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Case Study On Time Management At Work: My Journey to Productivity

Rosie Landry

Case Study On Time Management At Work

Hello, my name is [Name] and like most people, I have always struggled with time management at work. I used to find myself overwhelmed, stressed out, and constantly falling behind on deadlines. But, after implementing effective time management strategies, I have been able to drastically improve my productivity and work-life balance.

Table of Contents

In this article, I will share my personal case study on time management at work and highlight the importance of implementing effective techniques to improve productivity.

Key Takeaways

  • Effective time management strategies are key to improving productivity at work.
  • Setting SMART goals and prioritizing tasks can help maximize productivity.
  • Creating a daily routine and leveraging technology can streamline productivity.
  • Delegating and outsourcing tasks can empower time management.
  • Tracking progress and making necessary adjustments is crucial for success.
  • Challenges can be overcome with practical solutions and maintaining work-life balance is important.

Setting Goals for Effective Time Management

As I embarked on my journey to improve my time management skills, I quickly realized that setting clear and achievable goals was key to my success. By defining what I wanted to accomplish in a given day, week, or month, I was able to prioritize my tasks and work towards my objectives in a more focused and efficient way.


To make sure that my goals were clear and achievable, I followed the SMART methodology:

Specific Measurable Achievable Relevant Time-bound

Using this method, I was able to set goals that were specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound. This allowed me to take concrete steps towards my goals and track my progress along the way.

Aligning Goals with Tasks and Priorities

In addition to setting SMART goals, I also made sure to align them with my daily tasks and priorities. By breaking down my goals into smaller, actionable steps, I was able to identify the tasks that needed to be completed in order to achieve each goal. I then prioritized these tasks based on urgency and importance, ensuring that I focused on the most critical items first.

Through setting clear and achievable goals, and aligning them with my daily tasks and priorities, I was able to improve my productivity at work and achieve a greater sense of satisfaction and accomplishment in my daily tasks.

Prioritizing Tasks: Key to Time Management Success

As I discovered on my journey to productivity, prioritizing tasks is crucial for effective time management . By identifying urgent and important tasks and tackling them first, I was able to maximize my productivity and avoid wasting time on less important tasks.

One helpful strategy for prioritizing tasks is the Eisenhower Matrix, which involves classifying tasks into four categories based on urgency and importance:

Urgent & Important Important, but Not Urgent
Complete immediately Schedule for later
Delegate if possible Eliminate or minimize

By using this matrix, I was able to quickly prioritize my tasks and focus my attention on those that required my immediate attention. I also learned to be realistic about my time and avoid overcommitting myself to tasks that were not essential.

Another important aspect of prioritizing tasks is managing distractions. I found that by minimizing interruptions and limiting my exposure to non-work-related activities, such as social media and email, I was able to stay focused and complete my tasks more efficiently. I also learned to take regular breaks to recharge my energy and avoid burnout.

Overall, effective prioritization of tasks is a key component of successful time management and an essential part of my productivity journey.

Creating a Daily Routine for Optimal Time Management

A daily routine is a powerful tool for effective time management. It helps me stay organized, maintain focus, and achieve my goals with greater efficiency. Here are some tips for creating a routine that works for you:

  • Identify your priorities: Start by making a list of your primary goals and tasks for the day. Use this list to determine what tasks require the most time and energy. This will help you allocate your time and resources more effectively throughout the day.
  • Set a schedule: Determine what time you want to wake up and go to bed each day. Then, create a schedule that includes dedicated blocks of time for focused work, breaks, and self-care activities. Make sure you block off time for meals, exercise, and other important activities that support your overall well-being.
  • Stick to your routine: Consistency is key to making your daily routine work for you. Try to stick to your schedule as closely as possible, even on weekends. This will help you maintain good habits and avoid burnout.
  • Be flexible: Remember that life is unpredictable and things don’t always go as planned. Be prepared to make adjustments to your routine as needed. If unexpected tasks come up, try to fit them into your schedule without sacrificing your other priorities.
  • Take breaks: Breaks are essential for maintaining focus and avoiding burnout. Plan to take regular breaks throughout the day. Use this time to stretch, take a walk, or do something that brings you joy.
  • Track your progress: Keep a log of your daily routine and track your progress over time. This will help you identify areas for improvement and make adjustments as needed.

By creating a daily routine that supports your goals and priorities, you can improve your time management skills and achieve optimal productivity. Remember to be patient with yourself as you establish new habits and routines. With practice, you can develop a routine that works for you and helps you achieve your goals.

Leveraging Technology for Time Management Efficiency

Technology plays a crucial role in modern time management techniques. By using the right tools and apps, I was able to streamline my work process, manage deadlines, and increase my overall productivity. Here are some of the productivity tools and apps I found most helpful:

Tool/App Description
Asana A project management tool that allows me to organize tasks, set deadlines, and collaborate with my team in real-time.
Trello A visual project management tool that uses boards, lists, and cards to organize and prioritize tasks.
Google Calendar A scheduling and time management tool that helps me keep track of appointments, meetings, and deadlines.
Focus@Will A music app that plays scientifically optimized music to help me stay focused and productive while working.
RescueTime An app that tracks my computer and phone usage, and provides insights on how I can be more productive with my time.

By using these tools, I was able to stay organized, prioritize tasks effectively, and reduce distractions. It took some time to find the right combination of tools that worked best for me, but the effort was well worth it in terms of improved productivity and efficiency.

Delegating and Outsourcing: Empowering Time Management

One of the most effective ways I have found to improve my time management skills is by delegating tasks to others and outsourcing work when necessary. While this may seem like I am shirking my responsibilities, it actually empowers me to focus on my core tasks and responsibilities without getting bogged down in peripheral ones.

When considering tasks to delegate or outsource, I first look at those that are time-intensive but do not require my specific expertise. For instance, administrative tasks such as data entry, scheduling, and invoicing can be easily outsourced to a reputable virtual assistant or administrative service provider. This frees up a significant amount of my time, which I can then use to focus on more critical tasks that require my unique skill set.

Another factor to consider when delegating or outsourcing is the level of trust that I have in the person or service that I am passing my work onto. It is essential to conduct background checks, review testimonials, and vet potential candidates to ensure that they have the necessary skills and experience to handle my work effectively. I also ensure that I communicate expectations clearly and provide sufficient guidance to minimize the chances of any misunderstandings or errors.

Finally, outsourcing or delegating tasks should not be a one-time occurrence. To ensure that everything runs smoothly and efficiently, I make it a point to schedule regular check-ins with my virtual assistant or service provider and regularly review their performance metrics. This allows me to address any issues before they become major setbacks and make any necessary adjustments to improve their performance or streamline the work process.

Tracking Progress and Making Adjustments

Throughout my journey towards improving time management at work, I found it crucial to track my progress and make necessary adjustments along the way. This allowed me to ensure that I was on the right track, identify areas for improvement, and maintain my productivity levels.

One of the strategies I used was to regularly monitor my productivity and analyze how I spent my time on different tasks. I found that this helped me identify any patterns or habits that were affecting my productivity and enabled me to make informed decisions about how to optimize my time.

Another technique I found useful was to set benchmarks and goals for each day and week. By measuring my progress against these targets, I was able to stay motivated and track my success. In addition, it allowed me to make adjustments when needed and adapt my strategies to better align with my goals.

When making adjustments, it is important to be flexible and willing to try new strategies. For example, if a particular tool or technique is not working, it may be necessary to switch to a different approach. In addition, I found it helpful to seek feedback from colleagues or supervisors and incorporate their suggestions into my time management strategies.

Overall, tracking progress and making adjustments are critical components of effective time management. By regularly monitoring productivity, setting goals, and being flexible in adapting to new strategies, I was able to maximize my efficiency and achieve success in the workplace.

Overcoming Time Management Challenges

As I progressed on my journey to improve my time management at work, I encountered various challenges that threatened to derail my progress. Here are some of the most common challenges I faced, and how I overcame them:

  • Interruptions: One of the biggest challenges to my time management was being interrupted while working on important tasks. To combat this, I started setting boundaries by informing my colleagues of my focus hours and putting up a “do not disturb” sign when necessary. I also made sure to turn off notifications on my phone and email when I needed to focus.
  • Unexpected tasks: Another challenge was dealing with unexpected tasks that popped up throughout the day. To manage this, I started blocking out time in my daily routine for “buffer tasks” that allowed me to address unexpected priorities without compromising my other work.
  • Work-life balance: Finally, I struggled with finding the right balance between work and personal time. To combat this, I started scheduling self-care activities into my daily routine, such as taking a walk during my lunch break or reading for pleasure before bed. I also made sure to set realistic expectations for my work and communicate with my colleagues about my boundaries.

By proactively addressing these challenges and implementing effective time management strategies, I was able to significantly improve my productivity and work-life balance.

Overall, my journey to improving productivity through effective time management has been transformative. By setting goals, prioritizing tasks, creating a daily routine, leveraging technology, delegating and outsourcing, tracking progress, and overcoming challenges, I’ve found a new level of focus, efficiency, and work-life balance that I never thought possible.

For anyone seeking to improve their own time management skills, I encourage you to take the first step today. Start by identifying your goals and breaking them down into actionable tasks. Prioritize your to-do list based on urgency and importance, and find ways to minimize distractions and procrastination. Consider implementing a daily routine that includes designated work time, breaks, and self-care activities.

Don’t be afraid to experiment with productivity tools and apps to streamline tasks and manage deadlines, or to delegate tasks to reliable resources when necessary. Remember to track your progress regularly and make adjustments as needed, and to be patient with yourself as you learn and grow.

Final Thoughts

Effective time management is not just about getting more done in less time; it’s about finding a balance between work and life that allows you to thrive. By implementing the strategies and techniques discussed in this case study, you can take control of your time and achieve greater success and satisfaction in all areas of your life. So, what are you waiting for? Get started today!

Q: What is the case study about?

A: The case study focuses on time management at work and shares the author’s personal journey towards productivity.

Q: Why is setting goals important for effective time management?

A: Setting goals helps prioritize tasks, align daily activities, and improve overall time management.

Q: How can I prioritize tasks effectively?

A: Prioritizing tasks based on urgency and importance, managing distractions, and avoiding procrastination are key to successful time management.

Q: How can a daily routine contribute to optimal time management?

A: Creating a structured daily routine that includes dedicated time for focused work, breaks, and self-care activities can enhance time management efficiency.

Q: Can technology help improve time management?

A: Yes, leveraging productivity tools and apps can streamline tasks, manage deadlines, and enhance overall productivity.

Q: What are the benefits of delegating and outsourcing tasks?

A: Delegating and outsourcing tasks can empower time management by freeing up valuable time and resources for more important responsibilities.

Q: How can progress be tracked and adjustments made?

A: Monitoring productivity, analyzing time spent on tasks, and making informed adjustments are essential for improving time management.

Q: What are some common time management challenges?

A: Managing interruptions, handling unexpected tasks, and maintaining work-life balance are common challenges that can be addressed with effective time management techniques.

Q: What is the conclusion of the case study?

A: The case study emphasizes the importance of time management in improving productivity and work-life balance, and encourages readers to implement these techniques in their own lives.

About the author

Rosie Landry Profile Picture

I’m Rosie Landry, your friendly guide through the exciting world of practical management here on this blog. Here, I delve into everything from practical tips to complex theories of time management, combining scientific research with real-life applications. When I’m not writing about time management, you can find me with my nose in a gripping mystery novel, creating culinary delights, or out exploring nature with my faithful golden retriever, Marley. Join me as we discover how to take control of our time and enhance our lives together. If you need to reach out, do so here.

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Does time management work? A meta-analysis

1 Concordia University, Sir George Williams Campus, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Aïda Faber

2 FSA Ulaval, Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada

Alexandra Panaccio

Associated data.

All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files.

Does time management work? We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the impact of time management on performance and well-being. Results show that time management is moderately related to job performance, academic achievement, and wellbeing. Time management also shows a moderate, negative relationship with distress. Interestingly, individual differences and contextual factors have a much weaker association with time management, with the notable exception of conscientiousness. The extremely weak correlation with gender was unexpected: women seem to manage time better than men, but the difference is very slight. Further, we found that the link between time management and job performance seems to increase over the years: time management is more likely to get people a positive performance review at work today than in the early 1990s. The link between time management and gender, too, seems to intensify: women’s time management scores have been on the rise for the past few decades. We also note that time management seems to enhance wellbeing—in particular, life satisfaction—to a greater extent than it does performance. This challenges the common perception that time management first and foremost enhances work performance, and that wellbeing is simply a byproduct.


Stand-up comedian George Carlin once quipped that in the future a “time machine will be built, but no one will have time to use it” [ 1 ]. Portentously, booksellers now carry one-minute bedtime stories for time-starved parents [ 2 ] and people increasingly speed-watch videos and speed-listen to audio books [ 3 – 5 ]. These behaviors are symptomatic of an increasingly harried society suffering from chronic time poverty [ 6 ]. Work is intensifying—in 1965 about 50% of workers took breaks; in 2003, less than 2% [ 7 ]. Leisure, too, is intensifying: people strive to consume music, social media, vacations, and other leisure activities ever more efficiently [ 8 – 11 ].

In this frantic context, time management is often touted as a panacea for time pressure. Media outlets routinely extol the virtues of time management. Employers, educators, parents, and politicians exhort employees, students, children, and citizens to embrace more efficient ways to use time [ 12 – 16 ]. In light of this, it is not surprising that from 1960 to 2008 the frequency of books mentioning time management shot up by more than 2,700% [ 17 ].

Time management is defined as “a form of decision making used by individuals to structure, protect, and adapt their time to changing conditions” [ 18 ]. This means time management, as it is generally portrayed in the literature, comprises three components: structuring, protecting, and adapting time. Well-established time management measures reflect these concepts. Structuring time, for instance, is captured in such items as “Do you have a daily routine which you follow?” and “Do your main activities during the day fit together in a structured way?” [ 19 ]. Protecting time is reflected in items such as “Do you often find yourself doing things which interfere with your schoolwork simply because you hate to say ‘No’ to people?” [ 20 ]. And adapting time to changing conditions is seen in such items as “Uses waiting time” and “Evaluates daily schedule” [ 21 ].

Research has, furthermore, addressed several important aspects of time management, such as its relationship with work-life balance [ 22 ], whether gender differences in time management ability develop in early childhood [ 23 ], and whether organizations that encourage employees to manage their time experience less stress and turnover [ 24 ]. Despite the phenomenal popularity of this topic, however, academic research has yet to address some fundamental questions [ 25 – 27 ].

A critical gap in time management research is the question of whether time management works [ 28 , 29 ]. For instance, studies on the relationship between time management and job performance reveal mixed findings [ 30 , 31 ]. Furthermore, scholars’ attempts to synthesize the literature have so far been qualitative, precluding a quantitative overall assessment [ 18 , 32 , 33 ]. To tackle this gap in our understanding of time management, we conducted a meta-analysis. In addressing the question of whether time management works, we first clarify the criteria for effectiveness. In line with previous reviews, we find that virtually all studies focus on two broad outcomes: performance and wellbeing [ 32 ].

Overall, results suggest that time management enhances job performance, academic achievement, and wellbeing. Interestingly, individual differences (e.g., gender, age) and contextual factors (e.g., job autonomy, workload) were much less related to time management ability, with the notable exception of personality and, in particular, conscientiousness. Furthermore, the link between time management and job performance seems to grow stronger over the years, perhaps reflecting the growing need to manage time in increasingly autonomous and flexible jobs [ 34 – 37 ].

Overall, our findings provide academics, policymakers, and the general audience with better information to assess the value of time management. This information is all the more useful amid the growing doubts about the effectiveness of time management [ 38 ]. We elaborate on the contributions and implications of our findings in the discussion section.

What does it mean to say that time management works?

In the din of current debates over productivity, reduced workweeks, and flexible hours, time management comes to the fore as a major talking point. Given its popularity, it would seem rather pointless to question its effectiveness. Indeed, time management’s effectiveness is often taken for granted, presumably because time management offers a seemingly logical solution to a lifestyle that increasingly requires coordination and prioritization skills [ 39 , 40 ].

