• Research article
  • Open access
  • Published: 24 April 2019

Priorities and challenges for health leadership and workforce management globally: a rapid review

  • Carah Alyssa Figueroa   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-8825-7796 1 ,
  • Reema Harrison 1 ,
  • Ashfaq Chauhan 1 &
  • Lois Meyer 1  

BMC Health Services Research volume  19 , Article number:  239 ( 2019 ) Cite this article

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Health systems are complex and continually changing across a variety of contexts and health service levels. The capacities needed by health managers and leaders to respond to current and emerging issues are not yet well understood. Studies to date have been country-specific and have not integrated different international and multi-level insights. This review examines the current and emerging challenges for health leadership and workforce management in diverse contexts and health systems at three structural levels, from the overarching macro (international, national) context to the meso context of organisations through to the micro context of individual healthcare managers.

A rapid review of evidence was undertaken using a systematic search of a selected segment of the diverse literature related to health leadership and management. A range of text words, synonyms and subject headings were developed for the major concepts of global health, health service management and health leadership. An explorative review of three electronic databases (MEDLINE®, Pubmed and Scopus) was undertaken to identify the key publication outlets for relevant content between January 2010 to July 2018. A search strategy was then applied to the key journals identified, in addition to hand searching the journals and reference list of relevant papers identified. Inclusion criteria were independently applied to potentially relevant articles by three reviewers. Data were subject to a narrative synthesis to highlight key concepts identified.

Sixty-three articles were included. A set of consistent challenges and emerging trends within healthcare sectors internationally for health leadership and management were represented at the three structural levels. At the macro level these included societal, demographic, historical and cultural factors; at the meso level, human resource management challenges, changing structures and performance measures and intensified management; and at the micro level shifting roles and expectations in the workplace for health care managers.

Contemporary challenges and emerging needs of the global health management workforce orient around efficiency-saving, change and human resource management. The role of health managers is evolving and expanding to meet these new priorities. Ensuring contemporary health leaders and managers have the capabilities to respond to the current landscape is critical.

Peer Review reports

Health systems are increasingly complex; encompassing the provision of public and private health services, primary healthcare, acute, chronic and aged care, in a variety of contexts. Health systems are continually evolving to adapt to epidemiological, demographic and societal shifts. Emerging technologies and political, economic, social, and environmental realities create a complex agenda for global health [ 1 ]. In response, there has been increased recognition of the role of non-state actors to manage population needs and drive innovation. The concept of ‘collaborative governance,’ in which non-health actors and health actors work together, has come to underpin health systems and service delivery internationally [ 1 ] in order to meet changing expectations and new priorities. Seeking the achievement of universal health coverage (UHC) and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), particularly in low- and middle-income countries, have been pivotal driving forces [ 2 ]. Agendas for change have been encapsulated in reforms intended to improve the efficiency, equity of access, and the quality of public services more broadly [ 1 , 3 ].

The profound shortage of human resources for health to address current and emerging population health needs across the globe was identified in the World Health Organization (WHO) landmark publication ‘Working together for health’ and continues to impede progress towards the SDGs [ 4 ]. Despite some improvements overall in health workforce aggregates globally, the human resources for health challenges confronting health systems are highly complex and varied. These include not only numerical workforce shortages but imbalances in skill mix, geographical maldistribution, difficulty in inter-professional collaboration, inefficient use of resources, and burnout [ 2 , 5 , 6 ]. Effective health leadership and workforce management is therefore critical to addressing the needs of human resources within health systems and strengthening capacities at regional and global levels [ 4 , 6 , 7 , 8 ].

While there is no standard definition, health leadership is centred on the ability to identify priorities, provide strategic direction to multiple actors within the health system, and create commitment across the health sector to address those priorities for improved health services [ 7 , 8 ]. Effective management is required to facilitate change and achieve results through ensuring the efficient mobilisation and utilisation of the health workforce and other resources [ 8 ]. As contemporary health systems operate through networks within which are ranging levels of responsibilities, they require cooperation and coordination through effective health leadership and workforce management to provide high quality care that is effective, efficient, accessible, patient-centred, equitable, and safe [ 9 ]. In this regard, health leadership and workforce management are interlinked and play critical roles in health services management [ 7 , 8 ].

Along with health systems, the role of leaders and managers in health is evolving. Strategic management that is responsive to political, technological, societal and economic change is essential for health system strengthening [ 10 ]. Despite the pivotal role of health service management in the health sector, the priorities for health service management in the global health context are not well understood. This rapid review was conducted to identify the current challenges and priorities for health leadership and workforce management globally.

This review utilised a rapid evidence assessment (REA) methodology structured using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist [ 11 ]. An REA uses the same methods and principles as a systematic review but makes concessions to the breadth or depth of the process to address key issues about the topic under investigation [ 12 , 13 , 14 ]. An REA provides a balanced assessment of what is already known about an issue, and the strength of evidence. The narrower research focus, relative to full systematic reviews, make REAs helpful for systematically exploring the evidence around a particular issue when there is a broad evidence base to explore [ 14 ]. In the present review, the search was limited to contemporary literature (post 2010) selected from leading health service management and global health journals identified from exploring major electronic databases.

Search strategy

An explorative review of three core databases in the area of public health and health services (MEDLINE®, Pubmed and Scopus) was undertaken to identify the key publication outlets for relevant content. These databases were selected as those that would be most relevant to the focus of the review and have the broadest range of relevant content. A range of text words, synonyms and subject headings were developed for the major constructs: global health, health service management and health leadership, priorities and challenges. Regarding health service management and health leadership, the following search terms were used: “healthcare manag*” OR “health manag*” OR “health services manag*” OR “health leader*”. Due to the large volume of diverse literature generated, a systematic search was then undertaken on the key journals that produced the largest number of relevant articles. The journals were selected as those identified as likely to contain highly relevant material based on an initial scoping of the literature.

Based on the initial database search, a systematic search for articles published in English between 1 January 2010 and 31 July 2018 was undertaken of the current issues and archives of the following journals: Asia-Pacific Journal of Health Management; BMC Health Services Research; Healthcare Management Review; International Journal of Healthcare Management; International Journal of Health Planning and Management; Journal of Healthcare Management; Journal of Health Organisation and Management; and, Journal of Health Management. Hand-searching of reference lists of identified papers were also used to ensure that major relevant material was captured.

Study selection and data extraction

Results were merged using reference-management software (Endnote) and any duplicates removed. The first author (CF) screened the titles and abstracts of articles meeting the eligibility criteria (Table 1 ). Full-text publications were requested for those identified as potentially relevant. The inclusion and exclusion criteria were then independently applied by two authors. Disagreements were resolved by consensus or consultation with a third person, and the following data were extracted from each publication: author(s), publication year, location, primary focus and main findings in relation to the research objective. Sixty-three articles were included in the final review. The selection process followed the PRISMA checklist [ 11 ] as shown in Fig. 1 .

figure 1

PRISMA flow chart of the literature search, identification, and inclusion for the review

Data extraction and analysis

A narrative synthesis was used to explore the literature against the review objective. A narrative synthesis refers to “an approach to the systematic review and synthesis of findings from multiple studies that relies primarily on the use of words and text to summarise and explain the findings of the synthesis” [ 15 ]. Firstly, an initial description of the key findings of included studies was drafted. Findings were then organised, mapped and synthesised to explore patterns in the data.

Search results

A total of 63 articles were included; Table 2 summarizes the data extraction results by region and country. Nineteen were undertaken in Europe, 16 in North America, and one in Australia, with relatively fewer studies from Asia, the Middle East, and small island developing countries. Eighteen qualitative studies that used interviews and/or focus group studies [ 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 , 26 , 27 , 28 , 29 , 30 , 31 , 32 ] were identified. Other studies were quantitative [ 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 , 39 ] including the use of questionnaires or survey data, or used a mixed-method approach [ 40 , 41 , 42 , 43 , 44 ]. Other articles combined different types of primary and secondary data (key informant interviews, observations, focus groups, questionnaire/survey data, and government reports). The included literature also comprised 28 review articles of various types that used mixed data and bibliographic evidence.

Key challenges and emerging trends

A set of challenges and emerging trends were identified across healthcare sectors internationally. These were grouped at three levels: 1) macro, system context (society, demography, technology, political economy, legal framework, history, culture), 2) meso, organisational context (infrastructure, resources, governance, clinical processes, management processes, suppliers, patients), and 3) micro context related to the individual healthcare manager (Table 3 ). This multi-levelled approach has been used in previous research to demonstrate the interplay between different factors across different levels, and their direct and indirect reciprocal influences on healthcare management policies and practices [ 45 ].

Societal and system-wide (macro)

Population growth, ageing populations, and increased disease burdens are some of the common trends health systems are facing globally. Developing and developed countries are going through demographic and epidemiological transitions; people are living longer with increasing prevalence of chronic diseases requiring health managers and leaders to adjust to shifting healthcare needs at the population level, delivering preventative and long-term care beyond acute care. Countries in Africa, Europe, the Pacific Islands, Middle East, Asia and Caribbean are seeing an increase in number of patients with non-communicable diseases and communicable diseases [ 21 , 46 , 47 , 48 , 49 , 50 , 51 , 52 ].

