking at screens. On the aesthetic end, dark mode easily creates an ultra-modern look for your website while giving you the ability to highlight other design elements just by darkening the elements that surround it.

Web Design Trends Example: Dark Mode

17. Data Visualization

Communicating data in an engaging way is a struggle. But the struggle is worth it because using data visualization takes advantage of the fact that humans are visual creatures, and still conveys the message you need to get across.

Data visualization creates images out of your data that engage your reader and makes them want to learn more about your brand.

Infographics and graphs are some of the most popular ways to bring data to life.

Web Design Trends Example: Data Visualization

18. Full Height Homepage Hero

Like a giant billboard, making your homepage hero section full-height can focus your users’ attention and serve as distraction-free messaging.

Think of full-screen hero sections as an opportunity for great storytelling. Just keep in mind that images will crop differently based on browser dimensions. You should use an image that will accommodate the design accordingly.

Concerned about your content not being “ above the fold ? The significance of having optimized content within the immediate viewport has diminished, given that most users are accustomed to scrolling down for more information.

Web Design Trends Example: Full Height Homepage Hero

19. Blending Photos with Graphical Elements

You might have noticed overlapping graphics on images in your social media feed. This mixing technique brings a level of creativity and fun to a typical image.

The trend is also catching on with websites. Mixing photography with graphics can reinforce your company branding and keep website visitors engaged with your content.

Web Design Trends Example: Blending Photos with Graphical Elements

20. Frosted Glass Effects

Recent advances in web technology have allowed the easy implementation of the frosted glass effect on websites. The blurry appearance of elements behind the frosted glass overlay helps add color to an area while also allowing text or objects to appear over the image and remain readable.

The effect has become a popular option in a designer’s tool belt and has increasingly been used as a background in place of gradients.

Web Design Trends Example: Frosted Glass Effects

21. Progressive Lead Nurturing Forms Integrated with Your CRM Tool

Online lead generation forms are one of the most important elements of a marketing website. We want to get to know a lot about our website visitors, but we can’t ask too many questions at any particular time. We place progressive/dynamic contact forms on the landing pages and display fields according to the lead’s journey.

Ideally, we don’t want to display too many fields in a form, but we can always adjust the form fields according to the data that we already know about our leads. We might ask the name, company, and email address at the first conversion and then ask for the phone number, title, company size, and company revenue fields at the next conversion opportunity.

Your CRM, like HubSpot, can store the information of your leads. By integrating it with your website, the CRM can recognize the lead when they come back to our websites and display form fields on the landing pages that we don’t know about the contact.

22. Chatbots More Like “Chatbuds”

Chatbots are another feature that has been popular for a few years and will continue to be relevant in 2024. As artificial intelligence and machine learning continue to get more sophisticated, we expect to see chatbots become the norm for simple customer service requests and “personal shopping.”

For example, if a customer visits your website, looking for phone support and the chatbot knows they have an available free phone upgrade. The chatbot can let them know about the upgrade. This can lead to a positive experience for the customer and save the business the customer support cost associated with talking to a live person.

Concerned about not having enough staff to manage a web chat? Utilize tools that can forward your web chats to your mobile phone, enabling you to engage with customers while on the move.

Web Design Trends Example: Chatbots Become Human-like

23. Voice-Activated Interface

The way we access information is changing – instead of typing into Google, we now ask a question or make a demand. This means web design is adjusting to keep up with the prevalence of voice chatbots and virtual assistants.

While a voice-activated interface isn’t commonplace for most websites, this emerging trend isn’t going anywhere in the foreseeable future.

We can expect to see more and more websites integrating voice search as an option to traditional text search.

Dive Deeper

  • How Voice Search is Changing Digital Marketing & SEO

24. Virtual Reality

VR experiences on websites will continue to increase over the coming years. Think of sites like Airbnb that let you tour a rental before you book a reservation. Or the furniture site IKEA’s ability to showcase what a sofa would look like in your room.

VR can be a powerful tool for a website to serve useful, meaningful content to a visitor in a way that helps them make buying decisions.

Previous Trends That Have Become Standard or Common

  • 1 White Space
  • 2 Parallax Scrolling
  • 3 Gradients
  • 4 Thumb-Friendly Mobile Navigation
  • 5 Website Load Time and Page Speed
  • 6 Intelligent Content Loading Techniques
  • 7 Geolocation & Browser-Based Content
  • 8 Accessibility and Availability
  • 9 Grid System

1. White Space

The use of white space is about giving content room to breathe, not trying to cram the most information possible on the screen. The experience is more relaxing for your website visitors, the content stands out better, and readability is improved.

White space is just the term for the spacing we give between elements. It does not have to be white, as long as the area is empty. This is why it’s also known as “negative space.”

A clear indication of an outdated website is the presence of an overwhelming amount of text, often referred to as a “wall of words” and no white space. In contemporary web design, the focus is on creating a balanced and visually appealing layout that combines compelling visuals, concise text, and user-friendly navigation. The concept of a “wall of words” is considered obsolete, as it tends to overwhelm visitors and may limit engagement rates.

Web Design Trends Example: White Space

2. Parallax Scrolling

Parallax scrolling is a widely embraced web effect that adds dynamism to specific sections of a webpage. It’s typically employed in full-width applications, accompanied by images, videos, or textured visuals that contribute depth to a page. As users scroll past the media, the scrolling action creates an illusion of the media being positioned behind adjacent sections, making the content more engaging.

3. Gradients

Gradients are a long-time trend that has evolved from subtle color overlays to eye-catching backgrounds.

They can be used to add depth, serve as a striking background, or subtly to add texture to an illustration. We increasingly see it used in bigger and bolder typography.

This trend has staying power. We’re excited to see the continual evolution of its use on websites.

Web Design Trends Example: Gradients

4. Thumb-Friendly Mobile Navigation

Responsive design isn’t enough anymore. Your website should work well and be user-friendly on all mobile devices – regardless of the size! But in 2024, web design will continue to be focused on creating websites that are thumb-friendly. What exactly is “thumb-friendly”?

We’re talking about the way we use our phones. If you’re reading this on your phone right now, look at how you’re holding it. Your fingers are probably wrapped around the back of your phone (or around a phone grip), leaving your thumb to do all the work. You probably look like this.

Spooky, huh?

Not really. That’s how most of us use our smartphones, and that’s why thumb-friendly navigation is essential. Putting the navigation bar, menu, and even contact buttons in the space your thumb can reach (the center of the screen) makes your site more comfortable to use and improves your UX tenfold.

Here is a great graph showing the thumb-friendly areas of a phone screen:

Web Design Trends Example: thumb-friendly areas of a phone screen

5. Website Load Time and Page Speed

One of the most critical web design standards revolves around lightning-fast load times. Prompt loading speeds have been vital components of user experience (UX) and search engine optimization ( SEO ) for years and continue to be a top priority for high-ranking, high-converting websites.

  • Spring Cleaning Your Website During Slow Periods

Research indicates that over half of internet users expect websites to load quickly, within two seconds of clicking a link. If your site takes longer than three seconds to load, visitors are likely to abandon it and probably never return. Website performance directly affects a company’s revenue. For instance, Pinterest managed to reduce perceived waiting times by 40%, resulting in a 15% increase in search engine traffic and user registrations.

At TheeDigital, our mantra is “conversion, conversion, conversions.” We closely monitor website loading times to ensure a seamless user experience.

Web Design Trends Example: Website Load Time and Page Speed Are King

6. Intelligent Content Loading Techniques

A large number of websites today are laden with resource-intensive elements and external integrations, resulting in slower loading times. However, there are several methods available to create smarter websites that load only the necessary content for the user. Techniques such as lazy loading and infinite scrolling have been employed by major social networks for years and are particularly popular for lengthy single-page websites.

Adopting one or more of these technological approaches can provide a competitive edge and enhance the overall user experience, thereby improving conversion rates and search rankings. Lazy loading, for instance, ensures that web browsers like Google Chrome, Safari, and Firefox download only the visible content on the screen, conserving server resources and reducing loading times for unseen content.

Since many users never reach the bottom of a webpage, it makes more sense to load content as they scroll down, approaching the lower sections of the page.

Web Design Trends Example: Smart Content Load for a More Enjoyable User Experience

7. Geolocation & Browser-Based Content

You may have noticed that the content on certain websites changes when revisited after a short period or accessed from a different device or browser. Advanced websites leverage browsing history and location data to deliver dynamic, personalized content rather than generic information intended for a broader audience.

Customized content for repeat visitors can result in higher conversion rates. This is evident in search engines like Google, where location-based results are displayed for queries. For instance, people searching for nearby restaurants in Raleigh, North Carolina, will see different results than users in other locations.

An efficient directory website can also take user preferences into account, such as prioritizing Italian restaurants in search results for users who have previously reviewed or saved them. Personalized content is particularly crucial for e-commerce websites, where displaying recently viewed, saved, or liked products and highlighting abandoned cart items can lead to increased conversions.

As users increasingly expect personalized website content, it will become a more significant factor in achieving a successful online presence.

Web Design Trends Example: Personalized Content According to Your Geolocation and Browsing History

8. Accessibility and Availability

Inclusivity and accessibility are more than a trend, but there is a growing need for web design to factor in the needs of people with disabilities. Having a site that every visitor can navigate and interact with is more than just part of good customer service and providing an excellent experience. It can increase conversion, boost your SEO, and help you reach a bigger audience.

Elements that improve accessibility include:

  • Creating strong color contrast between text and backgrounds;
  • Adding focus indicators, such as the rectangular outline that shows up around links when using keyboard navigation;
  • Using labels and instructions with form fields rather than low-context placeholder text;
  • Using functional alt tags for images (which also boosts SEO!)

Web Design Trends Example: Accessibility and Availability

9. Grid System

Are grid systems going away in 2024? While they may be harder to detect these days with overlapping sections and animated elements, grids continue to play a crucial role in ensuring the adaptability and responsiveness of website layouts across various screen sizes. Developers employ break points and CSS classes to dictate the presentation of elements on a diverse range of screen dimensions.

Examples of Grids in Use: Shrine from Google’s Material Studies

The Latest Web Design Trends and Standards for 2024 in Three Words: Fast, Clean and Eye-Catching

When you think about web design trends for 2024, think of custom illustrations, animated cursors, and blending photos with graphical elements. All of these and more will help to keep your site fresh in 2024. Updating your website’s design can positively impact your brand and revenue. If you want a modern and user-friendly website, contact our team today. Call 919-635-5575 or schedule a consultation today!

Tags: Our Favorites • Web Design

Christopher Lara

Christopher Lara has over 8 years of experience in digital marketing. He specializes in technical SEO and partnering with business leaders in Massachusetts to provide them with solutions to establishing a winning online presence. Read more by Christopher Lara

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MarketSplash

15 Web Design Trends To Watch In 2024 Based On Industry Experts

Explore the latest trends in web design for 2024 with MarketSplash. Dive into expert analyses and predictions, uncovering the future of digital design. Stay ahead with insights on user experience, creativity, and technology integration that are redefining the online world.

💡 KEY INSIGHTS

  • Emphasis on User Experience (UX) in modern web design, prioritizing functionality over just aesthetics.
  • Incorporation of Y2K Aesthetic elements, blending nostalgia with contemporary design.
  • Rise in the use of Vivid Gradient Schemes , enhancing visual appeal and interactivity in web design.
  • Dynamic Text Movement through kinetic typography , creating engaging, motion-based textual experiences.

Embark on an exploration of 2024's web design trends , brought to you by Market Splash experts. Reflect on your recent online experiences, noting designs that stood out for their user-friendly interfaces and aesthetic appeal. Conversely, poorly designed websites can leave a lasting, negative impression.

Our investigation into modern website designs, bolstered by in-depth UX research , has revealed significant patterns. In today's competitive digital world, superior user experience and innovative web design are not just desirable; they are essential for a website's triumph.

Prepare to discover impactful web design examples that are shaping the online landscape. Alongside showcasing stunning web designs, we're excited to present a few creations from our own award-winning design team. Join us for inspiration and insights into the evolving web design trends for 2024.

Meet Our Experts

Our team comprises industry-leading experts in fields ranging from design and marketing to growth strategies, each bringing a wealth of experience and unparalleled knowledge to the table.

Vlad Shvets

Vlad is a founder of MarketSplash and its parent company Empact Partners. Vlad is a serial entrepreneur & SaaS founder with 10+ years of experience in the tech industry. Vlad is deeply passionate about digital publishing, software, and growth marketing.

Shanal, the Chief Editor at MarketSplash has diverse experience in content strategy and digital publishing. Her skills extend to integrating AI tools, managing social media, and navigating affiliate partnerships, reflecting her deep passion for the tech and publishing sectors. She is passionate about writing, research, and innovative tools in the marketing niche.

Juxhina is a content creator, editor, and researcher. She has an MSc degree in Communication Science from the University of Vienna and 10+ years of experience in the tech industry. She is passionate about startups, SEO marketing, content creation, art, and photography.

Sharné is an artist, digital designer, researcher, and informal educator by training. She has 5+ years' experience in the SaaS industry as a Product Marketing Manager and Head of Customer Support. She supports a handful of remarkable SaaS brands in achieving sustainable business growth through targeted online content.

Gabrielle has been in the SEO field for 2 years now, and at Empact and MarketSplash for just over a year. She is an SEO manager and editor at MarketSplash, with a background in the B2B SaaS and affiliate marketing niche.

Gia has been working as an SEO content marketer for the last 3 years. She specializes in off-page SEO and content marketing. She is also an editor for MarketSplash.

Sebastian has been working in SEO for just over 1.5 years. He specializes in off-page SEO and SEO writing.

Kerina, a content marketer, stands out as a savvy and strategic professional with a deep understanding of digital communication. She has mastered the art of blending creativity with data-driven insights to craft compelling narratives that captivate and resonate with target audiences. Kerina is proficient in SEO strategies which is an asset in the digital marketing sector.

Monique is a Junior Editor for MarketSplash. Her tech industry journey spans over five years, where she has excelled in diverse roles. Starting in the non-profit sector, she developed strong storytelling skills, connecting deeply with audiences. She then transitioned to a software company, focusing on niche marketing and community engagement. Her expertise lies in strategic communication and digital marketing, always highlighting the human aspect in technology.

As a skilled content writer at MarketSplash, Kauthar combines writing, editing, and coding expertise to create engaging articles, including those for partner campaigns. With a profound passion for writing and prior experience as a Food, Lifestyle & Content Writer, Kauthar brings a diverse and insightful perspective to any discussion.

As a Magna cum laude graduate in Behavioral Science, I bring a rich blend of academic rigor and practical experience to the MarketSplash team. Since May 2023, I have evolved from a junior content writer to a junior editor, mastering a diverse range of content, including in-depth statistics, comprehensive tutorials, and insightful articles across design, business, and social media domains.

Yana is a Junior MarketSplash Editor with a master's degree in computer science. She is experienced in writing and editing content for different niches, including in-depth research, marketing trends, and tech articles.

Naaz is a Junior Content Editor for MarketSplash and has written about software and productivity topics. She is an expert product reviewer and produces helpful content for readers.

Nazar, a Junior Editor at MarketSplash, has been actively contributing content to the platform for the past year. With a master's degree in computer engineering, he has consistently delivered high-caliber articles on programming, software, and the latest trends in the field.

Trend 1: UX-Centric Designs

Trend 2: y2k aesthetic resurgence, trend 3: vivid gradient schemes, trend 4: dynamic text movement, trend 5: story-driven interactivity, trend 6: prominent oversized lettering, trend 7: glassmorphism hero interfaces, trend 8: handmade illustrations, trend 9: defined border styles, trend 10: animated homepage elements, trend 11: minimalistic neumorphism, trend 12: unconventional scrolling methods, trend 13: detailed footer designs, trend 14: abstract web designs, trend 15: playful cartoon imagery, future insights.

UX-Centric Designs are revolutionizing web design, with a keen focus on user experience . This trend is on the rise, aiming to create deeply immersive user experiences .

The essence of this approach is user-first. Every element, from navigation to content , is crafted to engage and retain users. The goal is not just aesthetics but effective user interaction .

A well-designed UI can boost conversions by up to 200% , underscoring UX's importance in web design.

Businesses are now embracing AI-driven tools to personalize experiences. This trend suggests a future where web design is synonymous with optimal UX .

Examples Of UX-Centric Designs:

  • Responsive Design: Websites that adjust seamlessly across various devices and screen sizes.
  • Minimalistic Layouts: Clean, uncluttered designs focusing on essential elements for easier user interaction.
  • Personalized User Experiences: Tailoring content and design based on user behavior and preferences.
  • Chatbots and AI Assistance: Integrating smart AI tools for real-time user support and interaction.
  • Accessible Design: Ensuring websites are usable for all, including those with disabilities.
  • Data-Driven Design Decisions: Using analytics and user feedback to continually improve the user interface.

UX Design Impacts on Businesses

The surge of UX-Centric Design underscores a pivotal shift in product development . Companies are increasingly realizing that the user experience is not just an add-on, but the very fabric of a successful digital presence.

By placing the user at the heart of the design process, products become more than just tools, they become experiences that resonate on a personal level.

People ignore design that ignores people.

Examples Of Y2K Aesthetic Resurgence:

  • Neon Colors and Metallic Shades: Bright, eye-catching neon colors and shiny metallic elements that recall the early 2000s fashion and tech aesthetics.
  • Futuristic Fonts: Digital, matrix-style fonts echoing the late 90s and early 2000s technology boom.
  • Tech-Inspired Graphics: Graphics and imagery inspired by early digital interfaces, reflecting a tech-centric theme prevalent in the Y2K era.
  • Glitch Art and Pixelation: Incorporating visual effects like glitching and pixelation, reminiscent of early digital technology limitations.
  • Retro Futurism: A mix of retro (late 90s) elements with futuristic concepts, commonly seen in both fashion and graphic design.
  • Oversized Text and Bold Typography: Utilization of large, bold text styles, a signature look in early digital media and advertising.

Exploring Y2K Aesthetics

Rediscovering the iconic styles of the early 2000s.

Retro Revival

Capturing the essence of Y2K with a modern twist.

Futuristic Nostalgia

Blending futuristic elements with nostalgic designs.

Dive into the dynamic world of Y2K Aesthetic Resurgence, a trend that blends nostalgia with modern flair. Explore how this style has influenced various domains from fashion to tech, showcasing its unique blend of retro and contemporary elements.

Regarding the Y2K Aesthetic Resurgence, an expert noted in Highsnobiety the unique charm and appeal of this style. The expert described the Y2K era as a blend of comfort and eye-catching design, where street fashion met luxury in a distinctive manner.

Please keep Terrell Davis @terrellllllll in your memory. He is the OG neo-Y2K artist and we wouldn’t be here without him. He was an admin of the Facebook groups, and an early CARI member. He was an incredibly humble person. He will forever be a legend. Rest in Power, 1998-2020 pic.twitter.com/Rcgnr0UNjx — Y2K Aesthetic Institute 💽 (@y2k_aesthetic) January 2, 2021

This contrasted with the more muted fashion trends of the early '90s. The Y2K style, known for its flamboyance and showiness, marked the beginning of street fashion's evolution into a luxury aesthetic.

This insight highlights why the Y2K style, with its combination of comfort and boldness, continues to influence and fascinate the fashion world today.

Gradients have made a resurgence in web design, thanks to Instagram's logo redesign. This trend adds visual appeal to websites , images, and logos. When designing a website, consider using gradients for accents, highlighting calls to action (CTAs) with vibrant tones, or applying gradients to backgrounds.

Gradients have been used in 45% of e-commerce websites' redesigns in the past year, contributing to a 30% increase in user engagement.

Gradients are versatile and can enhance SaaS websites and e-commerce platforms by drawing attention to key messages, encouraging user interaction, and keeping visitors engaged.

This trend showcases the importance of visual elements in modern web design, creating an immersive user experience.

Examples Of Vivid Gradient Schemes:

  • Apple's iOS Icons : Apple introduced vivid gradients in its iOS icons, like the Music app icon, featuring colorful gradients that catch the eye.
  • Spotify's Homepage : Spotify revamped its homepage with vibrant gradients to highlight music genres, making it visually appealing and interactive.
  • Nike's Product Pages : Nike incorporates vivid gradients in its product pages, creating an energetic atmosphere around its sportswear.
  • Dribbble's Redesign : The design platform Dribbble updated its website with vivid gradients, enhancing the overall user experience and modernizing its look.
  • Adobe Creative Cloud : Adobe uses gradients in its Creative Cloud branding, demonstrating the trend's versatility in professional software interfaces.
  • Instagram Stories : Instagram employs vivid gradients in its Stories feature, adding a playful and engaging touch to user-generated content.
Today's color scheme - Very Light Blue. French Blue. Rich Electric Blue. Electric Blue. Vivid Cerise. ❤ Re-tweet if you like this color scheme pic.twitter.com/KowWPCHSvc — Good Web Design (@goodwebdesign) June 2, 2019

Vivid gradient schemes are increasingly prominent in modern design, as highlighted by design experts. These dynamic color transitions are known for their eye-catching and modern aesthetic, making them highly effective in digital media and branding.

Design professionals emphasize the versatility of vivid gradients, particularly in creating distinctive brand identities and enhancing visual storytelling . This design element uniquely combines visual appeal with the ability to evoke specific emotions.

Looking forward, the use of vivid gradients is expected to grow, revolutionizing both digital and physical design landscapes. This trend demonstrates the evolving nature of design, where boldness and creativity are key to engaging audiences.

Kinetic typography is emerging as a key trend in web design. This technique of animating text instantly grabs viewer attention , becoming a favorite among forward-thinking designers and brands.

By animating text in headlines and subheadings, it maintains user engagement, reducing the need for additional visuals or shapes. This approach optimizes the browsing experience while maintaining site speed and mobile responsiveness.

Websites utilizing kinetic typography experienced a 15% increase in user engagement compared to those with static text.

This statistic underscores its growing influence, particularly in sectors like digital marketing, portfolio sites, agencies, and SaaS platforms . Kinetic typography is not just a trend; it's set to reshape how we experience web content.

Examples Of Dynamic Text Movement:

  • Animated Headlines : Headlines that move or change as the user scrolls, keeping the user's attention focused.
  • Interactive Typographic Elements : Text that reacts to user actions, like hovering or clicking, enhancing user engagement.
  • Scroll-Triggered Text Animation : Text that animates or changes in style as the user scrolls down the page.
  • Text Fading and Morphing : Text that smoothly transitions between states, styles, or colors, often used to highlight changes or updates.

E-Shop Global, a leading e-commerce platform, integrates dynamic text for enhanced user engagement and marketing.

Implementation

Dynamic text features on website for personalization and interactive marketing campaigns with customized content.

Increased user engagement and improved conversion rates, leading to 18% growth in quarterly revenue.

Successful dynamic text strategy enhanced user experience, contributing significantly to sales growth.

Exploring the concept of the Dynamic Text Movement, we can look to the insights of a digital design expert from the Daisie Team. They discuss the transformative impact of kinetic typography in enhancing communication and engagement through motion design.

This innovative approach to text elevates messages in a visually captivating way, marking a shift in how we perceive and interact with digital content.

The trend of using dynamic and expressive text in motion design reflects a broader shift in digital communication. Innovators in this field, like the Daisie Team, are pushing the boundaries of how text functions in our digital experiences, turning static information into interactive narratives. This movement signifies a leap towards more engaging, responsive, and visually stimulating digital environments.

In 2024, story-driven interactivity is redefining web design. This trend merges storytelling with user interaction, creating unique brand identities in a crowded digital world.

Engaging storytelling has always been popular, but adding interactivity is what sets this year's trend apart. It's not just about telling a story; it's about involving the user in that story.

Interactive storytelling in web design leads to a 25% increase in user engagement.

Effective story-driven design involves seamless integration of elements like gamification, dynamic text, and immersive visuals . For e-commerce sites, this trend is especially beneficial, providing inspiration and a distinct edge in the market.

Examples Of Story-Driven Interactivity:

  • Gamified User Experiences : Integrating game-like elements into websites to create engaging, story-based journeys.
  • Scroll-Triggered Animations : Employing animations that unfold a story as the user scrolls through the website.
  • Interactive Videos : Videos that allow users to make choices, altering the storyline for a personalized experience.
  • Narrative-Driven Data Visualization : Using interactive storytelling techniques to present complex data in an engaging way.
  • VR Tours : Offering immersive virtual reality experiences where users explore a narrative-driven environment.
  • Dynamic Character Narratives : Websites with animated characters that guide and interact with users, enhancing the storytelling experience.

Story-Driven Interactivity in Web Design

Delving into the world of web design, we turn to the insights of Adam, a respected voice in the industry from Limely. Adam brings a unique perspective, emphasizing the often overlooked yet vital element of storytelling in web design.

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When it comes to web design, a crucial element that is all too often overlooked, is storytelling. While aesthetics and functionality also play vital roles, the narrative behind a website can make all the difference in creating a truly immersive user experience; From captivating users’ attention to forging emotional connections and enhancing brand messaging, storytelling holds the key to unlocking the full potential of your online presence.

Director & Designer at Limely

Source: Limely

Adam's viewpoint highlights the transformative impact of storytelling in web design, underscoring its role in engaging users and enhancing the overall digital experience. His focus on narrative as a key driver in web design resonates deeply in today's digitally-driven world.

This approach reflects a broader trend in web design where storytelling is not just about content but about creating a journey for the user, blending visuals, interactivity, and narrative in a cohesive, engaging experience.

In the 2024 web design trend of Prominent Oversized Lettering, large text is used for an ultra-minimalist look. This style is not just for headlines but extends to bold headings highlighting services, bestselling products, or contact details.

Websites using oversized typography have seen up to a 30% increase in user engagement.

The use of plain text in sans serif fonts enhances the site's modern appeal. Large text also contributes to improved website responsiveness, allowing designers to maintain minimal layouts without relying heavily on large visuals.

This approach is particularly beneficial for service-based businesses, agencies, and SaaS websites, focusing attention on the main USP and addressing audience needs more directly.

Examples Of Prominent Oversized Lettering:

  • Hero Sections with Large Headlines : Websites featuring oversized text in their hero sections, making a bold statement as soon as a visitor lands on the page.
  • Minimalist Landing Pages : Landing pages that use oversized lettering to focus on a single, powerful message, reducing other visual elements for a clean look.
  • Interactive E-Commerce Sites : E-commerce websites where product names or promotions are displayed in oversized fonts to immediately grab the shopper's attention.
  • Bold Typography in Portfolio Websites : Designers and artists showcasing their work on portfolio sites using large, eye-catching text to highlight their names or specialties.
  • Fullscreen Menu Overlays : Websites with fullscreen menu overlays where each menu item is in oversized, bold typography, enhancing navigability and style.
  • Educational Websites : Educational platforms using oversized text to highlight key learning points or course titles, making it easier for learners to navigate and select courses.

Trend of Oversized Lettering

In 2024, oversized lettering dominates for a minimalist, impactful user interface.

Engagement and Clarity

Large, bold typography boosts engagement by up to 30%, enhancing clarity.

Ideal for Various Businesses

Perfect for service-oriented sites, highlighting USPs with clear, oversized text.

Click the buttons to navigate through the slides!

In the evolving landscape of web design, the role of Prominent Oversized Lettering is significant. A web design expert emphasizes this, stating:

Large typography is currently among the most popular trends in web design. The bigger the letters, the better. Extremely sized typefaces with large weight are dramatic, extravagant, attention-grabbing, and they undoubtedly carry a wow-factor that can attract and win over most visitors.

Dusica Popovic

Source: QODE Magazine

This quote highlights the trend's ability to create powerful, visually arresting experiences on the web, indicating its potential to shape future design strategies.

This insight suggests that Prominent Oversized Lettering will continue to influence web design, offering a bold and impactful way to communicate and engage users.

As web design progresses, this trend is expected to integrate with new technologies and aesthetics, continuing to make websites not just informative but also artistically compelling.

The trend of Glassmorphism is capturing attention in web design, especially in hero sections . This style employs transparency to create a glass-like effect, making the initial visual impact more engaging.

Websites using Glassmorphism in their hero sections see an approximate 18% increase in user interaction .

This effect encourages users to explore further, drawn by the aesthetic appeal of the design. Despite its complex appearance, Glassmorphism simplifies the design process and is adaptable across various industries. It aligns well with the principles of minimalism , offering a clean yet captivating visual experience.

Michał Malewicz

UI Designer and Trendsetter

Source: Interaction Design Foundation

Malewicz's insight underscores the essence of Glassmorphism in creating engaging and layered user interfaces. This trend is shaping the future of web design, combining visual appeal with practical usability.

Once a niche trend, handmade illustrations are resurfacing in web design . Initially popularized by brands like Mailchimp, they're now gaining widespread traction.

Recent studies reveal websites with these illustrations see a 30% increase in user engagement.

Their appeal lies in the simplicity and storytelling ability. These illustrations convey messages and highlight services, effortlessly fitting into various website themes.

Predicted to dominate in 2024, their versatility makes them essential for a compelling user experience . They not only enhance the aesthetic but also strengthen the digital presence of businesses.

Examples Of Handmade Illustrations:

  • Custom Icons : Unique, hand-drawn icons tailored for specific website sections or topics.
  • Branding Elements : Illustrations used in logos, mascots, or other brand identity materials.
  • Interactive Elements : Illustrated elements that respond to user interactions, like mouse-overs.
  • Hero Images : Large, prominent illustrations often used at the top of web pages.
  • Animated Illustrations : Hand-drawn illustrations brought to life with subtle animations.

Airbnb's Handmade Illustration Approach

Handmade illustrations in web design play a crucial role in enhancing user experience and brand identity . They simplify complex concepts, making them more accessible to website visitors.

According to experts, these illustrations are not just visually appealing but are powerful tools for storytelling and conveying brand history. As highlighted in an article from DesignRush, they efficiently condense ideas and engage users, providing a unique, memorable brand look.

latest research topics in web design

Elementor points out that handmade illustrations integrate seamlessly across platforms, ensuring brand consistency . They capture attention quickly, as the human brain processes visual information much faster than text, a fact emphasized by Gapsy Studio.

Overall, handmade illustrations are strategic assets in web design, enhancing user interaction , brand recognition , and information processing .

In 2024's web design , a key trend to watch is defined border styles . This approach enhances website structure, making it more navigable and responsive.

Clear borders have shown to increase navigation efficiency by 20% .

The appeal of this trend lies in its simplicity and versatility . Borders offer a distinct way to separate different sections of a website, whether around images, text, or product displays.

This trend is particularly effective for e-commerce sites , portfolios, and business pages that favor a minimalist design. Adding borders can bring symmetry and balance to the layout, subtly improving the site's overall aesthetic.

Examples Of Defined Border Styles:

  • Boxed Layouts : Using borders to create distinct boxes or sections on a webpage, often used to separate content or different areas of a site.
  • Grid-Based Design : Implementing borders to define a grid layout, helping to organize content in a clean, structured manner.
  • Image Frames : Adding borders around images or galleries, giving them a framed appearance that stands out against the rest of the page.
  • Text Highlighting : Utilizing borders around text blocks or quotes to draw attention and break up long stretches of content.
  • Interactive Borders : Borders that change appearance on hover or click, adding an interactive element to the user experience.

Apple's website redesign showcased the Clear or Visible Borders trend, a testament to their minimalist design philosophy. By implementing clear borders around product sections, the website's aesthetic appeal and navigational intuitiveness were significantly enhanced.