Yet, popular media outlets increasingly voice concern and frustration over time management, reflecting at least part of the population’s growing disenchantment [ 38 ]. This questioning of time management practices is becoming more common among academics as well [ 41 ]. As some have noted, the issue is not just whether time management works. Rather, the question is whether the techniques championed by time management gurus can be actually counterproductive or even harmful [ 26 , 42 ]. Other scholars have raised concerns that time management may foster an individualistic, quantitative, profit-oriented view of time that perpetuates social inequalities [ 43 , 44 ]. For instance, time management manuals beguile readers with promises of boundless productivity that may not be accessible to women, whose disproportionate share in care work, such as tending to young children, may not fit with typically male-oriented time management advice [ 45 ]. Similarly, bestselling time management books at times offer advice that reinforce global inequities. Some manuals, for instance, recommend delegating trivial tasks to private virtual assistants, who often work out of developing countries for measly wages [ 46 ]. Furthermore, time management manuals often ascribe a financial value to time—the most famous time management adage is that time is money. But recent studies show that thinking of time as money leads to a slew of negative outcomes, including time pressure, stress, impatience, inability to enjoy the moment, unwillingness to help others, and less concern with the environment [ 47 – 51 ]. What’s more, the pressure induced by thinking of time as money may ultimately undermine psychological and physical health [ 52 ].

Concerns over ethics and safety notwithstanding, a more prosaic question researchers have grappled with is whether time management works. Countless general-audience books and training programs have claimed that time management improves people’s lives in many ways, such as boosting performance at work [ 53 – 55 ]. Initial academic forays into addressing this question challenged those claims: time management didn’t seem to improve job performance [ 29 , 30 ]. Studies used a variety of research approaches, running the gamut from lab experiments, field experiments, longitudinal studies, and cross-sectional surveys to experience sampling [ 28 , 56 – 58 ]. Such studies occasionally did find an association between time management and performance, but only in highly motivated workers [ 59 ]; instances establishing a more straightforward link with performance were comparatively rare [ 31 ]. Summarizing these insights, reviews of the literature concluded that the link between time management and job performance is unclear; the link with wellbeing, however, seemed more compelling although not conclusive [ 18 , 32 ].

It is interesting to note that scholars often assess the effectiveness time management by its ability to influence some aspect of performance, wellbeing, or both. In other words, the question of whether time management works comes down to asking whether time management influences performance and wellbeing. The link between time management and performance at work can be traced historically to scientific management [ 60 ]. Nevertheless, even though modern time management can be traced to scientific management in male-dominated work settings, a feminist reading of time management history reveals that our modern idea of time management also descends from female time management thinkers of the same era, such as Lillian Gilbreth, who wrote treatises on efficient household management [ 43 , 61 , 62 ]. As the link between work output and time efficiency became clearer, industrialists went to great lengths to encourage workers to use their time more rationally [ 63 – 65 ]. Over time, people have internalized a duty to be productive and now see time management as a personal responsibility at work [ 43 , 66 , 67 ]. The link between time management and academic performance can be traced to schools’ historical emphasis on punctuality and timeliness. In more recent decades, however, homework expectations have soared [ 68 ] and parents, especially well-educated ones, have been spending more time preparing children for increasingly competitive college admissions [ 69 , 70 ]. In this context, time management is seen as a necessary skill for students to thrive in an increasingly cut-throat academic world. Finally, the link between time management and wellbeing harks back to ancient scholars, who emphasized that organizing one’s time was necessary to a life well-lived [ 71 , 72 ]. More recently, empirical studies in the 1980s examined the effect of time management on depressive symptoms that often plague unemployed people [ 19 , 73 ]. Subsequent studies surmised that the effective use of time might prevent a host of ills, such as work-life conflict and job stress [ 22 , 74 ].

Overall, then, various studies have looked into the effectiveness of time management. Yet, individual studies remain narrow in scope and reviews of the literature offer only a qualitative—and often inconclusive—assessment. To provide a more quantifiable answer to the question of whether time management works, we performed a meta-analysis, the methods of which we outline in what follows.

Literature search and inclusion criteria

We performed a comprehensive search using the keywords “time management” across the EBSCO databases Academic Search Complete , Business Source Complete , Computers & Applied Sciences Complete , Gender Studies Database , MEDLINE , Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection , PsycINFO , SocINDEX , and Education Source . The search had no restrictions regarding country and year of publication and included peer-reviewed articles up to 2019. To enhance comprehensiveness, we also ran a forward search on the three main time management measures: the Time Management Behavior Scale [ 21 ], the Time Structure Questionnaire [ 19 ], and the Time Management Questionnaire [ 20 ]. (A forward search tracks all the papers that have cited a particular work. In our case the forward search located all the papers citing the three time management scales available on Web of Science .)

Time management measures typically capture three aspects of time management: structuring, protecting, and adapting time to changing conditions. Structuring refers to how people map their activities to time using a schedule, a planner, or other devices that represent time in a systematic way [ 75 – 77 ]. Protecting refers to how people set boundaries around their time to repel intruders [ 78 , 79 ]. Examples include people saying no to time-consuming requests from colleagues or friends as well as turning off one’s work phone during family dinners. Finally, adapting one’s time to changing conditions means, simply put, to be responsive and flexible with one’s time structure [ 80 , 81 ]. Furthermore, time management measures typically probe behaviors related to these three dimensions (e.g., using a schedule to structure one’s day, making use of downtime), although they sometimes also capture people’s attitudes (e.g., whether people feel in control of their time).

As shown in Fig 1 , the initial search yielded 10,933 hits, excluding duplicates.

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The search included no terms other than “time management” to afford the broadest possible coverage of time management correlates. Nevertheless, as shown in Table 1 , we focused exclusively on quantitative, empirical studies of time management in non-clinical samples. Successive rounds of screening, first by assessing paper titles and abstracts and then by perusing full-text articles, whittled down the number of eligible studies to 158 (see Fig 1 ).

Inclusion CriteriaExclusion Criteria
Study must contain a quantitative measure of time management (e.g., scale, survey, questionnaire) and/or feature a time management experiment with at least one control groupQualitative approaches (e.g., interviews, case studies)
Construct must be related to time management, such as time structure, time planning, scheduling, time management behaviors, time management practice, time management skills, and attitudes toward time managementTime-use studies (e.g., national time-use surveys, individual-level time-tracking studies), time perception studies, studies on non-personal time management (e.g., real-time management in supply chains), and time management studies focusing mainly on clinical samples (e.g., with chronic pain or ADHD)
Study must be about time management in relation to other variables (e.g., life satisfaction, stress, academic achievement)Studies focusing exclusively on time management (e.g., factor analyses)

Data extraction and coding

We extracted eligible effect sizes from the final pool of studies; effect sizes were mostly based on means and correlations. In our initial data extraction, we coded time management correlates using the exact variable names found in each paper. For instance, “work-life imbalance” was initially coded in those exact terms, rather than “work-life conflict.” Virtually all time management correlates we extracted fell under the category of performance and/or wellbeing. This pattern tallies with previous reviews of the literature [ 18 , 32 ]. A sizable number of variables also fell under the category of individual differences and contextual factors, such as age, personality, and job autonomy. After careful assessment of the extracted variables, we developed a coding scheme using a nested structure shown in Table 2 .

PerformanceWellbeingIndividual Differences
Professional SettingAcademic SettingPositive (wellbeing)Negative (distress)DemographicsPersonalityAttributes and AttitudesContextual Factors
Job SatisfactionEmotional ExhaustionAgeAgreeablenessInternal Locus of ControlJob Autonomy
Job performanceCreativityGPAProcrastination (reverse coded)Life SatisfactionStressGenderExtraversionType ARole Overload
Helping BehaviorStandardized TestsMotivationMental Health (positive)Work-life ConflictEducationConscientiousnessSelf-esteemTime Management Training
Job InvolvementTest ScoresOptimismAnxietyNumber of ChildrenNeuroticismProtestant Work Ethic
Procrastination (reverse coded)Physical health (positive)DepressionMarital StatusOpennessMultitasking
MotivationPositive affectPsychological DistressCognitive Ability
ProactivenessSelf-actualizationHopelessnessHours Worked
Sense of purposeBoredom
WellbeingNegative Affect
Physical Distress

Aeon and Aguinis suggested that time management influences performance, although the strength of that relationship may depend on how performance is defined [ 18 ]. Specifically, they proposed that time management may have a stronger impact on behaviors conducive to performance (e.g., motivation, proactiveness) compared to assessments of performance (e.g., supervisor rankings). For this reason, we distinguish between results- and behavior-based performance in our coding scheme, both in professional and academic settings. Furthermore, wellbeing indicators can be positive (e.g., life satisfaction) or negative (e.g., anxiety). We expect time management to influence these variables in opposite ways; it would thus make little sense to analyze them jointly. Accordingly, we differentiate between wellbeing (positive) and distress (negative).

In our second round of coding, we used the scheme shown in Table 2 to cluster together kindred variables. For instance, we grouped “work-life imbalance,” “work-life conflict” and “work-family conflict” under an overarching “work-life conflict” category. The authors reviewed each variable code and resolved rare discrepancies to ultimately agree on all coded variables. Note that certain variables, such as self-actualization, covered only one study (i.e., one effect size). While one or two effect sizes is not enough to conduct a meta-analysis, they can nonetheless be grouped with other effect sizes belonging to the same category (e.g., self-actualization and sense of purpose belong the broader category of overall wellbeing). For this reason, we included variables with one or two effect sizes for comprehensiveness.

Meta-analytic procedures

We conducted all meta-analyses following the variables and cluster of variables outlined in Table 2 . We opted to run all analyses with a random effects model. The alternative—a fixed effects model—assumes that all studies share a common true effect size (i.e., linking time management and a given outcome) which they approximate. This assumption is unrealistic because it implies that the factors influencing the effect size are the same in all studies [ 83 ]. In other words, a fixed effects model assumes that the factors affecting time management are similar across all studies—the fallacy underlying this assumption was the main theme of Aeon and Aguinis’s review [ 18 ]. To perform our analyses, we used Comprehensive Meta-Analysis v.3 [ 84 ], a program considered highly reliable and valid in various systematic assessments [ 85 , 86 ].

Meta-analyses do not typically perform calculations on correlations (e.g., Pearson’s r). Instead, we transformed correlations into Fisher’s z scales [ 83 ]. The transformation was done with z = 0.5 × ln ( 1 + r 1 − r ) , where r represents the correlation extracted from each individual study. The variance of Fisher’s Z was calculated as V z = 1 n − 3 where n corresponds to the study’s sample size; the standard error of Fisher’s Z was calculated as S E z = V z .

In many cases, studies reported how variables correlated with an overall time management score. In some cases, however, studies reported only correlations with discrete time management subscales (e.g., short-range planning, attitudes toward time, use of time management tools), leaving out the overall effect. In such cases, we averaged out the effect sizes of the subscales to compute a summary effect [ 83 ]. This was necessary not only because meta-analyses admit only one effect size per study, but also because our focus is on time management as a whole rather than on subscales. Similarly, when we analyzed the link between time management and a high-level cluster of variables (e.g., overall wellbeing rather than specific variables such as life satisfaction), there were studies with more than one relevant outcome (e.g., a study that captured both life satisfaction and job satisfaction). Again, because meta-analyses allow for only one effect size (i.e., variable) per study, we used the mean of different variables to compute an overall effect sizes in studies that featured more than one outcome [ 83 ].

Overall description of the literature

We analyzed 158 studies for a total number of 490 effect sizes. 21 studies explored performance in a professional context, 76 performance in an academic context, 30 investigated wellbeing (positive), and 58 distress. Interestingly, studies did not systematically report individual differences, as evidenced by the fact that only 21 studies reported correlations with age, and only between 10 and 15 studies measured personality (depending on the personality trait). Studies that measured contextual factors were fewer still—between 3 and 7 (depending on the contextual factor). These figures fit with Aeon and Aguinis’s observation that the time management literature often overlooks internal and external factors that can influence the way people manage time [ 18 ].

With one exception, we found no papers fitting our inclusion criteria before the mid-1980s. Publication trends also indicate an uptick in time management studies around the turn of the millennium, with an even higher number around the 2010s. This trend is consistent with the one Shipp and Cole identified, revealing a surge in time-related papers in organizational behavior around the end of the 1980s [ 87 ].

It is also interesting to note that the first modern time management books came out in the early 1970s, including the The Time Trap (1972), by Alec MacKenzie and How to Get Control of your Time and your Life (1973), by Alan Lakein. These books inspired early modern time management research [ 21 , 58 , 88 ]. It is thus very likely that the impetus for modern time management research came from popular practitioner manuals.

To assess potential bias in our sample of studies, we computed different estimates of publication bias (see Table 3 ). Overall, publication bias remains relatively low (see funnel plots in S1). Publication bias occurs when there is a bias against nonsignificant or even negative results because such results are seen as unsurprising and not counterintuitive. In this case, however, the fact that time management is generally expected to lead to positive outcomes offers an incentive to publish nonsignificant or negative results, which would be counterintuitive [ 89 ]. By the same token, the fact that some people feel that time management is ineffective [ 38 ] provides an incentive to publish papers that link time management with positive outcomes. In other words, opposite social expectations surrounding time management might reduce publication bias.

Job performanceAcademic achievementWellbeingDistress
B(0) = 2.76B(0) = 1.18B(0) = 0.31B(0) = -1.18
CI (95%) = (-.77; 6.28)CI (95%) = (-.36; 2.72)CI (95%) = (-.4.08; 4.69)CI (95%) = (-.3.31; 0.94)
> .05 > .05 > .05 > .05
1 study missing0 studies missing0 studies missing14 studies missing
New effect size = .188New effect size = .283

Finally, we note that the link between time management and virtually all outcomes studied is highly heterogeneous (as measured, for instance, by Cochran’s Q and Higgins & Thompson’s I 2 ; see tables below). This high level of heterogeneity suggests that future research should pay more attention to moderating factors (e.g., individual differences).

Time management and performance in professional settings

Overall, time management has a moderate impact on performance at work, with correlations hovering around r = .25. We distinguish between results-based and behavior-based performance. The former measures performance as an outcome (e.g., performance appraisals by supervisors) whereas the latter measures performance as behavioral contributions (e.g., motivation, job involvement). Time management seems related to both types of performance. Although the effect size for results-based performance is lower than that of behavior-based performance, moderation analysis reveals the difference is not significant (p > .05), challenging Aeon and Aguinis’s conclusions [ 18 ].

Interestingly, the link between time management and performance displays much less heterogeneity (see Q and I 2 statistics in Table 4 ) than the link between time management and other outcomes (see tables below). The studies we summarize in Table 4 include both experimental and non-experimental designs; they also use different time management measures. As such, we can discount, to a certain extent, the effect of methodological diversity. We can perhaps explain the lower heterogeneity by the fact that when people hold a full-time job, they usually are at a relatively stable stage in life. In school, by contrast, a constellation of factors (e.g., financial stability and marital status, to name a few) conspire to affect time management outcomes. Furthermore, work contexts are a typically more closed system than life in general. For this reason, fewer factors stand to disrupt the link between time management and job performance than that between time management and, say, life satisfaction. Corroborating this, note how, in Table 6 below, the link between time management and job satisfaction ( I 2 = 58.70) is much less heterogeneous than the one between time management and life satisfaction ( I 2 = 95.45).

VariablekNr95% CIQ(df) (SE)
213,9900.259 0.197–0.31877.32 (20)0.0160.00774.13
132,5320.221 0.144–0.29544.19 (12)0.0150.00972.84
132,4740.297 0.225–0.36540.56 (12)0.0130.00870.41
    Creativity12130.460 0.347–0.560----
    Helping behavior12540.160 0.038–0.278----
    Job involvement46170.207 0.129–0.2822.99 (3)00.0060
    Procrastination (reverse coded)21980.374 0.166–0.5501.61 (1)0.0120.04637.92
    Motivation47110.352 0.226–0.46710.12 (3)0.0140.01670.37
    Proactiveness38130.267 0.121–0.4018.81 (2)0.0140.01877.30

* p < .05

** p < .01

*** p < .001.

k = number of studies related to the variable | N = total sample size related to the variable.

r = effect size of the correlation between time management and the variable | 95% CI = confidence interval of the effect size.