Although many countries have similar emerging health system concerns, there are some differences in the complexities each country faces. For many small countries, outmigration, capacity building and funding from international aid agencies are affecting how their health systems operate, while in many larger countries, funding cuts, rise in private health insurance, innovations, and health system restructuring are major influences [ 21 , 34 , 50 , 53 , 54 ]. In addition, patients are increasingly health literate and, as consumers, expect high-quality healthcare [ 34 , 53 , 54 ]. However, hospitals and healthcare systems are lacking capacity to meet the increased demand [ 16 , 34 , 43 ].

Scientific advances have meant more patients are receiving care across the health system. It is imperative to have processes for communication and collaboration between different health professionals for high-quality care. However, health systems are fragmented; increasing specialisation is leading to further fragmentation and disassociation [ 31 , 54 , 55 ]. Adoption of technological innovations also require change management, hospital restructure, and capacity building [ 56 , 57 , 58 ].

Changes in health policies and regulations compound the challenge faced by healthcare managers and leaders to deliver high quality care [ 53 , 54 , 59 ]. Political reforms often lead to health system restructuring requiring change in the values, structures, processes and systems that can constrain how health managers and leaders align their organisations to new agendas [ 24 , 28 , 31 , 60 ]. For example, the distribution of health services management to local authorities through decentralisation has a variable impact on the efficacy and efficiency of healthcare delivery [ 24 , 27 , 35 , 59 ].

Governments’ decisions are often made focusing on cost savings, resulting in budgetary constraints within which health systems must operate [ 16 , 19 , 53 , 61 ]. Although some health systems have delivered positive results under such constraint [ 53 ], often financial resource constraints can lead to poor human and technical resource allocation, creating a disconnect between demand and supply [ 23 , 27 , 40 , 47 , 57 ]. To reduce spending in acute care, there is also a push to deliver health services in the community and focus on social determinants of health, though this brings further complexities related to managing multiple stakeholder collaborations [ 27 , 32 , 34 , 38 , 40 , 49 , 55 ].

Due to an increase in demand and cost constraints, new business models are emerging, and some health systems are resorting to privatisation and corporatisation [ 22 , 48 , 62 ]. This has created competition in the market, increased uptake of private health insurance and increased movement of consumers between various organisations [ 22 , 48 ]. Health managers and leaders need to keep abreast with continuously changing business models of care delivery and assess their impact [ 59 , 62 ]. The evolving international health workforce, insufficient numbers of trained health personnel, and maintaining and improving appropriate skill mixes comprise other important challenges for managers in meeting population health needs and demands (Table 3 ).

Organisational level (meso)

At the organisation level, human resource management issues were a central concern. This can be understood in part within the wider global human resources for health crisis which has placed healthcare organisations under intense pressure to perform. The evidence suggests healthcare organisations are evolving to strengthen coordination between primary and secondary care; there is greater attention to population-based perspectives in disease prevention, interdisciplinary collaboration, and clinical governance. These trends are challenged by the persistence of bureaucratic and hierarchical cultures, emphasis on targets over care quality, and the intensification of front-line and middle-management work that is limiting capacity.

Healthcare managers and leaders also face operational inefficiencies in providing primary health and referral services to address highly complex and shifting needs which often result in the waste of resources [ 49 , 63 , 64 ]. Considering the pace of change, organisations are required to be flexible and deliver higher quality care at lower cost [ 21 , 53 , 65 ]. To achieve this, many organisations in developing and developed countries alike are adopting a lean model [ 17 , 21 ]. However, there are challenges associated with ensuring sustainability of the lean system, adjusting organisational hierarchies, and improving knowledge of the lean model, especially in developing countries [ 17 , 21 ].

Healthcare organisations require various actors with different capabilities to deliver high quality care. However, a dominant hierarchical culture and lack of collaborative and distributed culture can limit the performance of healthcare organisations [ 22 , 36 , 54 ]. In addition, considering high turnover of executive leadership, healthcare organisations often rely on external talent for succession management which can reduce hospital efficiency [ 44 , 66 ]. Other contributors to weakened hospital performance include: the lack of allocative efficiency and transparency [ 24 , 30 , 64 , 67 ]; poor hospital processes that hamper the development of effective systems for the prevention and control of hospital acquired infections (HAIs) [ 53 , 68 ]; and, payment reforms such as value-based funding and fee-for-service that encourage volume [ 18 , 23 , 24 , 61 , 62 , 69 , 70 ].

Managerial work distribution within organisations is often not clearly defined, leading to extra or extreme work conditions for middle and front-line managers [ 29 , 42 , 53 , 70 ]. Unregulated and undefined expectations at the organisation level leads to negative effects such as stress, reduced productivity, and unpredictable work hours, and long-term effects on organisational efficiency and delivery of high quality care [ 22 , 28 , 29 , 37 , 42 , 51 , 71 ]. Furthermore, often times front-line clinicians are also required to take the leadership role in the absence of managers without proper training [ 20 ]. Despite this, included studies indicate that the involvement of middle and front-line managers in strategic decision-making can be limited due to various reasons including lack of support from the organisation itself and misalignment of individual and organisational goals [ 16 , 26 , 31 , 72 ].

Individual level (micro)

Worldwide, middle and front-line health managers and leaders are disproportionately affected by challenges at the system and organisational level, which has contributed to increasing and often conflicting responsibilities. Some countries are experiencing a growth in senior health managers with a clinical background, while in other countries, the converse is apparent. Indistinct organisational boundaries, increasing scope of practice, and lack of systemic support at policy level are leaving healthcare managers with undefined roles [ 28 , 59 ]. Poorly defined roles contribute to reduced accountability, transparency, autonomy, and understanding of responsibilities [ 24 , 30 , 31 , 67 ]. Studies also indicate a lack of recognition of clinical leaders in health organisations and inadequate training opportunities for them as such [ 20 , 67 ].

The number of hybrid managers (performing clinical and managerial work concurrently) in developed countries is increasing, with the perception that such managers improve the clinical governance of an organization. In contrast, the number of non-clinical managers in many developing countries appears to be increasing [ 63 , 73 , 74 , 75 ]. Included studies suggest this approach does not necessarily improve manager-clinical professional relationships or the willingness of clinicians becoming managers, limiting their participation in strategic decisions [ 28 , 70 , 71 , 74 ].

This rapid review highlights the current global climate in health service management, the key priority areas, and current health management approaches being utilised to address these. The multitude of issues emerging demonstrate the complex and evolving role of health service management in the wider complex functioning of health systems globally in a changing healthcare landscape. Key themes of achieving high quality care and sustainable service delivery were apparent, often evidenced through health reforms [ 5 ]. The influence of technological innovation in both its opportunities and complexities is evident worldwide. In the context of changing healthcare goals and delivery approaches, health management is seeking to professionalise as a strategy to build strength and capacity. In doing so, health managers are questioning role scope and the skills and knowledge they need to meet the requirements of the role.

Global challenges facing health management

Understanding how the features of the macro, meso and micro systems can create challenges for managers is critical [ 19 ]. With continual healthcare reform and increasing health expenditure as a proportion of GDP, distinct challenges are facing high-income Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, middle-income rapidly-developing economies, and low-income, resource-limited countries. Reforms, especially in OECD countries, have been aimed at controlling costs, consolidating hospitals for greater efficiencies, and reconfiguring primary healthcare [ 1 , 76 ]. The changing business models for the delivery of care have wider implications for the way in which health managers conceptualise healthcare delivery and the key stakeholders [ 59 ], for example, the emerging role of private healthcare providers and non-health actors in public health. Changes to the business model of healthcare delivery also has implications for the distribution of power amongst key actors within the system. This is evident in the evolved role of general practitioners (GPs) in the UK National Health Service as leaders of Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs). Commissioning requires a different skill set to clinical work, in terms of assessing financial data, the nature of statutory responsibilities, and the need to engage with a wider stakeholder group across a region to plan services [ 77 ]. With new responsibilities, GPs have been required to quickly equip themselves with new management capabilities, reflecting the range of studies included in this review around clinician managers and the associated challenges [ 18 , 28 , 53 , 63 , 70 , 71 , 74 , 75 ].

Central to the role of healthcare managers is the ability to transition between existing and new cultures and practices within healthcare delivery [ 59 ]. Bridging this space is particularly important in the context of increasingly personalized and technologically-driven healthcare delivery [ 54 ]. While advances in knowledge and medical technologies have increased capability to tackle complex health needs, the integration of innovations into existing healthcare management practices requires strong change management [ 73 ]. Health leaders and managers need to be able to rapidly and continually assess the changes required or upon them, the implications, and to transform their analysis into a workable plan to realise change [ 10 ]. Focusing only on the clinical training of health professionals rather than incorporating managerial and leadership roles, and specifically, change management capability may limit the speed and success of innovation uptake [ 22 ].