This strategic design change resulted in a substantial increase in user engagement , as visitors were more inclined to explore different products.

Delving into the essence of web design and its functional impact, we reflect on the wisdom of Steve Jobs, a luminary in the field of technology and design. His insights on web design, particularly the importance of elements like clear or visible borders, are profoundly influential in shaping contemporary web practices.

images

Design is not just what it looks like and feels like. Design is how it works.

Co-founder, Apple Inc.

Source: FounderJar

Jobs' perspective on web design encapsulates the integral relationship between aesthetic appeal and functionality. He underscores that effective design, including aspects such as clear borders, is not merely about visual charm but fundamentally about enhancing user interaction and experience.

This understanding is crucial in foreseeing the evolution of web design, where the blend of beauty and utility takes center stage.

In 2024, animated elements on homepages are key in web design, known for crafting immersive user experiences .

They increase engagement significantly, with a reported 20% rise in user interaction​​.

Various animation types, like scroll-driven , hover , and loading animations , play distinct roles in enhancing interactivity. They focus on guiding users, highlighting content, and engaging through visual storytelling.

This trend is especially impactful in design services and SaaS industries , where animations enrich platform appeal and interactivity.

Examples Of Animated Homepage Elements:

  • Scroll-Triggered Animations: Activating as the user scrolls, adding dynamic content engagement.
  • Interactive Hover Effects: Changing visuals or animations in response to mouse movement.
  • Parallax Scrolling Effects: Creating depth with layers moving at different speeds during scrolling.
  • Animated Calls-to-Action: Buttons that animate to draw user attention and encourage interaction.
  • Full-Page Header Animations: Large, engaging headers with integrated animations or videos.

Examples of Animated Homepage Elements

Handwrytten's subtle animations.

Handwrytten effectively utilized subtle animations on their homepage. The hero section featured a blend of a hand-written card and cartoon illustration, clearly conveying the product's uniqueness and value.

Crisp's Animated Vector Illustrations

Crisp enhanced their homepage with minor animations on vector illustrations. These animations added a relatable human touch and transformed the user experience into a more engaging one.

Corebook's Sleek Animation

Corebook's homepage welcomed users with sleek, dark mode designs and informative subtle animations, showcasing their modern and sophisticated brand book product.

In today's digital landscape, the integration of animated elements in web design is becoming increasingly prominent. This trend is not merely about aesthetic enhancement but also about enriching the user experience.

Expert opinions in the field of web design highlight the importance of these elements, suggesting that animations on homepages can significantly elevate the interactive quality of a website.

images

The dynamic nature of website animations plays a pivotal role in modern web design. These animations bring websites to life, making them more immersive and engaging for the visitor. The trend of using animations is not just about aesthetic appeal; it's about creating an interactive user experience that resonates with visitors.

Jenny Romanchuk

Web Design Expert and Blogger

Source: HubSpot Blog

The adoption of animated elements reflects a deeper understanding of how users interact with online content, emphasizing the need for engaging and visually stimulating experiences.

Neumorphism, evolving from skeuomorphism and flat design , offers a clean, subtle aesthetic. It's characterized by a monochromatic style , focused on shadows and minimal color shifts. This design trend enhances user focus on critical content, reducing visual clutter.

A study indicates about 70% of designers see neumorphism as key in minimalist, engaging web interfaces.

Although visually appealing, neumorphism can present user experience challenges , especially in elements lacking contrast, like buttons. Experts advise cautious use; when implemented well, it results in a fresh, clean look.

Examples Of Minimalistic Neumorphism:

  • Subtle Shadow Effects: Soft and subtle shadow effects that create a sense of depth while maintaining a clean, minimalistic look.
  • Soft Color Palettes: Utilization of soft, muted color palettes that complement the subtle design elements.
  • Tactile Interface Elements: Design elements that mimic physicality, like buttons that appear slightly raised or recessed.
  • Simple Icons and Typography: Clean and straightforward icons and typography that enhance readability and usability.
  • Subdued Background Textures: Use of understated textures in backgrounds to add depth without overwhelming the design.

Neumorphism in Apple's macOS Big Sur

Yashant Bikram Gyawali, in an article on Built In, discusses neumorphism in web design . He describes it as a modern iteration of skeuomorphism, combining minimalism with three-dimensional elements .

Neumorphism emphasizes subtle differences in color and shadow to create an aesthetic appeal, but it faces challenges in terms of accessibility and usability due to low contrast. Despite its limitations, neumorphism remains a topic of interest and evolution in the design community.

Unconventional scrolling methods, such as scroll animations , are gaining popularity in UX design. This trend not only demonstrates visual design talent and front-end development skills but also effectively increases the time on page .

Surveys show a 15% increase in user engagement on websites with interactive scrolling.

A notable implementation is the Nasa Prospect, a unique scroll-triggered animation that takes users on a space journey. Properly executed, this trend can significantly enhance user engagement and conversion rates .

Examples Of Unconventional Scrolling Methods:

  • Parallax Scrolling: Different layers of a webpage moving at different speeds to create a sense of depth.
  • Horizontal Scrolling: Sideways scrolling for storytelling or showcasing products, offering a different perspective.
  • Scroll-Triggered Animations: Animations that activate or change as the user scrolls, enhancing interactivity.
  • Infinite Scrolling: Continuously loading content as the user scrolls, commonly used in social media feeds.
  • Scroll-Triggered Video Playback: Videos that play, pause, or change based on scroll position, creating an interactive narrative.

Horizontal Scrolling

A fashion retailer introduced horizontal scrolling on their site, leading to a more engaging product showcase and increased user interaction.

Scroll-Triggered Animations

An online art gallery implemented scroll-triggered animations, which enhanced storytelling and visitor engagement on their digital exhibitions.

Infinite Scrolling

A news portal adopted infinite scrolling, resulting in longer session durations and a higher content consumption rate.

Nielsen Norman Group provides insights into the effectiveness and challenges of infinite scrolling in web design. It highlights that this technique can reduce interaction costs and increase user engagement , but it might not be suitable for every type of website.

The applicability of infinite scrolling largely depends on the website's content and the goals of its users . This insight suggests a trend towards more user-centric design approaches in web development.

In 2024 , the web design landscape is witnessing a transformative trend in the use of website footers . Unlike in the past, where footers were often overlooked, they are now becoming an integral part of overall website design. This trend, known as 'footer boosts,' is about elevating the footer beyond its traditional role.

Studies show websites with detailed footer designs experience a 15% increase in user engagement.

This statistic underscores the importance of comprehensive web design, where every section, including the footer, contributes to user interaction and satisfaction.

Thus, the detailed design of footers is emerging not just as an aesthetic requirement but as a functional necessity that enhances user engagement and overall satisfaction with the website.

Examples Of Detailed Footer Designs:

  • Interactive Maps and Geolocation Features: Footers with integrated maps or geolocation tools, offering users interactive ways to find stores or services.
  • Custom Illustrations and Animations: Utilizing unique illustrations or animations that reflect the brand's personality, adding an artistic touch to the footer.
  • Comprehensive Contact Options: A blend of traditional contact information with modern elements like social media links and chat support for enhanced accessibility.
  • Integrated Feedback Tools: Embedding quick survey forms or feedback tools in the footer, encouraging user interaction and collecting valuable insights.
  • Dynamic Content Display: Footers that dynamically update to display recent blog posts, news, or social media updates, keeping the content fresh and engaging.

Interactive Maps

Interactive maps in footers improve user navigation and engagement.

Dynamic Content

Footers displaying recent posts increase site's content relevance.

Enhanced Navigation

Comprehensive navigation links in footers enhance user experience.

Social Media Feeds

Live social media feeds in footers boost user engagement. 4

Experts in web design emphasize the importance of Detailed Footer Designs . An AtOnce expert highlights, "Improving user experience and increasing engagement" is key to effective footer design. This underscores footers as vital in enhancing website interactivity​​.

Innovative examples from Afterglo and Blumenkopf showcase the trend towards footers with creative animations and distinctive color schemes . These examples, as discussed on MyCodelessWebsite, illustrate the evolution from traditional to engaging and informative footer designs​​.

The ultimate collection of footer designs for web inspiration! Check out the only gallery dedicated to footers worldwide. 💻🌎 Discover more at https://t.co/ywnEpPAbsm . #webdesign #inspiration " pic.twitter.com/FZOsbwTYxN — Good Web Design (@goodwebdesign) October 18, 2023

These insights point to a future where footers are essential in web design, impacting both user engagement and aesthetics. For more details, see the articles on AtOnce and MyCodelessWebsite​​​​.

Abstract shapes in web design are becoming increasingly popular, as they add a level of intrigue for users. These unique designs are effective in capturing attention and enhancing brand uniqueness.

Websites with abstract designs see a 12% increase in user engagement.

The Elje Group exemplifies this trend by integrating abstract shapes reminiscent of lava lamps, keeping users engaged. Their website also features modern gradients and diagonal elements , aligning with 2024 web design trends.

Examples Of Abstract Web Designs:

  • Fluid Shapes and Lines: Incorporation of organic, flowing shapes and lines for a dynamic, fluid aesthetic.
  • Vivid Color Palettes: Use of bold and unconventional color combinations to create visually striking designs.
  • Layered, Collage-Like Layouts: Designs that resemble artistic collages, combining various elements for a layered look.
  • Interactive Abstract Elements: Interactive design features that respond to user actions, adding an element of surprise.
  • Abstract Illustrations: Integration of abstract, artistic illustrations for a unique and creative visual experience.

Spotify's 2024 rebranding, embracing abstract web design, featured vibrant colors and dynamic shapes, enhancing user engagement and mirroring the platform's diverse content. This approach resulted in increased user interaction and time spent on the site.

Diving into the evolving trend of abstract web designs Harris highlights how increasing computing power is reshaping web design, resulting in more intricate and vibrant compositions.

images

Generative art using AI is going to be a huge trend in 2024. We're going to be able to see more custom graphics per user just because you can generate, based on a design system, richer palettes and things that are very specific to user data.

Quinnton Harris

Co-Founder and CEO at Retrospect Studios

Source: Webflow Blog

This trend toward intricate and personalized web architecture reflects the broader evolution of digital creativity. Designers, like Harris, leverage AI and advanced computing to craft unique, user-centric experiences.

Platforms supporting these innovative design systems play a pivotal role in meeting the rising demand for dynamic, personalized web aesthetics.

Illustrated characters remain a key feature in homepage designs in 2024, adding flexibility and memorability . Their unique charm enhances user engagement.

Sites with playful imagery see an increase in user engagement by 15% .

Our Blue Compass experts have successfully integrated these elements in The Palmer Group's design. These characters not only attract attention to important calls-to-action but also embody the brand's relationship-oriented values .

Moreover, the use of clean illustrations over photos can significantly improve website performance and page load times , making them a practical choice for modern web design.

Examples Of Playful Cartoon Imagery:

  • Tech Startup Websites: Animated characters used to simplify complex technological concepts.
  • Children's Educational Platforms: Bright, engaging cartoons to attract and maintain young learners' attention.
  • Health and Wellness Apps: Friendly cartoons guiding users through fitness routines or wellness tips.
  • E-commerce Sites for Novelty Products: Whimsical characters creating a fun shopping experience.
  • Environmental Awareness Campaigns: Playful imagery to convey serious messages in an approachable manner.

Dropbox Case Study

Dropbox's rebranding with whimsical illustrations led to increased user engagement and distinct brand identity.

Implementation Strategies

Utilize cartoons in user guides, homepage designs, and marketing campaigns to simplify complex concepts and add fun.

Cartoon imagery improves page load times and user experience, making websites more accessible and engaging.

In the realm of web design, especially considering the trend of Playful Cartoon Imagery, the insights of Gene Lee, VP of Design at Mailchimp, are particularly enlightening. His perspective offers a deeper understanding of how this trend impacts branding and user engagement.

images

With this redesign, we set out to retain all the weird, lovable elements that endeared our earliest customers to Mailchimp...We champion authenticity, originality, and expressiveness because it’s what helps us—and our customers—stand out. We hope to inspire them to be more bold and creative in their own branding efforts.

VP of Design at Mailchimp

Source: Unbounce

By embracing authenticity and creativity, Mailchimp reinforces the trend's potential in fostering memorable digital experiences and enhancing user engagement. This approach is becoming increasingly vital in differentiating brands in the crowded digital landscape.

Which design is one of the leading web design trends of the day?

The most influential web design trends of 2024 include  responsive design , dark mode, and 3D elements. Virtual reality (VR) experiences and voice user interfaces are also becoming more prevalent.

What is the trend in landing pages in 2024?

As 2024 approaches,  adding micro-animations  to your landing page design will become essential rather than simply a trend. It's the skill of drawing people in, directing them, and crafting a memorable, immersive experience.

Are asymmetrical designs becoming popular in web design?

Yes, asymmetrical designs are gaining popularity, moving away from traditional grid layouts to allow web page elements to float independently for a more dynamic appearance.

How is white space used effectively in modern web design?

White space, or negative space, is used to create a cleaner, more focused user experience by allowing content and design elements to breathe and reducing distractions.

How are chatbots changing web design trends?

Chatbots are increasingly being used to provide immediate responses and customer support, especially in e-commerce, enhancing user interaction and efficiency on websites.

The future of web design, shaped by evolving technologies and user preferences, promises exciting developments. Industry experts foresee a greater emphasis on personalized user experiences , driven by advanced analytics and artificial intelligence.

This will enable more dynamic, tailored content delivery. Furthermore, the integration of augmented and virtual reality technologies is expected to revolutionize user interaction, creating more immersive digital experiences.

Statistics indicate a growing demand for responsive and accessible designs , catering to an increasingly diverse range of devices and user needs. The future will likely see a blend of high-tech solutions and empathetic design, focusing on both functionality and emotional engagement.

Continue Learning About The Latest Trends With These Reads

  • 13 Email Design Trends To Watch In 2024 Based On Industry Experts
  • 15 Logo Design Trends To Watch In 2024 Based On Industry Experts
  • 15 Design Trends To Watch In 2024 Based On Industry Experts
  • 10 Product Design Trends To Watch In 2024 Based On Industry Experts
  • 12 Gaming Trends Set To Dominate In 2024 According To Industry Experts

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6 standout web design trends set to make waves in 2022

Discover the web design trends that will shape 2022.

Web design trends in 2022: collage by Webflow

Staying on top of the latest web design trends is a sure-fire way for web designers to ensure they're prepared to capture the fleeting attention of the online masses among the huge competition. We’ve all had a lot of time to browse the web over the past two years, and it's safe to say that this time presented – and continues to present – exciting opportunities and potential for more creativity in the evolution of web design.

We’ve witnessed the embracing of nostalgia, no doubt to help soothe and comfort us during these tumultuous times. But at the same time, we’ve seen designers rethink design norms and principles, and push others to follow suit. In tandem, these two developments represent the future of web design in 2022 and beyond.

Whether it’s the rise of one-page websites, an increased focus on typography, or the embracing of more neutral and abstract design elements, creating a captivating website comes down to the details. The six web design trends listed below can help designers fashion a website that pays homage to the wild frontier of the web’s early days while keeping an eye squarely toward the future.

If you're starting out in web design, you'll want to have the best web design software . You might also want to see our article on more exciting web design trends for 2022 .

6 standout web design trends for 2022

01. the rise of the one-page website.

Web design trends 2022: screenshot of Joshua Kaplan portfolio site

It’s an old adage but it still rings true: less is more. If there’s one thing we always crave, it’s simplicity. This can be true of websites, where the most effective are often the least complex. Look no further than the increasing number and popularity of one-page websites that forgo menus and internal link navigation in favour of simple scroll navigation.

In many instances, websites merely point visitors to another source. One-page websites force designers to rethink their plan and structure as a whole to not only put all their content front and centre, but more importantly to determine what's most vital to highlight in the first place. These sites tend to work best when the subject matter is narrower, such as a portfolio, but can serve as a nice bridge to get people where they’re supposed to be going quicker and more efficiently without needless searching or distraction.

Ultimately, the one-page website mentality allows designers to produce more creative work. Take a look at Joshua Kaplan’s portfolio site . He uses a consistent content structure so that viewers don’t get lost while reducing distracting elements like big images and backgrounds to keep the focus on what matters.

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02. Fewer images for heroes

Web design trends 2022: screenshot of SVZ homepage

The hero section of a website doesn’t need to solely rely on apparent imagery or photo carousels to be super. Keeping things simple quite often helps set the tone for why the visitor is there in the first place, and why they should continue to scroll. Just look at websites like SVZ , which use colour, shapes, typography, and layout to communicate their unique brand identity in a simple, yet enticing way.

03. Typography that’s bigger and bolder

Web design trends 2022: screenshot of Eva Habermann portfolio website

A good exercise for any web designer is to play around with typography from the git-go. No images, no graphics, just type. Sometimes, the bigger and bolder the typography, the better and longer-lasting impression a website can make. But that’s not always the case. At a certain size, words become more of a graphic element than simply copy, making typography the visual focal point of a site. Choosing a font helps set the tone for what the audience expects from the website, so it’s important to strike the right balance between size and scale.

Eva Habermann’s film portfolio website  overlays large typography onto a moving film portfolio reel. The text is actually blocking part of the image, eliciting curiosity in visitors to see more. The use of a sans-serif font in two colours creates just the right amount of contrast without making the text overwhelming or illegible.

04. Abstract illustrations

Web design trends 2022: an abstract illustration by Adam Ho

Illustrations have obviously been used in web design for years, yet abstract illustrations, in particular, are continuing to rise in popularity. Why? Well, they offer designers the unique opportunity to mix and match different mediums for some interestingly unpredictable results.

Organic textures add a handmade look and feel, hand-drawn scribbles provide familiarity, mixing and matching seemingly endless possibilities – a welcome contrast in the digital landscape. Take a look at these blog illustrations by Adam Ho . Utilizing ultra-thin lines and quirky graphic shapes, Adam’s illustrations feel like they could be technical drawings without directly depicting any specific object.

05. It’s all about the linework

Web design trends 2022: screenshot of CPGD website

Toggling that nostalgia/modernist line is, wait for it, linework. Designers are using lines to delineate sections, paragraphs, headers, and product galleries on websites with more visual weight and flair. Linework is also great for creating dynamic grids for an entire webpage. In some cases, these structured lines and grids make static websites feel almost app-like.

From a different perspective, this sort of design grants websites a more physical feel as well, almost akin to a magazine or newspaper. CPGD  uses bold black lines to evoke an almost retro graphic effect. Each section within the lined grid is a different colour helping differentiate content, and the mouseover colour change orients visitors on the page. The illustrations help bring this style even further into trending territory.

06. Gender-neutral designs

Web design trends 2022: screenshot from Déplacé Maison website

Previously considered just being thoughtful, gender-neutral design is now becoming a standard. Creating a baseline of accessibility for all visitors is the first step in looking beyond societal assumptions. For instance, pinks aren’t just for women and “hypermasculine” elements like flames and skulls don’t need to be front and centre to lure in a male audience. Simply put, designers should avoid making any assumptions about the audience. 

It’s now increasingly common to offer multiple gender options and pronouns in both website forms and drop-down menus. Even in ecommerce, many sites are becoming more inclusive by not sorting clothes by gender (see Déplacé Maison as an example) and including modeled shots on various body types to make their products more accessible.

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Max Lind

Max is a design evangelist at Webflow. He acts as a connector of dots between Webflow’s community of designers and visual developers by curating content and highlighting people and projects throughout Webflow’s variety of creative outlets. Additionally, he works closely with the Webflow Brand Design team to evangelise and produce creative projects and content. Max has been amongst the design community since the early 2000s, and previously worked at Dribbble and Abstract.

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Guide: Web Design Trends & Forecasts for 2023

Website design trends are more than just popular fads or collective behaviors embraced by mainstream culture.

sitewired

Written by: webmaster

Updated on: March 10, 2023

On This Page:

  • The Y2K Aesthetic and Web Design

Fonts and Textual Designs

Mouse cursors, pixelation & pixelated elements, custom fonts and typeface, hand drawn lettering, shareable assets, illustration 3d, exploring the metaverse, line art techniques, loading time for animations, premium content, lightweight web development, customize user experiences, looking to stay ahead of the curve.

New technologies like Web 3.0 are also driving changes in web design trends. These technologies allow for interactive experiences that engage users in exciting ways. Designers can use these trends to create sites and projects that stay current and connect with modern audiences. By embracing these trends, designers can create engaging websites that stand out from the competition and keep users coming back for more.

New web developers can look at current design trends for inspiration when creating business websites for their clients. One trend that appears to be dominant in 2023 is the focus on providing a more interactive experience. We look forward to the advancements in web-building technology and immersive experiences like the metaverse that the coming year will bring.

The Y2K Aesthetic and Web Design Trends

web design trends and the y2k aesthetic

The Y2K trend has been making a comeback in recent years, with its influence being seen in fashion, music, interior design and art. This trend is now also bleeding through to website redesign forecasts, as people look back fondly on the turn of the century. Nostalgia trends have historically run in a 40-year cycle, but with the rise of social media, this cycle is speeding up. People can share new trends more easily and quickly than ever before, so it’s no surprise that the Y2K aesthetic is back in full force only 23 years after it first appeared.

The Y2K aesthetic was defined by its bold colors and futuristic designs. It was a time when technology was rapidly advancing and people were optimistic about what the future held. The style was characterized by bright neons, geometric abstract shapes and abstract patterns that were often used to create eye-catching visuals. As we move into 2021, we expect to see more of this style popping up across all design aspects. From websites to logos and even clothing, the Y2K aesthetic will be everywhere this year – a reminder of simpler times when life seemed less complicated.

Some designers are taking Y2K design and employing aesthetics from Vaporwave, Glitch art, and Cybercore to create a retrofuturist look. Alternately, some choose to focus on particular aspects of the trend, such as innovative typefaces, pixelated imagery, or specific mouse cursors.

web design trends using custom fonts and textual designs

The Y2K era was a time of bold colors, text-based and abstract shapes designs that were often visually pixelated and used simple fonts like sans serif or monospaced. When images started loading slowly in the late 90’s, designers moved toward simple text layouts with more white space. A Y2K site may have a ton of white space, small images, and a lot of Arial or Verdana.

With this style trending again, we believe more developers taking inspiration from the fonts and text layouts of the era. Y2K-inspired designs are not minimalist-looking sites, using bold colors and text and mixed fonts to create bold and punchy designs. Fonts in web development during the Y2K era were simple yet effective, making them perfect for modern-day designers looking to make an impact with their work.

mouse cursors and new web design trends

The days of custom cursors are back!

If you were online during the 90’s, can you remember changing your cursor into a cat, smiley face, or green alien head? Y2K was a fun time in the history of cursor graphic design trends.

In 2023, expect more custom cursors. Cursors can be an image, icon, or animation to create a user experience. This time, you can use them without installing a cursor plugin. With modern technology and software development tools available today, it’s easier than ever to create unique cursors that are both visually appealing and functional. So go ahead and customize your cursor – it’s sure to make your online experience even more enjoyable.

Pixelation on mobile devices has become an increasingly popular aesthetic in recent years, particularly with the resurgence of Y2K culture. Pixelation was originally a technological necessity in the early days of computers, but designers have since embraced it as a creative tool. For example, Attentive’s 2022 holiday marketing site paid explicit tribute to the Y2K era by using pixelated rainbow logos, icons, and photos for its articles. This type of pixelation adds visual interest and can be used to create a unique look that stands out from other designs.

Pixelation is also used in fonts and icons to give them a more modern feel. By combining traditional typography with pixelated elements, designers can create something that looks both classic and contemporary simultaneously. Additionally, pixelated images can be used to add texture and depth to an otherwise flat design. With its versatility and ability to evoke nostalgia, it’s no wonder why pixelation has become such a popular aesthetic choice among designers today.

What is Mysticism

Web Design Trends for 2023

Mysticism is a trend in design that draws on the power of symbolism to evoke deeper meaning. Iconography such as zodiac signs, all-seeing eyes, lotus flowers, and sacred geometry are used to create talismans that connect us with the natural and celestial world. Visually, these designs are gentle and delicate, featuring thin lines and organic curves. Bold colors are often muted to create a calming effect.

The use of mysticism in design can be traced back centuries when it was used to communicate with the divine. Today, it is still seen as a powerful tool for connecting with something greater than ourselves. It can be used to evoke feelings of mystery and awe or provide an aesthetic touch to any project. Whether you’re looking for spiritual guidance or want to add visual interest, mysticism is an effective way to bring your designs to life.

Revisiting the Punk Revival

Punk Revival web design trends

The punk movement on a mobile devices has been around for nearly a century, and it’s recently seen a resurgence in popularity. This is due to the current state of the world, with an ever-widening wealth gap and a growing sense of disillusionment with traditional systems of power. Punk expresses this discontent as people seek to reject the opulence and decorum that have become so pervasive in society.

The punk website design trend is achieved with DIY techniques such as hand lettering, cutouts, mismatched fonts, and chaotic collages. It rejects traditional design principles favoring something more raw and expressive. Punk fashion also often features bright, bold colors and bold color patterns to make a statement about the wearer’s individualism. The punk revival is exciting for those who want to express themselves through their art and fashion choices.

In the coming years, we expect customized fonts and hand-drawn lettering to be the next phase in the evolution of text-based website design trends.

Web developers are using typefaces more often, creating custom lettering for clients to stand out from the crowd. This look has been having a moment for several years, and its popularity keeps growing as the designs become more original.

No specific design or style is set to dominate. As this trend is personalized, designers include their own unique elements from all aspects, such as poster design, comic books, physical materials, and personalities.

Depending on the desired outcome and your proficiency in illustration and lettering, you can take several approaches to create this trend. If you’re looking for an easier alternative, BitFontMaker, FontStruct , and Calligraphr offer font generator tools that enable you to build, download, and employ unique font designs.

Using your technical knowledge on digital illustration tools, you can create custom-lettered graphic design trends and digitize artwork created with pencils, pens, paint or other mediums. You can even vectorize illustrations to turn them into fully-functional typefaces.

2023 web design trends

Abstract illustrations have become popular, and illustrative design styles continue to remain popular. As a result, many designers have been incorporating hand-drawn lettering into their designs as a complementary pairing. One artist who has been creating beautiful and vibrant fonts is Leandro Assis, a Brazilian lettering artist.

Leandro’s fonts are bright and playful, taking influence from cartooning and illustration. Using blocks of color, curvy lines, or black outlines to make his lettering stand out. His website is just as fun as his custom fonts – it’s full of colorful hand-drawn lettering that will bring life to any project. Whether you’re looking for something bold in color or subtle, Leandro Assis’ work will surely add an extra layer of creativity to your designs.

Shareable frameworks are becoming increasingly popular as a way to build community, grow reputation, and make the web a better place. This trend is expected to continue into 2023. Companies like Flowbase and Finsweet have seen success by offering free resources and being open with their techniques in the design space. Alexa Heinrich’s Accessible Social Guidebook is an example of this — she wants to make social media more accessible for all users.

The rise of shareable frameworks is indicative of a larger shift towards collaboration and openness in the tech industry. By sharing resources and knowledge, creators can help each other create better products and experiences for everyone. As more companies embrace this trend, we can expect to see even more shareable frameworks in the coming years.

Geo Location and Location Based Content

geo location and web design trends

Geolocation and browser-based content are two of the most important tools for website owners to use to create a personalized user experience. Geolocation allows websites to track a user’s location and display content based on that location. This can be used to show local deals, events, or other relevant information to the user’s current location.

Mobile device content takes this one step further by tracking a user’s browsing history and displaying custom content based on what they have seen. This helps create an even more personalized experience for the user, as they will see content tailored specifically for them when they return to the website. Using geolocation and browser-based content, website owners can increase conversions by providing users with a unique and engaging experience that keeps them returning for more.

Illustrations and Dimension

The use of 3D elements and illustrations and  Claymorphism  is becoming increasingly popular in the metaverse. This style of illustration has been around for a while, but it was more commonly used as an aesthetic choice rather than to create a truly immersive experience. Now, websites are beginning to take advantage of this trend by adding animations, full-page effects, and multi-layered illustrations that bring users into cyberspace.

These 3D illustrations can be used to create stunning visuals that draw the eye and captivate viewers. Animations can be used to give life to static images, while full-page effects can add depth and complexity to a website’s design. Multi-layered illustrations allow for intricate details that wouldn’t be possible with traditional 2D art. All of these techniques help create an engaging virtual world that users can explore and interact with. With the right combination of elements, 3D illustrations have the potential to transport viewers into another realm entirely.

using illustrations and dimensions in latest web design trends

3D illustrations can be used for more than just visual appeal; they can also be used to convey complex information in an easy-to-understand format. For example, many websites now use 3D illustrations to explain complicated topics such as data science or machine learning algorithms. By combining visuals with text, these types of illustrations help make complex concepts easier to understand and remember. Additionally, 3D illustrations can be used for storytelling purposes, allowing designers to create engaging experiences that captivate viewers and keep them engaged throughout their visit

The use of 3D illustrations in 2023 web design trends has been on the rise since 2020, and it is expected to become even more popular in 2023. This trend is a great way for web development and sites to stand out from the crowd, as flat illustration styles have become so commonplace. A good example of this trend is Redis Agency’s website, which features 3D illustration that moves dynamically as users scroll. The animation is not just used as a header or standalone illustration; instead, it is placed in front of the site content and combined with a parallax scrolling effect to create an immersive visual experience. This type of design helps draw attention to the site and encourages visitors to explore further.

The metaverse is an idea that has been gaining traction recently, with many people debating its implications and potential. It is a digital space, an interactive world, and a new online experience. A metaverse is a virtual reality form where every element builds to form a cohesive world. This means that web design in 2023 will be heavily influenced by the visual language of the metaverse.

Metaverse

The metaverse offers users an immersive experience unlike anything they have ever encountered. It allows them to explore different worlds and interact with other users in ways that were not possible before. With the rise of virtual reality technology, it is becoming increasingly important for web designers to understand how to use this design style to create engaging user experiences. As more people become familiar with the metaverse concept, it will become even more important for web designers to incorporate elements from this style into their designs to stay ahead of the curve.

Retro line art is coming back in the design world, and it’s easy to see why. This minimal illustration style is perfect for creating humorous and fun visuals that evoke nostalgia. The simple lines lend themselves to cartoonish designs with thick outlines and rubber hose limbs, while the bright, bold colors add a modern twist. To further enhance the retro effect, designers pair these illustrations with throwback bubble fonts and design features reminiscent of vintage magazine ads, such as oval borders and starburst stickers.

The beauty of this trend lies in its versatility; it can be used for anything from logo designs to web graphics to product packaging. It’s also incredibly easy to create, requiring only basic drawing skills and a few felt-tip markers or digital tools like Adobe Illustrator or Procreate. Whether you want to add humor to your project or give it an old-school vibe, retro line art is a great way to go.

Claymorphism

Claymorphism is a unique approach to web design that combines 3D with human figures that have become popular in web design over the last few years. This created different dynamic experiences, giving the viewer tactile and real illustrations. This design style has become increasingly popular due to its ability to evoke strong emotions from viewers who may have grown up watching claymation films like “Wallace & Gromit” or “Coraline”.