Q = Cochran’s Q, a measure of between-study heterogeneity | τ 2 = measure of between-study variance | I 2 = alternative measure of between-study heterogeneity.

VariablekNr95% CIQ(df) (SE)
309,9050.313 0.244–0.380395.83 (29)0.0400.01492.67
    Job satisfaction112,8560.248 0.189–0.30524.21 (10)0.0060.00558.70
    Life satisfaction92,8550.426 0.273–0.558175.86 (8)0.0680.03895.45
    Mental health (positive)24730.556 0.349–0.7117.56 (1)0.0310.05186.77
    Optimism23300.305 0.108–0.4793.44 (1)0.0160.03270.94
    Physical health (positive)25670.293-0.002–0.54213.07 (1)0.0450.06892.35
    Positive affect52,7250.280 0.186–0.36818.73 (4)0.0100.01078.65
    Self-actualization13360.280 0.178–0.376----
    Sense of purpose15290.351 0.274–0.424----
    Wellbeing51,4470.219 0.092–0.33822.86 (4)0.0180.01682.50

Moreover, we note that the relationship between time management and job performance (see Fig 2 ) significantly increases over the years ( B = .0106, p < .01, Q model = 8.52(1), Q residual = 15.54(9), I 2 = 42.08, R 2 analog = .75).

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Time management and performance in academic settings

Overall, the effect of time management on performance seems to be slightly higher in academic settings compared to work settings, although the magnitude of the effect remains moderate (see Table 5 ). Here again, we distinguish between results- and behavior-based performance. Time management’s impact on behavior-based performance seems much higher than on results-based performance—a much wider difference than the one we observed in professional settings. This suggests than results-based performance in academic settings depends less on time management than results-based performance in professional settings. This means that time management is more likely to get people a good performance review at work than a strong GPA in school.

VariablekNR95% CIQ(df) (SE)
7630,6050.262 0.223–0.300916.31 (75)0.0290.00791.81
6327,2250.196 0.160–0.232535.28 (62)0.0180.00588.41
    GPA5724,2700.213 0.178–0.247384.48 (56)0.0140.00485.43
    Standardized Tests76,2700.011-0.053–0.09433.35 (6)0.0070.00682.01
    Test Scores36030.228 0.151–0.3031.21 (2)00.0050
288,1860.430 0.365–0.490310.83 (27)0.0370.01391.31
    Procrastination (reverse coded)143,5580.490 0.399–0.572136.62 (13)0.0400.02090.48
    Motivation175,8050.381 0.302–0.454178.85 (16)0.0310.01391.05

In particular, time management seems to be much more negatively related to procrastination in school than at work. Although we cannot establish causation in all studies, we note that some of them featured experimental designs that established a causal effect of time management on reducing procrastination [ 90 ].

Interestingly, time management was linked to all types of results-based performance except for standardized tests. This is perhaps due to the fact that standardized tests tap more into fluid intelligence, a measure of intelligence independent of acquired knowledge [ 91 ]. GPA and regular exam scores, in contrast, tap more into crystallized intelligence, which depends mostly on accumulated knowledge. Time management can thus assist students in organizing their time to acquire the knowledge necessary to ace a regular exam; for standardized exams that depend less on knowledge and more on intelligence, however, time management may be less helpful. Evidence from other studies bears this out: middle school students’ IQ predicts standardized achievement tests scores better than self-control while self-control predicts report card grades better than IQ [ 92 ]. (For our purposes, we can use self-control as a very rough proxy for time management.) Relatedly, we found no significant relationship between time management and cognitive ability in our meta-analysis (see Table 8 ).

VariablekNr95% CIQ(df) (SE)
    Age217,5790.032-0.013–0.07670.42 (20)0.0070.00471.60
    Age (excluding children)196,8110.048 0.010–0.08640.71 (18)0.0040.00255.79
    Gender 3716,044-0.087 -0.129 | -0.045232.40 (36)0.0130.00584.51
    Education38080.019-0.050–0.0880.304 (2)00.0050
    Number of children39610.027-0.037–0.0900.247 (2)00.0040
    Marital status 39800.015-0.048–0.0780.548 (2)00.0030
    Agreeableness104,5620.169 0.091–0.24457.85 (9)0.0130.00884.43
    Extraversion135,3450.102 0.039–0.16459.05 (12)0.0100.00679.67
    Conscientiousness155,1590.451 0.326–0.561367.16 (14)0.0790.04196.18
    Neuroticism145,222-0.151 -0.229 | -0.07294.61 (13)0.0180.01086.26
    Openness114,7930.141 0.037–0.243124.17 (10)0.0280.01691.94
    Internal locus of control35790.346 0.269–0.4192.16 (2)00.0067.39
    Type A72,3880.110 0.017–0.20231.05 (6)0.0130.0980.67
    Self-esteem39470.346 0.225–0.4568.19 (2)0.0100.01475.58
    Protestant Work Ethic39980.026-0.036–0.0880.240 (2)00.0030
    Multitasking5932-0.088 -0.164 | -0.0105.53 (4)0.0020.00627.66
    Cognitive ability31,4840.015-0.064–0.0944.36 (2)0.0030.00554.11
    Hours spent studying63,1840.137 0.036–0.23530.08 (5)0.0120.01183.37
    Hours spent working83,682-0.042-0.159–0.07664.87 (7)0.0230.01989.21
    Job autonomy47510.101-0.060–0.2568.38 (3)0.0160.02264.23
    Role overload71,187-0.146 -0.284 | - 0.00326.59 (6)0.0250.02377.43
    Time management training38460.173 0.031–0.3095.92 (2)0.0100.01666.62

a Female = 1; Male = 2.

b Single = 1; Married = 2.

Time management and wellbeing

On the whole, time management has a slightly stronger impact on wellbeing than on performance. This is unexpected, considering how the dominant discourse points to time management as a skill for professional career development. Of course, the dominant discourse also frames time management as necessary for wellbeing and stress reduction, but to a much lesser extent. Our finding that time management has a stronger influence on wellbeing in no way negates the importance of time management as a work skill. Rather, this finding challenges the intuitive notion that time management is more effective for work than for other life domains. As further evidence, notice how in Table 6 the effect of time management on life satisfaction is 72% stronger than that on job satisfaction.

Time management and distress

Time management seems to allay various forms of distress, although to a lesser extent than it enhances wellbeing. The alleviating effect on psychological distress is particularly strong ( r = -0.358; see Table 7 ).

VariablekNr95% CIQ(df) (SE)
5815,387-0.222 -0.273 | -0.170611.57 (57)0.0380.01090.68
265,621-0.225 -0.295 | -0.153184.49 (25)0.0310.01286.44
    Emotional exhaustion3213-0.260 -0.338 | -0.1791.86 (2)00.0060
    Stress173,367-0.286 -0.390 | -0.176163.84 (16)0.050.02490.23
    Work-life conflict92,812-0.163 -0.277 | -0.04382.11 (8)0.0310.01890.25
3410,100-0.254 -0.315 | -0.190350.58 (33)0.0340.01290.85
    Anxiety166,648-0.181 -0.255 | -0.105140.28 (15)0.0210.01189.30
    Depression2625-0.226 -0.375 | -0.065----
    Psychological distress102,196-0.358 -0.447 | -0.26352.98 (9)0.0230.01483.01
    Hopelessness2565-0.218 -0.296 | -0.138----
    Boredom51,248-0.310 -0.507 | -0.08169.68 (4)0.0700.05594.26
    Negative affect42,393-0.232-0.451 | 0.01470.74 (3)0.0610.06195.75
    Worry3291-0.191 -0.355 | -0.0163.98 (2)0.0120.02549.77
72,067-0.204 -0.264 | -0.14211.52 (6)0.0030.00447.93

That time management has a weaker effect on distress should not be surprising. First, wellbeing and distress are not two poles on opposite ends of a spectrum. Although related, wellbeing and distress are distinct [ 93 ]. Thus, there is no reason to expect time management to have a symmetrical effect on wellbeing and distress. Second, and relatedly, the factors that influence wellbeing and distress are also distinct. Specifically, self-efficacy (i.e., seeing oneself as capable) is a distinct predictor of wellbeing while neuroticism and life events in general are distinct predictors of distress [ 94 ]. It stands to reason that time management can enhance self-efficacy. (Or, alternatively, that people high in self-efficacy would be more likely to engage in time management, although experimental evidence suggests that time management training makes people feel more in control of their time [ 89 ]; it is thus plausible that time management may have a causal effect on self-efficacy. Relatedly, note how time management ability is strongly related to internal locus of control in Table 8 ) In contrast, time management can do considerably less in the way of tackling neuroticism and dampening the emotional impact of tragic life events. In other words, the factors that affect wellbeing may be much more within the purview of time management than the factors that affect distress. For this reason, time management may be less effective in alleviating distress than in improving wellbeing.

Time management and individual differences

Time management is, overall, less related to individual differences than to other variables.

Age, for instance, hardly correlates with time management (with a relatively high consistency between studies, I 2 = 55.79, see Table 8 above).

Similarly, gender only tenuously correlates with time management, although in the expected direction: women seem to have stronger time management abilities than men. The very weak association with gender ( r = -0.087) is particularly surprising given women’s well-documented superior self-regulation skills [ 95 ]. That being said, women’s time management abilities seem to grow stronger over the years ( N = 37, B = -.0049, p < .05, Q model = 3.89(1), Q residual = 218.42(35), I 2 = 83.98, R 2 analog = .03; also see Fig 3 below). More realistically, this increase may not be due to women’s time management abilities getting stronger per se but, rather, to the fact that women now have more freedom to manage their time [ 96 ].

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Object name is pone.0245066.g003.jpg

Other demographic indicators, such as education and number of children, were nonsignificant. Similarly, the relationships between time management and personal attributes and attitudes were either weak or nonsignificant, save for two notable exceptions. First, the link between time management and internal locus of control (i.e., the extent to which people perceive they’re in control of their lives) is quite substantial. This is not surprising, because time management presupposes that people believe they can change their lives. Alternatively, it may be that time management helps people strengthen their internal locus of control, as experimental evidence suggests [ 89 ]. Second, the link between time management and self-esteem is equally substantial. Here again, one can make the argument either way: people with high self-esteem might be confident enough to manage their time or, conversely, time management may boost self-esteem. The two options are not mutually exclusive: people with internal loci of control and high self-esteem levels can feel even more in control of their lives and better about themselves through time management.

We also note a very weak but statistically significant negative association between time management and multitasking. It has almost become commonsense that multitasking does not lead to performance [ 97 ]. As a result, people with stronger time management skills might deliberately steer clear of this notoriously ineffective strategy.

In addition, time management was mildly related to hours spent studying but not hours spent working. (These variables cover only student samples working part- or full-time and thus do not apply to non-student populations.) This is consistent with time-use studies revealing that teenagers and young adults spend less time working and more time studying [ 98 ]. Students who manage their time likely have well-defined intentions, and trends suggest those intentions will target education over work because, it is hoped, education offers larger payoffs over the long-term [ 99 ].

In terms of contextual factors, time management does not correlate significantly with job autonomy. This is surprising, as we expected autonomy to be a prerequisite for time management (i.e., you can’t manage time if you don’t have the freedom to). Nevertheless, qualitative studies have shown how even in environments that afford little autonomy (e.g., restaurants), workers can carve out pockets of time freedom to momentarily cut loose [ 100 ]. Thus, time management behaviors may flourish even in the most stymying settings. In addition, the fact that time management is associated with less role overload and previous attendance of time management training programs makes sense: time management can mitigate the effect of heavy workloads and time management training, presumably, improves time management skills.

Finally, time management is linked to all personality traits. Moreover, previous reviews of the literature have commented on the link between time management and conscientiousness in particular [ 32 ]. What our study reveals is the substantial magnitude of the effect ( r = 0.451). The relationship is not surprising: conscientiousness entails orderliness and organization, which overlap significantly with time management. That time management correlates so strongly with personality (and so little with other individual differences) lends credence to the dispositional view of time management [ 101 – 103 ]. However, this finding should not be taken to mean that time management is a highly inheritable, fixed ability. Having a “you either have it or you don’t” view of time management is not only counterproductive [ 104 ] but also runs counter to evidence showing that time management training does, in fact, help people manage their time better.

Does time management work? It seems so. Time management has a moderate influence on job performance, academic achievement, and wellbeing. These three outcomes play an important role in people’s lives. Doing a good job at work, getting top grades in school, and nurturing psychological wellbeing contribute to a life well lived. Widespread exhortations to get better at time management are thus not unfounded: the importance of time management is hard to overstate.


Beyond answering the question of whether time management works, this study contributes to the literature in three major ways. First, we quantify the impact of time management on several outcomes. We thus not only address the question of whether time management works, but also, and importantly, gauge to what extent time management works. Indeed, our meta-analysis covers 53,957 participants, which allows for a much more precise, quantified assessment of time management effectiveness compared to qualitative reviews.

Second, this meta-analysis systematically assesses relationships between time management and a host of individual differences and contextual factors. This helps us draw a more accurate portrait of potential antecedents of higher (or lower) scores on time management measures.

Third, our findings challenge intuitive ideas concerning what time management is for. Specifically, we found that time management enhances wellbeing—and in particular life satisfaction—to a greater extent than it does various types of performance. This runs against the popular belief that time management primarily helps people perform better and that wellbeing is simply a byproduct of better performance. Of course, it may be that wellbeing gains, even if higher than performance gains, hinge on performance; that is to say, people may need to perform better as a prerequisite to feeling happier. But this argument doesn’t jibe with experiments showing that even in the absence of performance gains, time management interventions do increase wellbeing [ 89 ]. This argument also founders in the face of evidence linking time management with wellbeing among the unemployed [ 105 ], unemployment being an environment where performance plays a negligible role, if any. As such, this meta-analysis lends support to definitions of time management that are not work- or performance-centric.

Future research and limitations

This meta-analysis questions whether time management should be seen chiefly as a performance device. Our questioning is neither novel nor subversive: historically people have managed time for other reasons than efficiency, such as spiritual devotion and philosophical contemplation [ 72 , 106 , 107 ]. It is only with relatively recent events, such as the Industrial Revolution and waves of corporate downsizing, that time management has become synonymous with productivity [ 43 , 65 ]. We hope future research will widen its scope and look more into outcomes other than performance, such as developing a sense of meaning in life [ 108 ]. One of the earliest time management studies, for instance, explored how time management relates to having a sense of purpose [ 73 ]. However, very few studies followed suit since. Time management thus stands to become a richer, more inclusive research area by investigating a wider array of outcomes.

In addition, despite the encouraging findings of this meta-analysis we must refrain from seeing time management as a panacea. Though time management can make people’s lives better, it is not clear how easy it is for people to learn how to manage their time adequately. More importantly, being “good” at time management is often a function of income, education, and various types of privilege [ 42 , 43 , 46 , 109 ]. The hackneyed maxim that “you have as many hours in a day as Beyoncé,” for instance, blames people for their “poor” time management in pointing out that successful people have just as much time but still manage to get ahead. Yet this ill-conceived maxim glosses over the fact that Beyoncé and her ilk do, in a sense, have more hours in a day than average people who can’t afford a nanny, chauffeur, in-house chefs, and a bevy of personal assistants. Future research should thus look into ways to make time management more accessible.

Furthermore, this meta-analysis rests on the assumption that time management training programs do enhance people’s time management skills. Previous reviews have noted the opacity surrounding time management interventions—studies often don’t explain what, exactly, is taught in time management training seminars [ 18 ]. As a result, comparing the effect of different interventions might come down to comparing apples and oranges. (This might partly account for the high heterogeneity between studies.) We hope that our definition of time management will spur future research into crafting more consistent, valid, and generalizable interventions that will allow for more meaningful comparisons.