Implications

Our findings highlight the implications of current priorities within the health sector for health management practice internationally; key issues are efficiency savings, change management and human resource management. In the context of efficiency approaches, health system and service managers are facing instances of poor human and technical resource allocation, creating a disconnect between demand and supply. At the service delivery level, this has intensified and varied the role of middle managers mediating at two main levels. The first level of middle-management is positioned between the front-line and C-suite management of an organisation. The second level of middle-management being the C-suite managers who translate regional and/or national funding decisions and policies into their organisations. Faced with increasing pace of change, and economic and resource constraints, middle managers across both levels are now more than ever exposed to high levels of stress, low morale, and unsustainable working patterns [ 29 ]. Emphasis on cost-saving has brought with it increased attention to the health services that can be delivered in the community and the social determinants of health. Connecting disparate services in order to meet efficiency goals is a now a core feature of the work of many health managers mediating this process.

Our findings also have implications for the conceptualisation of healthcare management as a profession. The scale and increasing breadth of the role of health leaders and managers is evident in the review. Clarifying the professional identity of ‘health manager’ may therefore be a critical part of building and maintaining a robust health management workforce that can fulfil these diverse roles [ 59 ]. Increasing migration of the healthcare workforce and of population, products and services between countries also brings new challenges for healthcare. In response, the notion of transnational competence among healthcare professionals has been identified [ 78 ]. Transnational competence progresses cultural competence by considering the interpersonal skills required for engaging with those from diverse cultural and social backgrounds. Thus, transnational competence may be important for health managers working across national borders. A key aspect of professionalisation is the education and training of health managers. Our findings provide a unique and useful theoretical contribution that is globally-focused and multi-level to stimulate new thinking in health management educators, and for current health leaders and managers. These findings have considerable practical utility for managers and practitioners designing graduate health management programs.

Limitations

Most of the studies in the field have focused on the Anglo-American context and health systems. Notwithstanding the importance of lessons drawn from these health systems, further research is needed in other regions, and in low- and middle-income countries in particular [ 79 ]. We acknowledge the nuanced interplay between evidence, culture, organisational factors, stakeholder interests, and population health outcomes. Terminologies and definitions to express global health, management and leadership vary across countries and cultures, creating potential for bias in the interpretation of findings. We also recognise that there is fluidity in the categorisations, and challenges arising may span multiple domains. This review considers challenges facing all types of healthcare managers and thus lacks discrete analysis of senior, middle and front-line managers. That said, managers at different levels can learn from one another. Senior managers and executives may gain an appreciation for the operational challenges that middle and front-line managers may face. Middle and front-line managers may have a heightened awareness of the more strategic decision-making of senior health managers. Whilst the findings indicate consistent challenges and needs for health managers across a range of international contexts, the study does not capture country-specific issues which may have consequences at the local level. Whilst a systematic approach was taken to the literature in undertaking this review, relevant material may have been omitted due to the limits placed on the rapid review of the vast and diverse health management literature. The inclusion of only materials in English language may have led to further omissions of relevant work.

Health managers within both international and national settings face complex challenges given the shortage of human resources for health worldwide and the rapid evolution of national and transnational healthcare systems. This review addresses the lack of studies taking a global perspective of the challenges and emerging needs at macro (international, national and societal), meso (organisational), and micro (individual health manager) levels. Contemporary challenges of the global health management workforce orient around demographic and epidemiological change, efficiency-saving, human resource management, changing structures, intensified management, and shifting roles and expectations. In recognising these challenges, researchers, management educators, and policy makers can establish global health service management priorities and enhance health leadership and capacities to meet these. Health managers and leaders with adaptable and relevant capabilities are critical to high quality systems of healthcare delivery.

Abbreviations

Clinical Commissioning Groups

General practitioners

Hospital acquired infections

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses

Rapid evidence assessment

Sustainable Development Goals

Universal health coverage

World Health Organization

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CF conducted the database searches and identification of relevant literature. RH and AC assessed the selected literature. RH and LM conceived the design of the review and contributed to the interpretation of the review results. CF drafted the initial manuscript while RH, AC and LM reviewed and revised subsequent drafts of the manuscript for important intellectual content. All authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript.

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Figueroa, C.A., Harrison, R., Chauhan, A. et al. Priorities and challenges for health leadership and workforce management globally: a rapid review. BMC Health Serv Res 19 , 239 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-019-4080-7

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essays on health management

Home — Essay Samples — Business — Leadership and Management — Healthcare Management and Leadership 

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Healthcare Management and Leadership 

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Table of contents

Health care essay outline, health care essay example, introduction.

  • Broad concept of management and its importance
  • Relationship between management and achieving goals
  • The role of leadership in guiding individuals towards objectives

Management Theories and Systems Theory

  • Definition of management theories
  • Introduction to systems theory in management
  • Open and closed systems in organizations
  • Application of systems theory in healthcare

Leadership Styles and Autocratic Leadership

  • Introduction to leadership styles
  • Explanation of autocratic leadership
  • Characteristics of autocratic leadership
  • Advantages and disadvantages of autocratic leadership

Management Functions and Roles

  • Key functions of management: organizing, staffing, leading, controlling
  • Role of managers in healthcare organizations
  • Responsibilities in healthcare management
  • Challenges faced by healthcare managers

Effective Leadership Principles

  • Principles of effective leadership
  • Recognizing individual abilities and building strong relationships
  • Expressing appreciation and gratitude
  • Trusting others and promoting collaboration
  • The significance of effective management and leadership in healthcare
  • The roles and responsibilities of healthcare managers
  • Challenges and opportunities in healthcare management roles

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essays on health management

612 Healthcare Essay Topic Ideas & Examples

🏆 best healthcare topic ideas & essay examples, 👍 good essay topics on healthcare, 📌 most interesting healthcare topics to write about, 💡 simple & easy healthcare essay titles, ✅ good research topics about healthcare, 🔎 interesting topics to write about healthcare, ❓ healthcare essay questions.