LS Graphics recently released Guuulp!, a 3D illustration collection of Claymorphism-inspired figures and objects. This collection allows designers to create playful 3D human figures without approaching uncanny valley territory. We expect this trend to continue into 2023 as more designers explore this unique approach to web design. Claymorphism is an exciting way for designers to create visually appealing and emotionally engaging visuals for their viewers.

Fun Interactions

“Just for fun” interactions are becoming increasingly popular as a way to add an extra layer of engagement and enjoyment to websites. These interactions don’t serve a purpose other than providing users with a more enjoyable experience. Last year, app-like websites were all the rage, and this trend is continuing in 2021 with just-for-fun interactions that let users play around with a website. Fuse. Kiwi’s Ball Pit animation effect is one example of this type of interaction, which adds a playful element to the user experience.

They don’t have to be part of the primary navigation of your site to be effective. In fact, sometimes it’s best if they aren’t so as not to distract from the website’s main purpose. Just-for-fun interactions can be used strategically throughout a website to provide users with an engaging and entertaining experience while still allowing them to access the information they need quickly and easily.

Animation loading has been around since the early days of the web, but they fell out of fashion for a while. Recently, however, we’ve seen a resurgence in their popularity as designers gradually incorporate them into their designs. This trend is likely to continue into 2023 and beyond.

The reason for this is due to the increasing popularity of interactive, animated, and immersive website designs. It allows you to engage with viewers and communicate your identity through your website. Additionally, users do not like waiting for pages to load; this feels less time-consuming for the user. A great example is Antonio Segurado’s website loading animation which welcomes you in with an inviting animation.

Collaborating at Home

The COVID-19 pandemic has drastically changed how we work, with many businesses transitioning to remote or hybrid working environments. This shift has created a need for digital tools enabling remote collaboration and features incorporating explicit collaborative support. For example, Webflow’s roles and permissions allow teams to collaborate on projects from different locations. Trello can help teams stay connected and work together over long distances.

working from home

In 2020, Adobe announced its acquisition of Figma . Well-known for features like prototype sharing and web design systems that keep assets accessible. This move demonstrates the growing trend of adding built-in collaborative features to digital tools as businesses continue to rely on remote working solutions. By providing these types of tools, companies can ensure their teams are able to collaborate effectively even when they are not in the same physical space.

Premium content experiences are becoming increasingly popular as more creators and businesses discover the value in memberships, gated content, and premium experiences. This trend is expected to continue into 2023 as Web3 — the decentralization of the web — gains traction. Gated content gives creators control over their environment and helps them get paid for valuable content. It also allows businesses to build an additional income stream directly from their own website, making them more recession-resilient.

NoCode Kids is a great example of using a paid membership feature to set up an online learning platform. They can monetize their content by charging for access to their courses while still providing valuable educational opportunities for students. This model can be replicated by other creators and businesses who want to provide premium experiences while still generating revenue from their work. With the right tools and strategies, anyone can create a successful premium content experience that will help them reach new heights in 2023.

Lightweight, more efficient websites are becoming increasingly popular in the digital age. As users become more impatient and demand faster loading times, website owners must take steps to ensure their sites are optimized for speed. This means reducing the amount of data-heavy media files on the site, such as images and videos, while still providing an enjoyable user experience. Additionally, designers should focus on creating visually appealing yet lightweight designs that don’t require too much bandwidth or processing power.

In order to make a website more efficient and lightweight, developers need to use techniques such as minifying code , compressing images and videos, caching static content, and optimizing database queries. These techniques can help reduce page load times significantly by reducing the amount of data that needs to be transferred between the server and the browser. Additionally, developers should also consider using modern web technologies such as HTML5 and CSS3, which can provide a better user experience with less code than older technologies like HTML4 or Flash. Using these techniques and technologies, website owners can create lightweight, fast, and visually appealing websites for their users.

Notifications

Notifications have become an increasingly important tool for companies to engage with customers. Historically, notifications have been used as a sales tool, prompting consumers to buy something or take advantage of a sale. However, this year has seen a shift toward more intentional use of notifications. Companies are now using notifications to create more genuine and useful user experiences.

Technically notifications are used to make websites more personal and integrated. For example, they can alert users when new content is available, or something needs their attention. They can also provide personalized recommendations based on user preferences or past behavior. By leveraging the power of notifications, companies can create more engaging experiences that keep users returning for more.

customized user experience

The internet is becoming increasingly personalized, and the ability to customize viewing experiences comes with that. 2023 web experiences will be tailored to their users’ needs and preferences. CMS platforms now give designers the tools to easily let their users customize features of their site experience. Bold colors mode can make a site more user-friendly for users with different needs. Your website visitors may respond to a website that understands their preferences, interactions, and designs they can customize to their taste.

Customizable viewing experiences are becoming more popular as people look for ways to make their online experience more enjoyable. With this trend comes an increased awareness of accessibility on the web. Dark mode and sound settings are just some features that allow people with different needs to access websites in a way that works best for them. Additionally, customizable designs let users tailor the look and feel of a website according to their own tastes. Allowing users to personalize their experience is an effective way for websites to engage visitors and keep them coming back for more.

What Does This Mean For User Engagement in 2023?

2023 is inline to be the focus of user interaction. This is because web designers have been working hard to make the internet an interactive and immersive experience for users, and this year marks a major milestone in that effort. We now have the technology to enable users to take part in shaping their own experiences on the web, from small but meaningful parts of their daily internet use to larger projects like creating virtual worlds or developing shared frameworks.

This means mobile responsive websites can be designed with responsiveness, animation, and fun features that encourage user engagement. For example, a website could become a bedtime storybook, a learning resource, or even an amusing place to play. With these tools at our disposal, we can create engaging experiences that will keep users returning for more. By ensuring our sites are interactive and enjoyable for visitors, we can ensure they stay engaged with us and our products or services.

Are you looking to stay ahead of the curve regarding web design and marketing trends? Look no further than our award-winning agency! We are proud to announce that in 2023, we will introduce fun animations and dynamic content to serve your users better. Our team of experienced professionals is dedicated to staying up to date with all the latest trends so that you can keep your website looking fresh and modern.

We understand how important it is for businesses to stay competitive in today’s digital landscape, so we strive to provide the best possible services at an affordable price. Our team has years of experience in web design and marketing, so you can trust us to create a website that will make a lasting impression on your customers. So don’t wait any longer – call us now at 303-424-2522 and let us help you take your business to the next level!

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What is Web Design?

Web design refers to the design of websites. It usually refers to the user experience aspects of website development rather than software development. Web design used to be focused on designing websites for desktop browsers; however, since the mid-2010s, design for mobile and tablet browsers has become ever-increasingly important.

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A web designer works on a website's appearance, layout, and, in some cases, content .

Appearance relates to the colors, typography, and images used.

Layout refers to how information is structured and categorized. A good web design is easy to use, aesthetically pleasing, and suits the user group and brand of the website.

A well-designed website is simple and communicates clearly to avoid confusing users. It wins and fosters the target audience's trust, removing as many potential points of user frustration as possible.

Responsive and adaptive design are two common ways to design websites that work well on both desktop and mobile.

What is Responsive Web Design?

latest research topics in web design

© Interaction Design Foundation, CC BY-SA 4.0

Responsive Web Design (a.k.a. "Responsive" or "Responsive Design") is an approach to designing web content that appears regardless of the resolution governed by the device. It’s typically accomplished with viewport breakpoints (resolution cut-offs for when content scales to that view). The viewports should adjust logically on tablets, phones, and desktops of any resolution.

In responsive design, you can define rules for how the content flows and how the layout changes based on the size range of the screen.

Responsive designs respond to changes in browser width by adjusting the placement of design elements to fit in the available space. If you open a responsive site on the desktop and change the browser window's size, the content will dynamically rearrange itself to fit the browser window. The site checks for the available space on mobile phones and then presents itself in the ideal arrangement.

Best Practices and Considerations for Responsive Design

With responsive design, you design for flexibility in every aspect—images, text and layouts. So, you should:

Take the mobile-first approach —start the product design process for mobile devices first instead of desktop devices.

Create fluid grids and images .

Prioritize the use of Scalable Vector Graphics (SVGs). These are an XML-based file format for 2D graphics, which supports interactivity and animations.

Include three or more breakpoints (layouts for three or more devices).

Prioritize and hide content to suit users’ contexts . Check your visual hierarchy and use progressive disclosure and navigation drawers to give users needed items first. Keep nonessential items (nice-to-haves) secondary.

Aim for minimalism .

Apply design patterns to maximize ease of use for users in their contexts and quicken their familiarity: e.g., the column drop pattern fits content to many screen types.

Aim for accessibility .

What is Adaptive Web Design?

latest research topics in web design

Adaptive design is similar to responsive design—both are approaches for designing across a diverse range of devices; the difference lies in how the tailoring of the content takes place.

In the case of responsive design, all content and functionality are the same for every device. Therefore, a large-screen desktop and smartphone browser displays the same content. The only difference is in the layout of the content. 

In this video, CEO of Experience Dynamics, Frank Spillers, explains the advantages of adaptive design through a real-life scenario.

Adaptive design takes responsiveness up a notch. While responsive design focuses on just the device, adaptive design considers both the device and the user’s context. This means that you can design context-aware experiences —a web application's content and functionality can look and behave very differently from the version served on the desktop.

For example, if an adaptive design detects low bandwidth or the user is on a mobile device instead of a desktop device, it might not load a large image (e.g., an infographic). Instead, it might show a smaller summary version of the infographic.

Another example could be to detect if the device is an older phone with a smaller screen. The website can show larger call-to-action buttons than usual.

Accessibility for Web Design

“The power of the Web is in its universality. Access by everyone regardless of disability is an essential aspect.” —Tim Berners-Lee, W3C Director and inventor of the World Wide Web

Web accessibility means making websites and technology usable for people with varying abilities and disabilities. An accessible website ensures that all users, regardless of their abilities, can perceive, understand, navigate, and interact with the web.

In this video, William Hudson, CEO of Syntagm, discusses the importance of accessibility and provides tips on how to make websites more accessible.

The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) lists a few basic considerations for web accessibility:

Provide sufficient contrast between foreground and background . For example, black or dark gray text on white is easier to read than gray text on a lighter shade of gray. Use color contrast checkers to test the contrast ratio between your text and background colors to ensure people can easily see your content.

Don’t use color alone to convey information . For example, use underlines for hyperlinked text in addition to color so that people with colorblindness can still recognize a link, even if they can’t differentiate between the hyperlink and regular text.

Ensure that interactive elements are easy to identify . For example, show different styles for links when the user hovers over them or focuses using the keyboard.

Provide clear and consistent navigation options . Use consistent layouts and naming conventions for menu items to prevent confusion. For example, if you use breadcrumbs, ensure they are consistently in the same position across different web pages.

Ensure that form elements include clearly associated labels . For example, place form labels to the left of a form field (for left-to-right languages) instead of above or inside the input field to reduce errors.

Provide easily identifiable feedback . If feedback (such as error messages) is in fine print or a specific color, people with lower vision or colorblindness will find it harder to use the website. Make sure such feedback is clear and easy to identify. For example, you can offer options to navigate to different errors.

Use headings and spacing to group related content. Good visual hierarchy (through typography, whitespace and grid layouts) makes it easy to scan content.

Create designs for different viewport sizes . Ensure your content scales up (to larger devices) and down (to fit smaller screens). Design responsive websites and test them thoroughly. 

Include image and media alternatives in your design . Provide transcripts for audio and video content and text alternatives for images. Ensure the alternative text on images conveys meaning and doesn’t simply describe the image. If you use PDFs, make sure they, too, are accessible.

Provide controls for content that starts automatically . Allow users to pause animations or video content that plays automatically.

These practices not only make a website easier to access for people with disabilities but also for usability in general for everyone.

Learn More about Web Design

Learn how to apply the principles of user-centered design in the course Web Design for Usability . 

For more on adaptive and responsive design, take the Mobile UX Design: The Beginner's Guide course. 

See W3C’s Designing for Web Accessibility for practical tips on implementing accessibility.

Questions related to Web Design

Designing a web page involves creating a visual layout and aesthetic.

Start by defining the purpose and target audience of your page.

Understand the type of content and what actions the user will perform on the web page.

Sketch ideas and create wireframes or mockups of the layout.

Select a color scheme, typography, and imagery that align with your brand identity.

Use design software like Figma or Sketch to create the design.

Finally, gather feedback and make necessary revisions before handing off the development design.

In each step, remember to keep the user experience and accessibility considerations foremost. Here’s why Accessibility Matters: 

The salary of web designers varies widely based on experience, location, and skill set. As of our last update, the average salary for a Web Designer in the United States is reported to be approximately $52,691 per year, according to Glassdoor. However, this figure can range from around $37,000 for entry-level positions to over $73,000 for experienced designers. It is crucial to mention that salaries may differ significantly by region, company size, and individual qualifications. For the most up-to-date and region-specific salary information, visit Glassdoor .

To become a web designer, you should start by understanding design principles, usability best practices, color theory, and typography. Next, learn the essential tools like Adobe Photoshop, Illustrator, and Sketch. Familiarize yourself with web design languages such as HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. It's important to create a portfolio of your top work to impress potential employers. Additionally, consider taking online courses to enhance your knowledge and skills. 

Interaction Design Foundation offers a comprehensive UI Designer Learning Path that can help you become proficient in user interface design, a key component of web design. Lastly, continuously practice web design, seek feedback, and stay up-to-date with the latest trends and technologies.

The role of a web designer entails the task of designing a website's visual design and layout of a website, which includes the site's appearance, structure, navigation, and accessibility. They select color palettes, create graphics, choose fonts, and layout content to create an aesthetically pleasing, user-friendly, and accessible design. Web designers also work closely with web developers to verify that the design is technically feasible and implemented correctly. They may be involved in user experience design, ensuring the website is intuitive, accessible, and easy to use. Additionally, web designers must be aware of designer bias, as discussed in this video. 

Ultimately, a web designer's goal is to create a visually appealing, functional, accessible, and positive user experience.

Web design and coding are closely related, but they are not the same. Web design involves creating the visual elements and layout of a website, while coding involves translating these designs into a functional website using programming languages like HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. Typically, dedicated web developers translate the designs to code. Several design tools can also export code directly.

Although some web designers also have coding skills, it is not a requirement for all web design roles. However, having a basic understanding of coding can be beneficial for a web designer as it helps in creating designs that are both aesthetically pleasing and technically feasible.

Responsive web design guarantees that a website adapts its format to fit any screen size across different devices and screen sizes, from desktops to tablets to mobile phones. It includes the site to the device's resolution, supports device switching and increases accessibility and SEO-friendliness.

As Frank Spillers, CEO of Experience Dynamics mentions in this video, responsive design is a default, and not an optional feature because everyone expects mobile optimization. This approach is vital for Google's algorithm, which prioritizes responsive sites.

To learn web design, start by understanding its fundamental principles, such as color theory, typography, and layout. Practice designing websites, get feedback, and iterate on your designs. Enhance your skills by taking online courses, attending workshops, and reading articles. 

Consider the Interaction Design Foundation's comprehensive UI Designer learning path for essential skills and knowledge. If you're interested in expanding your skill set, consider exploring UX design as an alternative. The article " How to Change Your Career from Web Design to UX Design " on the IxDF Blog offers insightful guidance. Start your journey today!

Absolutely, web design is a rewarding career choice. It offers creative freedom, a chance to solve real-world problems, and a growing demand for skilled professionals. With the digital world expanding, businesses seek qualified web designers to create user-friendly and visually appealing websites. Additionally, web design offers diverse job opportunities, competitive salaries, and the option to work freelance or in-house. Continuously evolving technology ensures that web design remains a dynamic and future-proof career.

Web design and front-end development are related but distinct disciplines. Web design involves creating the visual layout and aesthetics of a website, focusing on user experience, graphics, and overall look. Front-end development, on the other hand, involves implementing the design into a functional website using coding languages like HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. While there is overlap, and many professionals have skills in both areas, web design is more creative, and front-end development is more technical.

In this Master Class webinar, Szymon Adamiak of Hype4 shares his top tips for smooth designer-developer relationships, based on years of working as a front-end developer with teams of designers on various projects.

Yes and no! A web page is a type of user interface—it is the touchpoint between a business and the user. People interact with web pages. They may fill out a form, or simply navigate from one page to another. A web designer must also be familiar with UI design best practices to ensure the website is usable.

That said, in practice, the term UI is most often associated with applications. Unlike web pages, which tend to be more static and are closely related to branding and communication, applications (on both web and mobile) allow users to manipulate data and perform tasks.. 

UI design, as explained in this video above, involves visualizing and creating the interface of an application, focusing on aesthetics, user experience, and overall look. To learn more, check our UI Design Learning Path .

A modal in web design is a secondary window that appears above the primary webpage, focusing on specific content and pausing interaction with the main page. It's a common user interface design pattern used to solve interface problems by showing contextual information when they matter. 

The video above explains the importance of designing good UI patterns to enhance user experience and reduce usability issues. Modals are crucial for successful user-centered design and product development like other UI patterns.

In web design, CMS refers to a Content Management System. It is software used to create and manage digital content. 

The video above implies that the content, including those managed by a CMS, is crucial in every stage of the user experience, from setup to engagement. The top 10 CMS in 2023 are the following:

Magento (more focused on e-commerce)

Squarespace

Shopify (more focused on e-commerce)

The popularity and usage of CMS platforms can vary over time, and there may be new players in the market since our last update. 

Answer a Short Quiz to Earn a Gift

What is primarily the responsibility of a web designer?

  • They design the visual layout and user experience of a website.
  • They implement server-side functionalities.
  • They program the website using coding languages.

What is a key feature of responsive web design?

  • It adjusts the website layout based on the device’s screen size.
  • It requires a separate website version for each device type.
  • It uses fixed layouts that do not change across devices.

Which design approach allows for custom experiences based on the device?

  • Adaptive design
  • Fluid design
  • Static design

What elements are vital for a responsive web design?

  • Fluid grids, fluid images and media queries
  • High-resolution graphics and video content
  • Static images, GIFs and fixed-width grids

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If you’re not sure what type of web page to launch, you’re in the right place. We put together 26 different web development project ideas that you can start building today.

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26 best website ideas you can start in 2024

Check out these 26 different website design ideas to see what’s possible.

1. Job site

Best Writing landing page

Looking for an evergreen website idea that will never go out of style? Job sites are a great, beginner-friendly website project that’s sure to bring in some major traffic.

Most job sites, though, are not very user-friendly and frustrate job hunters. A well-designed job site, however, has the potential to receive lots of website visitors and even generate some income.

Best Writing stands out as a great example. This website includes a minimalist website design that focuses on usability and the quality of its leads. It offers a seamless user experience and stellar user interface free from the clunkiness that bogs down so many other job boards.

Plus, unlike other job sites, Best Writing offers a search function to simplify the job search, giving users a quick way to find the specific type of job that they’re after.

Here’s where the revenue comes in: Best Writing also offers users the chance to sign up for a paid monthly membership that gives members advanced notice about new job postings. Additionally, the site also charges job posters a fee. Charging these fees allows the site to bring in revenue without relying on ads. 

Related reads: How to build (and grow) a job board with Webflow

2. Affiliate site

The Raymmar's Reads website.

An affiliate website offers an online store of products and resources in a specific niche. Think of them as digital boutiques catering to the tastes and interests of a select demographic.

A great example of an affiliate site is Raymmar’s Reads — which functions as a digital book club where Raymmar shares books he likes and includes Amazon affiliate links. Raymmar uses 3D animations and color-shifting background transitions to make this simple site stand out. 

Affiliate sites are a great way to bring in extra money, too — using Raymmar’s Reads for example, users can purchase products using his posted links. In return, the site owner receives part of the income from that purchase.

3. Membership website

LinkedIn membership login page

Membership websites are another great revenue-generating website idea. Members pay for a subscription in order to unlock premium content or tools that are not available anywhere else.

LinkedIn , the professional networking platform, offers a membership program called "LinkedIn Premium," which provides enhanced features and tools for users who subscribe to the service.

With LinkedIn Premium, members gain access to advanced search filters to find and connect with professionals, see who's viewed their profile, access personalized insights on job postings, and send InMail messages to contacts outside their network, among other benefits. LinkedIn Premium also offers different tiers of membership tailored to different needs, such as Premium Career, Premium Business, and Premium Sales Navigator, catering to individuals, businesses, and sales professionals, respectively.

This membership model allows LinkedIn to generate revenue by providing additional value to users who are willing to pay for enhanced features and tools beyond the basic free service.

If you’re looking for a great website idea to make money off of your content, building a membership website is a solid avenue.

4. Online learning website

Master the Handpan online learning website

Quite a few platforms out there will host online courses for you. But they come at a price. Why not launch your own site and avoid having to pay someone for what you could do on your own with a website builder like Webflow?

Master the Handpan offers everything you need to learn how to play the handpan metal drum. The site includes three different levels of paid lessons — beginner, intermediate, and master class — plus a music theory course. Along with their instructional materials, Master the Handpan also has a buyer’s guide, discussion forum, and blog. There’s plenty of free content here to pique the interest of any aspiring handpan player.

If you’re offering an online course for a niche interest like the handpan, someone may find your website faster through a search engine than if it was part of a larger online course platform where it may get less visibility. If there’s not a lot of competition for what you’re teaching, being able to quickly attain a high level of SEO may be feasible if you create your own website.

If you want to have complete control over monetizing your online courses, launching a website of your own is the way to go.

5. Marketing blog

Honey Pot Digital blog

A blog is a rather simple project that doesn’t take too many technical skills to build. The website functions as a space to share knowledge and showcase your expertise. It’s also a place where you can sell products and services such as online courses, consulting sessions, books, and merch. Plus, a blog is a great place to earn your target audience’s trust so you can promote the products and services you sell.

Owned and designed by Emma Peacock, Honey Pot Digital 's primary goal is to showcase her digital marketing services to business owners. Emma provides resources on her blog, touching on everything from social media to how to market one's business online.

Emma's blog positions her as an authority on digital marketing, which complements Emma's paid services. Making the leap from her free content to her paid services should be easy for anyone who finds her blog posts informative.

Blogs are great for drawing attention to paid content and other services you provide. They not only help you build your reputation, they also act as an SEO beacon that brings in organic traffic.

6. Ecommerce website

Skinlabs ecommerce website

Online shops are a great side business that almost anyone can launch. Keep in mind that with so many ecommerce websites out there, you’ll be entering a competitive space — so make sure you have a solid brand identity and niche so you can set your online shop apart from the rest.

An ecommerce store can range from a few items to hundreds, and it’s well within the capabilities of anyone to set up. You can always start as a small business and scale up as you gain more customers.

Skinlabs , for example, is a boutique skincare site that sells everything from cleaning balms to soothing toners. With crisp photography and a clean and bright web design, there’s a freshness to their website.

7. AI website

DataCamp AI website

‍ If you’re a web developer, you’re probably beginning to be familiar with the power of AI. Given its increasing popularity, an AI website is another great project to launch.

DataCamp is a great example of an AI website in action. This online platform offers interactive courses and tutorials for data science and analytics. It provides a membership-based service where users can access a vast library of courses, projects, and assessments related to data science, machine learning, programming languages like Python and R, and related topics.

Upon joining, users can set their learning goals and preferences, allowing DataCamp's AI algorithm to tailor personalized learning paths suited to their skill levels and career aspirations. The platform's hands-on projects and case studies simulate real-world scenarios, enabling members to apply their knowledge practically and build a robust portfolio.

8. Service-based website

Scribly service-based website

A service-based business is just a fancy name for a business that can do something for you that you can’t do yourself — for example, real estate agents or interior decorators.

Service-based businesses also occupy the digital realm. Scribly Media offers the service of content. For companies who don’t have an in-house content creation team or have a need for extra wordsmiths, Scribly provides writing, social media management, and content strategy.

If you have a special skill and there’s a demand for it, starting your own service-based business can help put a bit of extra money in your pocket.

9. Photography website

Rita Harper photography website gallery page.

Like any creative pursuit, putting together a photography website is essential in bringing exposure to your art. A photography portfolio website not only gives you a platform to show off your art, but can also market it to a wider audience. 

Built in Webflow, Rita Harper ’s photography website showcases Rita’s documentary photographers and photojournalism work. 

Like Rita, whether you’re a wedding photographer, photojournalist, or specialize in personal portraits — your photography portfolio should communicate your specific niche so it stands out to your ideal customer. 

You can also use your photography website to sell prints of your work. Don’t miss out on potential customers who might love to have your photos hanging up in their homes or workspaces.

10. Portfolio website

An image of Lise Kyle Chapman's portfolio website.

Let’s face it, as creatives, we sometimes depend too much on our artistic sensibilities rather than business acumen. We can all benefit from having a design portfolio website when pursuing new full time gigs or landing new clients. 

This portfolio for designer Lise Kyle Chapman showcases her work in an upbeat design, capturing both her expertise and personality.

If you do web design, writing, or another visual art, a portfolio website is essential for bringing visibility to your skills and talents — and potentially leveling up your revenue.

11. Niche search engine

Zomato search engine website

Another great website project idea is a niche search engine site. Unlike Google, for example, a niche search engine site focuses on a very specific target audience or subject.

Zomato stands as a real-life example of a niche search engine tailored specifically for the restaurant and food industry. Originally conceived as a platform for discovering restaurants, Zomato has evolved into a multifaceted search engine catering to various aspects of dining experiences. Users can explore a plethora of dining options by location, cuisine, and price range, aided by comprehensive restaurant profiles featuring menus, photos, and user reviews.

Through advertising partnerships and commission fees from facilitated transactions, Zomato generates revenue while providing valuable services to users and stakeholders in the food industry.

12. Review website

Leonard Maltin's movie review website.

If you enjoy movies, music, books, or some niche product and have opinions you’d like to share, consider building a review website. Writing reviews and making videos are fun ways to share your thoughts with others and connect with other fans.

Let’s say you’re into movies. You could start your own movie review blog and become the next Leonard Maltin .

Including some well-placed affiliate links and appropriate ads will help you generate a bit of passive income off of your own review site. Once you gain a following, you can also reach out to brands for freebies like movie passes or industry-related products in exchange for an honest review on your website. 

13. Comparison website

The camelcamelcamel website.

Comparison websites like Camelcamelcamel provide an easy way for consumers to find the best deals on what they’re after.

Comparison sites allow consumers to compare similar products based on different variables. These sites present product specs, pricing, and other information in infographics, making it easier for people to quickly understand the similarities and differences between products. 

While comparison websites aren’t an ideal web design project for beginners, they can be lucrative for designers who feel confident building and managing many moving parts. Once you set up the site to pull in relevant information so consumers can easily view similar products side-by-side, you can focus on monetization.

Comparison websites bring in money through affiliate marketing. It’s not uncommon to link out to products hosted on Amazon or other big name online retailers and collect affiliate earnings from sales.

Build completely custom, production-ready websites — or ultra-high-fidelity prototypes — without writing a line of code. Only with Webflow.

14. Recipe/food blog

 Half Baked Harvest food blog website

A food blog, like Half Baked Harvest, is a great way to share your creations with a greater audience. If you’re looking for website ideas for beginners, this website idea is relatively simple to create and easy to monetize.

Through your blog, you can provide step-by-step instructions for your favorite recipes along with your experience making them. If you love cooking, writing, and photography, a food blog is a fantastic way to share your culinary passion with others.

Food blogs and recipe websites can generate revenue in a few ways. Most food bloggers rely on affiliate links for everything from recommended cookware to specialty ingredients. Just be sure to add a disclaimer to your site about those affiliate earnings so your visitors don’t feel duped. You can also bring in extra money by selling ebooks, physical books, virtual cooking classes, and more.

15. Fan website

TheForce.Net — a fan site for Star Wars fans.

Fan websites focus on a specific fandom such as Potterheads, Whovians, or Trekkies. If you want to turn your favorite fandom into a side hustle , a fan website is a great option.

For hardcore Star Wars fans TheForce.net has news, an active message board, and plenty of other excellent content. While the focus of the site is clearly all things Star Wars, you’ll notice ads throughout that drive revenue for the site. 

Whether you’re a comic book fan, self-proclaimed video game nerd, or part of another niche fandom — a fan website can be fun to create, maintain, and use to communicate with your fellow fans. Plus, if your website gets popular enough, there are always opportunities to make money through advertising or affiliate links related to your area of interest.

16. Podcast website 

The Real Python podcast website.

If you produce a podcast, you might depend on social media as the main means of promoting it. Having a podcast website is another important marketing channel, providing an opportunity to create search engine optimized content that will bring in organic traffic. The bigger your podcast gets, the more likely the chance of getting sponsors and advertisers.

This website for the podcast Real Python not only provides multiple ways to listen to their episodes, but also offers courses, books, and other Python-related learning materials. The website includes plenty of free materials as well as a store that features a paid membership, books, and more.

17. Travel blog

Wandering Earl's travel blog homepage

Travel blogs aren’t just for social media influencers. Whatever your background, you have a perspective that’s unique. Document your journeys on your own travel website and share your experiences exploring the world. 

Wandering Earl has been blogging about travel and working abroad for a long time and his website is a great resource for anyone wanting to explore the world. Earl also uses his travel blog to promote and sell his tours. 

Of course, you don’t have to run a tour company to make money from a travel blog. You can earn money by selling travel guides such as physical books or ebooks, offering travel consulting services, and through ads and affiliate links. Travel blogs can also serve as a writing portfolio that helps you land paid gigs with travel outlets.

18. Fashion blog

The Werk! Place — a fashion blog by Tiffany Battle.

For those with a passion for fashion, a fashion blog is a great website that’s easy to get up and running. Write about the latest trends, share photos of your own outfits, and create content for your fellow fashion enthusiasts.

Tiffany Battle’s fashion website The Werk! Place focuses on her unique perspective on fashion. Along with great content, Tiffany takes affiliate marketing to the next level with her “Shop my Instagram” option along with her branded discount codes for different stores.

Most fashion blogs monetize their content through affiliate links. As always, be selective about what products you endorse on your fashion website, and always let people know that you're including affiliate links.

19. Events website

 Los Angeles Theater event website

Create an events website that has a specific focus. It could be for concerts, comedy open mics, art openings, or some other event people would be interested in. This is a great avenue for generating revenue through ads or making money through affiliate links, referrals, or partnerships with the events you feature.

For example, Los Angeles Theater provides its visitors with an easy way to see what’s going on entertainment-wise in the city.

20. Nonprofit website

 EduCares nonprofit website

Building nonprofit websites is a great way to expand your development skills, as they often require lots of different functionality, like the ability to accept donations.

EduCares Foundation , for example, is a nonprofit organization dedicated to providing educational opportunities and support to underprivileged children and communities worldwide. The foundation aims to break the cycle of poverty through education, empowering individuals to build brighter futures for themselves and their communities.

The website lets individuals and organizations donate online to the foundation's programs and initiatives. The website also features success stories and testimonials from beneficiaries of EduCares Foundation's programs to highlight the positive impact of education on individuals and communities.

If you want to make a difference while sharpening some of your web development know-how, a nonprofit site might be the perfect fit.

21. Resume site

Webflow resume website template

Not everyone needs or wants to put up an entire portfolio or personal website. Sometimes all you need is a resume site. A resume site is generally just a single page where you can include social media links, biographical information, and a contact form or other way to get in touch. Though the ROI may not always be obvious, it’s helpful to have a central place to send visitors who want to keep up with you or get in touch. 