Finally, most time management studies are cross-sectional. Yet it is very likely that the effect of time management compounds over time. If time management can help students get better grades, for instance, those grades can lead to better jobs down the line [ 110 ]. Crucially, learning a skill takes time, and if time management helps people make the time to learn a skill, then time management stands to dramatically enrich people’s lives. For this reason, longitudinal studies can track different cohorts to see how time management affects people’s lives over time. We expect that developing time management skills early on in life can create a compound effect whereby people acquire a variety of other skills thanks to their ability to make time.

Overall, this study offers the most comprehensive, precise, and fine-grained assessment of time management to date. We address the longstanding debate over whether time management influences job performance in revealing a positive, albeit moderate effect. Interestingly, we found that time management impacts wellbeing—and in particular life satisfaction—to a greater extent than performance. That means time management may be primarily a wellbeing enhancer, rather than a performance booster. Furthermore, individual and external factors played a minor role in time management, although this does not necessarily mean that time management’s effectiveness is universal. Rather, we need more research that focuses on the internal and external variables that affect time management outcomes. We hope this study will tantalize future research and guide practitioners in their attempt to make better use of their time.

Supporting information

S1 checklist, acknowledgments.

We would like to take this opportunity to acknowledge our colleagues for their invaluable help: Mengchan Gao, Talha Aziz, Elizabeth Eley, Robert Nason, Andrew Ryder, Tracy Hecht, and Caroline Aubé.

Funding Statement

The authors received no specific funding for this work.

Data Availability

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33 Best Time Management Tips For Work and Study

Don’t let time just pass you by. Try these 33 time management tips to maximize your productivity and transform your work day.

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There are only eight hours in the day, but time flies faster than you think. Distractions can throw us for a loop and make us unproductive. In fact, a recent study shows only 12% of employees are fully productive at work. How can you improve your productivity in the office?

Coming in with expert tips in our video below is Jenny Blake. Jenny is an author and podcaster who loves to help teams move from fiction to flow. Her third book, Free Time: Lose the Busywork, Love Your Business , is about creating opportunity by freeing up time.

What Are Time Management Strategies?

Time management strategies are techniques you employ to maximize your productivity and use your time as wisely as possible. Time management tips can transform your workday and make you a better employee.

The strategy you use can be as simple as writing down your to-do list and allotting time for each task. For example, say you work in sales. Today, you have four things to do:

  • Make sales calls
  • Have lunch with a client
  • Attend a meeting with fellow sales associates
  • Work on your presentation

Time management is handy when you put them in order and give each task an estimated time.

If you implemented time management, your schedule might look something like this:

  • 9 AM-11 AM: make sales calls
  • 11 AM-12 PM: have lunch with a client
  • 12 PM-2 PM: sales associate meeting
  • 2 PM-5 PM: work on the presentation

Why Are Time Management Skills Important?

Time management skills are vital at work, home, and every other facet of your life. Managing your time shows you have organizational skills and helps you feel like you have more control over your life.

 Implementing time management skills makes you accomplish more work during the day and helps you relax once the day is over. You’ll feel successful and more confident in yourself.

33 Tips for Effective Time Management

Everyone has a different way of being their most productive self, so find the time management tips that work for you. These strategies are effective at work, home, and other places you need to implement them.

#1 Day theme

Remember when your school had themed days during the week? You can apply the same to your work schedule. Assign a theme for each day to know what you need to do.

Use Jack Dorsey—former CEO of Twitter—as an example. Dorsey simultaneously ran Twitter and Square and assigned a theme for each day. For example, Tuesdays are for products and engineering, and Thursdays are for partnerships and developers.

Action Step: Find recurring themes and implement them in your schedule by day. For example, Mondays and Wednesdays are for sales calls. Tuesdays and Thursdays are for product development. Friday is for reflection and goal-setting.

#2 Combine complementary tasks

This time management tip may seem contradictory to what we just said. However, bear with us—there are ways to multitask and still be productive at each assignment. Combine complementary tasks, meaning you can do both simultaneously without compromising quality.

These tasks typically require minimal mental focus, so it won’t overwhelm you to do multiple things together. You can even combine complementary jobs in your home life. For example, say two of your goals today are to listen to an episode of your favorite podcast and walk for 45 minutes on the treadmill. Having a pair of headphones and an app for podcasts means you can do both.

Is there a TED talk you’ve been meaning to watch? Play it on your phone while you cook dinner. Has a coworker been asking you to hang out and talk? Ask them to join you on your mid-day walk and complete two tasks simultaneously.

Action Step: List your daily tasks and find the ones that don’t require intense focus. Combine the complementary to-do list items and see how much more work you complete. You feel more accomplished when you check stuff off the to-do list.

#3 Find your golden hour

Most Americans start work early and end their day in the late afternoon. However, only some have their most productive hour at 9 AM. You may be more of a night owl who does their best work after sunset.

If you’re on a nine-to-five shift, your boss might not let you work at midnight. However, there is value in finding your finest hour—this time during the day is when you do your best work.

When are you most productive? Many find these time blocks to be the most conducive to their workflow:

  • Early AM: Some people like to get up with the chickens. You can get more done and feel more accomplished while the clock still says morning. For example, you can go to the gym, do laundry, or get started on work before you normally would.
  • Late AM: Some of us aren’t morning people. We need our morning coffee and time to ease into work. You may work better in the late morning when you’ve had time to get in the groove and acclimate yourself with emails, project updates, and research.
  • Nighttime: Then there are the night owls. Some people work best when the sun goes down because their energy peaks later in the day. Writers often find themselves doing their best work at night when they’re less stressed and more creative.
Action Step: Find the most productive time for yourself during the day. Use this segment to complete your best work.

#4 Set SMART goals

Most people have goals in life they want to achieve. You may say, “I want to increase my sales numbers.” In their personal lives, some people say, “I want to lose weight.” These aspirations are admirable but harder to achieve if they don’t contain specifics.

That’s where specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and timely (SMART) goals come into play. Here’s what each word means:

  • Specific: Each goal has a particular metric. For example, “I want to lose five pounds.”
  • Measurable: The goals are measurable by numbers. For example, “Each day, I will run one mile.”
  • Achievable: Your goals should be realistic. For example, “I want to raise my sales by 5% this quarter.” Achievable goals boost your confidence compared to tougher, discouraging standards.
  • Relevant: The goal should be relevant to your work or personal life. For example, if you work in construction, set a goal to earn a certificate related to your field.
  • Timely: The goal should have a specific beginning and deadline. Having a deadline creates urgency. For example, “I want to read three books in 30 days, starting today.”
Action Step: Find a goal you want to achieve at work or home and use the SMART method to motivate yourself to complete it. After satisfying one goal, continue with others in your work and personal life.

#5 Make a calendar

Studies show your retina transmits data at 10 million bits per second, nearly as fast as an ethernet cable. Use this idea with your workflow and create a calendar.

Color code your calendar and block off time segments for each task you need to complete. For example, office workers can use blue for meetings, green for phone calls, yellow for administrative duties, and red for presentation work.

Action Step: Go to your physical or digital calendar and create time blocks for next week’s duties. When the week is over, see if it manages your workflow better. A calendar makes your schedule tangible.

#6 Create time blocks

Listing your activities for the day or week promotes organization, but you can take it further. Create time blocks in your daily schedule to allot a specific amount of time for each task. Time blocking gives you power over your plans.

For example, say you’re a real estate agent with an eight-hour workday. Two hours are for researching listings. Block off two hours for property showings. The last four hours are for inspecting and staging your listed homes. Creating time slots for each task keeps your mind on track and reduces procrastination.

Action Step: Create time blocks for your work calendar. You’ll see how it divides your time wisely and empowers your time management skills.

#7 Avoid time confetti

Imagine you’ve planned your day down to the minute, but phone calls, urgent emails, and surprise meetings interrupt your day. Suddenly, your workflow becomes the victim of time confetti. This term refers to a day splintered by interruptions that mess up your workflow.

Confetti typically brings a positive connotation, but you’ll want to avoid it. Blake fights time confetti by scheduling do-not-schedule (DNS) blocks into her calendar. For example, her DNS blocks indicate she doesn’t have meetings on Mondays or Fridays. Planning DNS blocks gives you more control over your workflow.

Action Step : Make a DNS block in your calendar for the times you need to be the most productive and have zero interruptions. Give them titles like: Deep work Focus time Productivity window DNS slots are excellent for deterring your coworkers from interrupting your schedule. Only make exceptions if the task seems pressing enough to interrupt your blocks

#8 Turn off notifications

Ask yourself an important question—how often do notifications take you away from your current task? Your coworker’s email with Hawaiian vacation pictures is tempting to click on, but it can wait.

Action Step: Go to your work email and turn off notifications. Do the same for Slack, Microsoft Teams, and other instant messaging apps for work. Do you use social media on your computer or phone? Turn off notifications for them, too.

#9 Use email management tools

The inbox can quickly become cluttered and dysfunctional, but one way to clean up your email is to use management tools. These features automatically sort your inbox and disperse emails into your chosen categories.

For example, start with inbox rules. Inbox rules create a hierarchy of importance, allowing you to sort out the most pertinent emails. For example, emails from your clients could be the most important, boss emails are on the second tier, and coworker emails can fall into the third tier.

A helpful tool with emails is autoresponse. This feature allows you to have a response ready for any email from a particular sender or at a specific time. Many people use autoresponse when they go on vacation. For example, you may email a coworker only to receive a response saying, “I’m out of the office right now and won’t return until [insert date].”

 Autoresponse is an excellent tool for time management and getting into deep work. For example, you can set one up during your finest hours. If you have a two-hour block for this session, create an autoresponse saying, “My schedule is busy until [insert time]. When I have an opening, I’ll try to respond to your email.”

Action Step: Create filters that sort your emails, reducing the manual labor of scouring your inbox. These time management tips for work will lower the number of distractions while on your workflow.

#10 Train the system, then the person

Time is of the essence. We love our coworkers, but you don’t have the time to repeat yourself after giving directions on something. In this case, train the system and then the person.

Blake uses Airbnb as an example. Hosts will document everything guests need to know before staying in the house. If tenants read the guide, they’ll learn how to use the washing machine and find the Wi-Fi password. If not for the guide, Airbnb hosts would get numerous calls and emails from distraught guests asking why they can’t do laundry.

Action step : Create a frequently asked questions (FAQ) document and allow your colleagues to access it. When asked a question, tell your coworkers to refer to this document and see you have already answered the question. Add new questions if you see them arise frequently.  Pro tip: Use programs like TextExpander for shortcuts. You can type a few letters and create an entire text block, saving you time and hassle from recalling the exact instructions. 

#11 Don’t push the river

Rivers flow naturally without any disturbance. Pushing them can get you into more trouble than you care for. This metaphor is applicable to your professional and personal lives. Don’t force things if they are beyond your control, and don’t try to change course if something happens naturally. 

Blake discusses this metaphor in her book. She says everyone has a natural workflow and must stay true to themselves. Pushing the river leads to over-exertion and working harder, not smarter.

In her interview with SOP, Blake gives an excellent example. When she records a podcast, Blake says it’s best to write the intro on the same day while it’s fresh on her mind. Waiting a week or two later causes friction because you’re not in the same mindset as you were when recording. Your day might not have planned for caption writing, but it feels natural to do it that day to get the best caption possible.

Action Step: Slightly readjust your time to make room for agenda items when they feel natural. Say you’re a journalist who recorded an interview on Tuesday. You need to pull the most important quotes you’ll use, but that task isn’t on the schedule until Thursday. Why not do it now? Take advantage of the interview being fresh on your mind.

#12 Pair distractions together

Getting into deep work can be challenging if you constantly turn it on and off. When crafting your schedule, assign low-capacity tasks back to back.

For example, say you have two meetings, each expected to last an hour. One meeting is at 9 AM., and the other is at 11 AM. An hour between sessions might not be enough time to delve into deep work. Instead, push the first meeting back or move the second meeting up. Having back-to-back meetings organizes your daily schedule and optimizes for deep work.

Action Step: Find the distractions during your day and put them close to each other. Your day should include deep work sessions without distractions.

#13 Reframe Mondays

Some see Monday as the worst day of the week. In fact, 58% of Americans 1 say Monday is their least favorite day. Despite these feelings, there’s a way you can reframe the beginning of the work week and make it work in your favor.

Reshape your view of Monday and see it as a symbol for your week. Use Monday morning as your most productive time of the week. You feel rested from the weekend and are ready to start the week anew.

Action Step: Schedule long deep work sessions on Monday to promote productivity and start your week on a high note. Save the meetings for Tuesday through Thursday to get the best results from yourself.

#14 Automate small tasks

At work, you can take advantage of technology to automate particular tasks. For example, try document summarization software, such as QuillBot or TLDR This.

These tools summarize long texts, deliver key points, and highlight important sections. Using AI-like document summarization cuts down the time necessary for reading large amounts of text.

Action Step: Find menial tasks and automate them. For example, HR departments can automate payments to reduce the burden during paycheck time. Do you need to make social media posts? Use a content management system to schedule posts.

#15 Mitigate stress wisely

Stress is a common theme among employees. A 2022 American Psychological Association report showed three in five workers 2 have experienced adverse impacts of work-related anxiety.

If you feel stressed , talk to a trusted coworker or supervisor about your struggles to see if there are any mitigation measures. Many people use journaling or exercise as outlets for their problems. Mitigating stress is a thoughtful time management strategy because it helps you focus during deep work sessions.

Action Step: Find the best stress reducer for you and incorporate 30 minutes to an hour into your daily schedule. If your week is busy, find time on specific days. Stress relief is critical to time management.

#16 Exercise

The Center for Disease Control says you should get 150 minutes 3 of moderate movement weekly. Choose your favorite form of exercise and incorporate it into your weekly schedule. It could be running, frisbee golf, swimming, or anything that gets you moving.

How does exercise tie in with time management? It’s a terrific stress reliever. Using part of your day for movement relaxes you, taking your mind off work and personal life for a while. Afterward, you feel rejuvenated.

Action Step: Find at least two days of the week when you have openings. Use these times to incorporate 30 minutes of physical activity.

#17 Use Sunday for planning

The Sunday scaries are real, but you can’t eliminate Monday unless a holiday like Labor Day is coming up. So, how can you thwart the anxiety?

One of the best time management tips is to use Sunday for planning. On Sunday evening, plan your week both in work and personal life. Do you have any meetings? Are you going out for dinner on any night? Visualizing your week makes everything feel less intimidating.

Action Step: Use a planner to organize your week on Sunday night. Take 20 to 30 minutes to write down everything you need to do during the week.

#18 Plan at the workday’s end

Life comes at you fast. Some things may come unexpectedly, positive or negative. These events may interfere with your previously planned schedule, but you can still make it work.

 When you approach the end of your workday, plan for the next day by adding to your planner. On Monday, your boss may request a meeting at 10 AM on Tuesday. Your friend wants to take you out for dinner on Tuesday evening. These events come unexpectedly, but you can use your time management strategies wisely to account for them.

Action Step: Whether you’re excited or anxious, keep a level head when the unexpected happens. Remaining calm will help you focus and stay able to manage your time.

#19 Eat the frog

Mark Twain once said if you eat a live frog at the beginning of your day, that will be the worst thing you have to do. His words may sound odd, but Twain has a point here.

The frogs are the most pressing tasks in your schedule. If you complete them in the morning, the rest of your day will feel much less stressful.

Say you have a big presentation on Thursday. Try to schedule it for first thing in the morning. Once the presentation ends, you can rest easier knowing the job is complete.

Action Step: Find each day’s frog and schedule it for the first hour. Some frogs—like a business lunch—are out of your control because they’re typically in the middle of the day. If necessary, rank your frogs in order of importance and use that hierarchy to determine your schedule.

#20 Use the Pomodoro technique

The Pomodoro technique calls for working in 25-minute increments followed by a five-minute break. Four sessions equal two hours of deep work. After two hours have passed, take a 30-minute break.

It’s best for those who work in short sprints and is an excellent way to break up time and conserve energy throughout the day. It also allows you a short window to complete shallow tasks like checking email or social media.

Action Step: Try the Pomodoro technique next time you’re in the office. Use the 25-minute sessions and see how it affects your ability to do deep work.