  • Healthcare Thesis Statement: Examples of Universal Healthcare Pros and Cons The provision of universal health care services would therefore promote access to health care services to as many citizens as possible, which would reduce suffering and deaths of citizens who cannot cater for their health […]
  • Cultural Competence: Indian Culture and Healthcare They also believed that, the disease was heredity and that if one member of the family suffered from one of the diseases, chances that somebody from the same family would contract the disease are high.
  • Should Healthcare Be Free? Essay on Medical System in America Some families opted to avoid going to the doctor when a member of the family is sick due to the high cost of visiting the doctor and the insurance premiums associated with health care.
  • Staffing Matrix in Healthcare Setting The reflection discusses the staffing matrix in detail and indicates how many full-time equivalents should be assigned to the daily routine on the staffing board.
  • How Trait Theory Can Be Applied to the Healthcare Setting The trait model of leadership is used to predict leadership effectiveness and is based on the traits of numerous successful and failed leaders.
  • Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare and Medicine As a result of this review, a better understanding of the current state of artificial intelligence in healthcare settings will be acquired, additionally, the review will function as the analysis for the quality of the […]
  • Advanced Practice Nurses: Impact of Healthcare Policy and Advocacy The healthcare policy can also dictate the approach used in compensating the APNs, thus affecting the attractiveness of the job. It influences policy change by making the followers commit to a new strategy that the […]
  • Reimbursement and Revenue Cycle in Healthcare The remittance processing stage explains the benefits of the practice in terms of the provided services and payment. The department affects healthcare organizations’ reimbursement since it is responsible for documenting patients’ information and the insurance […]
  • Boldly Go Case Study of Providence Healthcare Some of the problems she faces include: Lack of ethical leaders and workers in the organization. To resolve the lack of ethical leaders within Providence Healthcare, Walsh needs to lead the organization through ethical leadership.
  • The Pros and Cons of Using Pie Charts in Healthcare The pie chart is one such tool for presenting a quantitative data report in a healthcare setting. Moreover, it is possible to manipulate parts of the data in a circular circle to emphasize the necessary […]
  • Community Diagnosis in Healthcare The data in the disaster assessment tool show that the most vulnerable groups in the Santa Maria community to disasters such as earthquakes, fires, hurricanes, tornados, and storm are children and the elderly.
  • Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences in Healthcare Intelligence promotes the ability of the nurse to empathize and understand the status of the patient. In summary, the use of multiple intellects is an effective approach to mentoring novice nurses in healthcare facilities.
  • The Role of Pharmacists in Healthcare It is qualified pharmacists who can give the right medicines, determine dosages, and have a beneficial effect on the life of a sick person.
  • Description of a Poor Encounter With a Healthcare Provider The following paper describes a personal experience of dealing with poor service from a healthcare provider.
  • Statistics of Crime Costs to the UK Healthcare The statistic is describing the claims by Labour that the NHS uses 500 million a year to treat wounds caused by knife crimes.
  • Belbin Team Roles Inventory in Healthcare It allows a person to understand and identify the designation better to be more functional in the work of the team.
  • Environmental Factors in Healthcare Marketing: In-Company and After-Hours Clinics The most obvious of these is the relative distance to the in-company clinic as compared to the nearest public hospital. Finally, the quality of medical services, both real and perceived, in the in-company clinic as […]
  • The East Flatbush Community: Healthcare Sector There has been a drastic decline in the community’s population since 2000 where the number of people living in this area dropped from 145,263 in 2000 to 147,390 in 2006, to 140,285 in 2010, and […]
  • Stages of Life and the Influence of Age in Healthcare The professionals are friendly and pay great attention to the suffering of the patients to ensure that proper treatment is administered.
  • Healthcare Transition from Closed to Open Systems It is crucial to address this issue at the organizational level to see whether some processes can be changed to reduce the severity of burnout and prevent its further development.
  • Information and Communications Technology Benefits in Healthcare ICT has also made it possible for caregivers and their institutions to easily transfer information from one place to the other.
  • Insecurity in the Healthcare Facilities The article starts by highlighting the prevalence of the problem among many hospitals in the country and relating the main cause of insecurity to lack of proper communication channels.
  • Leading a Culture of Excellence in Healthcare Industry The concept of a culture of excellence is to maintain personnel’s conviction that their work is meaningful and requires to be performed with superiority and be continuously improved.
  • Nonmaleficence as Ethical Principle in Healthcare For this reason, the critical responsibility of the health manager is to promote an ethical culture. The nonmaleficence principle means not causing harm and contributes to caring for patients and establishing trust in hospital staff.
  • Globalization and Its Impact on Healthcare The solution to the problem is to rethink health service delivery policies and funding sectors. Globalization affects life expectancy; therefore, the healthcare system needs to be revised.
  • Healthcare Services: Internal and External Factors I as the administrator of this hospital will conduct the environmental analysis, and in the context of this paper, I will define the most powerful external and internal forces and their impact on the competitive […]
  • Healthcare Disparities in East Harlem In terms of education, East Harlem has one of the highest rates of dropouts and school absenteeism in all levels of education.
  • Healthcare Quality Concerns As related to the definition of quality, the suggested intervention is likely to increase efficiency of care positively influencing safety and improving patient outcomes.
  • Hospital Operations Mismanagement: Healthcare Organizations The programs that seem to be working successfully in most institutions are the ones that involve streamlining hospital operations through a radical redesign of the entire process. This takes a thorough commitment of the hospital […]
  • Major Challenges in the Healthcare Organizations The emergency room department is the most affected department and many lives have been lost due to the many challenges facing the department in many healthcare facilities.
  • The Provision of Healthcare: Hospitals as a Key Institutions in the National Health Care Structure This has been despite the fact that the income of most people has not been increased to match the rising cost of assessing health care.
  • Characteristics of the Healthcare Delivery System The specified issue is complicated by the presence of multiple players and the disrupted balance of power in the healthcare delivery setting.
  • Technology in Society, Healthcare and Education However, the research on this topic is extensive and shows the impact of technology to be a positive one. Further research on this and other topics should be considered due to the widespread presence of […]
  • Nontraditional Healthcare Practices Across Different Cultures In this case, it is crucial to focus on the psychic state of an individual than the mechanical aspect of the body due to the prominent influence of the brain to the functionality of the […]
  • Competing Needs in Improving Access to Healthcare According to Barros et al, more competition improves geographical access to health services by stimulating the entry of new providers. The changes will allow nurses to deliver care to underserved groups of the population and […]
  • Regulatory and Allocative Healthcare Policymaking This essay discusses health policies, the determinants of health, and the connections between the two. The determinants of health are individual and environmental factors that affect people’s physical and mental well-being and the ability to […]
  • The Importance of Information Technology in Healthcare The act has four subtitles whereby subtitle A deals with the adoption of health IT, subtitle B deals with testing of health IT, subtitle C is concerned with loans and grants for funding, and subtitle […]
  • Automation in Healthcare System This can be achieved by not mentioning the names of patients and employees in the data, and, for example, identifying them by identification numbers that are not linked to their names in the database.
  • Healthcare Financing in the United Arab Emirates The three areas are healthcare financing, pooling of risk, and purchasing of healthcare The healthcare financing of the emirate of Abu Dhabi comes from three sources.
  • SERVQUAL Model for Healthcare Service Quality The questionnaire used identical factors to investigate participants’ expectations of quality service across public and private hospitals. The chart above shows gaps between the expected and perceived quality of the aspects.
  • Quantitative Research in the Healthcare Industry Lastly, it is crucial to discuss the benefits of quantitative research to knowledge generation and overall academic contribution. The current paper has demonstrated the effectiveness of quantitative research in the healthcare industry and discussed its […]
  • Healthcare Policies in Nursing Informatics In this context, nurses aid in the technological transformation of the healthcare delivery system, particularly in the effective and efficient HIT deployment.
  • Analyzing the Healthcare Pyramid Peterson Health Center is an example of a primary health care institution situated in the U.S. The hospital focuses on providing care to patients with complex and severe conditions.
  • Legal Considerations’ Impacts on ICT in Healthcare The UK Data Protection Act also expects the keeper of information to ensure that any person who has information kept about him or her is not denied access to such information.
  • Communication Barriers in Healthcare Much of the downside of communication barriers in health care has to do with the miscommunication that occurs between patients and medical staff.
  • Revenue Cycle Management in Healthcare As a result, healthcare providers in the acute care settings quickly access patients’ information from the EHR and enter the prescriptions and charges, which are reflected immediately on the billing systems.
  • Analysis of a Pertinent Healthcare Issue This fact affects the team’s job satisfaction and the quality of their service because of the low motivation to work and the reduction in the time of service for each patient.
  • Patient Education and Its Influence on Healthcare Moreover, the healthcare professional advised Jake to avoid smoking, include more vegetables and fresh fruits in his daily meals, and undertake a forty to fifty-minute walk daily.Mr.