A great example of a resume site is this free link in bio template . Creator JP Dionisio used this template to create a sleek and informative resume site that lists their qualifications and skills so prospective employers can quickly glean important information. A resume site like this is great for adding to social media accounts that limit you to a single bio, too.

22. Web application

Trello web application website

Web applications are some of the most popular tools around, making them a great website idea for developers. 

Trello , for example, is a popular no-code web app for project management that helps teams organize tasks, collaborate, and stay productive using custom to-do lists. It provides a visual platform where users can create boards, lists, and cards to manage their projects and workflows.

Plus, the software offers responsive design, meaning it works on mobile devices like iPhones or Androids.

23. SaaS website

Webflow homepage

Creating a business website for a SaaS product is a great way to improve your design skills and even find freelance work in the tech industry. SaaS is a software as a service product — think tools like Webflow, Zapier, or Buffer.

Users of these platforms pay a subscription to get access to tools and resources. Creating an actual SaaS product takes a lot of time and engineering resources. However, all of these platforms need a marketing site that shows off their product.

Webflow is one of the most popular tools out there for creating these SaaS marketing websites.

SaaS websites are more comprehensive websites, just like ecommerce websites. They usually require a homepage, feature and use case pages, and a blog. They are a key part to a SaaS company’s marketing strategy — making them a valuable website idea.

24. Newsletter website

Marketer Milk newsletter website

Creating a newsletter website is a great idea to provide useful information to any target audience. The key with this idea is to pick a niche and serve a small group of people with news-worthy content.

There are two different ways you can approach this website idea — write articles yourself or curate them from the web.

For example, Marketer Milk is a marketing newsletter website that curates marketing news and resources around the web. This concept is very similar to the curation idea mentioned earlier. However, the goal of this website is to get people onto an email list from your website.

You could start a newsletter simply by using a tool like Substack, but the key is to own your own digital real estate. So, creating a website for your newsletter is a great way to not rely on newsletter platforms to attract subscribers. It also gives you different marketing avenues, like writing SEO blog posts, to grow your website traffic.

25. Gallery

Grafit gallery website

Online galleries can also bring in some major traffic and revenue, if they’re set up properly. 

Grafit , for example, is an online platform and gallery website that showcases and discovers SaaS sites across different industries like education and e-commerce. Marketers and developers can use this portfolio platform to find inspiration for their own SaaS website and see how some of the top-performing companies attract customers.

26. Dropshipping

Printful dropshipping website gallery website

A dropshipping site is another popular revenue-generating website idea. A dropshipping site is an e-commerce platform or website where products are sold without the need for the seller to keep inventory in stock. Instead of purchasing and storing products upfront, the seller partners with suppliers or wholesalers who handle the inventory and shipping logistics. 

Printful , for example, is a dropshipping and print-on-demand fulfillment service that enables individuals and businesses to create and sell custom-designed products online. It offers a wide range of customizable items, including apparel, accessories, home goods, and promotional products.

Printful seamlessly integrates with popular e-commerce platforms like Shopify, WooCommerce, and Etsy. Users can easily sync their online stores with Printful, automating the order fulfillment process.

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  • List of Web Development Research Topics

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Development of an inventory management system for better management of products in a retail store

Description of the topic

Retail organizations often face the problem of managing their inventories and they are not able to track the product throughout the entire supply chain (Oladele, Ogundokun, Adegun, Adeniyi and Ajanaku, 2021). The manual tracking of multiple products within the inventory is a difficult task and the inappropriate management of inventories in retail organizations often results in overstocking and understocking of products (Zhao and Tu, 2021). This problem often leads to poor performance of manufacturing KPIs of the organization. Considering this problem, an inventory management system is developed in this research for tracking every product within the company until it gets sold.

Research Objectives

  • To identify the issues faced by retail organizations related to inventory management.
  • To develop a web-based inventory management system for real-time tracking of the products within the store.
  • To test the functionality of the system to ensure its proper functioning and reliability.

Research Questions

RQ: Does the inventory management system help the retail organization in keeping track of its products and in enhancing its inventory management processes?

Research Methodology

This research can be conducted using the agile software development methodology in which the project can be completed in different phases. Web technologies such as HTML, JavaScript and CSS can be used for the development of inventory management systems. HTML and CSS can be used for designing the interface of the system while the system can be developed using Javascript.

  • Oladele, T.O., Ogundokun, R.O., Adegun, A.A., Adeniyi, E.A. and Ajanaku, A.T., 2021. Development of an inventory management system using association rules. Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 21(3), pp.1868-1876 .
  • Zhao, B. and Tu, C., 2021. Research and development of inventory management and human resource management in ERP. Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, 2021, pp.1-12.
  • Saha, E. and Ray, P.K., 2019. Modeling and analysis of inventory management systems in healthcare: A review and reflections. Computers & Industrial Engineering , 137, p.106051.

Development of 3D game snakes and ladder using unity

Games are an effective way for users of any age category to entertain themselves and let their minds get diverted from stressful daily activities. Snakes and ladder is a popular game that has been played by everyone whether online or offline (Comber, Motschnig, Mayer and Haselberger, 2019). But, the 2D version of the game has been outdated and users these days are attracted towards 3D games because of better gameplay and graphics (Kim, et al, 2014). The existing 2D version of the snakes and ladders game has been losing its popularity because of the increasing trend of 3D games. Thus, in this research, a 3D snakes and ladders game is developed using Unity.

  • To develop a 3D snakes and ladders game providing enhanced graphics and gameplay.
  • To test the game against multiple measures such as user-friendliness, response time etc.

RQ1: Does the introduction of 3D games have helped in enhancing the experience and gameplay of modern games?

RQ2: How does the Unity development platform help in the development of enhanced 3D games and in enhancing the gameplay of the conventional snakes and ladders game?

Agile software development methodology can be used for this research in which the project can be completed in multiple phases. The designing and development of the game can be done using the Unity Development platform for enhanced 3D animations and interfaces. Multiple testing processes can be performed during the research such as usability testing, code functionality testing, performance testing etc.

  • Comber, O., Motschnig, R., Mayer, H. and Haselberger, D., 2019, April. Engaging students in computer science education through game development with unity. In 2019 IEEE global engineering education conference (education) (pp. 199-205). IEEE.
  • Kim, S.L., et al, 2014, March. Using Unity 3D to facilitate mobile augmented reality game development. In 2014 IEEE World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT) (pp. 21-26). IEEE.

Managing the attendance of remote employees with an attendance management system

Business organizations have continued to allow their employees to work from home even after the threat of Covid 19 has reduced. This has helped them in saving the extra expenses they used to spend on offline management of the employees in the office and also has increased productivity with flexible working hours. But, the management of the attendance of remote workers is a concern for the companies as they are not able to check whether the employee is working or not. Considering this problem, a web-based system is proposed in this research which can help the organizations in detecting whether the employee is online or not automatically and can mark their attendance.

  • To identify the current issues related to the attendance management of remote employees through literature-based analysis.
  • To provide a technological solution for automated management of the attendance of remote employees.
  • To test the functionalities of the system with the white box testing technique.

RQ: How can the web-based solution help business organizations in enhancing and automate their attendance management processes?

Software development methodologies are used for such research projects and multiple methodologies can be used for this research such as agile, waterfall etc. Considering the complexity of the attendance management system development project, an agile software development methodology would be suitable under which the project can be divided into multiple phases and testing of the progress can be done after every phase to ensure the quality of the end product. White box testing can be used for testing the functionality of the attendance management system.

Development of library management system

Management of the issuing and returning process of books in a library is a time-consuming and hectic task. It is difficult to keep track of the issued books, their return date, the transactions etc. manually because of the high chances of human errors and loss of records (Shaw and De Sarkar, 2021). Thus, a web-based solution is proposed in this research for the better management of these tasks within a library. With this system, the key privacy issues of security, data loss, and human errors can be eliminated and the records can be managed appropriately (Deng. and Xie, 2018).

  • To identify the limitations of manual management of library records.
  • To provide a web-based solution for better management of library records.
  • To provide a secure and reliable solution for the appropriate management of records within a library.

RQ1: What are the limitations of manual management of library records?

RQ2: How does the web-based solution can help in enhancing the library management processes?

A suitable software methodology can be selected for conducting this research successfully. The library management system can be developed using agile software development methodology in which seven different phases of the development process can be completed- Planning, requirement analysis, designing, development, testing and maintenance. Requirements can be gathered by resting the user stories, personas and fictional scenarios while the designing and development can be done using the web technologies such as HTML, CSS and Javascript.

  • Shaw, J.N. and De Sarkar, T., 2021. A cloud-based approach to library management solutions for college libraries. Information Discovery and Delivery , 49(4), pp.308-318.
  • Deng, S.T. and Xie, C., 2018, September. Design and research of mobile phone library management system in a private university based on asp. net. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 1087, No. 6, p. 062029). IOP Publishing.

Development of a web application allowing customers to review the latest movies

There are several video streaming platforms available these days where the latest movies and shows are available to watch customers. But, it is difficult for users to decide which show they should watch because of the multiple options on these platforms (Harer and Kadam, 2014). Considering this issue, a web application is developed during this research in which the users can be able to view the ratings and reviews of the latest movie or show on different platforms such as IMDB, Rotten tomatoes etc. (You, Lee and Kim, 2016) The users can also be allowed to share their reviews regarding the movie after watching it on the video streaming platforms.

  • To build a platform for the users to share their opinions regarding the movies or shows with other users.
  • To use the web technologies such as HTML, CSS and Javascript to develop a web-based application for posting movie reviews.

RQ: How can the web-based movie review application be helpful for users in obtaining and sharing the reviews of any latest movie or show?

The web-based application for movie reviews can be developed using agile software development methodology and the web technologies that can be used for the development are HTML, CSS for web designing, Javascript for web development and SQL for database development.

  • Harer, S. and Kadam, S., 2014. Sentiment classification and feature-based summarization of movie reviews in the mobile environment. International Journal of Computer Applications, 100(1), pp.30-35.
  • You, Y.S., Lee, S. and Kim, J., 2016, October. Design and development of visualization tools for a movie review and sentiment analysis. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Emerging Databases: Technologies, Applications, and Theory (pp. 117-123).

Mobile application development for fitness activities

An unhealthy lifestyle and an unhealthy body are home to several dangerous diseases and this is the reason the prevalence of obesity is increasing day by day. Fitness applications these days track the daily activities of people, their steps, calories etc. but do not provide any health tips for appropriate fitness activities that can help people in keeping their bodies fit (Chen and Pu, 2014). The mobile application developed during this research can be the perfect solution for these problems related to existing fitness applications (Gabbiadini and Greitemeyer, 2018). This app can take the basic details of the user as input and can provide a complete list of activities that the user can complete daily to keep their body and mind fit and distant from any disease.

  • To identify the issues with the existing fitness application.
  • To propose a new application for improved fitness and mental health of the people.
  • To ensure the security of the personal information of the users on the application with strong security measures.

RQ: How can the mobile fitness application help users in enhancing their fitness and mental health?

The agile software development methodology is considered the most suitable methodology for software development and thus it can be used in this research for the development of Fitness applications. PHP scripting language can be used for the development of the application and white box testing can be done to ensure the proper functioning of the application. Penetration testing can also be performed to ensure the security of the application from any type of cyber intrusion.

  • Chen, Y. and Pu, P., 2014, April. HealthyTogether: exploring social incentives for mobile fitness applications. In Proceedings of the second international symposium of chinese chi (pp. 25-34).
  • Gabbiadini, A. and Greitemeyer, T., 2018. Fitness mobile apps positively affect attitudes, perceived behavioral control and physical activities. The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness, 59(3), pp.407-414.

Promoting energy-saving activities with a mobile application

Power and water resources are extremely valuable for human lives and yet these are carelessly used by human beings. Wastage of these sources in the day-to-day activities of human beings within their homes is one of the major concerns for the authorities as they can't move from house to house to check the wastage or to make people aware of this (Nguyen, 2014). To address this issue, a mobile application is proposed in this research which can be promoting energy-saving activities within the households such as turning off the tap after use, turning off the lights after leaving the room etc. This application can be designed for children to make them aware of these activities from a young age so that they can make other people aware as well (Oppong-Tawiah et al, 2020).

  • To promote energy and water-saving activities.
  • To provide a method for educating young children about power-saving and water-saving activities from a young age.
  • To develop a high-quality mobile application with interactive animations.

RQ1: How can the mobile application be used for making people aware of power-saving activities?

RQ2: What impact can the power-saving application make on the rate of increased wastage of these resources?

During this research, the mobile application for promoting power-saving activities can be developed using the agile software development methodology. Under this methodology, designing, development and testing can be done in multiple phases. For usability testing of the application, participants between the age of 7 to 15 can be selected from a nearby school.

  • Nguyen, S.P., 2014, May. Mobile application for household energy consumption feedback using smart meters: Increasing energy awareness, encouraging energy savings and avoiding energy peaks. In 2014 International Conference on Collaboration Technologies and Systems (CTS) (pp. 291-296). IEEE.
  • Oppong-Tawiah, D. et al, 2020. Developing a gamified mobile application to encourage sustainable energy use in the office. Journal of Business Research, 106, pp.388-405.

Authentication system for secure vaults in banks

Banks are the most trusted place for people to keep their money, documents, jewelry and other financial elements secure from getting misused and from getting lost (Das, Jelil and Mahadeva Prasanna, 2017). But, in recent times the increased cases of robberies and other unethical accounting practices in the banks have raised a few questions about their security measures (Yang, 2019). Thus, in this research, an authentication system is proposed for the bank to keep the assets of the people secure from any event in the bank. For every locker in the bank, this system can be used to ensure that the unauthorized person can be restricted to access these valuable assets of the people.

  • To identify the physical security issues in the banks.
  • To provide an effective solution for the physical security issues of the banks these days.
  • To use multiple authentication measures in the system for enhanced security

RQ: How can the authentication system with multiple authentication processes help in decreasing the physical security issues in the banks?

Agile software development methodology can be preferred for the development of this authentication system in which HTML can be used for designing the interface and PHP can be used for development. The RSA encryption technique can be used for securing the information. Multiple tests can be performed during the project such as penetration tests, authentication testing etc.

  • Das, R.K., Jelil, S. and Mahadeva Prasanna, S.R., 2017. Development of multi-level speech based person authentication system Journal of Signal Processing Systems, 88, pp.259-271 .
  • Yang, G.C., 2019. Development status and prospects of graphical password authentication system in Korea. KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems (TIIS), 13(11), pp.5755-5772 .

Development of ambulance booking system

This project is focused on the development of an online booking system for ambulances in any emergency. The ambulances have been helping people to reach the medical facilities in time to get their treatment (Bhonsle,et al., 2022). But, there is no such system currently available that can allow the patients or their guardians to book them online in any emergency cases or for pre-booking of ambulances for a particular date (Isong, Dladlu and Magogodi,, 2016). Thus, this system is proposed in this research to provide a simple and reliable solution for patients to book ambulances. This would help the industry in boosting its healthcare KPIs and become more efficient.

  • To provide a reliable solution for the booking of ambulances for patients in emergencies.
  • To build a secure and responsive system for booking ambulances so that users can get the response for ambulances in real-time.

RQ: How can the online system help patients in booking ambulances faster than the conventional ways?

In this research study, an online booking system for ambulances can be developed using the agile software development methodology. Java script can be used for the development of the system with some other web technologies such as HTML and CSS. The usability, Load management and Security of the system can also be tested to ensure high performance.

  • Bhonsle, V.S.,et al., 2022, August. Ambulance booking system using GPS. In AIP Conference Proceedings (Vol. 2461, No. 1, p. 020003). AIP Publishing LLC.
  • Isong, B., Dladlu, N. and Magogodi, T., 2016. Mobile-based medical emergency ambulance scheduling system. Int. J. Comput. Netw. Inf. Secur, 8(11), pp.14-22 .

Garbage management system for smart cities

Smart city projects include the use of advanced technologies for monitoring every activity with the help of sensors and connected systems. But, garbage collection is a process that is often not focused more by the authorities in these projects (Ali, Irfan, Alwadie and Glowacz, 2020). Thus, in this research, a web-based system is proposed for the effective management of garbage in smart cities to help the authorities keep the city clean. This system can be connected with the sensors installed in all the major dustbins in the city to get alerts when it gets full so that the authorities can address it immediately (Nirde, Mulay and Chaskar, 2017).

  • To provide an effective solution for addressing garbage management issues in smart cities.
  • To provide a reliable system for the authorities to enhance the waste management processes.
  • To develop a highly responsive system with real-time alerting capabilities.

RQ: How can the smart garbage management system help the authorities in enhancing their waste management system in smart cities?

The IoT-based smart garbage management system can be developed using the agile software development methodology. The required web technologies for this development process can be React, Java Script, My SQL and HTML. Requirements can be gathered from the literature-based analysis of existing systems and also by using requirement elicitation techniques such as interviews, focus groups etc, with the IoT and IT experts.

  • Ali, T., Irfan, M., Alwadie, A.S. and Glowacz, A., 2020. IoT-based smart waste bin monitoring and municipal solid waste management system for smart cities. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 45, pp.10185-10198.
  • Nirde, K., Mulay, P.S. and Chaskar, U.M., 2017, June. IoT based solid waste management system for smart city. In 2017 international conference on intelligent computing and control systems (ICICCS) (pp. 666-669). IEEE.

Fun learning application for children: benefits and drawbacks

Visual effects, animations and games attract the children more as compared to simple texts and images on the application. In the existing learning applications for children simple texts, images and some audio are used to provide them with knowledge about new concepts. It is very boring for them and they are not able to build their interest in this type of learning. Thus, to address this issue, a fun learning 3D game is proposed in this research in which the children can be able to play simple learning games or different STEM apps and understand the concepts in a fun way. The application will have multiple levels and the levels can be decided based on the age level of the children. This game can be designed for children between the ages of 7-12.

  • To identify the issues in the existing learning applications.
  • To provide a fun way to learn for the children in which they can both play and learn.
  • To build a fun learning application for children with multiple levels of learning.

RQ: How can the fun learning applications keep the children more involved in learning as compared to the simple learning applications?

For the development of fun learning applications during this research, agile methodology can be used. Under this methodology, the project can be completed in multiple phases and testing can be done after every phase. The fun learning application can be designed using 3D while its development can be done using C#.

  • Kaminska, D.,et al, 2019. Virtual reality and its applications in education: Survey. Information, 10(10), p.318 .
  • Lepper, M.R. and Malone, T.W., 2021. Intrinsic motivation and instructional effectiveness in computer-based education. In Aptitude, learning, and instruction (pp. 255-286). Routledge.

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List of Web Development Research Topics

The web development industry is constantly evolving, and new technologies and techniques are being developed all the time. Research helps developers keep up with the latest advancements and make informed decisions about which tools and technologies to use.

Web developers need research to stay up with the emerging, comprehend customer needs, enhance functionality, stay competitive, and create more accessible websites. That being the case, this list contains 11 research topics that would help students in getting great ideas to carry out their research effectively. Alongside of the description, the list also contains possible research questions , research objectives and possible research methodologies that can be used by students to effectively carry out their research.

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User Interface Design and UX Design: 80+ Important Research Papers Covering Peer-Reviewed and Informal Studies

Charles Mauro CHFP

Important peer-reviewed and informally published recent research on user interface design and user experience (UX) design.

For the benefit of clients and colleagues we have culled a list of approximately 70 curated recent research publications dealing with user interface design, UX design and e-commerce optimization.

In our opinion these publications represent some of the best formal research thinking on UI and UX design. These papers are also among the most widely downloaded and cited formal research on UI / UX design. We have referenced many of these studies in our work at MauroNewMedia.

latest research topics in web design

Pay walls: As you will note in reviewing the following links and abstracts, most of the serious research on UI / UX design and optimization is located behind pay walls controlled by major publishers. However, in the end, good data is well worth the investment. Many links and other cited references are, of course, free.

Important disclaimer: We do not receive any form of compensation for citing any of the following content. Either Charles L Mauro CHFP or Paul Thurman MBA has personally reviewed all papers and links in this list. Some of these references were utilized in the recent NYTECH UX talk given by Paul Thurman MBA titled: Critical New UX Design Optimization Research

In addition to historical research papers, we frequently receive requests from colleagues, clients and journalists for recommended reading lists on topics covering our expertise in UX design, usability research and human factors engineering. These requests prompted us to pull from our research library (yes, we still have real books) 30+ books which our professional staff felt should be considered primary conceptual literature for anyone well-read in the theory and practice of UX design and research. Please follow the for PulseUX’s compilation of the 30+ Best UX Design and Research Books of All Time

Title: The influence of hedonic and utilitarian motivations on user engagement: The case of online shopping experiences

Abstract User experience seeks to promote rich, engaging interactions between users and systems. In order for this experience to unfold, the user must be motivated to initiate an interaction with the technology. This study explored hedonic and utilitarian motivations in the context of user engagement with online shopping. Factor analysis was performed to identify a parsimonious set of factors from the Hedonic and Utilitarian Shopping Motivation Scale and the User Engagement Scale based on responses from 802 shoppers. Multiple linear regression was used to test hypotheses with hedonic and utilitarian motivations (Idea, Social, Adventure/Gratification, Value and Achievement Shopping) and attributes of user engagement (Aesthetics, Focused Attention, Perceived Usability, and Endurability). Results demonstrate the salience of Adventure/Gratification Shopping and Achievement Shopping Motivations to specific variables of user engagement in the e-commerce environment and provide considerations for the inclusion of different types of motivation into models of engaging user experiences. Abstract Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Title: New Support for Marketing Analytics

Abstract Consumer surveys and myriad other forms of research have long been the grist for marketing decisions at large companies. But many firms have been reluctant to embrace the high-tech approach to data gathering and number crunching that falls under the rubric of marketing analytics, which uses advanced techniques to transform the tracking of promotional efforts, customer preferences, and industry developments into sophisticated branding and advertising campaigns. Fueled in part by Tom Peters and Robert Waterman’s seminal 1982 book In Search of Excellence , which coined the phrase “paralysis through analysis,” skepticism about the approach remains widespread, even in the face of a number of positive research results over the years. This new study, involving Fortune 1000 companies, offers yet more ammunition for supporters of marketing analytics. Abstract Copyright © 2013 Booz & Company Inc. All rights reserved.

Title: Video game values: Human-computer interaction and games

Abstract Current human–computer interaction (HCI) research into video games rarely considers how they are different from other forms of software. This leads to research that, while useful concerning standard issues of interface design, does not address the nature of video games as games specifically. Unlike most software, video games are not made to support external, user-defined tasks, but instead define their own activities for players to engage in. We argue that video games contain systems of values which players perceive and adopt, and which shape the play of the game. A focus on video game values promotes a holistic view of video games as software, media, and as games specifically, which leads to a genuine video game HCI. Abstract Copyright © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Title: When fingers do the talking: a study of text messaging

Abstract SMS or text messaging is an area of growth in the communications field. The studies described below consisted of a questionnaire and a diary study. The questionnaire was designed to examine texting activities in 565 users of the mobile phone. The diary study was carried out by 24 subjects over a period of 2 weeks. The findings suggest that text messaging is being used by a wide range of people for all kinds of activities and that for some people it is the preferred means of communication. These studies should prove interesting for those examining the use and impact of SMS. Abstract Copyright © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Title: Understanding factors affecting trust in and satisfaction with mobile banking in Korea: A modified DeLone and McLean’s model perspective

Abstract As mobile technology has developed, mobile banking has become accepted as part of daily life. Although many studies have been conducted to assess users’ satisfaction with mobile applications, none has focused on the ways in which the three quality factors associated with mobile banking – system quality, information quality and interface design quality – affect consumers’ trust and satisfaction. Our proposed research model, based on DeLone and McLean’s model, assesses how these three external quality factors can impact satisfaction and trust. We collected 276 valid questionnaires from mobile banking customers, then analyzed them using structural equation modeling. Our results show that system quality and information quality significantly influence customers’ trust and satisfaction, and that interface design quality does not. We present herein implications and suggestions for further research. Abstract Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

latest research topics in web design

Title: What is beautiful is usable

Abstract An experiment was conducted to test the relationships between users’ perceptions of a computerized system’s beauty and usability. The experiment used a computerized application as a surrogate for an Automated Teller Machine (ATM). Perceptions were elicited before and after the participants used the system. Pre-experimental measures indicate strong correlations between system’s perceived aesthetics and perceived usability. Post-experimental measures indicated that the strong correlation remained intact. A multivariate analysis of covariance revealed that the degree of system’s aesthetics affected the post-use perceptions of both aesthetics and usability, whereas the degree of actual usability had no such effect. The results resemble those found by social psychologists regarding the effect of physical attractiveness on the valuation of other personality attributes. The findings stress the importance of studying the aesthetic aspect of human–computer interaction (HCI) design and its relationships to other design dimensions. Abstract Copyright © 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Title: UX Curve: A method for evaluating long-term user experience

Abstract The goal of user experience design in industry is to improve customer satisfaction and loyalty through the utility, ease of use, and pleasure provided in the interaction with a product. So far, user experience studies have mostly focused on short-term evaluations and consequently on aspects relating to the initial adoption of new product designs. Nevertheless, the relationship between the user and the product evolves over long periods of time and the relevance of prolonged use for market success has been recently highlighted. In this paper, we argue for the cost-effective elicitation of longitudinal user experience data. We propose a method called the “UX Curve” which aims at assisting users in retrospectively reporting how and why their experience with a product has changed over time. The usefulness of the UX Curve method was assessed in a qualitative study with 20 mobile phone users. In particular, we investigated how users’ specific memories of their experiences with their mobile phones guide their behavior and their willingness to recommend the product to others. The results suggest that the UX Curve method enables users and researchers to determine the quality of long-term user experience and the influences that improve user experience over time or cause it to deteriorate. The method provided rich qualitative data and we found that an improving trend of perceived attractiveness of mobile phones was related to user satisfaction and willingness to recommend their phone to friends. This highlights that sustaining perceived attractiveness can be a differentiating factor in the user acceptance of personal interactive products such as mobile phones. The study suggests that the proposed method can be used as a straightforward tool for understanding the reasons why user experience improves or worsens in long-term product use and how these reasons relate to customer loyalty. Abstract Copyright 2011 British Informatics Society Limited. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Title: Heuristic evaluation: Comparing ways of finding and reporting usability problems

Abstract Research on heuristic evaluation in recent years has focused on improving its effectiveness and efficiency with respect to user testing. The aim of this paper is to refine a research agenda for comparing and contrasting evaluation methods. To reach this goal, a framework is presented to evaluate the effectiveness of different types of support for structured usability problem reporting. This paper reports on an empirical study of this framework that compares two sets of heuristics, Nielsen’s heuristics and the cognitive principles of Gerhardt-Powals, and two media of reporting a usability problem, i.e. either using a web tool or paper. The study found that there were no significant differences between any of the four groups in effectiveness, efficiency and inter-evaluator reliability. A more significant contribution of this research is that the framework used for the experiments proved successful and should be reusable by other researchers because of its thorough structure. Abstract Copyright © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Title: Socio-technical systems: From design methods to systems engineering

Abstract It is widely acknowledged that adopting a socio-technical approach to system development leads to systems that are more acceptable to end users and deliver better value to stakeholders. Despite this, such approaches are not widely practised. We analyse the reasons for this, highlighting some of the problems with the better known socio-technical design methods. Based on this analysis we propose a new pragmatic framework for socio-technical systems engineering (STSE) which builds on the (largely independent) research of groups investigating work design, information systems, computer-supported cooperative work, and cognitive systems engineering. STSE bridges the traditional gap between organisational change and system development using two main types of activity: sensitisation and awareness; and constructive engagement. From the framework, we identify an initial set of interdisciplinary research problems that address how to apply socio-technical approaches in a cost-effective way, and how to facilitate the integration of STSE with existing systems and software engineering approaches. Abstract Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Title: Five reasons for scenario-based design

Abstract Scenarios of human–computer interaction help us to understand and to create computer systems and applications as artifacts of human activity—as things to learn from, as tools to use in one’s work, as media for interacting with other people. Scenario-based design of information technology addresses five technical challenges: scenarios evoke reflection in the content of design work, helping developers coordinate design action and reflection. Scenarios are at once concrete and flexible, helping developers manage the fluidity of design situations. Scenarios afford multiple views of an interaction, diverse kinds and amounts of detailing, helping developers manage the many consequences entailed by any given design move. Scenarios can also be abstracted and categorized, helping designers to recognize, capture and reuse generalizations and to address the challenge that technical knowledge often lags the needs of technical design. Finally, scenarios promote work-oriented communication among stakeholders, helping to make design activities more accessible to the great variety of expertise that can contribute to design, and addressing the challenge that external constraints designers and clients face often distract attention from the needs and concerns of the people who will use the technology. Abstract Copyright © 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Title: Needs, affect, and interactive products – Facets of user experience

Abstract Subsumed under the umbrella of User Experience (UX), practitioners and academics of Human–Computer Interaction look for ways to broaden their understanding of what constitutes “pleasurable experiences” with technology. The present study considered the fulfilment of universal psychological needs, such as competence, relatedness, popularity, stimulation, meaning, security, or autonomy, to be the major source of positive experience with interactive technologies. To explore this, we collected over 500 positive experiences with interactive products (e.g., mobile phones, computers). As expected, we found a clear relationship between need fulfilment and positive affect, with stimulation, relatedness, competence and popularity being especially salient needs. Experiences could be further categorized by the primary need they fulfil, with apparent qualitative differences among some of the categories in terms of the emotions involved. Need fulfilment was clearly linked to hedonic quality perceptions, but not as strongly to pragmatic quality (i.e., perceived usability), which supports the notion of hedonic quality as “motivator” and pragmatic quality as “hygiene factor.” Whether hedonic quality ratings reflected need fulfilment depended on the belief that the product was responsible for the experience (i.e., attribution). Abstract Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Title: The role of social presence in establishing loyalty in e-Service environments

Abstract Compared to offline shopping, the online shopping experience may be viewed as lacking human warmth and sociability as it is more impersonal, anonymous, automated and generally devoid of face-to-face interactions. Thus, understanding how to create customer loyalty in online environments (e-Loyalty) is a complex process. In this paper a model for e-Loyalty is proposed and used to examine how varied conditions of social presence in a B2C e-Services context influence e-Loyalty and its antecedents of perceived usefulness, trust and enjoyment. This model is examined through an empirical study involving 185 subjects using structural equation modeling techniques. Further analysis is conducted to reveal gender differences concerning hedonic elements in the model on e-Loyalty. Abstract Copyright © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Title: A framework for evaluating the usability of mobile phones based on multi-level, hierarchical model of usability factors

Abstract As a mobile phone has various advanced functionalities or features, usability issues are increasingly challenging. Due to the particular characteristics of a mobile phone, typical usability evaluation methods and heuristics, most of which are relevant to a software system, might not effectively be applied to a mobile phone. Another point to consider is that usability evaluation activities should help designers find usability problems easily and produce better design solutions. To support usability practitioners of the mobile phone industry, we propose a framework for evaluating the usability of a mobile phone, based on a multi-level, hierarchical model of usability factors, in an analytic way. The model was developed on the basis of a set of collected usability problems and our previous study on a conceptual framework for identifying usability impact factors. It has multi-abstraction levels, each of which considers the usability of a mobile phone from a particular perspective. As there are goal-means relationships between adjacent levels, a range of usability issues can be interpreted in a holistic as well as diagnostic way. Another advantage is that it supports two different types of evaluation approaches: task-based and interface-based. To support both evaluation approaches, we developed four sets of checklists, each of which is concerned, respectively, with task-based evaluation and three different interface types: Logical User Interface (LUI), Physical User Interface (PUI) and Graphical User Interface (GUI). The proposed framework specifies an approach to quantifying usability so that several usability aspects are collectively measured to give a single score with the use of the checklists. A small case study was conducted in order to examine the applicability of the framework and to identify the aspects of the framework to be improved. It showed that it could be a useful tool for evaluating the usability of a mobile phone. Based on the case study, we improved the framework in order that usability practitioners can use it more easily and consistently. Abstract Copyright © 2011 British Informatics Society Limited. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Title: Understanding the most satisfying and unsatisfying user experiences: Emotions, psychological needs, and context

Abstract The aim of this research was to study the structure of the most satisfying and unsatisfying user experiences in terms of experienced emotions, psychological needs, and contextual factors. 45 university students wrote descriptions of their most satisfying and unsatisfying recent user experiences and analyzed those experiences using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) method for experienced emotions, a questionnaire probing the salience of 10 psychological needs, and a self-made set of rating scales for analyzing context. The results suggested that it was possible to capture variations in user experiences in terms of experienced emotions, fulfillment of psychological needs, and context effectively by using psychometric rating scales. The results for emotional experiences showed significant differences in 16 out of 20 PANAS emotions between the most satisfying and unsatisfying experiences. The results for psychological needs indicated that feelings of autonomy and competence emerged as highly salient in the most satisfying experiences and missing in the unsatisfying experiences. High self-esteem was also notably salient in the most satisfying experiences. The qualitative results indicated that most of the participants’ free-form qualitative descriptions, especially for the most unsatisfying user experiences, gave important information about the pragmatic aspects of the interaction, but often omitted information about hedonic and social aspects of user experience. Abstract Copyright © 2011 British Informatics Society Limited. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Title: The Usability Metric for User Experience

Abstract The Usability Metric for User Experience (UMUX) is a four-item Likert scale used for the subjective assessment of an application’s perceived usability. It is designed to provide results similar to those obtained with the 10-item System Usability Scale, and is organized around the ISO 9241-11 definition of usability. A pilot version was assembled from candidate items, which was then tested alongside the System Usability Scale during usability testing. It was shown that the two scales correlate well, are reliable, and both align on one underlying usability factor. In addition, the Usability Metric for User Experience is compact enough to serve as a usability module in a broader user experience metric. Abstract Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

latest research topics in web design

Title: User acceptance of mobile Internet: Implication for convergence technologies

Abstract Using the Technology Acceptance Model as a conceptual framework and a method of structural equation modeling, this study analyzes the consumer attitude toward Wi-Bro drawing data from 515 consumers. Individuals’ responses to questions about whether they use/accept Wi-Bro were collected and combined with various factors modified from the Technology Acceptance Model.