#21 Try the Eisenhower matrix

The Eisenhower matrix comes from the 34th president of the United States. He used the urgent-important matrix strategy to decide how to approach his days. The method includes the following hierarchy:

  • Urgent-important: The most pressing tasks of your day go here. The urgent and important items may include a performance review with your boss or a product presentation.
  • Urgent-less important: This category is for tasks you need to complete, but somebody else can handle them. Delegate these tasks to a coworker. For example, you could ask an assistant to respond to emails and client requests.
  • Important-less urgent: Some items on your agenda may be important, but you can schedule them for later. For example, your colleague’s birthday is next week, and you want to get them a present. The day is important, but you can wait a couple more days.
  • Less important-less urgent: The last category is for less important and less urgent tasks. You want to do them, but they’re a low priority. Examples may include cleaning your inbox or reading the newspaper.
Action Step: Use the Eisenhower matrix when scheduling your day. What items are most important? What can you delegate?

•       Performance review
•       Product presentation

•       Getting presents for coworkers
•       Increase network on LinkedIn

•       Delegated tasks, i.e., phone calls
•       Non-urgent meetings

•         Reading the newspaper
•         Cleaning your inbox

#22 Implement the ABCDE method

Author Brian Tracy developed the ABCDE technique as an easy way to implement time management strategies. The idea here is simple—list the tasks you must complete in a day or week and label them A through E.

A is the most important, and E is the least important. The ABCDE method effectively creates a hierarchy and determines the order in which you do these tasks.

Action Step: Employ the ABCDE method this week to determine each task’s importance. This strategy helps you decipher the highest priority on your schedule and what can wait.

#23 Try the Pareto analysis

Imagine looking into your closet and seeing 100 shirts. How many do you wear? The Pareto analysis says you likely wear 20% of your shirts 80% of the time. The same logic applies at work. In a one-hour meeting, 80% of the decisions come in 20% of the allotted time.

In your workflow, 20% of your daily activities result in 80% of the value you do. You can call these tasks your frogs because they’ll take the longest time and create the most value. Completing your top 20% of activities increases the value of your productivity.

Action Step: When outlining your schedule, ask yourself if each task you write down contributes to your top 20% of value or the bottom 80%.

#24 Follow Parkinson’s law

Estimating time for activities can be complex. A task you could do in an hour turns into two because that’s what your schedule says, but imagine reducing the time limit to 30 minutes. Parkinson’s law says you can get it done.

Historian Cyril Northcote Parkinson says your tasks expand to fill the time you allot for them. Do you need a month to work on your presentation? Parkinson’s law says you can finish it in a week if you designate the time on your schedule.

Action Step: After creating your weekly schedule, identify spots on the itinerary where you can follow Parkinson’s law. Shortening the timeline creates urgency and makes you a more efficient employee.

#25 Get things done

In 2001, author David Allen published Getting Things Done: The Art of Stress-Free Productivity . Allen’s book created the Get Things Done (GTD) method—a popular strategy for deciding how to divide your attention if you have a cluttered mind. Allen’s GTD principles include:

  • Capturing: Brainstorm the tasks you need to complete this week. Capture each item and put it on your list. It could be as big as an industry conference or a grocery store trip.
  • Clarification: When you have your tasks, how will you complete them? Use actionable steps for each item. For example, your grocery store trip requires planning meals, writing down ingredients, traveling to the store, and purchasing food.
  • Organization: Some jobs will have a set date, but you’ll need to spread out others throughout the week. When will you make sales calls? When will you have the coworker lunch you’ve been discussing?
  • Review: You must review and adjust your schedule throughout the week. For example, your conference call could move from Tuesday to Thursday. Your yoga instructor canceled class on Tuesday, giving you an open hour. Take time to revise your list.
  • Engagement: Identify the most important tasks and do those first. Do you need to research for a book you’re writing? Start with that task because it’s the most critical to your success.
Action Step: Employ the GTD method to lower your daily stress levels. Using it helps you determine what you want to do this week and adjust accordingly.

#26 Use the two-minute rule

Procrastination often gets the best of us. How can you defeat the delay? Author James Clear says to use the two-minute rule. Clear says if you can do the task in two minutes, you should do it immediately. Spending two minutes doing something now can save you 30 minutes down the line when you really need it. Clear uses the two-minute rule to encourage you to build good habits.

For example, take two minutes on Friday to clear your inbox. Doing this task once a week will save you time later when your inbox is full and needs cleaning. Also, take two minutes to reply to emails only requiring a simple response. Answering to emails now prevents a backlog of requests in your inbox.

Action Step :  Find tasks that require little attention and take care of them today. Does a document need quick edits? Take two minutes to change it. Do you need to confirm a meeting time? Make the call now because it will take two minutes or less.

#27 Try the 18-minute approach

 The days can quickly feel long with so many meetings, phone calls, emails, and more. Sometimes, you need a moment to relax and put things in perspective. That’s what Peter Bregman suggests doing with his 18 minutes approach.

In 18 Minutes , Bregman recommends three daily strategies to keep yourself focused throughout the day. If you have an eight-hour workday, you should:

  • In the morning: Bregman suggests using each morning to think about how to make the day successful. Make a calendar from your to-do list items.
  • Every hour: When you start work, you may become sidetracked. Bregman says to take one minute every hour to take a deep breath. Ask yourself if you were productive in the previous hour. Use each elapsed hour as motivation to keep working hard.
  • In the evening: Take five minutes each evening to review your day. Reflect on your achievements to see what could have gone better. Did you impress your boss with today’s presentation? Did you miss out on closing a sale? Think about each side and how you can build moving forward.
Action Step: Use the 18-minute approach each day this week as a time management strategy. Use the one-minute breaks to refocus and the five-minute morning and evening sessions for reflection.

#28 Abide by the law of three

Good things come in threes, which applies to your time management strategies. The idea here is three activities account for 90% of the value of your business.

The law of three calls for writing down three goals you want to accomplish each day, week, month, and year. For example, what three things could I do today to contribute the most value to my job? These tasks might include securing a new client or developing a product idea.

Action Step: Use this law to make your three most significant contributions today, this week, month, and year. Focus on them the most to see how they impact your career.

#29 Employ the pickle jar theory

Imagine you’re at the beach with a pickle jar. You fill it with sand, pebbles, and rocks. Each item represents a different part of your daily time management. Prioritize your schedule based on the rocks and pebbles. Sand can fit if the other tasks are complete.

  • Rocks: The rocks are your most vital tasks. Today may be the deadline for a project you’re working on. If you don’t handle the rocks, you’re in trouble.
  • Pebbles: The pebbles are secondary duties. They’re vital to your workday, but you can delegate them. For example, you may need to make phone calls or social media posts.
  • Sand: The sand resembles less critical tasks in your day, such as lunch with a coworker or time spent scrolling on social media.
Action Step: Use the pickle jar theory at work this week to create a hierarchy of tasks. Complete the jobs to see how productive your day is.

#30 Learn the 10/90 rule

The 10/90 rule says you should spend 10% of the time allotted for a task planning and organizing as much as possible. Then 90% is for completing the actual activity.

The objective is to save time on any project you work on. Planning brings clarity and direction to your work. You’ll be much more productive knowing what you need to get done.

Action Step: Try the 10/90 rule this week for your most important task. You’ll see how planning and outlining benefit your success and time management.

#31 Try the rapid planning method

Tony Robbins created the rapid planning method (RPM) to ask what you want and your purpose. This technique calls for four steps:

  • Capturing: The first step in RPM is to capture. You must capture what’s causing your stress by writing down what you need to accomplish. Write a list of five to nine duties essential to your job.
  • Chunking: Next, you’ll need to divide each task into chunks. Your daily duties may fall into business or personal desires, so split them into categories. For example, your business chunks could propose five project ideas this month, and your personal chunks could be to cook dinner more than you order takeout in a week.
  • Charting: Charting involves writing down your goals into three sections—action plan, result, and purpose. For example, your desired result is three new clients this month. Your action plan to get there is to increase your cold calls and do in-person visits. What’s your purpose? It’s to grow yourself as a salesperson.
Action Step: Try the RPM method as an organizational tactic. Use the chunks to see your priorities in your personal and business life.

#32 Practice the ALPEN method

The ALPEN method comes from German economist Lothar J. Seiwert. German words comprise the ALPEN acronym, so here are the letters laid out:

  • A: The first step is writing down your highest priorities. These could be finishing a project or delivering a presentation to shareholders.
  • L: The second step calls for estimating how long it takes to complete the tasks. Write down a reasonable but efficient amount of time to complete each duty. For example, two jobs require two-hour blocks, and four others require one-hour blocks.
  • P: Here, you’ll need to account for buffer time. Distractions will likely occur, so incorporate a buffer time of 20% longer than you need. For example, a two-hour task should get about 24 minutes of extra time if necessary.
  • E: Step four is for determining priorities. You have a set of 10 tasks, so sort through and decide which ones are most important. Can you delegate any of them?
  • N: The final step is examining the success of your time estimates. Did you need more time for the presentation, or did your meeting end up shorter than expected?
Action Step: Use the ALPEN method this week for your to-do list. This time management strategy is highly effective for improving your skills in estimating time and executing tasks. You’ll find more time in your schedule for other priorities.

#33 Apply the salami slice method

One task may seem daunting because it’s so large. How do you know where to begin? You divide it into slices. A large hunk of salami may seem too much to eat, but dividing it into small pieces is less intimidating. The same idea applies to time management.

Imagine you’re a scientist working on a study. The process could take months or years, and it feels overwhelming. However, if you slice it like salami, it becomes less intimidating. Your salami slices could look like this:

  • Forming a hypothesis
  • Doing background research
  • Conducting surveys or observations
  • Analyzing data
  • Drawing conclusions
Action Step: Examine the biggest project on your plate and use the salami slice method to cut each step into slices. Approach each chunk like it’s a project on its own—you’ll feel accomplished checking off each box along the way.

Time Management Takeaways

You have the right skills to do a good job, but improved time management tips for work can take you to the next level. Using one of these time management strategies may initially feel odd. Still, you’ll increase your productivity as you ingrain them into your routine.

Why do you need time management skills?

Time management is crucial in numerous facets of your life. Work, school, caring for children, fitness, and other aspects require time management strategies for balance. Better time management leads to these crucial benefits:

  • Better workflow: The primary benefit of time management is improving your workflow. Finding your best times for productivity means you’re in the zone and ready to tackle your tasks.
  • More energy: Time management is also about energy management. Hour one is typically more productive than hour eight. Use time management strategies to allocate your energy throughout the day better.
  • Less stress: Time management tips combat stress. Effectively working makes you feel less stressed and better about your work.
  • Work-life balance: Balancing your work and home is critical—especially if you work remotely. Time management helps you leave work at work and focus on your personal life at home.
  • Effective work: Time management increases the amount of work you complete and its effectiveness. Your product is much better when you’re doing deep work because your mind is clear of distractions.
  • Deadline success: No matter your industry, deadlines are crucial. Time management skills ensure you can meet any deadline because you know how to manage your time wisely.
  • Higher confidence: Time management leads to higher confidence. You feel accomplished and fulfilled when you complete work on time and effectively.
  • Professional success: Others will notice your excellent work and time management skills. It’s a great way to impress your boss and advance your career.

Check out this article with 14 unique productivity tips if you want to boost your time management skills and improve your productivity. 

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Mastering time management at work

10 tips for mastering time management at work

Time management at work is key to optimizing productivity

Author: Seth Putnam March 19th, 2024

In our fast-paced world—when every moment seems to be filled with more tasks than time allows—time management isn’t just a nice-to-have skill; it’s a critical lifeline for both professional success and personal fulfillment.

The pressures of modern work are creating more unproductive noise for employees than ever. According to Slack’s latest State of Work report, 43% of employees find it hard to stay motivated, and 29% have difficulty keeping their focus. Meanwhile, 71% of business leaders are feeling the pressure to squeeze even more productivity out of their teams. 

From using AI to automating routine tasks, here are 11 tips that will help you master the art of managing your time.

Sticky notes with checkmarks

What is time management?

Time management is planning how to efficiently use and deliberately control the time you spend to maximize productivity. In short, get more done in less time. Other upsides include:

  • Better work quality
  • Less stress
  • More time to work on strategic or creative projects
  • Less procrastination
  • More self-confidence

Here’s how to get started:

1. Know how you’re spending your time

If your productivity is measured by output over a certain period, lost time can mean dollars out the window. Just like creating a budget, you have to track what you’re actually spending your time on to reveal any areas or habits that are blocking you from reaching your goals.

Start with a time check. Time-tracking tools such as Harvest and TrackingTime can integrate directly into your Slack workspace , and they can tell you, based on the categories you set up, how many hours you’re productive in a day versus how much time you’re spending on non-work-related activities, such as browsing social media or shopping.

2. Stick to a daily schedule

Go beyond “I have eight hours to do XYZ.” Create a daily schedule with allotted time blocks for different tasks. Sticking to it is the key to success.

  • Create realistic timelines . People overestimate their capacity to get things done, a phenomenon scientists call “ planning fallacy ,” which usually results in overly optimistic delivery estimates. Add time buffers between tasks so that even if one goes over the time limit, the overall schedule stays intact.
  • Give your undivided attention . Avoid sneaking to non-work-related sites (or whatever it is you’re not supposed to be doing) during work hours. Close all those “for later” browser tabs. Turn off your phone or stow it out of reach until it’s time for a scheduled break. Again, self-discipline is your best friend here.

3. Prioritize

To-do lists can be productivity lifesavers. But if you’re not careful, they can get so big and overwhelming that you don’t know where to start. A tool known as the Eisenhower Matrix can help you decide what to prioritize according to importance and urgency. Using this decision matrix, you can break down your list by:

  • Do immediately : Important tasks with defined deadlines, or ones you’ve put off for so long they’re now overdue
  • Schedule for later : Important tasks with no defined deadlines
  • Delegate : Tasks that someone else can do
  • Delete : Tasks you can eliminate because they’re not critical to your goals or mission

4. Automate repetitive tasks

Employees who automate are 71% more likely to exceed managers’ expectations, as we learned in the State of Work report. When you automate tedious or repetitive work, it can free up valuable time, allowing you to focus on more complex and creative aspects of your work.  

With tools like Slack’s Workflow Builder , you can create automations that are as simple or as complex as you’d like. They can even be connected to the other apps and services you use to get work done. And because no coding skills are necessary, anyone, regardless of their technical background, can deploy automations with just a few clicks. 

5. Tackle the most difficult task first

Distractions happen to all of us, whether it’s a phone call, a favor from a colleague or that pile of dirty dishes. Next thing you know, the day is gone. It’s time to “eat that frog.”

The Eat That Frog productivity method devised by leadership expert Brian Tracy works well for people who tend to procrastinate or have trouble avoiding distractions. It recommends tackling the biggest, most difficult and most important task first—the one you’re likely to put off for later. Only move on to other things once you’ve “eaten that frog.”

5. Batch-process similar tasks

Batching, or batch processing, means grouping similar tasks so you can work on them together. Group them by objective or function.

For example:

  • Client meetings on Wednesdays and Thursdays
  • Respond to emails from 10 a.m. to 11 a.m. only
  • Generate reports first thing in the morning, and distribute

6. Put AI to work for search and summaries

Imagine having an assistant that cuts through the noise, giving you just the information you need, when you need it. Artificial intelligence boosts your productivity by answering your questions, summarizing conversations and creating content like sales pitches and blog outlines. It helps you find relevant information quickly, focus on important tasks and manage your time better so you can get more done.

7. Set reasonable time limits

Parkinson’s law states that, “Work expands to fill the time allotted to complete it.” If you have a full day to complete two tasks that should take only three hours, you’ll probably still spend the whole day on those two tasks. If you give yourself a smaller window, chances are you’ll still meet the earlier deadline.

8. Learn when to say no

We have only so much energy in a day, and it wanes with the hours. To avoid half-baked work, know your limits and be willing to say no. Recognize your strengths and weaknesses. Focus on what you’re good at and, if possible, delegate what can be done better and faster by other people.