  • Decision-Making Process in Healthcare Sector In spite of the popularity of the decision-making process, many critics admit that “the ideal decision-making process is unrealistic” because economic, social, and political changes affected modern society and an organization.
  • Open System Approach in Healthcare One of the concerns that are present in my clinical setting is the lack of effective communication between physicians and nurses, which leads to lower patient and job satisfaction levels and increased rates of mistakes […]
  • Accreditation Bodies in the Healthcare Field Accreditation programs are significant for health institutions as they allow for the establishment of quality standards and eliminate the outcomes of poor public health management.
  • Mayo Clinic: Marketing of the Healthcare System Some of the notable direct impacts of marketing in Mayo Clinic include increased number of patients in the hospital owing to the increased awareness and expanded scope of operation.
  • Quality Management in Healthcare This is one of the factors that Mayo Clinic has been determined to improve its service quality in the market. Leadership is the second principle that Mayo Clinic has used in order to improve the […]
  • Problems Facing Healthcare Management: Financial, Reform Implementation, Government Mandates, and Patient Safety Challenges facing the health sector seem to increase since the signing of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act into law.
  • Historical Evolution of Technology in Healthcare During the 18th century, the medical field was in disarray due to the lack of organization and deaths resulting from inefficiencies and negligence of doctors.
  • Discussion: Limited Access to Healthcare I confirmed that the articles contained accepted information and opinions on healthcare access, affirming that the chosen information sources were relevant to the topic. The effects of information source and eHealth literacy on consumer health […]
  • Legal and Ethical Implications in Healthcare This paper aims to discuss legal and ethical implications that affect the practice change to address the issue of the impoverished population skipping their additional visits.
  • Smart Bed Technology in Healthcare An example of such a technology is a smart bed, which is a type of bed with sensors that collect information on the occupant. Nurses could use smart beds to track a patient’s response to […]
  • Conducting an Environmental Analysis in Healthcare Facility Knowing the internal and external environment is important for healthcare facilities because it enables the management personnel to understand the possible future occurrences in the external environment that can affect the business.
  • Healthcare Organization Departmentalization If I were the CEO of a hospital, I would personally design the organization with the patient at the center. The patient-centered approach means defining patient care as a core aim of the healthcare system.
  • Challenges Facing Healthcare Organizations and Managers One of the challenges they face is the rising cost of healthcare. A second challenge facing healthcare organizations is the integration of technology in healthcare and the expansion of telehealth.
  • Tools for Measuring Quality in Healthcare The quality measurements based on the rate are necessary for optimizing the average time spent at a hospital after the initial visit and for adjusting the range of procedures performed by staff.
  • Healthcare Facility Reorganization Proposal I have also recognized the intention of writing this proposal and the needs to be addressed by the proposal. It is also important that time limits are given to indicate the urgency of the proposal.
  • The Liberal and Conservative Perspectives on Free Healthcare It is worth mentioning that the US healthcare system is a complex system and a leader in terms of the resources concentrated in it.
  • Healthcare Leadership and Economic Models This is further amplified by Priore who argues that the personnel who encourage their peers to question and identify the possible sections that could use research, development, and acceptance and implementation of changes to implement […]
  • Overcoming Nurse Shortages for Improved Healthcare In order to try to solve the problem, it is necessary to make some efforts and aspirations at each of the levels.
  • Emergency Preparedness Regarding Healthcare Informatics As a serious disruption, a disaster leads to the unplanned interruption of the main components of the health IT infrastructure and results in the breakdown of facilities’ performance.
  • Written and Verbal Reports on a Patient Condition and Errors in Healthcare In the existing body of knowledge, the problem of verbal and non-verbal communication of health care providers is generally discussed from the points of care quality, patients’ level of safety, and satisfaction with the services.
  • Healthcare Access and Its Importance for Community Since access is intertwined with both individual and the population’s well-being, as can be seen from the analysis above, it is vital for the health of people as well as communities in general.
  • Healthcare Management in Direct and Non-Direct Facilities This paper provides a brief overview of direct and non-direct healthcare facilities and a comparison between their organizational structure, missions, and roles of the healthcare administrators in each facility. The next on the hierarchy pyramid […]
  • The Healthcare System in Nigeria and the Universal Tri-Level of Care The social and infrastructural problems evolving out of the poor healthcare system have been represented as an inverted health care pyramid where the primary and secondary care are depicted as neglected.
  • Christian Spirituality: Imago Dei in Healthcare It is one of the key themes in the Bible, and it shapes the Christian vision of a place of a human being in the world.
  • Quality Improvement in Healthcare The expected execution, appearance, and continuity of an item and the promptness, promise, and consistency of an organization’s goods are all examples of quality. Both implicit standards and explicit criteria are used to assess the […]
  • Importance of Hand-Hygiene to Prevent Healthcare-Associated Infections Therefore, the persistent use of the tools and the frequency of touching inanimate contact surfaces fosters the importance of exploring hand-hygienic standard practices and the core solutions to the imminent challenges.
  • Ethical and Legal Implications in Healthcare The situation signals the collective’s inability to cooperate correctly, and issues in the team can cause the worsening quality of healthcare services and severe patient outcomes.
  • Big Data Management in the Healthcare Sector Big data in healthcare is a collective term used to refer to the process of collecting, analysing, leverage, and make sense of complex and immense patient and clinical data in a way that traditional data […]
  • Impact of Technology on Healthcare Services This chapter will highlight some of the important milestones in the health sector in relation to health technology. The benefits of the spending will be weighed against the efficacy of the technology in this chapter.
  • Nursing Interventions and Healthcare Technologies The best way to understand the study outcomes on the impacts of wearable technology in vital signs monitoring is by analyzing the study methodology and research procedures.
  • Effect of COVID-19 on Healthcare The financial difficulties imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic in healthcare include the change in cost and revenue dynamic. It is hard to evaluate and compare the financial impact of COVID-19 on the healthcare industry and […]
  • Importance of Hygiene in Healthcare Environment Critics show that although ABHSs are recognized as effective in comparison to alcohol-free sanitizers and washing, there are some issues related to the amount of alcohol in agents.
  • Observation in Healthcare Settings As a result, the site I selected to complete the exercises is a local private pediatric clinic that serves members of the community.
  • China’s and India’s Healthcare Comparison The rate of women’s inclusivity in education, career, and professional opportunities is substantially lower in India than in China due to India’s cultural beliefs. However, the health status in India still lags behind relative to […]
  • Cost, Access, and Quality of Healthcare The quality of medical care is the degree to which medical services provided to individuals and groups of the population increase the likelihood of achieving desired health outcomes and correspond to evidence-based professional knowledge.
  • Healthcare Compliance Department The policies and procedures are the layout laws and regulations that the health community has to follow to ensure the security of the patients and the workers.
  • The Role of Diversity in Healthcare I see the role of diversity and the inclusiveness of diverse groups in healthcare as very important. The experience that I have gone through has greatly contributed to shaping my understanding of diversity and gave […]
  • The United Healthcare Organization Strategic Direction The factor of resource optimization is especially important for United Healthcare because of the continuously increasing cost of care in the United States and the considering the mission of this business to address the healthcare […]
  • The Allocation of Healthcare Resources Cost-effectiveness deals with the costs and benefits of services that are evaluated based on the financial expenditures and health improvements they provide; whereas equitability stands for the way the costs and benefits are distributed across […]
  • The Primary Healthcare: Key Issues Primary health care has helped to reduce the prevalence of obesity in girls in Saudi Arabia through government provision of sporting activities, inclusion of education on food and health in the school curriculum.
  • Comparing the Latin American and the U.S. Healthcare Systems The purpose of this paper is to compare the Latin American and the US healthcare systems on the example of two hospitals.
  • Healthcare Negligence and Its Criminalization On the other side, a just culture requires the creation of an open and honest environment where healthcare practitioners can report different occurrences in the workplace to ensure patient safety.
  • Bright Road Healthcare System’s Quality Management The purpose of this paper is to identify the theoretical and practical implications of the use of Total Quality Management in healthcare.
  • The Importance of Customer Service in Healthcare The location of the training was the Brooklyn Hospital Center, and the presenter was the Nurse Educator. Since the professional background of the audience was nursing, the subject was clinically relevant, and the nurses could […]
  • Professional Identity and Stewardship in Healthcare I cannot but agree with my peer that the aspects of the role of a health care team member are multiple.
  • Dubai Healthcare City Marketing Plan: Service Description, Marketing Details, SWOT Matrix DHCC is a free zone dedicated to developing a healthcare and wellness destination for investors and patients from all over the world. DHCC is found in Dubai, and is considered the global largest free zone […]
  • Importance of Accountability in Healthcare This paper discusses the importance of accountability in hospitals and the role of leaders in maintaining positive organizational culture in their facilities. Medical facility staffs need to be accountable in their actions; this will facilitate […]