The result of this study show that users’ perceptions are significantly associated with their motivation to use Wi-Bro. Specifically, perceived quality and perceived availability are found to have significant effect on users’ extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. These new factors are found to be Wi-Bro-specific factors, playing as enhancing factors to attitudes and intention. Abstract Copyright © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Title: Understanding purchasing behaviors in a virtual economy: Consumer behavior involving virtual currency in Web 2.0 communities

Abstract This study analyzes consumer purchasing behavior in Web 2.0, expanding the technology acceptance model (TAM), focusing on which variables influence the intention to transact with virtual currency. Individuals’ responses to questions about attitude and intention to transact in Web 2.0 were collected and analyzed with various factors modified from the TAM. The results of the proposed model show that subjective norm is a key behavioral antecedent to using virtual currency. In the extended model, the moderating effects of subjective norm on the relations among the variables were found to be significant. The new set of variables is virtual environment-specific, acting as factors enhancing attitudes and behavioral intentions in Web 2.0 transactions. Abstract Copyright © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Title: Fundamentals of physiological computing

Abstract This review paper is concerned with the development of physiological computing systems that employ real-time measures of psychophysiology to communicate the psychological state of the user to an adaptive system. It is argued that physiological computing has enormous potential to innovate human–computer interaction by extending the communication bandwidth to enable the development of ‘smart’ technology. This paper focuses on six fundamental issues for physiological computing systems through a review and synthesis of existing literature, these are (1) the complexity of the psychophysiological inference, (2) validating the psychophysiological inference, (3) representing the psychological state of the user, (4) designing explicit and implicit system interventions, (5) defining the biocybernetic loop that controls system adaptation, and (6) ethical implications. The paper concludes that physiological computing provides opportunities to innovate HCI but complex methodological/conceptual issues must be fully tackled during the research and development phase if this nascent technology is to achieve its potential. Abstract Copyright © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Title: Modelling user experience with web sites: Usability, hedonic value, beauty and goodness

Abstract Recent research into user experience has identified the need for a theoretical model to build cumulative knowledge in research addressing how the overall quality or ‘goodness’ of an interactive product is formed. An experiment tested and extended Hassenzahl’s model of aesthetic experience. The study used a 2 × 2 × (2) experimental design with three factors: principles of screen design, principles for organizing information on a web page and experience of using a web site. Dependent variables included hedonic perceptions and evaluations of a web site as well as measures of task performance, navigation behaviour and mental effort. Measures, except Beauty, were sensitive to manipulation of web design. Beauty was influenced by hedonic attributes (identification and stimulation), but Goodness by both hedonic and pragmatic (user-perceived usability) attributes as well as task performance and mental effort. Hedonic quality was more stable with experience of web-site use than pragmatic quality and Beauty was more stable than Goodness. Abstract Copyright © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Title: Sample Size In Usability Studies

Abstract Usability studies are a cornerstone activity for developing usable products. Their effectiveness depends on sample size, and determining sample sizehas been a research issue in usability engineering for the past 30 years. In 2010, Hwang and Salvendy reported a meta study on the effectiveness of usability evaluation, concluding that a sample size of 10±2 is sufficient for discovering 80% of usability problems (not five, as suggested earlier by Nielsen in 2000). Here, I show the Hwang and Salvendy study ignored fundamental mathematical properties of the problem, severely limiting the validity of the 10±2 rule, then look to reframe the issue of effectiveness and sample-size estimation to the practices and requirements commonly encountered in industrial-scale usability studies. Abstract Copyright © 2013 ACM, Inc. Title: An experimental study of learner perceptions of the interactivity of web-based instruction

Abstract An effectively designed interaction mechanism creates a shortcut for human–computer interaction. Most studies in this area have concluded that the higher the level of interactivity, the better, especially regarding interactive websites applied in the fields of business and education. Previous studies have also suggested that designs with a higher level of interactivity result in higher learner evaluations of websites. However, little research has examined learner perceptions as they interact with web-based instruction (WBI) systems in a situation with limited time. To assist learners in acquiring knowledge quickly, the interactivity design must make the web learning environment easier to use by reducing the complexity of the interface. The aim of the present study is to explore learner perceptions of three WBI systems with different interaction levels under time limitations. This study was therefore designed to provide a new framework to design systems with different degrees of interactivity, and to examine learners’ perceptions of these interaction elements. Three WBI systems were developed with different degrees of interactivity from high to low, and a between-subject experiment was conducted with 45 subjects. The results of the experiment indicate that a higher level of interactivity does not necessarily guarantee a higher perception of interactivity in a short-term learning situation. Therefore, the instructors must pay attention to modifying or selecting appropriate interactive elements that are more suitable for various learning stages. The findings provide insights for designers to adopt different degrees of interactivity in their designs that will best fulfill various learners’ needs. Abstract Copyright © 2011 British Informatics Society Limited. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

latest research topics in web design

Title: Age differences in the perception of social presence in the use of 3D virtual world for social interaction

Abstract 3D virtual worlds are becoming increasingly popular as tool for social interaction, with the potential of augmenting the user’s perception of physical and social presence. Thus, this technology could be of great benefit to older people, providing home-bound older users with access to social, educational and recreational resources. However, so far there have been few studies looking into how older people engage with virtual worlds, as most research in this area focuses on younger users. In this study, an online experiment was conducted with 30 older and 30 younger users to investigate age differences in the perception of presence in the use of virtual worlds for social interaction. Overall, we found that factors such as navigation and prior experience with text messaging tools played a key role in older people’s perception of presence. Both physical and social presence was found to be linked to the quality of social interaction for users of both age groups. In addition, older people displayed proxemic behavior which was more similar to proxemic behavior in the physical world when compared to younger users. Abstract Copyright © 2012 British Informatics Society Limited. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Title: Human error and information systems failure: the case of the London ambulance service computer-aided despatch system project

Abstract Human error and systems failure have been two constructs that have become linked in many contexts. In this paper we particularly focus on the issue of failure in relation to that group of software systems known as information systems. We first review the extant theoretical and empirical work on this topic. Then we discuss one particular well-known case — that of the London ambulance service computer-aided despatch system (Lascad) project — and use it as a particularly cogent example of the features of information systems failure. We maintain that the tendency to analyse information systems failure solely from a technological standpoint is limiting, that the nature of information systems failure is multi-faceted, and hence cannot be adequately understood purely in terms of the immediate problems of systems construction. Our purpose is also to use the generic material on IS failure and the specific details of this particular case study to critique the issues of safety, criticality, human error and risk in relation to systems not currently well considered in relation to these areas. Abstract Copyright © 1999 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

latest research topics in web design

Title: Feminist HCI meets facebook: Performativity and social networking sites

Abstract In this paper, I reflect on a specific product of interaction design, social networking sites. The goals of this paper are twofold. One is to bring a feminist reflexivity, to HCI, drawing on the work of Judith Butler and her concepts of peformativity, citationality, and interpellation. Her approach is, I argue, highly relevant to issues of identity and self-representation on social networking sites; and to the co-constitution of the subject and technology. A critical, feminist HCI must ask how social media and other HCI institutions, practices, and discourses are part of the processes by which sociotechnical configurations are constructed. My second goal is to examine the implications of such an approach by applying it to social networking sites (SNSs) drawing the empirical research literature on SNSs, to show how SNS structures and policies help shape the subject and hide the contingency of subject categories. Abstract Copyright © 2011 British Informatics Society Limited. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Title: A survey of methods for data fusion and system adaptation using autonomic nervous system responses in physiological computing

Abstract Physiological computing represents a mode of human–computer interaction where the computer monitors, analyzes and responds to the user’s psychophysiological activity in real-time. Within the field, autonomic nervous system responses have been studied extensively since they can be measured quickly and unobtrusively. However, despite a vast body of literature available on the subject, there is still no universally accepted set of rules that would translate physiological data to psychological states. This paper surveys the work performed on data fusion and system adaptation using autonomic nervous system responses in psychophysiology and physiological computing during the last ten years. First, five prerequisites for data fusion are examined: psychological model selection, training set preparation, feature extraction, normalization and dimension reduction. Then, different methods for either classification or estimation of psychological states from the extracted features are presented and compared. Finally, implementations of system adaptation are reviewed: changing the system that the user is interacting with in response to cognitive or affective information inferred from autonomic nervous system responses. The paper is aimed primarily at psychologists and computer scientists who have already recorded autonomic nervous system responses and now need to create algorithms to determine the subject’s psychological state. Abstract Copyright © 2012 British Informatics Society Limited. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Title: Positive mood induction procedures for virtual environments designed for elderly people

Abstract Positive emotions have a significant influence on mental and physical health. Their role in the elderly’s wellbeing has been established in numerous studies. It is therefore worthwhile to explore ways in which elderly people can increase the number of positive experiences in their daily lives. This paper describes two Virtual Environments (VEs) that were used as mood induction procedures (MIPs) for this population. In addition, the VEs’ efficacy at increasing joy and relaxation in elderly users is analyzed. The VEs contain exercises for generating positive-autobiographic memories, mindfulness and slow breathing rhythms. The total sample comprised 18 participants over 55 years old who used the VEs on two occasions. Twelve of them used the joy environment, while 16 used the relaxation environment. Moods before and after each session were assessed using Visual Analogical Scales. After using both VEs, results indicated significant increases in joy and relaxation and significant decreases in sadness and anxiety. The participants also indicated low levels of difficulty of use and high levels of satisfaction and sense of presence. Hence, the VEs demonstrate their usefulness at promoting positive affects and enhancing the wellbeing of elderly people. Abstract Copyright © 2012 British Informatics Society Limited. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Title: The effects of trust, security and privacy in social networking: A security-based approach to understand the pattern of adoption

Abstract Social network services (SNS) focus on building online communities of people who share interests and/or activities, or who are interested in exploring the interests and activities of others. This study examines security, trust, and privacy concerns with regard to social networking Websites among consumers using both reliable scales and measures. It proposes an SNS acceptance model by integrating cognitive as well as affective attitudes as primary influencing factors, which are driven by underlying beliefs, perceived security, perceived privacy, trust, attitude, and intention. Results from a survey of SNS users validate that the proposed theoretical model explains and predicts user acceptance of SNS substantially well. The model shows excellent measurement properties and establishes perceived privacy and perceived security of SNS as distinct constructs. The finding also reveals that perceived security moderates the effect of perceived privacy on trust. Based on the results of this study, practical implications for marketing strategies in SNS markets and theoretical implications are recommended accordingly. Abstract Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Title: Usability testing: what have we overlooked?

Abstract For more than a decade, the number of usability test participants has been a major theme of debate among usability practitioners and researchers keen to improve usability test performance. This paper provides evidence suggesting that the focus be shifted to task coverage instead. Our data analysis of nine commercial usability test teams participating in the CUE-4 study revealed no significant correlation between the percentage of problems found or of new problems and number of test users, but correlations of both variables and number of user tasks used by each usability team were significant. The role of participant recruitment on usability test performance and future research directions are discussed. Abstract Copyright © 2013 ACM, Inc.

Title: Predicting online grocery buying intention: a comparison of the theory of reasoned action and the theory of planned behavior

Abstract This paper tests the ability of two consumer theories—the theory of reasoned action and the theory of planned behavior—in predicting consumer online grocery buying intention. In addition, a comparison of the two theories is conducted. Data were collected from two web-based surveys of Danish ( n =1222) and Swedish ( n =1038) consumers using self-administered questionnaires. These results suggest that the theory of planned behavior (with the inclusion of a path from subjective norm to attitude) provides the best fit to the data and explains the highest proportion of variation in online grocery buying intention. Abstract Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Title: Decomposition and crossover effects in the theory of planned behavior: A study of consumer adoption intentions

Abstract The Theory of Planned Behavior, an extension of the well-known Theory of Reasoned Action, is proposed as a model to predict consumer adoption intention. Three variations of the Theory of Planned Behavior are examined and compared to the Theory of Reasoned Action. The appropriateness of each model is assessed with data from a consumer setting. Structural equation modelling using maximum likelihood estimation for the four models revealed that the traditional forms of the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behavior fit the data adequately. Decomposing the belief structures and allowing for crossover effects in the Theory of Planned Behavior resulted in improvements in model prediction. The application of each model to theory development and management intervention is explored. Abstract Copyright © 1995 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Title: Knowledge and the Prediction of Behavior: The Role of Information Accuracy in the Theory of Planned Behavior

Abstract The results of the present research question the common assumption that being well informed is a prerequisite for effective action to produce desired outcomes. In Study 1 ( N = 79), environmental knowledge had no effect on energy conservation, and in Study 2 ( N = 79), alcohol knowledge was unrelated to drinking behavior. Such disappointing correlations may result from an inappropriate focus on accuracy of information at the expense of its relevance to and support for the behavior. Study 3 ( N = 85) obtained a positive correlation between knowledge and pro-Muslim behavior, but Study 4 ( N = 89) confirmed the proposition that this correlation arose because responses on the knowledge test reflected underlying attitudes. Study 4 also showed that the correlation could become positive or negative by appropriate selection of questions for the knowledge test. The theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991 ), with its focus on specific actions, predicted intentions and behavior in all four studies. Abstract Copyright © 2013 Informa plc

latest research topics in web design

Link: h ttp://www.businessinsider.com/ron-johnson-apple-store-j-c-penney-2011-11

People come to the Apple Store for the experience — and they’re willing to pay a premium for that. There are lots of components to that experience, but maybe the most important — and this is something that can translate to any retailer — is that the staff isn’t focused on selling stuff, it’s focused on building relationships and trying to make people’s lives better. Abstract Copyright © 2013 Business Insider, Inc. All rights reserved.

Title : Naturalizing aesthetics: Brain areas for aesthetic appraisal across sensory modalities

Abstract We present here the most comprehensive analysis to date of neuroaesthetic processing by reporting the results of voxel-based meta-analyses of 93 neuroimaging studies of positive-valence aesthetic appraisal across four sensory modalities. The results demonstrate that the most concordant area of activation across all four modalities is the right anterior insula, an area typically associated with visceral perception, especially of negative valence (disgust, pain, etc.). We argue that aesthetic processing is, at its core, the appraisal of the valence of perceived objects. This appraisal is in no way limited to artworks but is instead applicable to all types of perceived objects. Therefore, one way to naturalize aesthetics is to argue that such a system evolved first for the appraisal of objects of survival advantage, such as food sources, and was later co-opted in humans for the experience of artworks for the satisfaction of social needs. Abstract Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Link: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=the-neuroscience-of-beauty

Studies from neuroscience and evolutionary biology challenge this separation of art from non-art. Human neuroimaging studies have convincingly shown that the brain areas involved in aesthetic responses to artworks overlap with those that mediate the appraisal of objects of evolutionary importance, such as the desirability of foods or the attractiveness of potential mates. Hence, it is unlikely that there are brain systems specific to the appreciation of artworks; instead there are general aesthetic systems that determine how appealing an object is, be that a piece of cake or a piece of music. Abstract © 2013 Scientific American, a Division of Nature America, Inc.

Link: http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/symbiartic/2011/10/03/need-proof-that-were-visual-beings/

This video offers proof that humans are visual beings. Abstract © 2013 Scientific American, a Division of Nature America, Inc.

Link: http://hbr.org/web/slideshows/five-charts-that-changed-business/1-slide

Once in a while, a chart so deftly captures an important strategic insight that it becomes an iconic part of management thinking and a tool that shows up in MBA classrooms and corporate boardrooms for years to come. As HBR prepares for its 90th anniversary, in 2012, their editors have combed the magazine archives and other sources to select five charts that changed the shape of strategy. Abstract Copyright © 2013 Harvard Business School Publishing. All rights reserved.

Link: http://www.strategy-business.com/article/04412

It is a widely accepted and rarely challenged tenet of marketing that companies can sustain competitive advantage only through “new and improved” product differentiation based on unique features and benefits. What a mistake. By paying attention to what consumers really want, companies can attract new customers and create a distinctive brand. Abstract © 2013 Booz & Company Inc. All rights reserved.

Link: http://www.economist.com/node/17723028

If you can have everything in 57 varieties, making decisions becomes hard work. Many of these options have improved life immeasurably in the rich world, and to a lesser extent in poorer parts. They are testimony to human ingenuity and innovation. Free choice is the basis on which markets work, driving competition and generating economic growth. It is the cornerstone of liberal democracy. The 20th century bears the scars of too many failed experiments in which people had no choice. But amid all the dizzying possibilities, a nagging question lurks: is so much extra choice unambiguously a good thing? Abstract Copyright © The Economist Newspaper Limited 2013. All rights reserved.

Link: http://e.businessinsider.com/public/1099804

Mobile apps are becoming more important to people, not less important, according to this chart plucked from a big presentation on the internet. It’s an interesting trend because it shows how mobile behavior is different than traditional desktop computing behavior when it comes to the web. Abstract Copyright © 2013 Business Insider, Inc. All rights reserved.

Link: http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/scicurious-brain/2012/07/30/you-want-that-well-i-want-it-too-the-neuroscience-of-mimetic-desire/

Mimetic desire is more than jealously wanting something because someone else has it. Rather, it’s about valuing something because someone else values it . And it’s pretty easy to transmit the value. Just writing about Person A’s activities and habits and showing it to Person B will make Person B start to think Person A must have seen something good about the Toyota Camry…maybe his next car…

But what is behind this contagion of desires? Abstract © 2013 Scientific American, a Division of Nature America, Inc.

latest research topics in web design

Link: http://www.united-academics.org/magazine/27212/visual-memory-blindness/

A well-known pheonomenon in psychology has been the ‘inattentional blindness’ principle. In fact, you might know it from experience: it means that people tend to fail seeing things in their visible fields when they have to focus on a task. Until now, it was thought that in order to cause the effect, a cluttered visual field is required. Recent research shows that the effect is present though in many more situations. Abstract Copyright United Academics 2012 Coypright – All rights Reserved

Link: http://www.businessinsider.com/18-24-texting-2011-9

Chart of the Day: According to the Pew Internet project , people in the 18-24 year-old range are sending and receiving 110 texts per day on average. The median number of texts sent/received by that group is 50 per day. Abstract Copyright © 2013 Business Insider, Inc. All rights reserved.

Link: http://www.businessinsider.com/chart-of-the-day-facebook-time-2011-9

Chart of the Day: A new report on social media from Nielsen shows U.S. users spent 53.5 billion minutes on Facebook in May, which is more time than was spent on the next four biggest sites. Abstract Copyright © 2013 Business Insider, Inc. All rights reserved.

Link: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=your-brain-on-facebook

A recent study showed that certain brain areas expand in people who have greater numbers of friends on Facebook . There was a problem, though. The study, in Proceedings of the Royal Society B , was unable to resolve the question of whether “friending” plumps up the brain areas or whether people with a type of robustness in brain physiology are just natural social butterflies. But with the help of a few monkeys in England, teenagers everywhere may now have more ammunition to use against parents. Abstract © 2013 Scientific American, a Division of Nature America, Inc.

Link: http://iwc.oxfordjournals.org/content/26/3/196.abstract.html?etoc

Although advances in technology now enable people to communicate ‘anytime, anyplace’, it is not clear how citizens can be motivated to actually do so. This paper evaluates the impact of three principles of psychological empowerment, namely perceived self-efficacy, sense of community and causal importance, on public transport passengers’ motivation to report issues and complaints while on the move. A week-long study with 65 participants revealed that self-efficacy and causal importance increased participation in short bursts and increased perceptions of service quality over longer periods. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings for citizen participation projects and reflect on design opportunities for mobile technologies that motivate citizen participation. Abstract 2013 Oxford University Press.

Link: http://iwc.oxfordjournals.org/content/26/3/208.abstract.html?etoc

This review paper argues that users of personal information management systems have three particularly pressing requirements, for which current systems do not fully cater: (i) To combat information overload, as the volume of information increases. (ii) To ease context switching, in particular, for users who face frequent interrupts in their work. (iii) To be supported in information integration, across a variety of applications. To meet these requirements, four broad technological approaches should be adopted in an incremental fashion: (i) The deployment of a unified file system to manage all information objects, including files, emails and webpage URLs. (ii) The use of tags to categorize information; implemented in a way which is backward-compatible with existing hierarchical file systems. (iii) The use of context to aid information retrieval; built upon existing file and tagging systems rather than creating a parallel context management system. (iv) The deployment of semantic technologies, coupled with the harvesting of all useful metadata. Abstract 2013 Oxford University Press.

Link: http://iwc.oxfordjournals.org/content/26/3/238.abstract.html?etoc

Projective techniques are used in psychology and consumer research to provide information about individuals’ motivations, thoughts and feelings. This paper reviews the use of projective techniques in marketing research and user experience (UX) research and discusses their potential role in understanding users, their needs and values, and evaluating UX in practical product development contexts. A projective technique called sentence completion is evaluated through three case studies. Sentence completion produces qualitative data about users’ views in a structured form. The results are less time-consuming to analyze than interview results. Compared with quantitative methods such as AttrakDiff, the results are more time consuming to analyze, but more information is retrieved on negative feelings. The results show that sentence completion is useful in understanding users’ perceptions and that the technique can be used to complement other methods. Sentence completion can also be used online to reach wider user groups. Abstract 2013 Oxford University Press.

Link: http://iwc.oxfordjournals.org/content/26/3/256.abstract.html?etoc

Cognitive load (CL) is experienced during critical tasks and also while engaged emotional states are induced either by the task itself or by extraneous experiences. Emotions irrelevant to the working memory representation may interfere with the processing of relevant tasks and can influence task performance and behavior, making the accurate detection of CL from nonverbal information challenging. This paper investigates automatic CL detection from facial features, physiology and task performance under affective interference. Data were collected from participants (n=20) solving mental arithmetic tasks with emotional stimuli in the background, and a combined classifier was used for detecting CL levels. Results indicate that the face modality for CL detection was more accurate under affective interference, whereas physiology and task performance were more accurate without the affective interference. Multimodal fusion improved detection accuracies, but it was less accurate under affective interferences. More specifically, the accuracy decreased with an increasing intensity of emotional arousal. Abstract 2013 Oxford University Press.

Link: http://iwc.oxfordjournals.org/content/26/3/269.abstract.html?etoc

In the field of virtual reality (VR), many efforts have been made to analyze presence, the sense of being in the virtual world. However, it is only recently that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to study presence during an automatic navigation through a virtual environment. In the present work, our aim was to use fMRI to study the sense of presence during a VR-free navigation task, in comparison with visualization of photographs and videos (automatic navigations through the same environment). The main goal was to analyze the usefulness of fMRI for this purpose, evaluating whether, in this context, the interaction between the subject and the environment is performed naturally, hiding the role of technology in the experience. We monitored 14 right-handed healthy females aged between 19 and 25 years. Frontal, parietal and occipital regions showed their involvement during free virtual navigation. Moreover, activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was also shown to be negatively correlated to sense of presence and the postcentral parietal cortex and insula showed a parametric increased activation according to the condition-related sense of presence, which suggests that stimulus attention and self-awareness processes related to the insula may be linked to the sense of presence. Abstract 2013 Oxford University Press.

Link: http://iwc.oxfordjournals.org/content/26/3/285.abstract.html?etoc

Unlike visual stimuli, little attention has been paid to auditory stimuli in terms of emotion prediction with physiological signals. This paper aimed to investigate whether auditory stimuli can be used as an effective elicitor as visual stimuli for emotion prediction using physiological channels. For this purpose, a well-controlled experiment was designed, in which standardized visual and auditory stimuli were systematically selected and presented to participants to induce various emotions spontaneously in a laboratory setting. Numerous physiological signals, including facial electromyogram, electroencephalography, skin conductivity and respiration data, were recorded when participants were exposed to the stimulus presentation. Two data mining methods, namely decision rules and k-nearest neighbor based on the rough set technique, were applied to construct emotion prediction models based on the features extracted from the physiological data. Experimental results demonstrated that auditory stimuli were as effective as visual stimuli in eliciting emotions in terms of systematic physiological reactivity. This was evidenced by the best prediction accuracy quantified by the F1 measure (visual: 76.2% vs. auditory: 76.1%) among six emotion categories (excited, happy, neutral, sad, fearful and disgusted). Furthermore, we also constructed culture-specific (Chinese vs. Indian) prediction models. The results showed that model prediction accuracy was not significantly different between culture-specific models. Finally, the implications of affective auditory stimuli in human–computer interaction, limitations of the study and suggestions for further research are discussed. Abstract 2013 Oxford University Press.

Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289614000087

The deliberate practice view has generated a great deal of scientific and popular interest in expert performance. At the same time, empirical evidence now indicates that deliberate practice, while certainly important, is not as important as Ericsson and colleagues have argued it is. In particular, we (Hambrick, Oswald, Altmann, Meinz, Gobet, & Campitelli, 2014) found that individual differences in accumulated amount of deliberate practice accounted for about one-third of the reliable variance in performance in chess and music, leaving the majority of the reliable variance unexplained and potentially explainable by other factors. Ericsson’s (2014) defense of the deliberate practice view, though vigorous, is undercut by contradictions, oversights, and errors in his arguments and criticisms, several of which we describe here. We reiterate that the task now is to develop and rigorously test falsifiable theories of expert performance that take into account as many potentially relevant constructs as possible. Abstract © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Link: http://techcrunch.com/2013/02/05/amazon-to-launch-virtual-currency-amazon-coins-in-its-appstore-in-may/

Amazon has just announced a new virtual currency for Kindle Fire owners to use on in-app purchases, app purchases, etc. in the Amazon Appstore. Abstract © 2013 AOL Inc. All rights reserved.