9. Avoid multitasking

The science is clear on multitasking: It cuts efficiency and can even be dangerous. According to the American Psychological Association , mental juggling involves “switching costs” that slash productivity. Although task switching might cost only a few seconds per switch, it adds up if you multitask frequently. Your risk for error also soars.

10. Keep things organized

You might need an organization makeover if any of these have happened to you:

  • Late to a meeting you’re leading
  • Forgot to print out a report your boss needed for a presentation
  • Had to ask IT for your username or password more than once

The good news is that organization is a skill that can be learned. Start with the basics.

  • Maintain a clean work desk . National Geographic reports that psychologists and neuroscientists link the effects of clutter on cognition, mental health and behavior. Visual clutter can increase stress levels and anxiety, triggering a fight-or-flight response. For better decision-making, toss any papers that can be shredded or recycled. Clear out nonessentials and put daily tools within easy reach.
  • Coordinate your computer files and shared drives . File naming is key to organizing digital files. Create a system that allows you and your colleagues to locate items quickly and easily.
  • Use a calendar . Organize your calendar by life buckets, such as “personal,” “professional” and “commitment.” Try color-coding to quickly differentiate categories or by urgent versus non-urgent.

Master time management to boost productivity

You can also leverage these productivity and automation tools designed to boost productivity:

  • Slack for keeping team communications in one central space organized by channel. No more slogging through endless email threads for project details.
  • Dropbox or OneDrive for storing, sharing and backing up files. Authorized team members can access cloud-based files 24/7.
  • Google Calendar and Outlook Calendar for staying on top of daily, weekly and monthly schedules. Integrate them with Slack to get automatic alerts and reminders directly in related channels.
  • Canva and Lucidchart for designs and diagrams. They help even the design-challenged create professional-looking templates.

Most high-performing teams have figured out how to maximize their time. Take back your workday with these time management best practices, and get your productivity up and stress levels down.

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Time management

10 tips for mastering time management at work

Reading time: about 10 min

We’ve all experienced the woes of time management at work. You wake up hopeful and optimistic—not only will you meet all your deadlines, but you’ll hit the gym and make a healthy home-cooked meal, too. 

Then life happens. You leave late, you hit traffic, and you arrive at your desk already frustrated with the world. Sitting down to finally knock out that project you’ve been procrastinating for weeks, you realize you’ve got back-to-back meetings until noon—and yes, you’re already late for the first one. You finally walk out of the last meeting, and you start wading through emails when you get pulled into a meeting with the VP. He has a last-minute request for you. “It should only take an hour,” he says. Try three. 

The good news is that there are ways to reclaim those seemingly elusive lost hours of the day. It’s all about personal time management—manage your time instead of letting it manage you. We’ve got ten time management tips for work to get you started

1. Figure out how you’re currently spending your time.

To optimize your personal time management, you first need to figure out where the time is going. Try diligently logging your time for a week by tracking your daily activities. This audit will help you: 

  • Determine how much you can feasibly accomplish in a day.
  • Identify timesucks.
  • Focus on activities that provide the greatest returns. 

As you conduct this time audit, it will become pretty clear how much of your time is spent on unproductive thoughts, conversations, and activities. You’ll gain a more accurate sense for how long certain types of tasks take you (which will be very helpful for executing on a later tip). This exercise can also help you determine the time of day when you are most productive—that way, you know when to work on your projects requiring the most focus and creativity.

Pro Tip: Assess how realistically you estimate your time. At the end of your audit, compare how much time certain tasks or projects took you to complete versus how long you expected them to take. We often overestimate how quickly can accomplish things. If there is a significant difference, take that into account as you plan out your schedule going forward so you can more accurately budget your time and avoid bottlenecks and missed deadlines.

2. Create a daily schedule—and stick with it.

daily schedule

This step is absolutely crucial for learning how to manage time at work. Don’t even attempt starting your day without an organized to-do list. Before you leave work for the day, create a list of the most pressing tasks for the next day. This step allows you to get going as soon as you get to the office.

Putting everything on paper will prevent you from lying awake at night tossing and turning over the tasks running through your brain. Instead, your subconscious goes to work on your plans while you are asleep, which means you can wake up in the morning with new insights for the workday.

If you can’t do it the day before, make sure you write out your list first thing in the morning. You’ll find that the time you spend creating a clear plan is nothing compared to the time you’ll lose jumping between tasks when you lack such a plan.  

case study on time management at work

Learn how to create a time management schedule that works for you.

3. Prioritize wisely.

As you organize your to-do list, prioritization is key for successful time management at work. Start by eliminating tasks that you shouldn’t be performing in the first place. Then identify the three or four most important tasks and do those first—that way, you make sure you finish the essentials.

Evaluate your to-do list and make sure you organized it based on the importance of a task rather than its urgency. Important responsibilities support the achievement of your goals, whereas urgent responsibilities require immediate attention and are associated with the achievement of someone else’s goals. We tend to let the urgent dominate when we should really focus on activities that support our business goals.

To avoid this pitfall, use one of the time management tips for work found in Stephen Covey’s book First Things First . He offers the following time management matrix, known as the Eisenhower matrix , as an organizational tool for prioritizing tasks based on these ideas of importance and urgency.

eisenhower matrix

Here’s a closer look at each of these quadrants:

  • Important and urgent: These tasks have important deadlines with high urgency—complete them right away.
  • Important but not urgent: These items are important but don’t require immediate action and should involve long-term development strategizing. Strive to spend most of your time in this quadrant.
  • Urgent but not important: These tasks are urgent but not important. Minimize, delegate, or eliminate them because they don’t contribute to your output. They are generally distractions that may result from the poor planning of others.
  • Not urgent and not important: These activities hold little if any value and should be eliminated as much as possible.

Here’s a look at what sorts of activities fall in each quadrant. Try creating your own time management matrix and inserting items from your to-do list and day-to-day activities to evaluate how you are currently spending your time. You can create one in Lucidchart in less than a minute—that’s what we did!

eisenhower matrix example

When you can figure out prioritization, your personal time management can reach a whole new level. You will know where to focus your time during those days when there simply aren’t enough hours.

case study on time management at work

Procrastinate less and be more efficient with the Eisenhower Matrix.

4. Group similar tasks together.

Save yourself time and mental energy by trying to complete all of one type of to-do before moving on to the next. For example, create separate chunks of time for answering emails, making phone calls, filing, etc. Don’t answer emails and messages as they come in, as doing so is distraction at its finest. Turn off your phone and email notifications to completely eliminate the temptation to check at an unappointed time.

5. Avoid the urge to multitask.

This is one of the simplest time management tips for work, yet it can be one of the hardest to follow. Focus on the task at hand and block out all distractions. It can be tempting to multitask, but you’re just shooting yourself in the foot when you attempt to do so. You lose time and decrease productivity when switching from one task to another.

Similarly, don’t get overwhelmed by a to-do list stretching a mile long. Stressing over it will not make it shorter, so breathe in, breathe out, and take it one task at a time.

6. Assign time limits to tasks.

Part of creating your schedule should involve setting time limits on tasks instead of just working until they’re done. To-do lists are great and wonderful, but sometimes you might feel like you never check anything off.

If you’re looking to set a steady pace to your workflow, the Pomodoro Technique can help you check off your to-do list in 25-minute chunks, taking short breaks between each stint and a longer break after completing four. This technique balances a narrow focus with frequent breaks, reducing mental strain and maintaining motivation. 

If you’d rather set your own pace, timeboxing allows you to block out varied amounts of time. Use your time log (step #1) to get an estimate for how long an activity will take you. Once you’ve spent the designated amount of time on that task, move on to the next important activity. You’ll find your productivity skyrocketing and your to-do list shrinking when you have these parameters in place.

timeboxing example

7. Build in buffers.

It may sound counterintuitive, but breaks are essential to better time management. 

Research shows that regular breaks increase productivity, mental well-being, decision making, and memory. And skipping breaks can lead to faster burnout and more stress. 

So what does this have to do with time management?

Higher stress levels impact energy, fatigue, cognition, and productivity and engagement at work. So ironically, working less (by taking more breaks), can help you do more in less time.

Make breaks a part of your schedule. When you finish a task, give yourself time to breathe. Take mini breaks to recharge, whether that be a short walk, a game of ping pong, some meditation, etc.

8. Learn to say no.

You’ll never learn how to manage time at work if you don’t learn how to say no. Only you truly know what you have time for, so if you need to decline a request in order to focus on more important tasks, don’t hesitate to do so. And if you take on a project that is obviously going nowhere, don’t be afraid to let it go.

Rather than doing a lot of tasks that yield little or no value, complete fewer tasks that create more value. Remember the 80/20 rule—80% of your output comes from 20% of your inputs. Focus your efforts accordingly.

If you can’t say no, delegate it. While delegating can be a hard skill to learn, it can work wonders for your personal time management. You’ve put together a talented team, so determine the tasks you can pass on.

9. Get organized.

For effective time management, this tip needs to actually go on your to-do list. If you have piles of papers scattered all over your desk, finding the one you actually need will be like finding a needle in a haystack. There are few things as frustrating as wasting valuable time looking for misplaced items. Not to mention how hard clutter can make it to focus.

Little things make a big difference. Create a filing system for documents. Unsubscribe to emails you no longer need. Automate repetitive tasks or processes where you can. Create systems for organizing and accomplishing tasks to increase your efficiency. Just think—you only have to do it once, but you get the benefits forever.

10. Eliminate distractions.

Social media, web browsing, co-workers, text messages, instant messaging—the distractions at work can be limitless. A key to personal time management is being proactive about getting rid of them. Shut your door to limit interruptions. Close all tabs except the ones you are currently working on. Turn off messaging notifications and leave your personal phone calls for lunch.

Take baby steps. Identify your top two distractions and focus on conquering those for two weeks. And remember that getting enough sleep, drinking enough water, and eating healthily can all help you stay focused during the workday—especially when that afternoon slump hits.

Better time management is about skills not hacks

At the end of the day, no “pro-tip” or calendar tool will magically make your time management woes disappear if you don’t have a foundation of good time management skills. 

The Harvard Business Review identifies three primary skills that separate time management success from failure:

  • Awareness: thinking realistically about your time by understanding it is a limited resource.
  • Arrangement: organizing goals, plans, schedules, and tasks to most effectively use your time.
  • Adaptation: regularly monitoring how you use your time while performing activities, including adjusting to interruptions or changing priorities.

Use the tips above to help you develop these skills and create effective time management habits that stick.

time management

Level up your time management with Lucidchart. 

About Lucidchart

Lucidchart, a cloud-based intelligent diagramming application, is a core component of Lucid Software's Visual Collaboration Suite. This intuitive, cloud-based solution empowers teams to collaborate in real-time to build flowcharts, mockups, UML diagrams, customer journey maps, and more. Lucidchart propels teams forward to build the future faster. Lucid is proud to serve top businesses around the world, including customers such as Google, GE, and NBC Universal, and 99% of the Fortune 500. Lucid partners with industry leaders, including Google, Atlassian, and Microsoft. Since its founding, Lucid has received numerous awards for its products, business, and workplace culture. For more information, visit

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Time Management Case Studies: Two Examples for Non-Profit Organizations (From My Time Management Workshop)

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Related Papers

Ida Sabelis

Abstract The topic of time management inevitably emerges when researching concepts of time in organizations. And, as we live in a society where we deal with organizations all the time and in a variety of forms, we are continually confronted with the way in which time is managed in an'organizational'way. This article departs from a critical overview of time-management literature and confronts the assumptions therein with the experiences of a (female) chief executive, managing her time.

case study on time management at work


The objective of the present study was to investigate and determine the effectiveness of time management strategies in a non-governmental organization specifically in the case of ACOS Ethiopia, Adama branch. The study was guided by four research questions that were generated from the objective of the study and a quantitative method was used in the research. The researcher purposefully took all the workers as respondents, the total number of the organization. The data collection was administered using questionnaires. Mean scores were used to analyze the data. The findings of the study revealed that there was a gap in implementing time management strategies and follow-up on the day-to-day activities where a lack of time management came out to be one of the problems in ACOS. The need for more profound training in time management and implementation was also observed. The implications and limitations are reviewed as suggestions for future studies. Keywords: Managers, Employees, Time Management Strategies

eman shilbayah

Time is one of the most valuable asset available to man. Sadly however is the prevalent lack of time management culture in many societies especially in developing countries including Africa. This paper takes a look at the concept of time management and how it can be practiced to improve organisational efficiency and effectiveness drawing from evidence in literatuure. The paper concludes that most developing countries particulary those of Africa must address and improve the use of time at all levels including organisation to fast track its rate of development.

The Bottom Line: Managing Library Finances

Gary Fitsimmons

Purpose – This paper continues the discussion of planning as an essential part of the leadership quality of good time management by presenting a step-by-step procedure for working out an action plan based on work goals. Design – The paper discusses the importance of having an action plan to guide staff members in accomplishing work goals, sets forth the 5 key elements in an action plan, and then shows how to develop each of those elements. Findings – The paper finds that an action plan is a helpful tool to ensure continuing progress toward work goals and that there are five key elements to be developed for every action plan in pursuit of a goal. Value – The value of developing an action plan is that it helps avoid many problems with projects and provides the mechanism for solving many others, so that projects designed to pursue work goals do not stall out indefinitely.

Personnel Review

B J C Claessens

ronald dulay

jude tamukong

Irina Melinte

INTRODUCTIONTime management has increasingly become an issue of crucial relevance.Time needs to be viewed as a complex mathematical value and not as a simple linear graphic, hence the current debate of whether it is better to follow classical methods to speed up the pace as the fast hare or the alternative view of actually slowing down the rhythm like the wise tortoise. The current paper aims at developing, besides the classical and the alternative views regarding time management, a third category of methods that focus on the individual, personal perception of time.&quot;Do you begin each day with a planner brimming with goals and to-dos that are important to you, or are you handcuffed by poorly planned days that result in nothing done by day&#39;s end? Plan and achieve.&quot; This is a constant slogan that we hear daily in all personal development and time management seminaries. But is it all that easy as they say?In today&#39;s hectic life style, it is becoming increasingly diffic...

Purpose – This paper concludes the discussion of the leadership quality of good time management by presenting thoughts on implementing an action plan based on work goals. Design – The paper establishes the need for good plan implementation and then lays out a way of dealing with problems as they arise. Finally it discusses plan assessment in general terms as either the final step in the implementation, or part of a cycle of assessment and reimplementation. Findings – The findings are that a good leader and manager must be able to carry a plan from planning through implementation and to know when and how to sustain a cycle of assessment and reimplementation. Value –The value of this paper is in its suggestions for smoothing the way through plan implementation when things go awry.

Time management has helped people organize their professional lives for centuries. The existing literature, however, reveals mixed findings and lack of clarity as to whether, when, how, and why time management leads to critical outcomes such as well-being and job performance. Furthermore, insights relevant to time management are scattered across various disciplines, including sociology, psychology, and behavioral economics. We address both issues by synthesizing and integrating insightful elements from various fields and domains into three novel perspectives on time management. First, we draw on the sociology of time to describe two key concepts: time structures and time norms. We illustrate how time structures and time norms operate at the team, organizational, and national levels of analysis in influencing time management outcomes. Second, we draw on the psychology of time to show how individual differences including time-related beliefs, attitudes, and preferences affect the way people manage time and, consequently, time management outcomes. Third, we rely on the behavioral economics literature to describe how cognitive biases influence individual time management decisions. Integrating insights from a diverse set of fields results in a better understanding of past research and allows us to reinterpret conflicting results prevalent in the time management literature. Finally, we offer directions for future research and discuss implications for how organizations and individuals can implement interventions resulting in a stronger and positive relationship between time management and desirable outcomes.