  • Multidisciplinary Teams Management in Healthcare However, despite forming the basis of numerous problem-solving and decision-making techniques in healthcare, dysfunctional team dynamics are attributed to more than 70% of medical errors. This investigation aims to review, analyze, and critically synthesize extant […]
  • The American College of Healthcare Executives Code of Ethics Morality as a sign or measure of a good life and being ethical are promoted by the ACHE Code of Ethics in Rae’s chapter.
  • Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare In addition, the improved AI tools will assist in choosing the best method of treatment and predict the likely results of specific solutions.
  • Utilitarianism in Healthcare During the COVID-19 Pandemic This principle is particularly applicable to the lockdown situation by evaluating the number of lives that would be lost in the event of a lockdown.
  • Compassion in Healthcare Setting The researchers stick to the method of the four-phase Delphi process, which consists of a literature review, an open-ended questionnaire, the analysis of the results and the connection to the literature, and two round Delphi […]
  • Nursing Shortage and Its Effects on Healthcare Delivery Despite the recent advances in nursing, including the introduction of the latest technology, the redesign of some of the nursing practices, and the incorporation of the latest tools into the provision of nursing services, the […]
  • Creating SMART Nursing Goals: What It Takes to Improve Healthcare Standards In order to change the standards of the organizational behavior within the healthcare facility in question, it will be required to adopt the principles of lean management. Such attitudes can and will be changed with […]
  • The Healthcare Communication Strategies It is impossible to get accurate information from patients that do not understand the importance of communicating with health practitioners. Communication in the health care sector is important because it enables physicians and patients to […]
  • Continuous Quality Improvement in Healthcare However, according to Kahan and Goodstadt, it is certain that many healthcare professionals would not find it difficult to adopt the fundamentals of CQI in their day-to-day activities.
  • Organizational Theory in Healthcare Organizations The origin of the pressures is both from internal and external sources which have in turn affected the manner in which the organizations are run, structured and organized. This paper has focused on the application […]
  • Ways of Improving Healthcare Organisations In some areas, such as patient safety in the medical organization, organization of patient care, and prevention of bedsores and falls, the role of the nursing staff seems to be leading.
  • Healthcare Fraud and Abuse Prevention Fraud and abuse cause significant financial losses to the organization: for example, exclusion from Medicare or Medicaid results in the loss of payers and patients.
  • Kurt Lewin’s Change Framework in Healthcare Implementing Kurt Lewin’s model to the policy change I proposed in the previous assignment would first involve removing the fragmentary standards for data quality and uniformity each facility has and revoking old punishments for noncompliance.
  • States of Elasticity of Demand From the Healthcare Sector The elasticity of demand is a significant metric to determine the economic value of the services. Ed = 0 Perfectly inelastic demand implies a dependent increase in price and total revenue; similarly, a decrease in […]
  • How the Pandemic Affects the US Healthcare System It is of major importance to analyze all the weak sides of our current healthcare system and, what is more important, to find the proper means to mitigate the long-lasting crisis.
  • Differential Statistics in the Healthcare: The Z-test The null hypothesis is the accepted fact of a research study. Consequently, the research provides a working hypothesis and an alternative.
  • Quantitative Research Designs in Healthcare Consequently, when beginning a treatment program, the research nurses will have a conclusive data on the number of patients to diagnose and the number of practitioners to be deployed in every affected location.
  • Biomedical Theories and Models in Healthcare Delivery The genetic basis of cancer theory is one of these paradigms, and it focuses on the genesis of the disease. A combination of factors leads to the occurrence and proliferation of cancer cells.
  • Microbiology and Its Role in Healthcare Microbiology, as a broad scientific field, entails an array of concepts and issues that are of pivotal relevance to health care as a whole and the science of pathophysiology, in particular.
  • Teamwork in the Nursing Healthcare Environment The impact of organizational change is dependent on three factors; the stage of organizational development, the degree of flexibility, and the history of response to change.
  • Confidence Intervals and Hypothesis Testing in Healthcare Thus, the p value is used to determine whether the variables of a given study are within a desired range to accept or reject the null hypothesis.
  • Banner HealthCare: Mission, Vision & Values, Statements The mission statement of Banner HealthCare depicts the reason why the organization exists. This is a goal that aligns with the mission statement because it improves the living conditions of people.
  • Healthcare System Failures and Medication Errors It would also be useful to ensure adequate staffing of the pharmacy and timely updates on the register so that the dispensing process would go more smoothly, and there would be no distractions.
  • Strategic Alternatives for Improvement Healthcare Sector Careful assessment of the business practices, of the core elements of the operations, and the team members offers guidelines for the strategies that the organization can undertake to improve the quality of service.
  • Bedside Shift Report Implementation in Healthcare The goals of the BSR implementation project are defining the issue, standardizing the process of nurse bedside shift reports, and providing the opportunity for patients and families to participate in care delivery.
  • Advocating for Social Justice in Healthcare However, health care is also often related to the idea of social justice a term that describes the allocation of resources and benefits to people according to their needs and abilities.
  • Managerial Accounting in Healthcare Services This paper aims to discuss the characteristics of such concepts as variable costs, fixed costs, mixed costs, and job order costing as a part of healthcare services.
  • Traditional vs. New Payment Systems in Healthcare The payment systems determine the quality and the cost of health care services that the providers offer to patients. In the episode-of-care payment system, payment is made once for all the health care services that […]
  • Recruitment and Retention in the Healthcare Sector The article discusses best practices for the recruitment and retention of employees in the health care sector. Besides, it is important to make changes in the delivery of health care services.
  • Ethical Issue: Accessibility and Affordability of Healthcare In this view, the article recognizes that the delivery of healthcare services is dependent on the resources and facilities that the healthcare systems of diverse countries own.
  • Leadership Impact on Healthcare Delivery This discussion focuses on the issue of leadership within the realm of management and its role in the changing healthcare environment.
  • Fisher & Paykel Healthcare: Strategic Environment and the Supply Chain One of the main environmental factors that could change the work of the company and create new rules and standards is the idea of global warming and other environmental concerns that could occur at the […]
  • Roles and Funtions of Management in Healthcare Setting For the health care setting to operate effectively in achieving its goals and objectives, it requires to implement the main management concepts.
  • Healthcare in Saudi Arabia and the High Population Growth Rate Considering the fact that the dynamics of attaining organizational success have changed from financial capital to labor, the success of the KSA healthcare sector in providing services will depend on the expertise, knowledge, and level […]
  • Teamwork and Communication Errors in Healthcare This paper states that medical errors have a number of underlying causes, including the fallibility of medical personnel, uncertainty of medical knowledge and imperfection of organizational systems, and pays special attention to the negative outcomes […]
  • Ethical and Unethical Leadership in Healthcare On the contrary, unethical leadership disregards ethics and instead indulges in unacceptable moral practices that are contrary to the organization culture.
  • Home Healthcare Renovation Project Proposal The purpose of the home healthcare business is to provide quality treatment and support to the community’s most vulnerable members. The organization’s goal is to house up to one hundred marginalized persons, which necessitates the […]
  • Balance of Power and Influence in Healthcare The success and quality of health care depend on multiple factors, and one of them is the balance between power and influence.
  • Unilateral vs. Group Decision-Making in Healthcare Unilateral decision-making models are based on the concept of a leader being responsible for the whole process and having the most influence on the final say.
  • Basic Components of a Healthcare Delivery Service Since financing defines the very existence of the project in a rather expensive context of New York City, and the insurance opportunities will encourage experts in the specified field to consider the specified project as […]
  • Public and Private Healthcare Agencies: Costs and Quality Analysis It is possible to examine the way particular agencies affect the development of quality of medical services to understand the difference between the role of private and public agencies in the process.
  • Telenursing and Home Healthcare Telenursing is the use of telecommunications and information technology for providing nursing services in healthcare.
  • The Role of Nurses in the Healthcare Facilities The changing role of nurses has forced the scholars and practitioners to engage in extensive researches in order to help explain the new position that nurses currently hold in hospitals and how their competencies can […]
  • Child Healthcare: Importance and Challenges Some of the practices seek to improve the overall child’s health and the health condition of mothers. For instance, a hospital in Boston paid for the services of an interpreter, a Jewish, to translate for […]
  • Addressing Barriers to Communication in Healthcare The following example of a conversation in the healthcare environment is analyzed to show how ineffective communication may lead to a number of issues.
  • Anglo-American Culture and Healthcare Standards English had easy acceptance in the US. English is the top or leading ethnic group in both contributing to and gains from the US.
  • Business Administration in the Healthcare Field Precise and states the objectives of the hospital, the market segment that it intends to serve, and how it intends to serve it.
  • EBOS Healthcare Company vs. Fisher & Paykel Healthcare Despite the recent increase in competition levels in the target market due to the enhancement of the globalization processes and the emergence of new market entries, the firm has been enjoying impressive popularity among New […]