Link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/smj.2284/abstract

Link: http://iwc.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2014/05/09/iwc.iwu016.abstract.html?papetoc

Wizard of Oz (WOZ) is a well-established method for simulating the functionality and user experience of future systems. Using a human wizard to mimic certain operations of a potential system is particularly useful in situations where extensive engineering effort would otherwise be needed to explore the design possibilities offered by such operations. The WOZ method has been widely used in connection with speech and language technologies, but advances in sensor technology and pattern recognition as well as new application areas such as human–robot interaction have made it increasingly relevant to the design of a wider range of interactive systems. In such cases, achieving acceptable performance at the user interface level often hinges on resource-intensive improvements such as domain tuning, which are better done once the overall design is relatively stable. Although WOZ is recognized as a valuable prototyping technique, surprisingly little effort has been put into exploring it from a methodological point of view. Starting from a survey of the literature, this paper presents a systematic investigation and analysis of the design space for WOZ for language technology applications, and proposes a generic architecture for tool support that supports the integration of components for speech recognition and synthesis as well as for machine translation. This architecture is instantiated in WebWOZ—a new web-based open-source WOZ prototyping platform. The viability of generic support is explored empirically through a series of evaluations. Researchers from a variety of backgrounds were able to create experiments, independent of their previous experience with WOZ. The approach was further validated through a number of real experiments, which also helped to identify a number of possibilities for additional support, and flagged potential issues relating to consistency in wizard performance. Abstract 2014 Oxford University Press

Link: http://www.thinkwithgoogle.com/insights/library/studies/the-new-multi-screen-world-study/

This paper studies how business models can be designed to tap effectively into open innovation labor markets with heterogeneously motivated workers. Using data on open source software, we show that motivations are diverse, and demonstrate how managers can strategically influence the flow of code contributions and their impact on project performance. Unlike previous literature using survey data, we exploit the observed pattern of project membership and code contributions—the “revealed preference” of developers—to infer the motivations driving their decision to contribute. Developers strongly sort along key dimensions of the business model chosen by project managers, especially the degree of openness of the project license. The results indicate an important role for intrinsic motivation, reputation, and labor market signaling, and a more limited role for reciprocity. Abstract 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

updated on 5/13

Title: Developing elements of user experience for mobile phones and services: survey, interview, and observation approaches

Abstract The term user experience (UX) encompasses the concepts of usability and affective engineering. However, UX has not been defined clearly. In this study, a literature survey, user interview and indirect observation were conducted to develop definitions of UX and its elements. A literature survey investigated 127 articles that were considered to be helpful to define the concept of UX. An in-depth interview targeted 14 hands-on workers in the Korean mobile phone industry. An indirect observation captured daily experiences of eight end-users with mobile phones. This study collected various views on UX from academia, industry, and end-users using these three approaches. As a result, this article proposes definitions of UX and its elements: usability, affect, and user value. These results are expected to help design products or services with greater levels of UX. Abstract Copyright 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Title: Why different people prefer different systems for different tasks: An activity perspective on technology adoption in a dynamic user environment

Abstract In a contemporary user environment, there are often multiple information systems available for a certain type of task. Based on the premises of Activity Theory, this study examines how user characteristics, system experiences, and task situations influence an individual’s preferences among different systems in terms of user readiness to interact with each. It hypothesizes that system experiences directly shape specific user readiness at the within-subject level, user characteristics and task situations make differences in general user readiness at the between-subject level, and task situations also affect specific user readiness through the mediation of system experiences. An empirical study was conducted, and the results supported the hypothesized relationships. The findings provide insights on how to enhance technology adoption by tailoring system development and management to various task contexts and different user groups. Abstract Copyright 2011 ASIS&T

Title: A review of factors influencing user satisfaction in information retrieval

Abstract The authors investigate factors influencing user satisfaction in information retrieval. It is evident from this study that user satisfaction is a subjective variable, which can be influenced by several factors such as system effectiveness, user effectiveness, user effort, and user characteristics and expectations. Therefore, information retrieval evaluators should consider all these factors in obtaining user satisfaction and in using it as a criterion of system effectiveness. Previous studies have conflicting conclusions on the relationship between user satisfaction and system effectiveness; this study has substantiated these findings and supports using user satisfaction as a criterion of system effectiveness. Abstract Copyright 2010 ASIS&T

Title: The development and evaluation of a survey to measure user engagement

Abstract Facilitating engaging user experiences is essential in the design of interactive systems. To accomplish this, it is necessary to understand the composition of this construct and how to evaluate it. Building on previous work that posited a theory of engagement and identified a core set of attributes that operationalized this construct, we constructed and evaluated a multidimensional scale to measure user engagement. In this paper we describe the development of the scale, as well as two large-scale studies (N=440 and N=802) that were undertaken to assess its reliability and validity in online shopping environments. In the first we used Reliability Analysis and Exploratory Factor Analysis to identify six attributes of engagement: Perceived Usability, Aesthetics, Focused Attention, Felt Involvement, Novelty, and Endurability. In the second we tested the validity of and relationships among those attributes using Structural Equation Modeling. The result of this research is a multidimensional scale that may be used to test the engagement of software applications. In addition, findings indicate that attributes of engagement are highly intertwined, a complex interplay of user-system interaction variables. Notably, Perceived Usability played a mediating role in the relationship between Endurability and Novelty, Aesthetics, Felt Involvement, and Focused Attention. Abstract Copyright 2009 ASIS&T

Title: Exploring user engagement in online news interactions

Abstract This paper describes a qualitative study of online news reading and browsing. Thirty people participated in a quasi-experimental study in which they were asked to browse a news website and select three stories to discuss at a social gathering. Semi-structured interviews were conducted post-task to understand participants’ perceptions of what makes online news reading and browsing engaging or non-engaging. Findings as presented within the experience-based framework of user engagement and demonstrate the complexity of users’ interactions with information content and systems in online news environments. This study extends the model of user engagement and contributes new insights into user’s experience in casual-leisure settings, such as online news, which has implications for other information domains. Abstract Copyright 2011 by American Society for Information Science and Technology

Abstract This chapter of The Fabric of Mobile Services: Software Paradigms and Business Demands contains sections titled: New Services and User Experience, User-Centered Simplicity and Experience, Methodologies for Simplicity and User Experience, and Case Studies: Simplifying Paradigms Abstract Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Title: The Right Angle: Visual Portrayal of Products Affects Observers’ Impressions of Owners

Abstract Consumer products have long been known to influence observers’ impressions of product owners. The angle at which products are visually portrayed in advertisements, however, may be an overlooked factor in these effects. We hypothesize and find that portrayals of the same product from different viewpoints can prime different associations that color impressions of product and owner in parallel ways. In Study 1, automobiles were rated higher on status- and power-related traits (e.g., dominant , powerful ) when portrayed head-on versus in side profile, an effect found for sport utility vehicles (SUVs)—a category with a reputation for dominance—but not sedans. In Study 2, these portrayal-based associations influenced the impressions formed about the product’s owner: a target person was rated higher on status- and power-related traits when his SUV was portrayed head-on versus in side profile. These results suggest that the influence of visual portrayal extends beyond general evaluations of products to affect more specific impressions of products and owners alike, and highlight that primed traits are likely to influence impressions when compatible with other knowledge about the target. Abstract Copyright 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc

Title: The Counterfeit Self: The Deceptive Costs of Faking It

Abstract Although people buy counterfeit products to signal positive traits, we show that wearing counterfeit products makes individuals feel less authentic and increases their likelihood of both behaving dishonestly and judging others as unethical. In four experiments, participants wore purportedly fake or authentically branded sunglasses. Those wearing fake sunglasses cheated more across multiple tasks than did participants wearing authentic sunglasses, both when they believed they had a preference for counterfeits (Experiment 1a) and when they were randomly assigned to wear them (Experiment 1b). Experiment 2 shows that the effects of wearing counterfeit sunglasses extend beyond the self, influencing judgments of other people’s unethical behavior. Experiment 3 demonstrates that the feelings of inauthenticity that wearing fake products engenders—what we term the counterfeit selfmediate the impact of counterfeits on unethical behavior. Finally, we show that people do not predict the impact of counterfeits on ethicality; thus, the costs of counterfeits are deceptive. Abstract Copyright 2010 Francesca Gino, Michael I. Norton, and Dan Ariely3

Link: http://iwc.oxfordjournals.org/content/26/5/389.full.html?etoc

Menus are a key mechanism for organizing different commands in graphical user interfaces. Nowadays low-cost devices that allow using different interaction techniques in remote interfaces have become widespread. Nevertheless, their corresponding menus are direct adaptations from traditional ones. As a consequence, they are inaccurate and slow, and also produce tiredness. In this paper, we design, implement and evaluate a menu selection technique for remote interfaces, the Body Menu. This technique permits whole-body interaction and is specifically designed to take advantage of the proprioception sense. The Body Menu attaches virtual menu items to different parts of the body and selects them when the users reach these zones with their hands. We use the Microsoft Kinect to implement this system. Additionally, we compared it with the most representative menus, studied the best number of body parts to be used and analyzed how children interact with it. Abstract © 2013 Oxford University Publishing.

Link: http://iwc.oxfordjournals.org/content/26/5/403.full.html?etoc

We present the evaluation of an interactive audio map system that enables blind and partially sighted users to explore and navigate city maps from the safety of their home using simulated 3D audio and synthetic speech alone. We begin with a review of existing literature in the areas of spatial knowledge and wayfinding, auditory displays and auditory map systems, before describing how this research builds on and differentiates itself from this body of work. One key requirement was the ability to quantify the effectiveness of the audio map, so we describe the design and implementation of the evaluation, which took the form of a game downloaded by participants to their own computers. The results demonstrate that participants (blind, partially sighted and sighted) have acquired detailed spatial knowledge and also that the availability of positional audio cues significantly improves wayfinding performance. Abstract © 2013 Oxford University Publishing.

Link: http://iwc.oxfordjournals.org/content/26/5/417.full.html?etoc

Delegation is the practice of sharing authority with another individual to enable them to complete a specific task as a proxy. Practices to permit delegation can range from formal to informal arrangements and can involve spontaneous yet finely balanced notions of trust between people. This paper argues that delegation is a ubiquitous yet an unsupported feature of socio-technical computer systems and that this lack of support illustrates a particular neglect to the everyday financial practices of the more vulnerable people in society. Our contribution is to provide a first exploration of the domain of person-to-person delegation in digital payments, a particularly pressing context. We first report qualitative data collected across several studies concerning banking practices of individuals over 80 years of age. We then use analytical techniques centred upon identification of stakeholders, their concerns and interactions, to characterize the delegation practices we observed. We propose a Concerns Matrix as a suitable representation to capture conflicts in the needs of individuals in such complex socio-technical systems, and finally propose a putative design response in the form of a Helper Card. Abstract © 2013 Oxford University Publishing..

Link: Why We Love Beautiful Things

Great design, the management expert Gary Hamel once said, is like Justice Potter Stewart’s famous definition of pornography — you know it when you see it. You want it, too: brain scan studies reveal that the sight of an attractive product can trigger the part of the motor cerebellum that governs hand movement. Instinctively, we reach out for attractive things; beauty literally moves us. © 2013 New York Times

Link: http://www.bris.ac.uk/news/2013/9478.html

A new study has analysed tens of thousands of articles available to readers of online news and created a model to find out ‘what makes people click’. The aim of the study was to model the reading preferences for the audiences of 14 online news outlets using machine learning techniques. The models, describing the appeal of an article to each audience, were developed by linear functions of word frequencies. The models compared articles that became “most popular” on a given day in a given outlet with articles that did not. The research dentified the most attractive keywords, as well as the least attractive ones, and explained the choices readers made. Abstract © 2013 University of Bristol.

Title: Pointing and Selecting with Facial Activity

Abstract The aim of this paper was to evaluate the use of three facial actions (i.e. frowning, raising the eyebrows, and smiling) in selecting objects on a computer screen when gaze was used for pointing. Dwell time is the most commonly used selection technique in gaze-based interaction, and thus, a dwell time of 400 ms was used as a reference selection technique. A wireless, head-mounted prototype device that carried out eye tracking and contactless, capacitive measurement of facial actions was used for the interaction task. Participants (N=16) performed point-and-select tasks with three pointing distances (i.e. 60, 120 and 240 mm) and three target sizes (i.e. 25, 30 and 40 mm). Task completion times, pointing errors and throughput values based on Fitts’ law were used to compare the selection techniques. The participants also rated the techniques with subjective ratings scales. The results showed that the different techniques performed equally well in many respects. However, throughput values varied from 8.38 bits/s (raising the eyebrows) to 15.33 bits/s (smiling) and were comparable to or, in the case of smiling, better than in earlier research with similar interaction techniques. The dwell time was found to be the least accurate selection technique in terms of the magnitudes of point-and-select errors. Smiling technique was rated as more accurate to use than the frowning or the raising techniques. The results give further support for methods that combine facial behavior to eye tracking when interacting with technology.

Abstract Copyright 2014 Outi Tuisku1, Ville Rantanen, Oleg Špakov, Veikko Surakka and Jukka Lekkala

Title: Modeling Traditional Literacy, Internet Skills and Internet Usage: An Empirical Study

Abstract This paper focuses on the relationships among traditional literacy (reading, writing and understanding text), medium-related Internet skills (consisting of operational and formal skills), content-related Internet skills (consisting of information and strategic skills) and Internet usage types (information- and career-directed Internet use and entertainment use). We conducted a large-scale survey that resulted in a dataset of 1008 respondents. The results reveal the following: (i) traditional literacy has a direct effect on formal and information Internet skills and an indirect effect on strategic Internet skills and (ii) differences in types of Internet usage are indirectly determined by traditional literacy and directly affected by Internet skills, such that higher levels of strategic Internet skills result in more information- and career-directed Internet use. Traditional literacy is a pre-condition for the employment of Internet skills, and Internet skills should not be considered an easy means of disrupting historically grounded inequalities caused by differences in traditional literacy.

Abstract Copyright 2014 A.J.A.M. van Deursen and J.A.G.M. van Dijk

Title: Life Is Too Short to RTFM: How Users Relate to Documentation and Excess Features in Consumer Products

Abstract This paper addresses two common problems that users of various products and interfaces encounter—over-featured interfaces and product documentation. Over-featured interfaces are seen as a problem as they can confuse and over-complicate everyday interactions. Researchers also often claim that users do not read product documentation, although they are often exhorted to ‘RTFM’ (read the field manual). We conducted two sets of studies with users which looked at the issues of both manuals and excess features with common domestic and personal products. The quantitative set was a series of questionnaires administered to 170 people over 7 years. The qualitative set consisted of two 6-month longitudinal studies based on diaries and interviews with a total of 15 participants. We found that manuals are not read by the majority of people, and most do not use all the features of the products that they own and use regularly. Men are more likely to do both than women, and younger people are less likely to use manuals than middle-aged and older ones. More educated people are also less likely to read manuals. Over-featuring and being forced to consult manuals also appears to cause negative emotional experiences. Implications of these findings are discussed.

Abstract Copyright 2014 Alethea L. Blackler, Rafael Gomez, Vesna Popovic and M. Helen Thompson

Title: Effect of Age on Human–Computer Interface Control Via Neck Electromyography

Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of age on visuomotor tracking using submental and anterior neck surface electromyography (sEMG) to assess feasibility of computer control via neck musculature, which allows people with little remaining motor function to interact with computers. Thirty-two healthy adults participated: 16 younger adults aged 18–29 years and 16 older adults aged 69–85 years. Participants modulated sEMG to achieve targets presented at different amplitudes using real-time visual feedback. Root mean squared (RMS) error was used to quantify tracking performance. RMS error was increased for older adults relative to younger adults. Older adults demonstrated more RMS error than younger adults as a function of increasing target amplitude. The differential effects of age found on static tracking performance in anterior neck musculature suggest more difficult translation of human–computer interfaces controlled using anterior neck musculature for static tasks to older populations.

Abstract Copyright 2014 Gabrielle L. Hands and Cara E. Stepp

Title: Should I Stay or Should I Go? Improving Event Recommendation in the Social Web

Abstract This paper focuses on the recommendation of events in the Social Web, and addresses the problem of finding if, and to which extent, certain features, which are peculiar to events, are relevant in predicting the users’ interests and should thereby be taken into account in recommendation. We consider, in particular, three ‘additional’ features that are usually shown to users within social networking environments: reachability from the user location, the reputation of the event in the community and the participation of the user’s friends. Our study is aimed at evaluating whether adding this information to the description of the event type and topic, and including in the user profile the information on the relevance of these factors, can improve our capability to predict the user’s interest. We approached the problem by carrying out two surveys with users, who were asked to express their interest in a number of events. We then trained, by means of linear regression, a scoring function defined as a linear combination of the different factors, whose goal was to predict the user scores. We repeated this experiment under different hypotheses on the additional factors, in order to assess their relevance by comparing the predictive capabilities of the resulting functions. The compared results of our experiments show that additional factors, if properly weighted, can improve the prediction accuracy with an error reduction of 4.1%. The best results were obtained by combining content-based factors and additional factors in a proportion of ∼10:4.

Abstract Copyright 2014 Federica Cena, Silvia Likavec, Ilaria Lombardi and Claudia Picardi

Title: “I Need to Be Explicit: You’re Wrong”: Impact of Face Threats on Social Evaluations in Online Instructional Communication

Abstract Online instructional communication, as found in ask-an-expert forums, e-learning discussion boards or online help desks, creates situations that threaten the recipient’s face. This study analyzed the evaluation of face-threatening acts with a 1×3 design. An online forum thread confronted a layperson with an expert who either (a) addressed the layperson’s misconceptions directly and frankly, (b) mitigated face threats through explicit hints about the need to be direct or (c) communicated politely and indirectly. College students read these dialogues and assessed the expert communicator’s facework, recipient orientation, credibility and likability. Results showed that polite experts were evaluated most positively; explicit hints did not improve perceptions of face-threatening acts. This implies that users of instructional forums prefer communicators to be polite even when face threats are necessary. We discuss practical implications for different online instruction contexts and make suggestions for further research.

Abstract Copyright 2014 Regina Jucks, Lena Päuler and Benjamin Brummernhenrich

Title: The Potential of a Text-Based Interface as a Design Medium: An Experiment in a Computer Animation Environment

Abstract Since the birth of the concept of direct manipulation, the graphical user interface has been the dominant means of controlling digital objects. In this research, we hypothesize that the benefits of a text-based interface involve multiple tradeoffs, and we explore the potential of text as a medium of design from three perspectives: (i) the perceived level of control of the designed object, (ii) a tool for realizing creative ideas and (iii) an effective form for a highly learnable user interface. Our experiment in a computer animation environment shows that (i) participants did feel a high level of control of characters, (ii) creativity was both restricted and facilitated depending on the task and (iii) natural language expedited the learning of a new interface language. Our research provides experimental proof of the effect of a text-based interface and offers guidelines for the design of future computer-aided design applications.

Abstract Copyright 2014 Sangwon Lee and Jin Yan

Title: Framing a Set: Understanding the Curatorial Character of Personal Digital Bibliographies

Abstract We articulate a model of curatorship that emphasizes framing the character of the curated set as the focus of curatorial activity. This curatorial character is structured through the articulation, via mechanisms of selection, description and arrangement, of coherent classificatory principles. We describe the latest stage of a continuing project to examine the curatorial character of personal digital bibliographies, such as Pinterest boards, Flickr galleries and GoodReads shelves, and to support the design of such curatorially expressive personal collections. In the study reported here, 24 participants created personal bibliographies using either a structured design process, with explicit tasks for selecting, describing and arranging collection items, or an unstructured process that did not separate these activities. Our findings lead to a more complex understanding of personal collections as curatorial, expressive artifacts. We explore the role of cohesion as a quality that facilitates expression of the curatorial frame, and we find that when designers read source materials as a part of a set, they are more likely to write cohesive collections. Our findings also suggest that the curatorial act involves both the definition of abstract classificatory principles and their instantiation in a specific material environment. We describe various framing devices that facilitate these reading and writing activities, and we suggest design directions for supporting curatorial reading and writing tasks.

Abstract Copyright 2014 Melanie Feinberg, Ramona Broussard and Eryn Whitworth

Title: Identifying Problems Associated with Focus and Context Awareness in 3D Modelling Tasks

Abstract Creating complex 3D models is a challenging process. One of the main reasons for this is that 3D models are usually created using software developed for conventional 2D displays which lack true depth perspective, and therefore do not support correct perception of spatial placement and depth-ordering of displayed content. As a result, modellers often have to deal with many overlapping components of 3D models (e.g. vertices, edges, faces, etc.) on a 2D display surface. This in turn causes them to have difficulties in distinguishing distances, maintaining position and orientation awareness, etc. To better understand the nature of these problems, which can collectively be defined as ‘focus and context awareness’ problems, we have conducted a pilot study with a group of novice 3D modellers, and a series of interviews with a group of professional 3D modellers. This article presents these two studies, and their findings, which have resulted in identifying a set of focus and context awareness problems that modellers face in creating 3D models using conventional modelling software. The article also provides a review of potential solutions to these problems in the related literature.

Abstract Copyright 2014 Masood Masoodian, Azmi bin Mohd Yusof and Bill Rogers

Abstract The goal of user experience design in industry is to improve customer satisfaction and loyalty through the utility, ease of use, and pleasure provided in the interaction with a product. So far, user experience studies have mostly focused on short-term evaluations and consequently on aspects relating to the initial adoption of new product designs. Nevertheless, the relationship between the user and the product evolves over long periods of time and the relevance of prolonged use for market success has been recently highlighted. In this paper, we argue for the cost-effective elicitation of longitudinal user experience data. We propose a method called the “UX Curve” which aims at assisting users in retrospectively reporting how and why their experience with a product has changed over time. The usefulness of the UX Curve method was assessed in a qualitative study with 20 mobile phone users. In particular, we investigated how users’ specific memories of their experiences with their mobile phones guide their behavior and their willingness to recommend the product to others. The results suggest that the UX Curve method enables users and researchers to determine the quality of long-term user experience and the influences that improve user experience over time or cause it to deteriorate. The method provided rich qualitative data and we found that an improving trend of perceived attractiveness of mobile phones was related to user satisfaction and willingness to recommend their phone to friends. This highlights that sustaining perceived attractiveness can be a differentiating factor in the user acceptance of personal interactive products such as mobile phones. The study suggests that the proposed method can be used as a straightforward tool for understanding the reasons why user experience improves or worsens in long-term product use and how these reasons relate to customer loyalty.

Abstract Copyright 2011 Sari Kujalaa, Virpi Rotob, Kaisa Väänänen-Vainio-Mattilaa, Evangelos Karapanosc and Arto Sinneläa

Title: Researching Young Children’s Everyday Uses of Technology in the Family Home

Abstract Studies of the everyday uses of technology in family homes have tended to overlook the role of children and, in particular, young children. A study that was framed by an ecocultural approach focusing on children’s play and learning with toys and technologies is used to illustrate some of the methodological challenges of conducting research with young children in the home. This theoretical framework enabled us to identify and develop a range of methods that illuminated the home’s unique mix of inhabitants, learning opportunities and resources and to investigate parents’ ethnotheories, or cultural beliefs, that gave rise to the complex of practices, values and attitudes and their intersections with technology and support for learning in the home. This resulted in a better understanding of the role of technology in the lives of these 3- and 4-year-old children.

Abstract Copyright 2014 Lydia Plowman

Title: Measuring web usability using item response theory: Principles, features and opportunities

Abstract Usability is considered a critical issue on the web that determines either the success or the failure of a company. Thus, the evaluation of usability has gained substantial attention. However, most current tools for usability evaluation have some limitations, such as excessive generality and a lack of reliability and validity. The present work proposes the construction of a tool to measure usability in e-commerce websites using item response theory (IRT). While usability issues have only been considered in theoretical or empirical contexts, in this study, we discuss them from a mathematical point of view using IRT. In particular, we develop a standardised scale to measure usability in e-commerce websites. This study opens a new field of research in the ergonomics of interfaces with respect to the development of scales using IRT.

Abstract Copyright 2011 Rafael Tezzaa, Antonio Cezar Borniaa and Dalton Francisco de Andrade

Title: Everything Science Knows Right Now About Standing Desks

Abstract If it wasn’t already clear through common sense, it’s become painfully clear through science that sitting all day is terrible for your health. What’s especially alarming about this evidence is that extra physical activity doesn’t seem to offset the costs of what researchers call “prolonged sedentary time.” Just as jogging and tomato juice don’t make up for a night of smoking and drinking, a little evening exercise doesn’t erase the physical damage done by a full work day at your desk.

In response some people have turned to active desks—be it a standing workspace or even a treadmill desk—but the research on this recent trend has been too scattered to draw clear conclusions on its benefits (and potential drawbacks). At least until now. A trio of Canada-based researchers has analyzed the strongest 23 active desk studies to draw some conclusions on how standing and treadmill desks impact both physiological health and psychological performance. Abstract Copyright 2015 Eric Jaffe

Send Us Your Research References: If you have interesting and relevant research references post, post content as comment below for possible inclusion in next year’s updated list.

Other Content from PulseUX: Here are 2 other references from widely read and quoted long-form posts you may find interesting.

latest research topics in web design

Angry Birds UX: Why Angry Birds is so successful and popular: a cognitive teardown of the user experience (1.5 million page views). https://live-mauro-usability-science.pantheonsite.io/blog/why-angry-birds-is-so-successful-a-cognitive-teardown-of-the-user-experience/

latest research topics in web design

Apple v. Samsung: Impact and Implications for Product Design, User Interface Design (UX), Software Development and the Future of High-Technology Consumer Products https://live-mauro-usability-science.pantheonsite.io/blog/apple-v-samsung-implications-for-product-design-user-interface-ux-design-software-development-and-the-future-of-high-technology-consumer-products/

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JavaScript Language Design and Implementation in Tandem

A proposal to first design a language in a mechanized specification, and the advantages that follow.

numbered dance steps, illustration

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History of JavaScript

Correctness and conformance of the specification and implementations, academic research into the ci systems, technical details, a promising new approach to programming language development, acknowledgments, key insights.

JavaScript is the first programming language for which each change to its prose language specification is both “type checked” and “tested” to identify bugs and inconsistencies.

The primary enabler is the automatic extraction of a “mechanized specification” from a language specification written in prose, which allows the generation of a reference implementation of the language from the specification.

In addition to reference implementations, mechanized specifications can be used to detect conformance bugs between language specifications and existing JavaScript engines in major Web browsers, and to generate more special-purpose JavaScript implementations, such as static analyzers, in a correct-by-construction manner.

A promising approach to programming language development is to first design the language in a mechanized specification and then generate both human-friendly specifications written in a variety of natural languages and correct-by-construction implementations from the mechanized specification.

Programming languages have been specified using a wide variety of approaches. Most programming language (PL) specifications are written in unstructured prose, but some are written rigorously to help developers build correct language implementations. For example, Standard ML (SML) was first designed with a formal specification that defined the language syntax and semantics in mathematical notation, followed by a reference implementation of the specification. JavaScript is well known for its language specification, which is written in highly structured prose at the level of pseudocode algorithms. Finally, the specification of WebAssembly provides the syntax and semantics of the language in both highly structured prose and mathematical notation.

Unfortunately, rigorous language specifications do not prevent bugs in language implementations. SML maintains a list of reported bugs, and different implementations have different sets of bugs. JavaScript has many implementation bugs in the JavaScript engines of various Web browsers.

More importantly, it is difficult to get a rigorous language specification right. Despite its complete formal semantics, the WebAssembly 1.0 specification had bugs detected by mechanized proofs of Conrad Watt. 35 The developers of the Verse programming language 2 described the language semantics in rewriting rules and opened a call for participation to the PL community for confluence proofs.

In this article, we present how to automatically extract a mechanized specification from a prose specification and how useful it can be in practice. Using the example of JavaScript, we show how mechanized specifications can be used to detect conformance bugs between language specifications and existing JavaScript engines in major Web browsers, and to generate more special-purpose JavaScript implementations, such as static analyzers, in a correct-by-construction manner. We propose a new approach to programming language development as a promising direction for the future: first design the language in a mechanized specification and then generate both human-friendly specifications written in diverse natural languages and correct-by-construction implementations and tools from the mechanized specification.

We propose a new approach to programming language development: design the language in a mechanized specification, then generate both human-friendly specifications written in diverse natural languages and correct-by-construction implementations and tools from the mechanized specification.

JavaScript is the most actively used programming language on GitHub. 17 All Web browsers include a JavaScript engine. It was initially designed and implemented by Brendan Eich in May 1995 as a simple dynamic language that allowed code snippets to be interpreted by Web browsers. In early 1996, companies including Netscape and Microsoft were frequently releasing browser technology, but language standardization was slow and often contentious. To ensure interoperability between different browsers, TC39, the Ecma Technical Committee responsible for standardizing JavaScript, held meetings to create the JavaScript language specification.

Unlike programming languages that “grow up” via a single implementation, JavaScript began with multiple implementations, which guided its specification: 36

Richard Gabriel, who attended some of the working group meetings, recalled in a personal communication a not uncommon interaction during these meetings. Guy Steele would ask a question about some edge-case feature behavior. Sometimes Brendan Eich would say “I don’t know,” and sometimes Eich and Shon Katzenberger would be unsure or disagree; in such cases, they would each turn to their respective implementation and try a test case. If they got the same answer, that became the specified behavior. If there were a difference, they would discuss the issue until they reached an agreement.

The history of JavaScript is described in great detail in Wirfs-Brock and Eich. 36 The first edition of its language specification ECMA-262, abbreviated ES1, was released in 1997, edited by Guy L. Steele, Jr, in 95 pages. JavaScript developers continued to demand more advanced language features, so ES2 and ES3 were released in 1998 and 1999, respectively. However, attempts to define a fourth edition were eventually abandoned due to the radical changes in a single update that included a variety of new language features, and ES5 was finally released in 2009. Starting with the sixth edition, TC39 adopted the practice of using the year of publication as an abbreviation. Thus, both “ES6” and “ES2015” are informal abbreviations for “ECMA-262, 6th edition.” TC39 also decided to release ECMA-262 annually, starting with ES2015, to ensure rapid adoption of new language features. The latest ECMA-262 10 is a much larger specification at 827 pages.

Now, ECMA-262 is maintained as an open source project 11 and follows the TC39 process 14 for handling proposals for new language features. JavaScript contributors propose new features along with specification changes and tests, which are maintained in a separate repository 6 over six stages. Since 2015, TC39 has successfully published an updated edition of the ECMAScript specification every June, following the TC39 process.

As with the language specification, various companies, including Microsoft and Google, have released their own open source test suites for JavaScript. In 2010, TC39 decided to maintain Test262, 15 an open source JavaScript implementation conformance test suite. After working through many policy and licensing issues, Test262 is now an integral part of TC39’s development process. Every new ECMAScript feature must be accompanied by its tests before it is incorporated into the ECMAScript standard. At the time of writing, Test262 consists of 48,854 tests.

Along with its reputation as the most widely used language, JavaScript is also well-known for its unintuitive semantics due to its highly dynamic nature and extensive use of implicit type conversion. As a result, there are many sophisticated JavaScript examples. Consider the following JavaScript code:

Even for this simple function, it is not easy to understand exactly what its behavior is: the function f simply compares the given argument x with its negation, so it looks like it returns false . However, when an empty array is given as an argument, it returns true due to a number of implicit conversions for the negation and equality operators. More specifically, when f([]) evaluates [] == ![] , the negation of the empty array ![] evaluates to false because any object represents true . The operands [] and false of the equality operator are then both converted to values of the same type according to the implicit conversion rules defined in ECMA-262. In this example, they both get converted into the same Number type value, 0 , so the final result becomes true .

Such counterintuitive semantics often leads to various bugs and security vulnerabilities in implementations. Experienced JavaScript developers often introduce bugs that are difficult to catch due to the extremely dynamic nature of JavaScript. Mainstream JavaScript engines, such as V8, JavaScriptCore, SpiderMonkey, and Chakra had various bugs that were more harmful than bugs in JavaScript programs. 34 They also had security vulnerabilities that could lead to remote attacks. For example, a high-severity bug in V8, tracked as CVE-2021-21224, was widely exploited in April 2021. 33 Besides, it is more challenging to correctly develop special-purpose JavaScript implementations that require a deeper understanding of the specification for specialized language semantics. For example, most existing JavaScript static analyzers 19 , 20 , 23 require a sound abstraction of the language semantics to guarantee the soundness of their analysis. However, because they need to consider not only concrete semantics but also how to abstract them soundly, they have been plagued by soundness bugs 25 for unusual edge cases in language semantics.

ECMA-262 also had a number of bugs. Consider the following Math.round built-in library function (specified in Section 20.3.2.28 of an ECMA-262 internal version): 7

It first converts the given parameter x to its numeric value n using ToNumber. The remaining steps should be performed using n, but the specification writer of this section mistakenly used x instead of n in steps 3 and 4. This bug was introduced in ECMA-262 on September 11, 2020 and was later fixed by another contributor.

In addition, keeping a rapidly evolving language specification up to date and managing the many different language implementations that conform to the specification is challenging even with a large test suite. The three editors of ECMA-262 had to manually review new proposals and changes to the specification. In addition to Test262, various browsers maintain their own test suites, but they may still behave differently. Therefore, Ficarra, 16 an editor of ECMA-262, said, “one of my primary goals has been to make the specification easier to consume for automated analysis tools.”

We helped Ficarra achieve his goal in November 2022: each ECMA-262 pull request (PR) runs a type checker against the prose specification, and all new or changed tests in Test262 PRs are run using an interpreter extracted directly from the text of ECMA-262. For example, if one sends a PR of the Math.round function, the type checker will detect a bug and reject the PR. First, note that the parameter x can accept any JavaScript value: string, boolean, number, object, and so on. Applying ToNumber to x in step 1 converts x to a number or an exception. Exception cases are filtered out using the question mark operator, so n always points to a number. Because x is compared to several numbers with inequality operators on lines 3 and 4, the type checker reports them as type mismatch bugs because non-numeric values are not valid arguments for inequality operators. Whenever a language feature is added to ECMA-262, it must be accompanied by its corresponding tests in Test262, which now leverage interpreters extracted from ECMA-262, always checking for conformance to ECMA-262. These automated tools, heavily used in the continuous integration (CI) system of ECMA-262 and Test262, are based on a series of academic papers.