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International Res Jour Managt Socio Human

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Tridib Chakraborti

winter zhang

Current Opinion in Psychology

Gabriela N Tonietto

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Tropical Essays

IJAERS Journal


Journal of Managerial Psychology

Peter Totterdell

Library Hi Tech

Ina Fourie , Herman Fourie

European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences

Mehdi Esmaili

Routledge Studies in Management, Organisation and Society

Evgeny Osin

International Journal of Training and Development

Denise Skinner

Hospital Topics

Shahabuddin Mughal

Journal Approved)

International Journal of Social Science and Economic Research

Abdulwaheed Salihu

International journal of travel medicine and global health

Ramin Ravangard

Communications of the ACM

Vanya Dimitrova


Kaye Enrique


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Time Management - Phil's Story

Case Study - Before

Phil is finding that there are less and less hours in the day, the workload is the same but he feels more rushed than ever. He finds himself eating his lunch at his workstation, and feels demotivated during the last two hours of his shift. He works in a busy office environment with lots of noise and distractions, this he feels has some detrimental impact on his workload, one of his colleagues asks him for help on a regular basis and this is also eating up his time, but he doesn't want to come across as ignorant so is always ready to help. He worries that his inability to complete all his goals will start impacting on the business and his next review, this has caused his stress levels to increase and he starting to struggle to sleep at night.

After attending our Time Management training, Phil soon realised he only needed to make small alterations to meet his daily goals. Working harder didn't necessary mean getting more done...he needed to work smarter.

Case Study - After

Phil used the time matrix system to prioritise his tasks, he broke them down into smaller more manageable tasks. Previously he had been prioritising the smaller less important tasks...because he felt they were easier. Once he completed a task he marked it off from his list and then went onto the next one. He got his more difficult tasks done earlier in the day so that the afternoon was filled with the easier less important duties.

Phil also implemented a range of small tips, this included creating short-cuts on his desktop and checking is email at certain intervals to reduce distractions. Phil also started to go on his lunch breaks, it maintained his motivation throughout the afternoon. Whilst socialising in work is great for morale and has motivational benefits it needed to be done at certain intervals otherwise it can be very distracting. His biggest problem was helping others with their own workload, this had been the biggest drain on his time. He learnt techniques on how to say 'no', he could still help people but it was his decision and only when he knew he could spare the time. He was able to achieve his tasks and his stress levels decreased.

Phil was able to improve his work performance by becoming more efficient, and the organisation got one of their best performing staff members back to his best. Personally Phil was able to reduce his stress levels and reduce his internal anxiety.


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Case Study: The Importance of Time Management

The one thing that there will never be enough of is time. You cannot manage time as time is finite. You can only improve your time management to make the most of the time that you have available to you.

Home > Blog > Case Study: The Importance of Time Management


Last week we travelled to Norfolk to deliver a face-to-face time management training course .

Since the beginning of the coronavirus pandemic, the staff have all been working from home. At first, there were no particular issues with the staff’s time management . The staff were consistent with their logging in and logging out after their working day.

However, as time wore on, the managing director of the company noticed that many of the employees were starting to work longer hours in order to get their work done. When questioned, staff advised that the flexible work boundaries had started to translate into work without boundaries.

With the majority of the staff still preferring to work from home for the foreseeable future, the managing director wanted the staff to go through a refresher on effective time management. The managing director recognised that this training would help the staff to get their working week back on track.

Deadly Sins of Time Management

We started the day by asking the delegates to write down their biggest hurdles:

● Procrastination

● Poor planning

● Over-commitment

● Interruptions

The delegates all acknowledged that it was easy to find distractions when they wanted to avoid a difficult task. To assist we talked through each topic, giving the delegates the tools and resources to overcome these challenges.


Before switching off your computer at night, draw up your ‘to do list’ for the next day. Schedule difficult projects first thing in the morning, in order to get them done and out of the way.

Poor planning

Start each day with a written plan. Your plan should assign priorities in two ways: important projects that must be done that day and important projects that have a longer timeframe.


Over-commitment is often a source of stress. Participants acknowledged that they needed to manage their time more effectively and to learn to say ‘no’ more often. Or rather, learn to say ‘no’ for now. As an alternative, postpone or renegotiate, i.e. ‘I can help you with this and I will start on it next week when I have finished …, is that okay with you?’


Turn off the ‘new email’ notifications. Email notification pop-ups provide a constant interruption which can disrupt your workflow. The alert gives you just enough information to tempt you away from whatever you are working on. Instead, switch your email notification pop-ups off and pick specific times throughout the day to check and reply to your emails. Knowing you have this time set aside will allow you the space you need to complete your other tasks.

Overcoming the Challenges of Time Management

Self-discipline is critical for self-time management. If you do not have a set working routine, you cannot blame your work for seeping into your personal life. You need to observe regular work hours in order to get your work done.

Avoiding the deadly sins of time management will help you focus and actually create time.  Although these are not absolute rules, they do provide an excellent structure that will help to boost your productivity.

Ready to improve your time management skills?

With hybrid working here to stay, it is time to reassess your working day and focus on what is important. By providing your staff with relevant training and time management tips , you can help them to maximise potential whilst working from home.

Here at Unlock Staff Potential, we are committed to meeting your needs and we can help you just like we help our clients.

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Risk factors for noncarious cervical lesions: A case-control study


  • 1 Department of Endodontics, School of Stomatology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.
  • 2 School of Stomatology, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.
  • 3 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.
  • 4 Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.
  • PMID: 38924570
  • DOI: 10.1111/joor.13772

Objectives: Noncarious cervical lesions (NCCLs) are multifactorial and can be caused by the anatomical structure of the teeth, erosion, abrasion and abnormal occlusion. The aim of this case-control study was to explore the risk factors for NCCLs.

Methods: Cone-beam computed tomography was used to determine whether a wedge-shaped defect existed at the cementoenamel junction. We compared 63 participants with NCCLs with 63 controls without NCCLs, matched for sex, age (±1 year) and toothbrushing-related factors (e.g., type of bristle and brushing patterns, frequency and strength). All participants were asked to complete a questionnaire about self-administered daily diet habits and health condition. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the risk factors for NCCLs.

Results: Significant variables in the univariate analysis (i.e., p < .2) included frequency of carbonated beverage consumption, sella-nasion-point B angle (SNB) and Frankfort-mandibular plane angle (FMA). Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that the consumption frequency of carbonated beverages (odds ratio [OR] = 3.147; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.039-9.532), FMA (OR = 1.100; 95% CI, 1.004-1.204) and SNB (OR = 0.896; 95% CI, 0.813-0.988) was independent influencing factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) value of regression Model 1 (established with the frequency of carbonated beverage consumption, FMA, SNB and sleep bruxism) was 0.700 (95% CI, 0.607-0.792; p < .001), and that of regression Model 2 (established using the frequency of carbonated beverage consumption, FMA and SNB) was 0.704 (95% CI, 0.612-0.796; p < .001).

Conclusions: The consumption frequency of carbonated beverages and FMA was risk factors for NCCLs; the higher the frequency of carbonated beverage consumption and FMA, the higher was the probability of NCCLs. SNB was a protective factor for NCCL occurrence; the larger the SNB, the lower was the probability of NCCL occurrence. These findings have further clarified the aetiology of NCCLs and provided clinicians with valuable insights into strategies for preventing the loss of dental tissue.

Keywords: CBCT; case–control study; logistic regression; noncarious cervical lesions; risk factors.

© 2024 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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Watch CBS News

CDK Global calls cyberattack that crippled its software platform a "ransom event"

By Megan Cerullo

Edited By Anne Marie Lee

Updated on: June 25, 2024 / 9:06 AM EDT / CBS News

CDK Global is now calling the  cyberattack that took down its software platform  for its auto dealership clients "a ransom event." 

In a note to clients Saturday, CDK for the first time acknowledged that the hackers that made its dealer management system, or DMS,  unavailable to clients for days , are demanding a ransom to restore its systems. 

"Thank you for your patience as we recover from the cyber ransom event that occurred on June 19th," CDK said in a memo to clients on Saturday, according to a copy of the email obtained by CBS MoneyWatch . 

CDK added in the note that it has started restoring its systems and expects the process of bringing major applications back online "to take several days and not weeks."

Beware of phishing

In its memo, the company also warned car dealerships to be alert to phishing scams, or entities posing as CDK but who are in fact bad actors trying to obtain proprietary information like customers' passwords. 

A CDK spokesperson told CBS MoneyWatch that it is providing customers "with alternate ways to conduct business" while its systems remain inoperative. 

The cybercriminals behind the CDK attack are linked to a group called BlackSuit, Bloomberg reported on Monday, citing Allan Liska of computer security firm Recorded Future. In a June 21 story , the media outlet also said the hackers were demanding tens of millions of dollars and that CDK planned to pay the ransom. 

Liska didn't immediately respond to a request for comment. CDK itself hasn't pointed to any group behind the attack on its system that  has disrupted car dealerships across the U.S.  since last week. Companies targeted in ransomware schemes are often reluctant to disclose information in the midst of negotiations with hackers on a payment.

"When you see an attack of this kind, it almost always ends up being a ransomware attack," Cliff Steinhauer, director of information security and engagement at the National Cybersecurity Alliance, told the Associated Press. "We see it time and time again unfortunately, [particularly in] the last couple of years. No industry and no organization or software company is immune."

"Doing everything manually"

The hack has left some car dealers unable to do business altogether, while others report using pen and paper, and even "sticky notes" to record transactions. 

Tom Maoli, owner of Celebrity Motor Car Company, which operates five luxury car dealerships across New York and New Jersey, on Monday told CBS MoneyWatch his employees "are doing everything manually."

"We are trying to keep our customers happy and the biggest issue is the banking side of things, which is completely backed up. We can't fund deals," he said. 

Asbury Automotive Group, a Fortune 500 company operating more than 150 new car dealerships across the U.S., in a statement on Monday  said  the attack has "adversely impacted" its operations and has hindered its ability to do business. Its Koons Automotive dealerships in Maryland and Virginia, however, which don't rely on CDK's software, have been able to operate without interruption, the company said.  

Ransomware attacks  are on the rise. In 2023, more than 2,200 entities, including U.S. hospitals, schools and governments were directly impacted by ransomware, according to  Emisoft , an anti-malware software company. Additionally, thousands of private sector companies were targeted. Some experts believe that the only way to stop such attacks is to ban the payment of ransoms, which Emisoft said would lead bad actors to "quickly pivot and move from high impact encryption-based attacks to other less disruptive forms of cybercrime."

Earlier this year, the U.S. Department of State  offered $10 million in exchange for the identities  of leaders of the Hive ransomware gang, which since 2021 has been responsible for attacks on more than 1,500 institutions in over 80 countries, resulting in the theft of more than $100 million. 

  • Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency
  • Cyberattack

Megan Cerullo is a New York-based reporter for CBS MoneyWatch covering small business, workplace, health care, consumer spending and personal finance topics. She regularly appears on CBS News 24/7 to discuss her reporting.

More from CBS News

CDK Global shares when systems will be back up amid cyberattack outage

CDK updates dealers on status of sales software restoration after cyberattack

3 ways the CDK cyberattack is affecting car buyers

AT&T, T-Mobile and Verizon confirm service outages for customers abroad

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Opinion: I study disinformation. This election will be grim.

Universities that catalogued election lies and disinformation are being targeted with the same tactics they sought to uncover..

Vivek Thakker for The New York Times

In 2020, the Stanford Internet Observatory, where I was until recently the research director, helped lead a project that studied election rumors and disinformation. As part of that work, we frequently encountered conspiratorial thinking from Americans who had been told the 2020 presidential election was going to be stolen.

The way theories of “the steal” went viral was eerily routine . First, an image or video, such as a photo of a suitcase near a polling place, was posted as evidence of wrongdoing. The poster would tweet the purported evidence, tagging partisan influencers or media accounts with large followings. Those accounts would promote the rumor, often claiming, “Big if true!” Others would join and the algorithms would push it out to potentially millions more. Partisan media would follow.

If the rumor was found to be false — and it usually was — corrections were rarely made and even then, little noticed. The belief that “the steal” was real led directly to the events of Jan. 6, 2021.

Within a couple of years, the same online rumor mill turned its attention to us — the very researchers who documented it. This spells trouble for the 2024 election.

For us, it started with claims that our work was a plot to censor the right. The first came from a blog related to the Foundation for Freedom Online, the project of a man who said he “ran cyber” at the State Department. This person, an alt-right YouTube personality who’d gone by the handle Frame Game, had been employed by the State Department for just a couple of months .

Using his brief affiliation as a marker of authority, he wrote blog posts styled as research reports contending that our project, the Election Integrity Partnership, had pushed social media networks to censor 22 million tweets. He had no firsthand evidence of any censorship, however: his number was based on a simple tally of viral election rumors that we’d counted and published in a report after the election was over. Right-wing media outlets and influencers nonetheless called it evidence of a plot to steal the election, and their followers followed suit.

Here’s what we actually did: Teams of student analysts identified social media posts that were potentially misleading the public about voting procedures, or which tried to delegitimize the outcome of an election. Sometimes a nonprofit clearinghouse that included state and local election officials shared with us posts that concerned them. In some cases, if a post we examined appeared to be going viral, and appeared to violate a social media platform’s election policies, we let the companies know. Most of the time, the platforms took no action; when they did act, it was primarily to label the post as disputed, or to attach a fact check.

The real impact of the rumors about us came offline. After the House flipped to Republican control in 2022, the investigations began. The “22 million tweets” claim was entered into the congressional record by witnesses during a March 2023 hearing of a House Judiciary subcommittee. Two Republican members of the subcommittee, Jim Jordan and Dan Bishop, sent letters demanding our correspondence with the executive branch and with technology companies as part of an investigation into our role in a Biden “censorship regime.” Subpoenas soon followed, and the investigations eventually expanded to requesting that our staff submit to closed-door video-recorded testimonies. That included students who worked on the project.

It was obvious to us what would happen next: The documents we turned over would be leaked and sentences cherry-picked to fit a pre-existing narrative. This supposed evidence would be fodder for hyperpartisan influencers, and the process would begin again. Indeed, this is precisely what happened, albeit with a wrinkle. Material the subcommittee obtained under subpoena or in closed-door hearings ended up in the hands of a right-wing group that had sued us, which was led by Mr. Jordan’s longtime ideological ally Stephen Miller. We do not know how.

This brings us to the present, when another election looms. The 2024 rerun is already being viciously fought. Since 2020, the technological landscape has shifted. There are new social media platforms in the mix, such as Bluesky, Threads and Truth Social. Election integrity policies and enforcement priorities are in flux at some of the biggest platforms. What used to be Twitter is under new ownership and most of the team that focused on trust and safety was let go.

Fake audio generated by artificial intelligence has already been deployed in a European election , and A.I.-powered chatbots are posting on social-media platforms. Overseas players continue to run influence operations to interfere in American politics; in recent weeks, OpenAI has confirmed that Russia, China and others have begun to use generative text tools to improve the quality and quantity of their efforts.

Offline, trust in institutions, government, media and fellow citizens is at or near record lows and polarization continues to increase. Election officials are concerned about the safety of poll workers and election administrators — perhaps the most terrible illustration of the cost of lies on our politics.

As we enter the final stretch of the 2024 campaign, it will not be other countries that are likely to have the greatest impact. Rather, it will once again be the domestic rumor mill. The networks spreading misleading notions remain stronger than ever, while the networks of researchers and observers who worked to counter them are being dismantled.

Universities and institutions have struggled to understand and adapt to lies about their work, often remaining silent and allowing false claims to ossify. Lies about academic projects are now matters of established fact within bespoke partisan realities .

Costs, both financial and psychological, have mounted. Stanford is refocusing the work of the Observatory and has ended the Election Integrity Partnership’s rapid-response election observation work. Employees including me did not have their contracts renewed.

This is disappointing, though not entirely surprising. The investigations have led to threats and sustained harassment for researchers who find themselves the focus of congressional attention. Misleading media claims have put students in the position of facing retribution for an academic research project. Even technology companies no longer appear to be acting together to disrupt election influence operations by foreign countries on their platforms.

Republican members of the House Judiciary subcommittee reacted to the Stanford news by saying their “robust oversight” over the center had resulted in a “big win” for free speech. This is an alarming statement for government officials to make about a private research institution with First Amendment rights.

The work of studying election delegitimization and supporting election officials is more important than ever. It is crucial that we not only stand resolute but speak out forcefully against intimidation tactics intended to silence us and discredit academic research. We cannot allow fear to undermine our commitment to safeguarding the democratic process.