  • Public Relations in Healthcare and Their Features Practically, healthcare PR has many objectives, the most vital of which are the improvement of the quality of care, the establishment of a good reputation, and the reduction of cost of care.
  • Compassion in Medicine and Healthcare Thus, analyzing the application of black-box anthropology for establishing the relationship between healthcare providers and their patients, it can be stated that the principle of distancing to show respect for the patient’s privacy as the […]
  • Healthcare for Elderly People in Islamic Countries That is why the specialists devoted a large part of their time to work with people who are in charge of care delivery to teach and train them how to deal with such symptoms.
  • Healthcare: High Blood Pressure The main points that I plan to discuss are the nature of high blood pressure; causes and risks of high blood pressure; and the important blood pressure numbers as indicators of the problem.
  • Pre- and Post-Test Evaluation Design in Healthcare As explained in the paper, the design chosen for the evaluation of the program earlier developed is pre-and post-test. The pre-and post-test method is the best choice for the program due to its ability to […]
  • SBAR in Healthcare Contexts: Interpersonal Communication In a variety of clinical situations, this communication tool is used to convey patient care and build a general mental model of the patient’s state.
  • Better Communication in Healthcare A better communication plan will ensure togetherness in the healthcare team, especially in knowing team goals and the organization’s vision and identifying possible obstacles during treatment.
  • Data Stewardship in Healthcare Therefore, the inclusion of the data stewardship principle into the framework for handling information within the healthcare setting will lead to an improved handling of patient data and, therefore, fewer medical errors.
  • Reasons for Healthcare’s High Cost Medicine is an integral part of the life of society since it is designed to support the health of the population. The first problem with the high cost of the healthcare system is the prevalence […]
  • Improving Healthcare Straight from the Heart The video clip’s topic “Improving Healthcare: Straight from the Heart” creates an impression that doctors’ and nurses’ willingness, passion, and determination to enhance healthcare is the most effective way of hospital-acquired infections.
  • Expectancy and Goal-Setting Theories in Healthcare The goal-setting theory suggests that the primary factors determining a person’s motivation level are establishing specific goals that are difficult to achieve on a routine basis and the subsequent commitment to achieving those goals.
  • The Healthcare Legislation S. 610 and HR 1667 Additionally, it provides thorough research on the emotional and behavioral health and exhaustion of healthcare personnel, including the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on their wellness.
  • Advanced Registered Nurse Practitioners and Healthcare Quality Improvement Quality improvement in the sphere of healthcare refers to the set of initiatives that seek to ensure better patient care. Overall, it is seen that ARNPs play an important leading role in the process of […]
  • A School Nurse’s Role in Healthcare Some of the tasks that emphasize the advocating role entail communication with school staff and parents on behalf of a child regarding any healthcare concerns and, in some cases, motivational counseling for struggling students.
  • Irrevocably Broken Healthcare System The U.S.healthcare system has undergone significant changes over the past decades, having a substantial impact on both the physical and financial stability of residents.
  • Pricing Strategies in Healthcare The main drawback of MM’s decision to reduce the premium price to attract customers is the potential decrease in the perceived value of the service.
  • Challenges of Cultural Humility in the Healthcare
  • Trends in Healthcare Systems
  • Quality of Life and Its Application to Healthcare
  • Earthquake Prevention From Healthcare Perspective
  • Hospital Infection as Legal Issue in Healthcare
  • VA Loma Linda Healthcare System: Marketing Plan
  • Work Environment Assessment in Healthcare
  • Cultural Approaches to Healthcare Delivery in the US
  • The ADR in Healthcare Malpractice
  • Operations Management in Healthcare
  • Memorial Hermann Healthcare System’s Strategic Analysis
  • Professional Attributes of a Healthcare Professional
  • Healthcare and Nursing in Kenya
  • Ethics in Healthcare: The United Arab Emirates
  • Healthcare: Strategy Development and Strategic Alternatives
  • Use of Abbreviations in the Healthcare Field
  • COVID-19 and Artificial Intelligence: Protecting Healthcare Workers and Curbing the Spread
  • Communication and Teamwork in the Healthcare Facilities
  • Aravind Eye Hospitals: Process Innovation in Healthcare
  • Gender Issue in Choosing and Hiring Candidates in the Healthcare Organization
  • How Lobbying Impacts Healthcare: Quality Home Nursing Care
  • Payment Mechanisms in the Healthcare Environment
  • Multidisciplinary Collaboration in Healthcare
  • Change Framework for Healthcare Improvement
  • Interprofessional Collaboration in Healthcare
  • Handwashing in Children’s Healthcare Routine
  • Applied Statistics for Healthcare Professionals
  • Effective Healthcare Communication
  • Interprofessional Teams in Healthcare Delivery
  • Healthcare Waste Management and International Pacts
  • Human Factors and Their Impact on Healthcare
  • The Quality of Services in Healthcare
  • Why Healthcare Should Be Free?
  • Merck Corporation and Tenet HealthCare
  • Sociology and Health Care
  • Ethics in the Healthcare Delivery
  • Data Management in the Healthcare Industry
  • Budgeting in Healthcare and Financial Management of Hospitals
  • Cultural Issues in Healthcare
  • Preventing Never Events: Resilient Healthcare Principles
  • Anti-Racism: Marginalization and Exclusion in Healthcare
  • Healthcare Regulatory Agencies: Health and Human Services
  • International Healthcare Systems and Mortality Rates
  • The Role of the Incivility Concept Within the Healthcare Metaparadigm
  • Patient Involvement in Healthcare
  • Strategies in the Healthcare Sector
  • The Ethical Use of Technology in Healthcare
  • Liability Issues in Healthcare Systems
  • Effective Risk Management in Healthcare
  • In-Service Training on Effective Communication in Healthcare
  • Leadership in Healthcare Management
  • Quality of Healthcare Delivery at Palmetto Hospital
  • Qualitative Research in Healthcare
  • Healthcare Informatics System-Related Experiences
  • Bioethics as an Essential Part of Healthcare
  • Healthcare Informatics and Its Key Functions
  • Cultural Assessment in a Healthcare Setting
  • The Connection of Muslims and Healthcare
  • Religion and Spirituality as an Ethical Issue in Healthcare
  • Aspects of the Benchmarking in Healthcare
  • Theology: Religion and Healthcare
  • Professionalism and Attendance in Healthcare
  • Healthcare Cost Depending on Chronic Disease Management of Diabetes and Hypertension
  • The Spread of Monkeypox as a Topic in Healthcare
  • LGBTQ+ (Queer) Military Discrimination in Healthcare
  • Fuzzy Decision-Making in Healthcare
  • Public Authorities’ Role in the Healthcare System
  • The Use of Simulation in Healthcare
  • Statistics: The Use in Healthcare
  • Predictive Analytics in Healthcare Decision-Making
  • Reducing Healthcare Spending: Annotated Bibliography
  • Promoting Equity With Healthcare Reforms
  • Analytical Tools Used in Healthcare
  • Quality Care in Healthcare Facilities
  • Costing Effect on Canadian Healthcare After COVID-19
  • Addressing the Healthcare Language Barrier of Afghan Refugees in California
  • Billing and Reimbursement in Healthcare
  • Quadruple Aim: Enhancing Healthcare Efficiency
  • Staffing Shortages in Healthcare
  • Conflict Resolution in Pediatric Healthcare
  • Standards of Care Violation Incident and Risk Management in Healthcare
  • Ethics in Healthcare: Biggest Healthcare Data Breaches
  • The Influence of Third-Party Payment on Healthcare Economics
  • Conflict Management in Healthcare
  • The Role of the H.R. Department in Healthcare
  • The Importance of Healthcare Compliance
  • Peculiarities of the U.S. Healthcare System
  • State Laws and Regulations Governing Healthcare Organizations
  • The Replacement for the ACA Healthcare Insurance Policy
  • The Issue of Abuse in the Healthcare Sector
  • Lillian Wald: Pioneering Public Health Nursing and Healthcare Reforms
  • Use of Technology in Healthcare
  • The Issue of Stereotypes in Healthcare
  • Syphilis as a Healthcare Threat
  • Digital Technology in Healthcare
  • The Violence Towards Healthcare Workers Podcast
  • The US Healthcare Financing Concerns
  • Resources Allocation in the Healthcare Sector
  • Employee Turnover Rates in Healthcare
  • HIPAA Regulations and Telepsychiatry Challenges in Modern Healthcare
  • Social Disparities and Access to Healthcare Services
  • Artificial Intelligence as a Tool in Healthcare
  • Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare Administration
  • A Fall Reduction Policy in Healthcare
  • Service Quality Impact on Customer Retention in Healthcare
  • Access of Refugees to Healthcare in Nevada
  • Program Model Implementation in Healthcare
  • Data Visualization Methods in Healthcare
  • A Pandemic-Driven Shift Transforming Healthcare Worldwide
  • Ethical Dilemma in Healthcare: Privacy and the Right to Know
  • Discrimination in the US Healthcare Sector
  • Aspects of the Healthcare Project Teams
  • Systems, Applications, and Products in Healthcare
  • Human Resource Departments in Healthcare
  • Racism in the Healthcare Sector
  • The Healthcare-Associated Infections Prevention
  • Employee Onboarding in Healthcare
  • Healthcare Reforms in Saudi Arabia
  • Discussion: Moral Climate of Healthcare
  • The Healthcare Breach Reporting Assessment
  • Healthcare Fraud and Kickbacks
  • The Six Sigma Projects in Healthcare
  • Examining Progress Towards Collaborative Multidisciplinary Healthcare Teams
  • The Analytics Methodology Applied to the Australian Healthcare Industry
  • Advanced Access Scheduling System in Healthcare
  • A Healthcare Change Project Manager’s Roles
  • Racism in Healthcare and Education
  • Healthcare Policies and Delivery
  • Approaches to Effective Change Management in the Healthcare Settings
  • The VITAS Healthcare Program Evaluation
  • Healthcare Devices in Smart Home and Telemedicine
  • Low Back Pain Management in Healthcare Workers in New York City
  • The Healthcare-Associated Infections Educational Program
  • Behavioral Epidemiology for Healthcare Management
  • Characteristics of the Healthcare Industry
  • Healthcare Supply Chain Management Post COVID-19
  • Quantitative Methods in Healthcare Management
  • Quantitative Tools and Methods in Healthcare Management
  • Research Technique in Healthcare
  • The Valley Healthcare System’s Use of Technology
  • Economic Influences on Peru’s Healthcare System
  • Healthcare Reimbursement and Associated Influences
  • Organizational Assessment in Healthcare
  • Healthcare Laws and Ethical Principles
  • Healthcare Inequalities and Continuing Reform
  • Inadequate Nurses in Healthcare Centers
  • Healthcare Issues in Texas and Their Interconnection