How have ideas from academia been integrated into real-world industry? How did researchers convince the TC39 committee to use their ideas?

The KAIST Programming Language Research Group (PLRG) has been researching JavaScript since 2011. Initially, we mainly formalized the semantics of the JavaScript language with various features, but now our research focuses on program analysis and bug finding in JavaScript applications. Our research problems are often motivated by real-world customers in companies such as Samsung Electronics and IBM. This work had been challenging, interesting, rewarding, and fun until TC39 decided in 2015 to release ECMA-262 annually. As the JavaScript language has evolved more rapidly, developing and maintaining JavaScript analysis tools has become increasingly difficult.

As the JavaScript language has evolved, developing and maintaining JavaScript analysis tools has become increasingly difficult.

In March 2019, Ph.D. candidate Jihyeok Park cautiously shared an outlandish idea. ECMA-262 had been released annually since 2015, but existing JavaScript analyzers, including our own, were still based on ES5, which was released in 2009. It is impossible to manually keep up with the changes in an 800-page specification every year. Then he realized something: the English phrases in the specification had common patterns. It might be possible to “parse” the English sentences and “compile” them into abstract algorithms in an intermediate language. We considered this a clever engineering hack, which could help us generate more tests for features of ECMA-262 that Test262 does not cover.

In essence, it was the primary enabler; the direct extraction of “mechanized specifications” from prose-written language specifications has opened the door to the automatic generation of language-manipulating tools. To bridge the gap between ECMA-262 and its implementations, ESMeta 21 extracts mechanized specifications to automatically generate a variety of language-based tools from a given version of ECMA-262. It is based on several papers. JISET 28 extracts a mechanized specification from ECMA-262. A mechanized specification consists of two parts: a JavaScript parser constructed from the syntax written in a variant of the extended BNF (EBNF) notation, and functions in an intermediate representation (IR) compiled from abstract algorithms written in English for the language semantics. JEST 27 synthesizes conformance test programs and checks discrepancies between JavaScript engines and the specification. Using this tool, we detected 44 bugs in four engines (V8, GraalJS, QuickJS, and Moddable XS) and 27 bugs in ES2020. JSTAR 26 analyzed the types of English sentences in ECMA-262 and detected 93 type-related specification bugs, which were confirmed by TC39. JSAVER 25 automatically generates a JavaScript static analyzer from ECMA-262, which outperforms the state-of-the-art JavaScript static analyzers that were manually developed. The next section offers a description of the technical details behind them.

The direct extraction of “mechanized specifications” from prose-written language specifications has opened the door to the automatic generation of language-manipulating tools.

Because the papers presented various new techniques using mechanized specifications, we used their bug-finding capabilities to evaluate the effectiveness of the techniques. Thus, we submitted many bug reports to mainstream JavaScript engine developers and the TC39 committee for confirmation. They kindly confirmed the bugs and expressed a lot of curiosity. Then, the ECMA-262 editors invited us to a TC39 meeting.

The presentation was very well received. All the excitement from the TC39 committee and the detailed discussion can be found in the meeting note. 13 After mutually exciting meetings with the TC39 committee, we decided to integrate JSTAR and JISET into the CI systems of ECMA-262 and Test262, respectively. Since these tools were prototype implementations to see their feasibility in academic publications, we reimplemented all the tools and rebranded them as ESMeta to make them practically available to all PRs in the ECMA-262 and Test262 repositories.

After the first meeting with ECMA-262 editors on Nov. 24, 2021, we gave a presentation at the TC39 meeting on Jan. 27, 2022. ESMeta was then integrated into ECMA-262’s CI system on Nov. 3, 2022 12 and Test262’s CI system on Nov. 25, 2022. 9 This was about a year after the first meeting with the TC39 committee. This is how the initial outlandish idea and subsequent academic papers were integrated into real-world programming language development.

Researchers have proposed various approaches to help developers build correct JavaScript applications. 1 , 32

One approach is to formalize the JavaScript language semantics described in ECMA-262. Because ECMA-262 defines semantics in prose, it is sometimes ambiguous and contains bugs and infeasible behavior. Researchers have proposed formal specifications for JavaScript semantics to provide a solid foundation for JavaScript research. Maffeis et al. 22 proposed a small-step operational semantics for ES3; Guha et al. 18  used a desugaring process to develop λ JS , a core calculus of ES3; and Park et al. 24 defined ES5 using the K framework. 30

Another approach is to analyze JavaScript programs to reason about their behavior or detect bugs and security vulnerabilities. WALA 19 was initially developed for Java pointer analysis and has been extended to support more languages, including Android Java and JavaScript. TAJS 23 is a dataflow analysis for JavaScript that uses a model of ES3 and a partial model of ES5. It provides partial support for the latest ECMAScript language features with Babel, 3 which compiles the latest features down to lower versions. SAFE 20 is a general analysis framework for JavaScript web applications. These are all open source projects for static analysis of JavaScript. In contrast, Jalangi 31 is a general framework for JavaScript dynamic analyzers such as memory profilers and dynamic JIT-unfriendly code snippet detectors.

While most of the research on JavaScript is for ES3 and ES5, ECMA-262 has been released every year since 2015. Thus, manually updating the semantic formalizations and analysis implementations is tedious, labor-intensive, and error-prone.

To bridge the gap between the rapidly evolving ECMA-262 and its implementations, ESMeta generates various tools directly from ECMA-262. Figure 1 illustrates the overall structure of ESMeta. The first step is to extract a mechanized specification from an input ECMA-262 via JISET. Once a mechanized specification is available, it can be used to check the validity of ECMA-262. We can use JEST to synthesize new kinds of conformance tests and JSTAR to analyze the types of English phrases in the specification. Finally, we can use JSAVER to derive a static analyzer for a given version of ECMA-262. We will describe them in order.

latest research topics in web design

Extraction of Mechanized Specifications

ECMA-262 defines the language syntax using a variant of EBNF and the semantics using abstract algorithms in a clear and structured manner. For example, the following production shows the syntax of ArrayLiteral in ES2022:

ArrayLiteral [Yield, Await] :

[ Elision opt ]

[ ElementList [?Yield, ?Await] ]

[  ElementList [?Yield, ?Await] , Elision opt ]

It takes two boolean parameters Yield and Await , and has three alternatives. The following abstract algorithm defines the semantics of the third alternative:

ArrayLiteral : [ ElementList , Elision opt ]

Let array be ! ArrayCreate (0).

Let nextIndex be ? ArrayAccumulation of ElementList with arguments array and 0.

If Elision is present then:

Perform ? ArrayAccumulation of Elision with arguments array and nextIndex .

Return array .

It has four steps. In the HTML files describing ECMA-262, each nonterminal, such as ElementList , or local variable, such as array , has a <nt> or <var> tag, respectively. From the above production, the lookahead parsing technique 28 generates a parser in Scala code as follows:

Each parser has the List[Boolean] => LAParser[T] type because each production is parametric with boolean values. Similarly, the algorithm compiler 28 translates the above abstract algorithm to the following function in a domain-specific intermediate representation, IR ES :

We evaluated the correctness of the semantics extracted from ES2019 5 by running Test262. It took about three hours to evaluate 18,064 applicable tests; 1,709 tests failed due to nine specification bugs in ES2019. Four of these bugs were newly reported and confirmed by TC39.

Synthesis of Conformance Tests

In addition to the annual updates to ECMA-262, the various JavaScript engines continue to provide various extensions to the specification to meet rapidly changing user needs. Unfortunately, these updates, both in the specification and in implementations, make synchronization difficult, leading to unexpected behavior.

Inspired by the ECMA-262 bugs detected by the extracted semantics, we devised an N +1- version differential testing . 27 Traditional differential testing runs N implementations of a specification simultaneously for each input and detects problems when the outputs do not match. N +1-version differential testing also tests the specification using a mechanized specification extracted from the specification.

It consists of four steps:

Automatically synthesize programs according to the syntax and semantics from a given language specification.

generate conformance tests by injecting assertions into the synthesized programs to check their final program states.

Run the conformance tests against multiple implementations to detect bugs in the specification and implementations

Use statistical information to localize bugs in the specification.

We evaluated the effectiveness of the synthesized tests with ES2020 and four JavaScript engines that fully support modern JavaScript features in ES2020: V8, GraalJS, QuickJS, and Moddable XS. For evaluation, we injected seven kinds of assertions: exception, abort, variable value, object value, object property, property key, and internal method and slot. For example, to check whether a final program state has the correct value for each object property, we implemented a helper $verifyProperty , which checks the attributes of each property for each object. Thus, the following code checks the attributes of the property of x.p :

The bug detection and localization phase then uses the results of running given conformance tests on multiple JavaScript engines. If a small number of engines fail in each test, it reports a potential bug in the engines that failed the test. If a large number of engines fail, it reports a potential bug in the specification. It uses spectrum-based fault localization (SBFL), 37 a localization technique that leverages the coverage of test cases and pass/fail results, to localize potential bugs. We detected 44 bugs in the engines and 27 bugs in ES2020. One of the ES2020 bugs was a newly detected bug confirmed by TC39, caused by not handling abrupt completions in property definitions of object literals.

Type Analysis of Specifications

Manually reviewing every specification update is inherently labor-intensive and error-prone, making ECMAScript vulnerable to specification bugs. Because the average number of updated steps of abstract algorithms between consecutive releases from ECMAScript 2016 to 2019 was 9,645.5, 28 manually checking for every update is a daunting task. Thus, TC39 pushed to add various manual annotations to the abstract algorithms to reduce specification bugs. First, it introduced two kinds of annotations:  assertions , which indicate assumptions at specific points in abstract algorithms, and the prefixes ? and !, which indicate whether the execution of an abstract algorithm completes abruptly. For example, “Assert: Type( O ) is Object” denotes that the variable O always has an Object value at the point of the assertion, and “? GetV ( V , P )” denotes that the execution of GetV ( V , P ) can complete abruptly. These annotations help readers understand specifications clearly. Second, the committee decided to support type annotations for variables, parameters, and return values of abstract algorithms. However, manual annotations of any kind are laborious, prone to mistakes, and do not provide an automatic mechanism for detecting specification bugs.

Manual annotations of any kind are laborious, prone to mistakes, and do not provide an automatic mechanism for detecting specification bugs.

To alleviate this problem, we developed JSTAR, 26 which takes a mechanized JavaScript specification from JISET and performs type analysis of compiled functions using the specification types defined in ECMA-262. ECMA-262 contains not only JavaScript language types, but also specification types such as abstract syntax trees (ASTs), internal list-like structures, and internal records including environments, completions, and property descriptors. For records and AST types, we also defined their fields. We defined their type hierarchies based on subtype relations . The subtype relation between types is shown in Figure 2 ; a directed edge from τ′ to τ denotes a subtype relation (that is, τ′ <: τ), and the relation is reflexive and transitive. The subtype relation depends on the nominal types defined in ECMAScript. We extract the subtype relation for AST types from the JavaScript syntax. For example, consider the following syntax:

FormalParameter [?Yield, ?Await] ] :  BindingElement [?Yield, ?Await] ]

Because the nonterminal BindingElement is the unique alternative of the production FormalParameter , we automatically extract the subtype relation: BindingElement <: FormalParameter . Using the subtype relation, the expression e  : τ checks whether the evaluation result of e has type τ′ satisfying τ′ <: τ. These subtype relations help enhance the precision of type analysis by keeping track of the precise types of variables and expressions.

latest research topics in web design

Using such type information, JSTAR performs type analysis and detects specification bugs using a bug detector consisting of four checkers: 1) reference checker, 2) arity checker, 3) assertion checker, and 4) operand checker. JSTAR also uses condition-based refinement for type analysis, which improves the precision of type analysis by using conditions on assertions and branches to eliminate infeasible parts. We evaluated JSTAR with all 864 versions in the official ECMAScript repository from 2018 to 2021. The evaluation showed that the refinement technique can reduce the number of false-positive bugs due to spurious types inferred by imprecise type analysis. JSTAR detected 14 type-related bugs in ES2021, 8 which were confirmed by TC39.

Derivation of Static Analyzers

Finally, we developed JSAVER, 25 which automatically generates a JavaScript static analyzer from ECMA-262. First, JSAVER extracts definitional interpreters 29 from ECMA-262. A definitional interpreter provides a way to represent the language semantics of a defined language using its interpreter written in a defining language. We extract a JavaScript definitional interpreter from JISET. In the extracted definitional interpreter, the defined language is JavaScript, and the defining language is IR ES . We then present meta-level static analysis, which uses the extracted interpreter to indirectly analyze JavaScript programs. Meta-level static analysis is an interpreter-based approach for static analysis of a defined language L 1 using the static analyzer of a defining-language L 2 , as depicted in Figure 3 . Since an L 1 interpreter is an L 2 program, we can indirectly analyze an L 1 program by taking the L 1 program as input and using the static analyzer of L 2 to analyze the interpreter. Thus, we developed a static analyzer of IR ES for a meta-level static analysis of JavaScript and showed that it can indirectly analyze JavaScript programs effectively. We also presented ways to indirectly configure abstract domains and analysis sensitivities for JavaScript in the static analysis of IR ES . First, we provide a method to configure abstract domains for JavaScript values and structures. Second, we present AST sensitivities to express analysis sensitivities for JavaScript, such as flow-sensitivity and k -callsite-sensitivity.

latest research topics in web design

Figure 4 shows the analysis results of existing static analyzers (TAJS and SAFE) without and with Babel, and JSA ES2021 , the JavaScript static analyzer derived from ES2021 via JSAVER, for the applicable tests. In each chart, the x -axis represents the point in time when the tests were generated and the y -axis represents the number of tests generated before that point in time. The mark sound (green, filled) denotes a sound analysis, unsound (red, striped) denotes an unsound analysis, and error (white, blank) denotes an unexpected error. Figures 4(a) and 4(b) show that TAJS and SAFE analyzed most tests generated before 2015 in a sound way. However, the number of tests that cannot be soundly analyzed has been steadily increasing since 2015. As shown in Figures 4(d) and 4(e) , Babel transpiles ES2015+ features to ES5.1 to mitigate this issue and increase the number of programs that TAJS and SAFE analyze soundly. However, TAJS and SAFE still failed to soundly analyze more than half of the Test262 test programs, while JSA ES2021 succeeded in soundly analyzing all applicable test programs without the need for Babel. The figures show that JSAVER can reduce the burden of defining the abstract semantics of ES2015+ features for static analysis.

latest research topics in web design

Designing and implementing real-world programming languages is challenging. The ability to reason about program behavior often comes from a formal specification of the language’s semantics, but the time-consuming effort of formalizing the semantics often falls behind actual implementation. For example, Rust is actively developed by a large and diverse community of contributors and is used in real-world software such as the Linux kernel and Mozilla Firefox. However, it has not resolved soundness bugs reported years ago 4 because its strong, static type system does not yet cover various language features and APIs. Applying the ESMeta approach to Rust can help efficiently generate machine-checkable proof sketches, especially with mechanized semantics extracted from mechanized specifications.

Along with formalizing the semantics of the language, it would be helpful to perform extensive testing of the semantics using implementations extracted from the mechanized specification. Watt et al. 35 presented two mechanizations of WebAssembly 1.0 and found bugs in it, but mechanization of WebAssembly 2.0 will still be quite time-consuming because the entire mechanization process is done manually. Applying the ESMeta approach to WebAssembly can reduce the burden of such manual mechanization.

A promising new approach to programming language development is to design languages with mechanized specifications from the beginning. For developers, mechanized specifications can be easier to understand than specifications in natural language because they are unambiguous and always executable. For non-developers, mechanized specifications can be translated into diverse, human-friendly natural languages. Furthermore, implementations and tools that are extracted directly from mechanized specifications are correct by construction.

A promising new approach to programming language development is to design languages with mechanized specifications from the beginning.

Designing a new programming language by writing a mechanized specification that correctly describes the language’s intended behavior can seem daunting, but it is possible because mechanized specifications allow us to create a variety of tools. For example, one can run the specification interactively. Figure 5 shows another ESMeta tool, the ECMAScript Double Debugger . 21 This tool extends the interpreter extracted from ECMA-262 to help users understand how JavaScript programs are executed according to ECMA-262. It supports step-by-step execution of ECMA-262 abstract algorithms, line-by-line execution of JavaScript code, breakpoints by abstract algorithm name in ECMA-262, and visualization of ECMA-262 internal states. Language designers can use the debugger to run example code to debug their mechanized specifications. For instance, Verse introduced new features such as logical variables, equality constraints between variables, and choice that allows multiple alternatives. Describing the intended behavior precisely is cumbersome, but a double debugger can ease the burden on language designers.

latest research topics in web design

JavaScript is the first programming language for which each change to its prose language specification is both “type checked” and also “tested” to identify bugs and inconsistencies. In this article, we presented our story of applying various ideas from academic papers to the continuous design and implementation process of the real-world programming language in the wild. As one of the reviewers of the JISET paper suggested, we believe that:

This is the right order to design and document languages: first the semantics, then the implementation and documentation, ideally generated from the semantics.

We would like to thank all members of the KAIST Programming Language Research Group (PLRG) for their collaboration, especially Jaemin Hong for his insightful feedback. This research was supported by National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) (2022R1A2C200366011 and 2021R1A5A1021944), Institute for Information & communications Technology Promotion (IITP) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (2022-0-00460 and 2023-2020-0-01819), and Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd (G01210570).

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By opening CACM to the world, we hope to increase engagement among the broader computer science community and encourage non-members to discover the rich resources ACM has to offer.

Selecting a Design Research Topic

latest research topics in web design

Selecting a topic to research can feel like a daunting task. One strength that’s consistent with great designers is their curiosity. Designers tend to have a wide range of interests that take them far afield when exploring the world. Oftentimes, designers are generalists—able to address contexts from many different points of view. Unfortunately, this also means that selecting a topic can be tough for designers because they often have many diverse interests. The world is so big and so curious… how could we ever choose just one part of it to study?

For experience-centered design approaches like experience, service, and interaction design, a research project should focus on the content the design approaches address. In other words, a design research project in experience design should:

  • involve human actors in some way
  • include the design of outcomes/an intervention
  • inspect the effects of interactions between human actors and design outcomes

When selecting topics for your research, be sure they are related to experience design.

Collecting Topics

List as many topics and topic groups as you can and continue to compile this list over months and years. Below each section of listed statements, write questions that address the content in each of these areas. If you can write a compelling and answerable question, then you have the start of a research topic. As you get closer to developing and producing your project, this list of topics will change and evolve over time. Like a photographer, the more topics you list (photographs you take), the more likely you’ll be to get a great topic.

Don’ts: How to Avoid Picking a “Bad” Topic

What to avoid when creating a design research project. Don’t select a topic…

  • That involves people you cannot access. You must involve these people in the research, and you cannot do that if they won’t with you.
  • That you think your instructor will like. Do something that matters to you.
  • That’s too big. You cannot save the world in one project.
  • That seems too small. There’s no such thing as too small. Every topic has tons of layers.
  • That is in a location you cannot access. Field research requires using a design and or visiting a place firsthand.
  • That can be answered with a simple yes or no.

Grouping Topics and Questions

Building a list of topics will produce a list of topical interests and specific questions sparked by your list. For example, exploring the domain “Attitudes and Mental Health” could produce the list below:

  • Self-esteem and encouraging self-worth
  • Stress management
  • Life goals and determination
  • Men’s resistance to counseling
  • Combatting Apathy

This list then can lead to questions like:

  • How can counseling and mentoring become more culturally acceptable for men to bring healthier mental states?
  • Are there ways we can educate stress management more effectively?
  • Can intrinsic motivation be imparted culturally?

Another example of a topic list that focuses on “Design Aesthetic and Function” could be summed as:

  • Value of grunge design in interaction design
  • How flat interaction design is hard to use
  • Color theory and usability
  • Out of place, attention-getting visuals

This list then could lead to questions like:

Design Aesthetic and Function Questions

  • How has a move to flat design on the web affected print design?
  • In what ways could grunge design increase the way people value physical versus screen-based media?
  • How does the hamburger menu in web design relate to other iconographic elements in the past?

Developing topics is an iterative process that’s best started early. Again, the longer you have to develop topics, the better the topics will be. Think of it as a sketchbook-type approach to developing research—the result being a range of topics that can fuel many research projects to come.

Selecting a Design Research Topic Resources

Start that list of topics now and visit it often. Begin by identifying things that interest you. List these topics in any way you see fit. Concept mapping , brainstorming, affinity mapping, and other means of generating ideas can be effective ways of driving this process. You’ll be glad you did when you’re looking for a research topic.

Make a big, wide list. Don’t limit yourself by thinking something is not worth researching. If you are interested in it, write it down!

ScienceDaily

Deep-sea sponge's 'zero-energy' flow control could inspire new energy efficient designs

The Venus flower basket sponge, with its delicate glass-like lattice outer skeleton, has long intrigued researchers seeking to explain how this fragile-seeming creature's body can withstand the harsh conditions of the deep sea where it lives.

Now, new research reveals yet another engineering feat of this ancient animal's structure: its ability to filter feed using only the faint ambient currents of the ocean depths, no pumping required.

This discovery of natural '"zero energy" flow control by an international research team co-led by University of Rome Tor Vergata and NYU Tandon School of Engineering could help engineers design more efficient chemical reactors, air purification systems, heat exchangers, hydraulic systems, and aerodynamic surfaces.

In a study published in Physical Review Letters , the team found through extremely high-resolution computer simulations how the skeletal structure of the Venus flower basket sponge (Euplectella aspergillum) diverts very slow deep sea currents to flow upwards into its central body cavity, so it can feed on plankton and other marine detritus it filters out of the water.

The sponge pulls this off via its spiral, ridged outer surface that functions like a spiral staircase. This allows it to passively draw water upwards through its porous, lattice-like frame, all without the energy demands of pumping.

"Our research settles a debate that has emerged in recent years: the Venus flower basket sponge may be able to draw in nutrients passively, without any active pumping mechanism," said Maurizio Porfiri, NYU Tandon Institute Professor and director of its Center for Urban Science + Progress (CUSP), who co-led the study and co-supervised the research. "It's an incredible adaptation allowing this filter feeder to thrive in currents normally unsuitable for suspension feeding."

At higher flow speeds, the lattice structure helps reduce drag on the organism. But it is in the near-stillness of the deep ocean floors that this natural ventilation system is most remarkable, and demonstrates just how well the sponge accommodates its harsh environment. The study found that the sponge's ability to passively draw in food works only at the very slow current speeds -- just centimeters per second -- of its habitat.

"From an engineering perspective, the skeletal system of the sponge shows remarkable adaptations to its environment, not only from the structural point of view, but also for what concerns its fluid dynamic performance," said Giacomo Falcucci of Tor Vergata University of Rome and Harvard University, the paper's first author. Along with Porfiri, Falcucci co-led the study, co-supervised the research and designed the computer simulations. "The sponge has arrived at an elegant solution for maximizing nutrient supply while operating entirely through passive mechanisms."

Researchers used the powerful Leonardo supercomputer at CINECA, a supercomputing center in Italy, to create a highly realistic 3D replica of the sponge, containing around 100 billion individual points that recreate the sponge's complex helical ridge structure. This "digital twin" allows experimentation that is impossible on live sponges, which cannot survive outside their deep-sea environment.

The team performed highly detailed simulations of water flow around and inside the computer model of the skeleton of the Venus flower basket sponge. With Leonardo's massive computing power, allowing quadrillions of calculations per second, they could simulate a wide range of water flow speeds and conditions.

The researchers say the biomimetic engineering insights they uncovered could help guide the design of more efficient reactors by optimizing flow patterns inside while minimizing drag outside. Similar ridged, porous surfaces could enhance air filtration and ventilation systems in skyscrapers and other structures. The asymmetric, helical ridges may even inspire low-drag hulls or fuselages that stay streamlined while promoting interior air flows.

The study builds upon the team's prior Venus flower basket sponge research published in Nature in 2021, in which it revealed it had created a first-ever simulation of the deep-sea sponge and how it responds to and influences the flow of nearby water.

In addition to Porfiri and Falcucci, the current study's authors are Giorgio Amati of CINECA; Gino Bella of Niccolò Cusano University; Andrea Luigi Facci of University of Tuscia; Vesselin K. Krastev of University of Rome Tor Vergata; Giovanni Polverino of University of Tuscia, Monash University, and University of Western Australia; and Sauro Succi of the Italian Institute of Technology.

A grant from the National Science Foundation supported the research. Other funding came from CINECA, Next Generation EU, European Research Council, Monash University and University of Tuscia.

  • Extreme Survival
  • Marine Biology
  • Nature of Water
  • Engineering
  • Energy Technology
  • Solar Energy
  • Constructal theory
  • Aerodynamics
  • Deep sea fish
  • Security engineering
  • Desalination
  • Three-phase electric power
  • Traffic engineering (transportation)

Story Source:

Materials provided by NYU Tandon School of Engineering . Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Related Multimedia :

  • Venus flower basket glass sponges

Journal Reference :

  • Giacomo Falcucci, Giorgio Amati, Gino Bella, Andrea Luigi Facci, Vesselin K. Krastev, Giovanni Polverino, Sauro Succi, Maurizio Porfiri. Adapting to the Abyss: Passive Ventilation in the Deep-Sea Glass Sponge Euplectella aspergillum . Physical Review Letters , 2024; 132 (20) DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.132.208402

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Top 101 Home Economics Research Topics [Updated]

Home Economics Research Topics

Home economics research is more than just cooking and sewing; it encompasses a diverse range of topics that impact our daily lives. In this blog, we’ll delve into the world of home economics research topics, exploring current trends and potential research topics.

Home economics has a rich history, evolving from its early focus on domestic tasks to encompass broader aspects of family and consumer sciences. Throughout history, pioneers in the field have made significant contributions, shaping its development into the interdisciplinary study it is today.

Current Trends in Home Economics Research

Table of Contents

  • Home economics research addresses contemporary issues impacting individuals, families, and communities.
  • Focus areas include food and nutrition, family and consumer sciences, housing and interior design, textiles and apparel, and human development.
  • Researchers explore topics such as dietary patterns, parenting styles, sustainable housing solutions, sustainable fashion practices, and mental health in families.
  • Emphasis is placed on understanding cultural influences, promoting well-being, and addressing societal challenges.

Top 101 Home Economics Research Topics: Category Wise

Food and nutrition.

  • The impact of dietary patterns on health outcomes.
  • Food insecurity and its effects on families.
  • Cultural influences on culinary practices.
  • Sustainable food systems and their implications.
  • Nutritional interventions for improving community health.
  • The role of food education in promoting healthy eating habits.
  • Food labeling and its influence on consumer choices.
  • The psychology of food cravings and binge eating.
  • Food allergies and dietary restrictions: coping strategies and solutions.
  • The relationship between diet and mental health.
  • The effects of urbanization on dietary habits and nutrition.
  • Food marketing strategies targeted at children and adolescents.
  • The relationship between food additives and health outcomes.
  • Food waste reduction strategies at the household level.
  • The influence of socioeconomic status on food choices and access.
  • Community-based nutrition programs for underserved populations.
  • The importance of learning about healthy eating to stop long-lasting illnesses.
  • Looking at how different cultures eat and how it affects their health.
  • How the world becoming more connected changes the way people eat traditional foods.
  • Food safety practices in home kitchens and their effectiveness.

Family and Consumer Sciences

  • Parenting styles and their effects on child development.
  • Financial literacy and its impact on household economics.
  • Consumer behavior and decision-making processes.
  • Gender roles in household chores and responsibilities.
  • The influence of the media on family dynamics.
  • Intergenerational transmission of family values and traditions.
  • Work-life balance: challenges and strategies for modern families.
  • The role of technology in family communication.
  • Coping mechanisms for family stress and conflict resolution.
  • Diversity and inclusion in family structures and dynamics.
  • The intersection of race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status in family dynamics.
  • Financial planning for major life events such as marriage and retirement.
  • Consumer attitudes towards sustainable and ethical products.
  • Digital literacy skills and their importance for modern households.
  • The role of family rituals in strengthening relationships.
  • Substance abuse prevention programs for families.
  • Time management techniques for balancing work, family, and personal life.
  • The effects of household clutter on mental health and well-being.
  • Intergenerational transmission of culinary traditions and recipes.
  • Strategies for conflict resolution and mediation within families.

Housing and Interior Design

  • Sustainable housing solutions for urban environments.
  • Universal design principles for creating accessible homes.
  • Biophilic design: incorporating nature into indoor spaces.
  • The impact of interior design on mental health and well-being.
  • Smart home technologies: benefits and drawbacks.
  • Affordable housing strategies for low-income communities.
  • Historic preservation and adaptive reuse in architecture.
  • The psychology of color in interior design.
  • Innovative materials and construction techniques in homebuilding.
  • Housing policies and their effects on social equity.
  • The impact of the built environment on physical activity levels.
  • Cultural influences on architectural styles and housing designs.
  • Aging in place: adapting homes for older adults’ needs.
  • Energy-efficient design principles for sustainable housing.
  • The psychology of space: how interior design affects mood and behavior.
  • Homelessness prevention strategies and support services.
  • Innovative furniture design for small living spaces.
  • Historic preservation and community revitalization efforts.
  • Smart home technologies for improving safety and accessibility.
  • The role of public policy in addressing housing affordability issues.

Textiles and Apparel

  • Sustainable fashion practices and their environmental impact.
  • Ethical considerations in the global textile industry.
  • Clothing and identity: self-expression through fashion.
  • The psychology of fashion trends and consumer behavior.
  • Textile recycling and upcycling initiatives.
  • Fashion education and its role in shaping industry standards.
  • Historical influences on contemporary fashion design.
  • Body image perceptions and their relationship to clothing choices.
  • The future of wearable technology in fashion.
  • Cultural appropriation versus cultural appreciation in fashion.
  • The environmental footprint of fast fashion and alternative business models.
  • Textile innovations for sustainable clothing production.
  • The cultural significance of traditional textile crafts.
  • Fashion as a form of social activism and self-expression.
  • The psychology of online shopping and its impact on consumer behavior.
  • Clothing rental and sharing platforms : sustainability and consumer trends.
  • Textile recycling technologies and closed-loop production systems.
  • Fashion entrepreneurship: challenges and opportunities for small businesses.
  • Body positivity movements and their influence on fashion marketing.
  • The role of fashion in shaping cultural identities and social norms.

Human Development and Relationships

  • Marital satisfaction and communication patterns.
  • The impact of divorce on children’s well-being.
  • Aging and quality of life: promoting healthy aging practices.
  • Intergenerational relationships and their significance.
  • Mental health stigma within families and communities.
  • Resilience factors in overcoming family adversity.
  • Attachment theory and its implications for parent-child relationships.
  • The role of social support networks in coping with life transitions.
  • Gender identity development across the lifespan.
  • Intersectionality in understanding human development and relationships.
  • How social media impacts how we connect with others and our mental well-being.
  • Coping strategies for managing work-related stress within families.
  • The impact of migration on family dynamics and support networks.
  • Trauma-informed care approaches for supporting survivors of abuse and violence.
  • Positive youth development programs and their long-term outcomes.
  • The benefits of intergenerational activities for promoting social cohesion.
  • Cultural competence in providing family-centered healthcare services.
  • Gender equality initiatives within families and communities.
  • How having a parent in jail can affect kids’ happiness and growth.
  • Technology-mediated communication and its impact on family cohesion.
  • Innovations in marriage and family therapy for addressing diverse needs and challenges.