Renée DiResta is the former research director of the Stanford Internet Observatory and the author of “Invisible Rulers: The People Who Turn Lies Into Reality.” This article originally appeared in The New York Times .

Donate to the newsroom now. The Salt Lake Tribune, Inc. is a 501(c)(3) public charity and contributions are tax deductible

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Proposition and application of a conceptual model for risk management in rural areas: rural basic sanitation safety plan (rbssp).

case study on time management at work

1. Introduction

2. materials and methods, 2.1. rbssp conceptual model (cm rbssp ), 2.1.1. first phase, 2.1.2. second phase.

  • Fundamental principles that will be the basis for plan preparation;
  • RBSSP steps, which will demonstrate their logical sequence;
  • Objective that will explain the purpose of the each stage;
  • List of actions with activity sequence, and how they should be performed in order to achieve the objective;
  • Instruments that will be used to perform the listed actions;
  • Products that must be obtained at each stage end of RBSSP;
  • Implementation of a summary figure, instrument used to facilitate the visualization of the steps, and the general structure of the RBSSP.

2.1.3. Third Phase

2.2. case study, 3.1. rbssp conceptual model (cm rbssp ), 3.1.1. first phase, 3.1.2. second phase, 3.1.3. third phase, 3.2. case study, 4. discussion, 4.1. rbssp conceptual model (cm rbssp ), 4.1.1. phase 1.1, 4.1.2. phase 1.2, 4.1.3. phase 1.3, 4.1.4. second phase, 4.1.5. third phase, 4.2. case study, 5. conclusions.

  • The WSP and SSP frameworks consist of multiple steps and must include phases for diagnosis, risk assessment, management plans and continuous improvement phases, which are relevant for any safety plan methodology.
  • A methodology for the preparation of safety plans for rural areas, related to basic sanitation, can be used as it is or adapted, depending on the local reality, such as cultural, economic, regulatory and community involvement aspects. However, there is a gap in the adaptation process. The methodology adaptation to rural settlements and to include the four components of basic sanitation remains a gap in the literature, which evidences the importance of RBSSP.
  • It is possible to develop a comprehensive safety plan that integrates water supply, sewage, solid waste management and rainwater management in rural settlements. This plan should be based on the principles of basic sanitation, ensuring that all steps are applied to these four services.
  • The methodology for the preparation of RBSSP must address specific and/or greater impact issues, such as the community representation team for its preparation, and the expanded concept of health application connected to each one of the basic sanitation services (water supply, sewage, solid waste management and rainwater management), which differentiates it from urban areas.
  • Community participation, involvement and empowerment must be considered in RBSSP methodology, as these are factors of greater relevance in its implementation, specially to ensure the connection between the four components of basic sanitation and because most of these services are provided by the population.
  • It is important that RBSSP fundamental principles are explicit and are used during its preparation, implementation and for decision-making. This can strengthen the implementation of RBSSP, ensuring that it focuses on the most important issues in rural basic sanitation.
  • The necessary tools for the preparation of RBSSP, such as risk assessment methodologies and management plans, must be applied considering RBSSP fundamental principles.
  • The application simulation of the conceptual model showed that it is necessary to adapt the actions, to apply appropriate methods and techniques developed for the rural area, as a way to properly prepare RBSSP, according to the scenario. After conducting the case study, the final RBSSP framework consists of six fundamental principles, six steps, and twenty actions to be implemented in any type of rural settlement.

Supplementary Materials

Author contributions, data availability statement, acknowledgments, conflicts of interest.

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Click here to enlarge figure

1st PhaseRef.Application AreaGoogle Scholar
[ ]WSS manual463Identify and assess risks; identify and validate barriers; implement improvements; demonstrate effectiveness; review and record risks and their levels.
[ ]WSS manual for small communities68Understanding and commitment, preventive approach, flexibility and adaptation, multiple barriers, continuous improvement, regular review.
[ ]WSS manual323Health-based targets, system assessment, monitoring and control measures, management plans and surveillance.
[ ]SSS manual89Health risks’ identification, improvements implementation and monitoring.
[ ]Water quality and safety guides for human consumption71Principle of multiple barriers, risk analysis, critical control points and systematic approaches.
[ ]Safety guides for domestic sewage management151Site-specific risk management and assessment.
[ ]Risk management141Risk management, continuous improvement, accountability, decision making and integration.
[ ]Guidance on programs and targets for rural areasNAMultiscale services management, education, social participation and integrated appropriate technologies, by structural and structuring measures.
[ ]Legislation on potability standards and procedures for surveillance and quality control of water for human consumptionNAPotable water standard for human consumption, surveillance and water quality control for human consumption and systematic systems evaluation with health risks perspective, through the Potable water safety plan (PWSP) elaboration.
[ ]Legislation on basic sanitationNAFourteen fundamental principles applicable to rural areas.
[ ]Health legislationNASocial determinants of health including basic sanitation.
Types of Safety Plans
Modules (steps) [ , ]
1. Assign a WSP team1. Preparing for sanitation safety planning
2. Describe the WSP
3. Identify hazards and hazardous events, and assess risks2. Description of the sanitary sewage system
4. Determine, validate and prioritize control measures and risks3. Identification of hazardous events, assessment of existing control measures and exposure to risk
5. Develop and implement improvement plans
6. Define and monitor control measures4. Development and implementation of an incremental improvement plan
7. Check WSP effectiveness
8. Elaborate management programs5. Monitoring of control measures and performance verification
9. Develop subsidy/support programs
10. Plan and execute periodic reviews6. Development of support programs and plan review
11. Review the WSP
Framework elements [ , ]
Context and results in public health termsNational Government Functions
Health result goalsLocal governance functions
System Rating *Community Engagement Functions
Monitoring *Individual services and systems
Management and communication *Shared services and systems
Methodologies and Techniques UsedReferenceCitationsCountry
WHO methodology[ ]3India
[ ]11Bangladesh
[ ]1Brazil
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]27Canada
[ ]24Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, Cook islands, Lao, Mongolia, Nepal, Filipinas, Sri-Lanka, East Timor, Vanuatu
[ ]2Senegal
[ ]2South Africa
[ ]17Marshall islands
[ ]
[ ]
Based on the Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality (WHO)[ ]61Bangladesh
Simplified WHO methodology, without determination of control measures, management plans and post-incident review[ ]14Senegal and Burkina Faso
WHO methodology, adapted to include climate change resilience[ ]0Vanuatu
WHO methodology, adapted to include urgent corrective actions soon after risk assessment[ ]14Nepal
WHO methodology, adapted for using WSP QA tool[ ]1Iran
WHO Methodology WSP for Small Community Water Supplies[ ]15India, Democratic Republic of Congo, Fiji, Vanuatu
Own methodology, considering regular operation, maintenance and emergency plan[ ]6Nepal
WHO methodology, adapted for specific risks in cold regions[ ]9Canada
Own methodology, based on participation methods (PHAST)[ ]0Unidentified
Total244 citations (mean = 11.62; SD = 13.99; CV = 1.20)
The statements, opinions and data contained in all publications are solely those of the individual author(s) and contributor(s) and not of MDPI and/or the editor(s). MDPI and/or the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to people or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content.

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Baracho, R.O.; Bezerra, N.R.; Scalize, P.S. Proposition and Application of a Conceptual Model for Risk Management in Rural Areas: Rural Basic Sanitation Safety Plan (RBSSP). Resources 2024 , 13 , 90.

Baracho RO, Bezerra NR, Scalize PS. Proposition and Application of a Conceptual Model for Risk Management in Rural Areas: Rural Basic Sanitation Safety Plan (RBSSP). Resources . 2024; 13(7):90.

Baracho, Rafaella Oliveira, Nolan Ribeiro Bezerra, and Paulo Sérgio Scalize. 2024. "Proposition and Application of a Conceptual Model for Risk Management in Rural Areas: Rural Basic Sanitation Safety Plan (RBSSP)" Resources 13, no. 7: 90.

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An illustration of a drug capsule that’s been pulled apart, its innards spilling out.

the middlemen

The Opaque Industry Secretly Inflating Prices for Prescription Drugs

Pharmacy benefit managers are driving up drug costs for millions of people, employers and the government.

Credit... Photo illustration by Jens Mortensen for The New York Times

Supported by

  • Share full article

Rebecca Robbins

By Rebecca Robbins and Reed Abelson

This is the first article in a series about how pharmacy benefit managers prioritize their interests, often at the expense of patients, employers and taxpayers.

  • June 21, 2024

Americans are paying too much for prescription drugs.

It is a common, longstanding complaint. And the culprits seem obvious: Drug companies. Insurers. A dysfunctional federal government.

But there is another collection of powerful forces that often escape attention, because they operate in the bowels of the health care system and cloak themselves in such opacity and complexity that many people don’t even realize they exist.

They are called pharmacy benefit managers. And they are driving up drug costs for millions of people, employers and the government.

The three largest pharmacy benefit managers, or P.B.M.s, act as middlemen overseeing prescriptions for more than 200 million Americans. They are owned by huge health care conglomerates — CVS Health, Cigna and UnitedHealth Group — and are hired by employers and governments.

The job of the P.B.M.s is to reduce drug costs. Instead, they frequently do the opposite. They steer patients toward pricier drugs, charge steep markups on what would otherwise be inexpensive medicines and extract billions of dollars in hidden fees, a New York Times investigation found.

Most Americans get their health insurance through a government program like Medicare or through an employer, which pay for two different types of insurance for each person. One type covers visits to doctors and hospitals, and it is handled by an insurance company. The other pays for prescriptions. That is overseen by a P.B.M.

Biggest P.B.M.s Dominate

Each P.B.M.’s estimated share of prescriptions filled in the United States.

case study on time management at work

CVS Health’s



Express Scripts

Express Scripts/

Cigna merger

case study on time management at work

“I t ’ s just


Joseph Kaplan

case study on time management at work

A Modern Health Care Conglomerate

case study on time management at work

CVS Caremark

CVS Pharmacy

Mail-order pharmacy

CVS Specialty

Group purchasing


Drug marketing

case study on time management at work

Group purchasing organization

Drug marketing partner

Fees Paid by Drug Manufacturers Doubled

What drug manufacturers paid in fees to P.B.M.s or their associated G.P.O.s.

case study on time management at work

$3.8 billion

case study on time management at work

“ W e were

ripped off.”

K ent McKinley

case study on time management at work

Overcharging for a Cancer Drug

CVS Caremark charged Oklahoma far more than the wholesale cost for everolimus.

case study on time management at work

Price charged by

$138,000 per year

Wholesale cost for

a local pharmacist

case study on time management at work

P.B.M.s Charge Inflated Prices

Two P.B.M.s charged two different clients much more than the wholesale cost of abiraterone acetate, a cancer drug.

case study on time management at work

What CVS Caremark

charged Blue Shield

$3,000 per month

What Express Scripts

charged Hyatt

Price available

from a wholesaler

case study on time management at work

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Management & Science University in Malaysia Selects Shure Microflex Complete Wireless Digital Conference System

MSU's Campus Image

Founded in 2001, Management & Science University (MSU) is a private university in Malaysia located in Shah Alam, Selangor. MSU has been accorded ‘Excellent Status University’ twice in the national university-rating system and named the ‘Best Entrepreneurial Private University by the Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia. The university offers more than 100 programs: diplomas, bachelors, masters, PhDs, skill-base and professional programmes. Management & Science University has also been awarded Platinum 5 Crowns by the UK's Accreditation Service for International Schools, Colleges and Universities (ASIC); and QS-rated 5-Stars on the metrics of Teaching, Graduate employability, Facilities, Social Responsibility, and Inclusiveness.

Following the COVID-19 lock downs and the social distancing requirements, MSU decided to upgrade their campus boardroom. There has been an increase usage of the rooms particularly for virtual as well as hybrid meetings which resulted in an urgent need for a more flexible and scalable wireless system. 

The campus boardroom play hosts to a variety of speeches and panel discussions. It was critical for the conference microphone system to deliver high quality sound consistently and reliably. Unfortunately, their current system was not able to meet their changing conferencing requirements especially in terms of quality and setup time. After technical evaluations, the university opted for a complete infrastructure overhaul to provide state-of-the-art audio technology.

Shure Microflex Complete Wireless Digital (MXCW) System provided a steady and reliable audio performance system that exceeded MSU’s requirements. The audio system was delivered with the installation of gooseneck microphones and discussion units. The set up was straightforward, user-friendly and built to last. The discussion system was set up to allow for up to 24 participants and it has the flexibility to use in multiple venues. 


With the MXCW System, we overcame cable limitations for off-site, flexible meeting rooms, or buildings where drilling holes in furniture is impractical. It integrated seamlessly into the existing furniture to maintain the aesthetics of the room. The system features automatic radio frequency (RF) interference detection and avoidance technology, encrypted digital wireless transmission, and digital audio networking using Dante®.

The MXCW access point has multiple mounting options for discreet communication between wireless conference units and the digital audio network. It also works within the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS) frequency bands. Using the access point web application to monitor, control and setup the conference system units. Each conference units have configurable roles for meeting participants and can be routed to the floor audio or an interpretation channel. Each wireless conference unit is powered by a smart lithium-ion rechargeable battery whose remaining charge shown in hours and minutes can be checked remotely by a technician. The networked charging station (MXCWNCS) charges and stores up to 10 Shure rechargeable batteries that can be monitored through its own web application.

With the Dante® system of MXCW, we enabled a hybrid collaboration experience using the Intellimix ® P300. The fixed architecture of the Intellimix ® P300 provides simple setup, requiring less DSP programming and commissioning time. Multiple connectivity options allow for seamless integration with Shure conferencing microphones, laptops and even mobile devices.

MSU’s campus boardroom is now fully equipped with their desired audio system that offers an inclusive experience to all their users across every setting. Leveraging portable discussion units, it allows them to have a flexible and scalable solution that can be broken down and reassembled easily, depending on what the room was being used for. The set-up is easy and quick. There are no more cables to limit the participants’ movement, and everyone have access to great audio wherever they join the meeting. The audio system is designed to work together seamlessly, and the management or control can be done remotely by their tech team.

MSU Campus Boardroom with Shure Microflex Complete Wireless gooseneck microphones and discussion units

Model NumberQuantityDescription
1Don’t let echo, noise, or distortion take over the meeting. The IntelliMix® P300 digital signal processor enhances every aspect of conference audio.
24Dualflex Gooseneck Microphone for MXC and MXCW Conference Units
3Networked Charging Station for SB930 rechargeable batteries used in MXCW640 Wireless Conference Unit.
1Access Point for Microflex Complete Wireless conference system. Controls up to 125 MXCW640 wireless conference units.
24Wireless Conference Unit for Microflex Complete Wireless conference system. Configurable as Chairman, Delegate, Listener, or Ambient Microphone unit.


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Protect Your Time at Work by Setting Better Boundaries

  • Elizabeth Grace Saunders

case study on time management at work

You have the power to reclaim your workday.

Meetings that run late. Interruptions at your desk. Late-hour emails and texts. Requests from coworkers on your time can prevent you from completing important tasks, make you leave work late, or even disrupt family time at home.

You need to set time boundaries. First, block out time on your calendar when you can’t meet to control when you’re available for meetings — for instance, when you’re commuting or want to get focused at the start of the day. Second, ensure you’re setting meetings for the appropriate amount of time, using a focused agenda. Third, set some time in your week for dedicated work, and find a private space to work if necessary.

While these tips can control your time, how your coworkers communicate with you can have an impact on how disruptive the communication feels. Make it clear with your colleagues what your preferred method of communication is, and when possible, only respond within the time frames you set.

Your late afternoon meeting scheduled for an hour has crept over the 75-minute mark with no clear end in sight. You know you still have a time-sensitive email to send off, and now you’re going to have to make the choice between leaving late or pulling out your laptop after dinner. On the outside, you’re polite, participating in discussion and responding thoughtfully to your coworker who is running the meeting. But on the inside, you’re annoyed. This person just took a giant step over your time boundaries.

case study on time management at work

  • ES Elizabeth Grace Saunders is a time management coach and the founder of Real Life E Time Coaching & Speaking . She is the author of How to Invest Your Time Like Money and Divine Time Management . Find out more at .

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