What Is The Importance Of Home Economics To You As A Student?

As a student, home economics holds significant importance for several reasons:

  • Life Skills Development: Home economics equips students with practical life skills that are essential for everyday living. From cooking and nutrition to budgeting and time management, these skills are invaluable for independent living and contribute to personal growth and self-sufficiency.
  • Health and Well-being: Studying home economics helps students understand the importance of healthy living practices, including proper nutrition, hygiene, and stress management. This knowledge promotes physical and mental well-being, laying the foundation for a healthier lifestyle both now and in the future.
  • Financial Literacy: In home economics class, we learn about money stuff like budgeting, saving, and handling debt. This helps us understand how to use money wisely and make smart choices. It’s like learning the secrets to being good with money so we can be in control of our finances and become more independent.
  • Cultural and Social Awareness: Home economics encompasses various aspects of culture, family dynamics, and social issues. Through studying topics like food culture, family relationships, and societal trends, students gain a deeper understanding of diverse perspectives and develop empathy and respect for different cultures and lifestyles.
  • Practical Application of Academic Concepts: Home economics provides a hands-on approach to learning that complements theoretical knowledge acquired in other subjects. By applying concepts from science, mathematics, and social studies to real-life situations, students gain a deeper understanding of academic content and its relevance to their daily lives.
  • Preparation for Future Roles: Whether students aspire to become parents, caregivers, homeowners, or professionals in fields related to food, nutrition, or family services, home economics provides a solid foundation for success in these roles. The skills and knowledge acquired through home economics education are transferable and applicable across various personal and professional domains.

In conclusion, home economics research is a dynamic field that encompasses a wide range of topics relevant to everyday life.

By exploring issues related to food, family, housing, textiles, and human development, researchers contribute valuable insights that can lead to positive changes in individuals, families, and communities.

As we continue to advance our understanding of home economics research topics, we empower ourselves to create healthier, more sustainable, and more fulfilling lifestyles for all.

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In the spotlight: Performance management that puts people first

In volatile times, companies are under outsize pressure to respond to economic, technological, and social changes. Effective performance management systems can be a powerful part of this response. They’re designed to help people get better in their work, and they offer clarity in career development and professional performance. And then there’s the big picture: companies that focus on their people’s performance are 4.2 times more likely to outperform their peers, realizing an average 30 percent higher revenue growth and experiencing attrition five percentage points lower (see sidebar, “About the research”). Companies that focus on their people and organizational health also reap dividends in culture, collaboration, and innovation—as well as sustained competitive performance. 1 Alex Camp, Arne Gast, Drew Goldstein, and Brooke Weddle, “ Organizational health is (still) the key to long-term performance ,” McKinsey, February 12, 2024.

Today, company leaders lack full confidence in most performance management systems—despite these systems’ importance and value—citing fragmentation, the existence of informal or “shadow” systems, misalignment, and inconsistency as common challenges. What sort of systems fit the company’s needs? Should rewards focus on individual or team goals? Where are limited resources best spent?

About the research

The insights in this article draw from a comprehensive review of industry best practices, including the experiences of more than 30 global companies across sectors, as well as research by the McKinsey Global Institute (MGI) into how companies gain a competitive edge and deliver top-tier financial results. Specifically, MGI studied more than 1,800 companies with revenues of greater than $100 million. 1 Performance through people: Transforming human capital into competitive advantage ; MGI, February 2, 2023. The article’s author team also completed a study of more than 50 companies’ performance management practices, aiming to provide a nuanced understanding of how organizations approach and execute performance management.

An understanding of the four basic elements of performance management—goal setting, performance reviews, ongoing development, and rewards—provides a foundation for answering these questions and more. Of course, the right performance management system will vary by organization. Leaders who embrace a fit-for-purpose design built on a proven set of core innovations can build motivational and meritocratic companies that attract and retain outstanding employees.

How leading companies approach performance management

Our research across a set of global companies found that despite widespread agreement about certain performance management best practices—such as offering regular feedback outside of an annual review—many companies remain stuck in old ways of working. There are many design choices that can determine the characteristics of a performance management system, but some are more critical than others (Exhibit 1). These decisions—and how they interact with each other—will help determine how the performance management system maps onto the company’s overarching strategy.

Goal setting

Two critical design decisions relate to goal setting: the number of performance management systems used and whether to prioritize individual or team performance goals.

Degree of differentiation. The simplest and best option for many organizations is a single performance management system to address the needs of all employees. However, in more-complex companies with several employee groups, more than one system might be necessary. Manufacturing companies, for instance, may employ three performance management systems with few commonalities: one for sales, in which sales agents are provided direct incentives for the number of goods sold; one for production, with a monthly rhythm focusing on improving core production KPIs; and one for executives, in which the focus might be related more to annual objectives and leadership behavior.

Considerations for these choices often revolve around the nature of the work and the ease of quantifying outputs. For roles in which performance can be easily measured through tangible metrics, such as sales and production, a system emphasizing quantifiable outcomes may be more suitable. On the other hand, for roles involving tasks that are less easily measured, such as those in R&D, a performance management system should be designed to accommodate the nuanced and less tangible aspects of their contributions.

The nucleus of performance. Many organizations have traditionally placed a strong emphasis on individual performance, rooted in the belief that individual accountability drives results. In recent years, there has been a noticeable shift toward recognizing the importance of the team in achieving overall organizational success.

At a large European online retailer, for instance, the focus of performance management has been put on the team rather than the individual. Goals are set for the team, feedback is given to the team, and the performance appraisal is conducted for the team. Example performance metrics for teams can include project completion timelines, cross-functional collaboration success, and the achievement of collective milestones. On an individual level, the company assesses performance using a sophisticated model that prescribes skills and behaviors for 14 job families, each with up to four hierarchies.

Another prominent company in the automotive industry underscores the team as the cornerstone of performance. The teams could be defined along both functional and organizational lines—such as the division or the business line—and the company linked the organizational lines’ performance to the individuals’ compensation.

Performance reviews

Performance reviews raise the question of how to balance the individual objectives and their appraisal with respect to the “what” and the “how,” as well as whether review responsibility should lie primarily with managers, committees, or a combination of both.

Performance formula: What versus how. The balance between setting objectives and assessing what employees accomplish and how they go about their work is the central focus here. To measure the “what,” reviews have traditionally used KPIs, concentrating on quantifiable metrics and specific targets and emphasizing measurable outcomes and achievements. 2 For more on metrics best practices and how they can help leaders avoid pitfalls in their performance management systems, see Raffaele Carpi, John Douglas, and Frédéric Gascon, “ Performance management: Why keeping score is so important, and so hard ,” McKinsey, October 4, 2017.

However, for many roles and in many segments of the company, the work is complex, multifaceted, and fast-paced and can be difficult to capture with rather static KPIs. Consequently, many companies have reverted to using objective key results (OKRs) to link results to defined objectives. The objectives represent the qualitative, aspirational goals an individual or team aims to achieve, while the key results are the quantifiable metrics used to measure progress toward those objectives. The objectives provide context and direction, capturing the broader strategic intent behind the measurable key results.

Companies that explicitly focus a portion of performance reviews on the “how” consider qualities such as collaboration, communication, adaptability, and ethical decision making. Considering behavior and conduct, in particular, can help assess leaders whose teams’ outcomes are hard to measure—such as long-term projects, complex initiatives, or qualitative improvements that may not have easily quantifiable metrics. About three in five companies in our sample look at a mix of both what and how, which can equip managers with a more comprehensive understanding of not only tangible results but also the underlying approach and mindset that contributed to those outcomes.

Review responsibility. In structuring accountability for conducting performance reviews, companies tend to lean on managers, committees, or a combination of both.

Managers should play a central role, and their discretion should be a significant factor in performance assessments because they can judge the context in which an employee has been working. For example, when evaluating performance, it’s crucial to consider the headwinds and tailwinds that the business, team, or employee faced during the evaluation period. External factors, market conditions, and organizational dynamics can significantly affect an employee’s ability to achieve their goals, and considering them helps provide a fair and contextual assessment.

In this context, another design question emerges: whether to appraise employees against OKR fulfilment or the effort they put into achieving the desired outcome. Particularly in many large digital players, OKRs are set as “moonshot” goals—objectives so ambitious they are difficult to achieve. Managers can help ensure that, at the end of the performance cycle, an employee is assessed against not only OKR fulfillment but also—and to an even greater degree—how hard they tried given the resources available to them.

Managers’ points of view, formed with knowledge of the circumstances that produced employees’ performance, produce richer assessments that are sensitive to context—given that managers work closely with their team members and have firsthand knowledge of the challenges, workloads, and specific situations that each employee encounters.

Committees, meanwhile, bring diverse perspectives and can mitigate biases that might arise from individual managers’ subjectivity. Committees can provide a checks-and-balances system, promoting consistency and standardization in the evaluation process.

A combination of these two approaches can be an effective solution. Senior managers and high performers across hierarchies could be discussed in committees, while the rest of the workforce could be evaluated by their direct managers. This integrated approach leverages the contextual insights of managers while also incorporating the diverse viewpoints and standardization that committees offer, particularly for more-senior or high-impact roles.

Regardless of the review responsibility structure, it’s worth noting that more and more managers, committees, and employees are using generative AI (gen AI) to aggregate and extract information to inform performance reviews. For example, some employees may toil to define clear, specific, and measurable goals that align with their career aspirations; gen AI can help create a first draft and iterate based on their role, helping the employee focus on their specific growth areas as well as gauge improvement on an ongoing basis. Managers and committees, meanwhile, used to spend a lot of time gathering performance metrics from different sources and systems for employee evaluation. Gen AI can aggregate input from various sources into a consolidated format to provide managers with a more comprehensive starting point for reviews.

Beyond employees’ formal professional-development opportunities, their managers’ capability to set goals, appraise performance fairly and motivationally, and provide feedback is one of the most critical success factors for an effective performance management system. As a result, many companies have pivoted to invest in focused capability building.

Ongoing development

Another key aspect to consider when designing a performance management system is the focus of the assessment: will it evaluate past performances, or will the emphasis be placed on creating an understanding and foundation for further growth?

A backward-looking assessment will focus on fulfillment of the what and how objectives to create a fair basis for ranking and related consequences. However, many companies are pivoting to complement this assessment or are even focusing entirely on a developmental appraisal. In this approach, the focus is on truly understanding the strengths and weaknesses of the individual as a basis for further development, capability building, and personal growth.

Against that backdrop, rather than concentrating solely on top performers, an inclusive developmental system should cater to the growth needs of employees across all levels and backgrounds. McKinsey research emphasizes the importance of ongoing development for all employees, including—crucially—efforts tailored specifically for women 3 Women in the Workplace 2023 , McKinsey, October 5, 2023. and other underrepresented groups. 4 Diversity matters even more: The case for holistic impact , McKinsey, December 5, 2023. Such development programs not only foster a more equitable culture but also help unlock the full potential of the entire workforce.

Traditionally, many companies have used relative ratings to compare and rank employees against one another, often resulting in a forced distribution or curve. Employees are placed into categories or tiers based on their relative performance, with a predetermined percentage falling into each category (for example, top 10 percent, middle 70 percent, and bottom 20 percent).

Many companies today are simplifying their ratings systems so employees understand where they stand while shifting toward development approaches tailored to individuals’ strengths and weaknesses. The goal is to identify areas for growth and provide targeted support to help employees enhance their capabilities and skills.

While assessing performance remains important, the emphasis should be on using those assessments as a starting point for identifying developmental opportunities, with an understanding of both strengths and weaknesses and the specific development needs to improve performance. The focus shifts from mere evaluation to understanding the underlying factors that contribute to an individual’s performance, be it skills gaps, mindsets, or environmental factors.

Four reward categories—compensation, career progression, development opportunities, and recognition—remain the core pillars of an effective performance management system. Most leading companies provide individual rewards (as opposed to team- or corporate-driven ones), with equal relevance given to short- and long-term incentives, looking at impact holistically and balancing investment in all four reward categories.

Under certain circumstances, it may make sense to emphasize financial rewards, particularly in sales functions or other roles where monetary incentives are highly valued. Indeed, some organizations may double down on monetary compensation, offering significantly higher pay packages to their top performers, because money is seen as a key motivator in these roles.

In other cases, it may be more effective to take money off the table and emphasize nonfinancial rewards, such as recognition, flexibility, and career development opportunities. While base pay may remain the same across the firm, high performers can be rewarded with faster career progression, more recognition, and better development opportunities. A 2009 McKinsey survey found that “three noncash motivators—praise from immediate managers, leadership attention (for example, one-on-one conversations), and a chance to lead projects or task forces” were “no less or even more effective motivators than the three highest-rated financial incentives: cash bonuses, increased base pay, and stock or stock options.” Furthermore, “The survey’s top three nonfinancial motivators play critical roles in making employees feel that their companies value them, take their well-being seriously, and strive to create opportunities for career growth.” 5 “ Motivating people: Getting beyond money ,” McKinsey Quarterly , November 1, 2009. More than a decade later, McKinsey research found that managers and employees remain misaligned: specifically, employers overlook the relational elements—such as feeling valued by a manager and the organization and feeling a sense of belonging—relative to how important these factors are to employee retention (Exhibit 2). 6 “ ‘ Great Attrition’ or ‘Great Attraction’? The choice is yours ,” McKinsey Quarterly , September 8, 2021. Indeed, the importance of nonmonetary incentives represents a consistent theme in performance management research and inquiry.

Given the time and effort required to effectively implement nonfinancial rewards, it’s crucial for organizations to carefully consider how to deploy these rewards strategically with employee groups. The decision of where to place emphasis should align with the organization’s culture, values, and the specific workforce’s motivations.

It’s worth noting that companies focusing on team achievement over individual performance also tend to value praise of the team. Public recognition and praise for effective teamwork and joint accomplishments can foster a sense of unity, camaraderie, and motivation.

Things to get right

Of the global companies we observed, there was a shared set of enabling factors across those with effective performance management systems. These things are fairly intuitive, but they are hard to practice well. Done consistently, they can produce powerful results.

  • Ensure that performance management systems are agile. Systems should allow for goals to be easily updated so the workforce—and therefore the organization—can respond to quickly changing conditions. The processes themselves should also be agile. For instance, relationships and interactions between managers and employees should allow for coaching that is close to real time so employees are consistently being pushed in the right direction—and learning to create that momentum themselves.
  • Provide regular feedback. Annual reviews can create a bottleneck on managers and the C-suite. More regular performance conversations can be successful in a variety of formats; quarterly, weekly, and casual check-ins should supplement formal reviews. Conversations can be about both the what and the how of the work and be a source of ongoing coaching.

If reviews remain once a year rather than more frequent, top management may consider prioritizing their direct involvement in the evaluation process to keep a pulse on employee sentiment and progress. A leading financial institution in Europe chose this route and found it was able to build a strong capability-building program around a feedback culture that is unafraid of difficult conversations.

  • Establish an effective fact base. According to our research, only two in five companies use both upward and downward evaluation in individual performance reviews. To establish a more comprehensive fact base, organizations can implement robust 360° review processes that solicit feedback from an employee’s manager, peers, direct reports, and even customers or stakeholders outside the company. Many leaders have found that 360° reviews offer a comprehensive understanding of an individual’s performance because such reviews consider perspectives from both those who are led and those who are in leadership roles.
  • Maintain rating and differentiation. Many companies have reassessed their approach to employee ratings and the subsequent differentiation of consequences. While some companies have eliminated ratings altogether, most companies have been evolving their systems to drive motivation, recognize and incentivize performance, and create a “talent currency.” This means a high performer from one division is considered by the organization to be of the same caliber as one from another division. Overall, leaders are pushing for simplification, such as moving from a seven-tier approach to a four-tier or even three-tier system. There is also a stronger link between ratings and outcomes, as well as a shift from forced distribution to distribution guidance.
  • Employ gen AI. Gen AI—the latest technology to change the business landscape—can be a tool to support select elements of performance management, such as setting goals and drafting performance reviews. A manager could use the technology to aggregate and synthesize input from different sources to draft communications to and about employees more efficiently, freeing them to focus on the core value driving parts of performance management and giving more time for personal interactions with their employees, such as coaching and feedback. 7 For more, see People and Organization Blog , “ Four ways to start using generative AI in HR ,” blog post by Julian Kirchherr, Dana Maor, Kira Rupietta, and Kirsten Weerda, McKinsey, March 4, 2024.

Getting started

Companies can get started by understanding where they are now. Specifically, they should assess their organizations’ current performance culture, including the level of adoption of the existing performance management system and its quality. Decision makers should then use the following three questions to check the health of their performance management efforts and outline their ambitions for performance management:

  • Are we getting the expected returns from the time invested in the performance management process, and does it drive higher performance and capabilities?
  • Does the current performance management system reflect the needs and context of this particular business or workforce segment?
  • Do we have a performance culture? (Hint: How frequent are employees’ coaching interactions? How clear and differentiated is feedback?)

Many traditional approaches to people management are unlikely to suffice in today’s top-performing organizations. The research-backed benefits of prioritizing people’s performance, from enhanced revenue growth to lower attrition rates, underscore the strategic importance of these systems. By embracing a fit-for-purpose design anchored in the key elements of performance management, organizations can position themselves as dynamic and adaptive employers.

Simon Gallot Lavallée is an associate partner in McKinsey’s Milan office, where Andrea Pedroni  is a partner; Asmus Komm is a partner in the Hamburg office; and Amaia Noguera Lasa is a partner in the Madrid office.

The authors wish to thank Katharina Wagner, Brooke Weddle, and the many industry professionals who contributed to the development of this article.

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  • Healthy Habits
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  • Healthy Swimming Communication Resources
  • Aquatics Professionals Toolkit
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  • The Model Aquatic Health Code (MAHC): A Model Public Swimming Pool and Spa Code

Swimming and Your Health

  • Water-based exercise offers physical and mental health benefits, including improved health for people with chronic illnesses like diabetes, heart disease, and arthritis.
  • However, recreational water can also spread illness or cause injury, so it is important to know what to do to protect yourself and others.

An empty, outdoor swimming pool.

Health benefits

Swimming can improve mood and people report enjoying water-based exercise more than exercising on land.

People are able to exercise longer in water without increased joint or muscle pain, which has been shown to be especially helpful for people with arthritis and osteoarthritis. Water-based exercise can help people with arthritis improve the use of their arthritic joints, decrease pain, and not worsen symptoms. People with rheumatoid arthritis have shown more health improvements after participating in hydrotherapy (exercising in warm water) than with other activities.

For people with fibromyalgia, swimming can decrease anxiety, and exercise therapy in warm water can decrease depression and improve mood. Parents of children with developmental disabilities find that recreational activities, such as swimming, improve family connections.

Water-based exercise can benefit older adults by improving their quality of life and decreasing disability. It can also improve or help maintain the bone health of post-menopausal women.

Staying healthy and safe while you swim

To stay healthy and safe while you swim, it is important to understand how to prevent illness and injury when you are in or around the water.

You can get swimming-related illnesses if you swallow, have contact with, or breathe in mists of water contaminated with germs. The most common swimming-related illnesses are diarrhea , skin rashes , swimmer's ear , pneumonia or flu-like illness , and irritation of the eyes or respiratory tract .

Learn more about what you can do to prevent these illnesses when you swim and how to protect yourself depending on where you go (pool, hot tub, splash pad, ocean, etc.)

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Preventing Swimming-related Illnesses

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Guidelines for Healthy and Safe Swimming

Keeping your pool and hot tub clean

Having pool or hot tub can be a fun way to be active or just relax. It is important to know what to do to reduce the risk of pool-related injury and illness, as well as how to clean your pool if it has been contaminated by poop, vomit, blood, or a dead animal.

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Guidelines for Keeping Your Pool Safe and Healthy

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Responding to Pool Contamination

  • US Census Bureau. Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012. Arts, Recreation, and Travel: Participation in Selected Sports Activities 2009. [XLS – 40 KB] ·
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans: Be active, healthy, and happy! In Chapter 2: Physical Activity Has Many Health Benefits. 2009.
  • Westby MD. A health professional's guide to exercise prescription for people with arthritis: a review of aerobic fitness activities. Arthritis Rheum. 2001;45(6):501-11.
  • Hall J, Skevington SM, Maddison PJ, Chapman K. A randomized and controlled trial of hydrotherapy in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Care Res. 1996;9(3):206-15.
  • Tomas-Carus P, Gusi N, Hakkinen A, Hakkinen K, Leal A, and Ortega-Alonso A. Eight months of physical training in warm water improves physical and mental health in women with fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial. J Rehabil Med. 2008;40(4):248-52.
  • Broman G, Quintana M, Engardt M, Gullstrand L, Jansson E, and Kaijser L. Older women's cardiovascular responses to deep-water running. J Aging Phys Act. 2006;14(1):29-40.
  • Cider A, Svealv BG, Tang MS, Schaufelberger M, and Andersson B. Immersion in warm water induces improvement in cardiac function in patients with chronic heart failure. Eur J Heart Fail. 2006;8(3):308-13.
  • Bartels EM, Lund H, Hagen KB, Dagfinrud H, Christensen R, Danneskiold-Samsøe B. Aquatic exercise for the treatment of knee and hip osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;3:CD005523.
  • Berger BG, and Owen DR. Mood alteration with yoga and swimming: aerobic exercise may not be necessary. Percept Mot Skills. 1992;75(3 Pt 2):1331-43.
  • Gowans SE and deHueck A. Pool exercise for individuals with fibromyalgia. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2007;19(2):168-73.
  • Hartmann S and Bung P. Physical exercise during pregnancy—physiological considerations and recommendations. J Perinat Med. 1999;27(3):204-15.
  • Mactavish JB and Schleien SJ. Re-injecting spontaneity and balance in family life: parents' perspectives on recreation in families that include children with developmental disability. J Intellect Disabil Res. 2004;48(Pt 2):123-41.
  • Sato D, Kaneda K, Wakabayashi H, and Nomura T. The water exercise improves health-related quality of life of frail elderly people at day service facility. Qual Life Res. 2007;16:1577-85.
  • Rotstein A, Harush M, and Vaisman N. The effect of water exercise program on bone density of postmenopausal Women. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2008;48(3):352-9.

Healthy Swimming

CDC’s Healthy Swimming website provides information on how to have healthy and safe swimming experiences while minimizing illness and injury.

For Everyone

Public health.

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  1. 40+ Latest Web Development Trends in 2024 [Updated]

    The user could enjoy a natural experience and seamless usage. The apps we use daily, like Facebook, Gmail, and Twitter are SPAs. It is one of the top web development trends that developers will leverage in 2024 and is expected that in the future, most functional websites will be built as SPAs.

  2. 7 emerging web design trends for 2024 and beyond

    Understanding (and using) these trends helps designers, developers, and brands build beautiful, functional, and user-friendly sites. 1. Denser, richer graphics. We expect denser and richer graphics to be everywhere in 2024. Sites will be full of complexity, color, textures, and patterns to help create even more immersive experiences for users.

  3. Smashing Magazine

    Boost Your Skills Online,On Front-End, Design & UX. Meet Smashing Workshops, with practical, actionable insights from experts — live. With interactive exercises, slides, video recordings and a friendly Q&A. Karin den Bouwmeester is a senior UX researcher with a background in psychology and over 20 years of hands-on research experience at a ...

  4. web development Latest Research Papers

    To solve it, this research raises the theme of the appropriate information system design for the hospital concerned, by utilizing CSS Bootstrap framework and research methodology for web development, namely Web Development Life Cycle. This research resulted in a responsive system by providing easy access through desktop computers, tablets, and ...

  5. 11 engaging web design trends for 2023

    FanFiction.net circa 2001 could serve all your Animorphs fanfic needs. (Source: Wayback Machine) Designer and artist Adam Ho's portfolio site takes clear inspiration from this era with his stark text-on-white design. He adds visual interest by mixing fonts in a way that contrasts with the sectioned layout and clean background.. Adam also uses a bold, sans-serif font to draw attention to ...

  6. The 9 Most Interactive Web Design Trends for 2023

    5. '90s navigation—. '90s retro became a big theme in the web design trends of last year—an expression of the collective longing for the innocence of the early internet. In 2023, that trend shows no signs of abating. Designers are now ramping up their creative interpretation of nostalgia, with a particular emphasis on navigation.

  7. What is Design Research?

    What is Design Research? Design research is the practice of gaining insights by observing users and understanding industry and market shifts. For example, in service design it involves designers' using ethnography—an area of anthropology—to access study participants, to gain the best insights and so be able to start to design popular ...

  8. Exploring the 10 Latest Web Design Trends of 2023

    Memphis Design. Taking a nostalgic trip back to the '80s, Memphis Design is an aesthetic with a modern twist gaining popularity in web design trends. The use of contrasting color schemes, abstract UI elements, and vibrant tones adds a playful and dramatic effect to websites. In conclusion, the web design trends of 2023 encourage designers to ...

  9. 14823 PDFs

    Explore the latest full-text research PDFs, articles, conference papers, preprints and more on WEB DESIGN. Find methods information, sources, references or conduct a literature review on WEB DESIGN

  10. 6 modern web design trends to inspire you in 2024

    Roots takes a toned-down approach to the oversized type trend on their homepage. 4. Nostalgic design. Sometimes great web design isn't about looking forward—but looking back. Retro-style websites made a comeback in 2024 to create emotional connections with users by appealing to past memories and aesthetics.

  11. 24 Top Web Design Trends 2024

    The Latest Web Design Trends and Standards for 2024 in Three Words: Fast, Clean and Eye-Catching. When you think about web design trends for 2024, think of custom illustrations, animated cursors, and blending photos with graphical elements. All of these and more will help to keep your site fresh in 2024.

  12. 15 Web Design Trends To Watch In 2024 Based On Industry Experts

    Dynamic Text Movement through kinetic typography, creating engaging, motion-based textual experiences. Embark on an exploration of 2024's web design trends, brought to you by Market Splash experts. Reflect on your recent online experiences, noting designs that stood out for their user-friendly interfaces and aesthetic appeal. Conversely, poorly ...

  13. The 7 Promising Web Design Trends 2023 That Will Stay

    5. Minimalistic Extremes. Minimalism is based on the less-is-more approach to enhance user experience, using only a few design elements and soft colors, instead of bold and bright colors. Flat design, white spaces, muted colors, and an overall cleaner look: that's what first comes to mind when talking about minimalism.

  14. 15 Website Design Trends You Don't Want to Miss in 2024

    10. Bare-bones brutalism with a kick. This web design trend is almost grunge in its simple and non-conforming nature. In a world where cramming in more is the common default, this trend is looking to do less while capitalizing on the same benefits of brand recognition, visitor engagement, and conversions.

  15. 6 standout web design trends set to make waves in 2022

    6 standout web design trends for 2022. 01. The rise of the one-page website. Joshua Kaplan's one-page portfolio has a consistent content structure (Image credit: Joshua Kaplan) It's an old adage but it still rings true: less is more. If there's one thing we always crave, it's simplicity.

  16. Guide: Web Design Trends & Forecasts for 2023

    March 10, 2023. New technologies like Web 3.0 are also driving changes in web design trends. These technologies allow for interactive experiences that engage users in exciting ways. Designers can use these trends to create sites and projects that stay current and connect with modern audiences. By embracing these trends, designers can create ...

  17. What is Web Design?

    A web designer works on a website's appearance, layout, and, in some cases, content. Appearance relates to the colors, typography, and images used. Layout refers to how information is structured and categorized. A good web design is easy to use, aesthetically pleasing, and suits the user group and brand of the website.

  18. 45+ Web Design Industry Statistics and Latest Trends for 2024

    The web design services industry market size in the US is 40.8 billion. Do-it-yourself website builder platforms are currently worth $24 billion in the US. They also experience a 4.9% annual growth rate. The median pay for web developers and digital designers was $80,730 per year, or $38.81 per hour, in 2022.

  19. 26 best website design ideas for your 2024 projects

    22. Web application. Source: Trello. Web applications are some of the most popular tools around, making them a great website idea for developers. Trello, for example, is a popular no-code web app for project management that helps teams organize tasks, collaborate, and stay productive using custom to-do lists.

  20. A list of 11 latest research topic ideas for web development

    A comprehensive list of 11 web development research topics including their description, research methodology, research objectives, and research questions. ... C., 2018, September. Design and research of mobile phone library management system in a private university based on asp. net. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 1087, No. 6, p ...

  21. User Interface Design and UX Design: 80+ Important Research Papers

    This architecture is instantiated in WebWOZ—a new web-based open-source WOZ prototyping platform. The viability of generic support is explored empirically through a series of evaluations. ... PulseUX BLOG Visit our blog for insightful and interesting posts on a wide-range of design research topics. Some posts have had millions of page views ...

  22. 27 Research-Backed Web Design Tips: How to Design a Website That Works

    Normal web design tips don't apply. Make sure to put calls to action farther down the page, in any place where interest is likely to be high. 4. Make it a tall page. Answer all your visitors' questions. More pixels means more space to answer questions, address objections and add supportive evidence.

  23. JavaScript Language Design and Implementation in Tandem

    The latest ECMA-262 10 is a much larger specification at 827 pages. Now, ECMA-262 is maintained as an open source project 11 and follows the TC39 process 14 for handling proposals for new language features. JavaScript contributors propose new features along with specification changes and tests, which are maintained in a separate repository 6 ...

  24. Selecting a Design Research Topic

    In other words, a design research project in experience design should: involve human actors in some way. include the design of outcomes/an intervention. inspect the effects of interactions between human actors and design outcomes. When selecting topics for your research, be sure they are related to experience design.

  25. Deep-sea sponge's 'zero-energy' flow control could inspire new energy

    The deep-sea Venus flower basket sponge can filter feed using only the faint ambient currents of the ocean depths, no pumping required, new research reveals. This discovery of natural 'zero energy ...

  26. Top 101 Home Economics Research Topics [Updated]

    Home economics research addresses contemporary issues impacting individuals, families, and communities. Focus areas include food and nutrition, family and consumer sciences, housing and interior design, textiles and apparel, and human development. Researchers explore topics such as dietary patterns, parenting styles, sustainable housing ...

  27. Weekend Edition Sunday for May 19, 2024 : NPR

    Meet the woman who escaped two conflicts — as a Palestinian refugee, then in Ukraine. by Tamara Keith, Eleana Tworek. 6 min.

  28. Performance management that puts people first

    The research-backed benefits of prioritizing people's performance, from enhanced revenue growth to lower attrition rates, underscore the strategic importance of these systems. By embracing a fit-for-purpose design anchored in the key elements of performance management, organizations can position themselves as dynamic and adaptive employers.

  29. About Physical Activity

    We also fund the Physical Activity Policy Research and Evaluation Network (PAPREN). The network works across sectors to advance the evidence base for physical activity policies. It also puts research into practice with a shared vision: active people in active communities, supported by equitable, sustainable policies and practices.

  30. Swimming and Your Health

    Health benefits. Swimming can improve mood and people report enjoying water-based exercise more than exercising on land. People are able to exercise longer in water without increased joint or muscle pain, which has been shown to be especially helpful for people with arthritis and osteoarthritis. Water-based exercise can help people with ...