  • Incivility, Violence, and Bullying in the Healthcare Workplace
  • Aspects of Statistics in Healthcare
  • Fraudulent Activity in Healthcare
  • Statistical Concepts in Healthcare
  • How the Insurance and Drug Industries Affected the Universal Healthcare
  • Fraud and Abuse in the Healthcare Industry
  • Telehealth and Its Role in the Healthcare Sector
  • A Healthcare Proposal for a Social Change
  • Aetna: The Transformation of Healthcare
  • Healthcare Research: Data Collection
  • Access to Healthcare at Attawapiskat Community
  • Research and Quality Improvement in Healthcare
  • Non-, Quasi-, and Experimental Research in Healthcare
  • The Mental Healthcare Provision
  • Nutrient Delivery in Healthcare
  • Marketing: The Role in Healthcare
  • Edwin Chadwick and Statistics in Healthcare
  • Professional Development in American Healthcare
  • Social Media and Mobile Devices in Healthcare
  • LGBTQ (Queer) Community’s Challenges in Healthcare
  • Ethical Decisions in Healthcare
  • Strategic Development in Healthcare
  • Research Methods Analysis: Healthcare
  • Protocols and Standards in Healthcare
  • The Massachusetts Healthcare Reform Act
  • Rising Healthcare Costs in the United States
  • The US Healthcare System: Management Methods
  • A Healthcare Public Policy Meeting on Number of Doctors
  • Patient Safety in Ambulatory Healthcare
  • Healthcare: Comparative Analysis of Licensure, Certification, and Accreditation
  • Sustainable Healthcare and COVID-19 Pandemic
  • Pacific Healthcare in New Zealand
  • Gender and Leadership in Healthcare Administration
  • Demographic Changes’ Impact on Healthcare
  • The Use of Social Media in Healthcare
  • Nursing Role in Healthcare Reimbursement System
  • The Importance of Quality Healthcare
  • The Use of Dashboards in Healthcare
  • Ranking Issues Facing Healthcare Organizations
  • Cultural Considerations in Health Policy and Effective Healthcare Delivery
  • Wearable Technology in Healthcare
  • Technological Innovations in Healthcare
  • Patients with Arterial Hypertension: Healthcare Changes
  • Policy Competence and Policymaking in Healthcare
  • Measuring Quality in Healthcare Facilities
  • Patient Falls Within the Healthcare Facility
  • Evaluating Elasticity in Healthcare
  • Elasticity and How It Affects Decision-Making in Healthcare
  • Promoting Social Change in Healthcare through Student-University Alignment
  • Exploring Theories Across Multiple Disciplines in Healthcare
  • Concerns Related to Complex Adaptive Systems in Healthcare
  • COVID-19 and Competing Needs in Healthcare
  • Evidence-Based Practice in Healthcare: Concept
  • The Role of Evidence-Based Practice in Healthcare
  • Universal Healthcare Coverage in Different Countries
  • Corporate Liability of Healthcare Organizations
  • Diabetes Mellitus as Problem in US Healthcare
  • The Aspects of Databases in Healthcare
  • Why Healthcare Economics Will Never Be the Same
  • Healthcare Workers’ Burnout Sources and Solutions
  • Tort Reform: Impact on Healthcare
  • Cost-Minimization Analysis in Healthcare
  • Healthcare as a Right: Access, Quality, and Impact
  • Reasons Why Markets Fail in the Healthcare
  • Ethical Committee in Healthcare Presentation
  • Augmenting the Disaster Healthcare Workforce
  • Problem in Healthcare: The Case of Dr. Duntsch
  • Financing in Healthcare: Hospital and Solo Practice
  • Johns Hopkins Healthcare: Policy Evaluation
  • Interest Group Model of Regulation in Healthcare
  • How Behavioral Economics Affects Healthcare Decisions
  • Delegation of Authority in Healthcare
  • Access to Healthcare in the United States
  • Political Boundaries in Healthcare: Expanding Options for Effective Management
  • Professions in Healthcare: Scope of Practice and Competencies
  • Population Health Outcomes and Healthcare Service Delivery
  • Implementing a Combination Payment System in Healthcare
  • Healthcare Burnout and Its Impact
  • Chatbots as a Healthcare Trend
  • Human Resource Planning in Healthcare
  • Cost Containment in Healthcare
  • Cost Containment Strategies in Healthcare
  • Collaboration and Leadership in Healthcare
  • Project Translation and Planning in Healthcare
  • Detecting Abuse in Healthcare Practice
  • Solving Healthcare Organizational Issues
  • Provider Turnover’s Impact on Healthcare
  • The Reality of Providing Nursing Services in a Healthcare Rationing System
  • The Data Mining Method in Healthcare and Education
  • Healthcare Information Technologies
  • Transformational Leadership in a Healthcare Team
  • A Healthcare Issue of Diabetes Mellitus
  • Evidence-Informed Decision Making in Healthcare
  • Pharmacoeconomics’s Role in Healthcare
  • “Healthcare Service Utilization…” by Moonpanane et al.
  • Healthcare Providers’ Shortage and Telemedicine
  • Collaboration and Emotional Competence in Healthcare
  • Future of Nursing and Transformation of Healthcare
  • Mental Health of Healthcare Workers After COVID-19
  • Cutting Investments in Healthcare
  • Healthcare in the United States vs. Canada
  • Discussion of Disclosure of Information in Healthcare
  • Mental Healthcare in Harlem United
  • Organizational Changes in Healthcare
  • Data Breach in the Healthcare Sector
  • Information Technology in Healthcare
  • Aspects of American Indians Healthcare
  • Aspects of the US Healthcare System
  • Authentic Leadership in Healthcare
  • Aspects of Leadership in Healthcare
  • Emerging Issues in American Healthcare
  • Applications of Positive Psychology in Healthcare
  • Healthcare for Undocumented and Immigrant Populations
  • Hear Her Healthcare Campaign Evaluation
  • Walmart: Healthcare and Customer Perspective
  • Teleology and Deontology in Healthcare
  • Tai Chi as Complementary and Alternative Healthcare
  • Approaches to Improving Cultural Competence in Healthcare
  • Mexico’s COVID Policy: Healthcare Measures and Economic Stimuli
  • Enhancing Electronic Solutions in Healthcare Facilities
  • The American Healthcare System as Apartheid
  • Importance of Experts in Healthcare Project Implementation
  • Major Forces Affecting Healthcare and Challenges for Leaders
  • Case Management in Healthcare Delivery
  • High Costs of Healthcare Services
  • Choosing Personnel in Healthcare
  • Issues in the American Healthcare System
  • Healthcare Organizations: Vision and Mission
  • The Importance of Aligning a Healthcare Organization’s Vision
  • Healthcare and Family Diversity
  • Healthcare Testing of a Domestic Violence Victim
  • Leadership Approaches in Healthcare
  • Price Transparency in Healthcare
  • Control Charts for Healthcare Organizations
  • Healthcare Systems Factors: Annotated Bibliography
  • Social Determinants in Healthcare
  • Utilitarianism: Ethical Theory in Healthcare
  • Technology and Public Outreach in Healthcare
  • American Vulnerable Populations’ Healthcare Needs
  • Ethical Principles in Healthcare
  • Qualitative Research Methods in Healthcare
  • Healthcare Administrators’ Role in Population Health
  • Healthcare-Associated Infections and Preventive Measures
  • Healthcare Policy. S. 3799: Prevent Pandemics Act
  • Flexible Working Arrangements in Healthcare
  • The Coping Concept Analysis in the Healthcare Context
  • The Electronic Tools Use in Healthcare
  • High-Performance Work Team Environment in Healthcare
  • Discussion of Healthcare Issue: Falls in Older Adults
  • Population Health and How It Relates to Healthcare
  • Ensuring Data Integrity of Healthcare Information by Zarour et al.
  • Evidence-Based Practice and Healthcare Issues
  • Analysis of Healthcare in University
  • Ageism in Healthcare Settings
  • US Healthcare: Shifting from Reactive to Proactive
  • Analysis of Healthcare Accreditation Importance
  • Workplace Violence Prevention Act in Healthcare
  • Bioethics Principles in Healthcare
  • The United States Healthcare Institutions’ Challenges
  • Income and Expenses in Healthcare
  • Online Healthcare Resources and Telehealth
  • Challenges to Healthcare Delivery
  • A Healthcare Study in the Vancouver Sun Newspaper
  • Importance of Leadership Attributes for Healthcare
  • Importance of Leadership in Healthcare and Nursing
  • Cultural Awareness and Healthcare
  • The Safety of Medical or Healthcare Workers
  • The Cost-Effective Analysis in Healthcare
  • Security Plan for Healthcare Facility
  • Analysis of Realm of Global Healthcare
  • Discussion: Poverty and Healthcare
  • Legal and Ethical Regulations in Healthcare
  • Security Regulation Compliances in Healthcare
  • The Controlling Healthcare Organizations
  • Equitable Medical Care to Native Groups: Healthcare Clinic Plan
  • Effective Communication in Healthcare Culture
  • Healthcare System: Weaknesses and Complications
  • Primary Healthcare Community Resources
  • The Strength-Based Approach in Healthcare
  • Healthcare Data Integration Failure
  • Importance of Analyzing Undesired Outcomes in a Healthcare Setting
  • Leading Change and Sustainability in the Healthcare
  • Data Integrity and Analysis in Healthcare
  • Healthcare Application of Statistics
  • Multidimensional Approach to Healthcare
  • Healthcare Settings and Affordable Care Act
  • Healthcare Insurance and Job Search
  • The Cost of Quality in Healthcare
  • The Nurse’s Role in Improving Healthcare Interventions
  • Is American Healthcare Good: Comparison to Japan and Germany
  • Information Governance Considerations in Healthcare
  • Digital Packages in Healthcare
  • Duty-Based Ethics and Kant’s Theory in Healthcare
  • Organizational Behavior Management in Healthcare
  • Lifelong Learning in Healthcare
  • Depression in the Field of a Healthcare Administrator
  • Data-Driven Decisions in Healthcare
  • Productivity and Operational Planning in Healthcare
  • Healthcare Issues and Government Response
  • The Role of the Nurse in the Healthcare System
  • The Concept of Healthcare Disparities
  • Importance of Diversity in Healthcare
  • Interprofessional Collaboration Initiatives in Healthcare
  • Healthcare Informatics: Application and Importance
  • Advanced Directive Legislation in Healthcare
  • Healthcare: Mrs. Maggie Meriwether Case Study
  • Productivity Analysis in Healthcare System
  • Measurements for Performance in Healthcare
  • The Healthcare Cost Interview with a Family Member
  • How Teladoc Is Transforming Access to Healthcare
  • The Consumers’ Assessment of Healthcare
  • Interprofessional Teams in Healthcare: Communication Importance, Issues, and Strategies
  • “Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare” and “From Spreading to Embedding Innovation”
  • Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Healthcare
  • IT Management in Healthcare and Its Importance
  • IT Department in Modern Healthcare Organization
  • Equity in the United States’ Healthcare
  • Nurses Perception of Leadership and Impact of Healthcare Changes
  • The Process of Deploying New Technology in the Healthcare Organization
  • Ethical and Legal Issues With the Disclosure of HIV Status of Healthcare Workers
  • The Cost of Healthcare and Privatization
  • The Seven Step Revenue in Healthcare
  • Participatory Healthcare Informatics
  • Racism: Healthcare Crisis and the Nurses Role
  • Memorandum of Understanding in Healthcare
  • Communication in Healthcare: Social Penetration
  • Public Health and Healthcare Laws
  • Women’s Health as Male-Dominated Healthcare Field
  • Laws Influencing Information Security and Privacy in the Healthcare Sector
  • SLP Assignment: Leadership and Cultural Competence of Healthcare Professionals
  • Business Plan: Devoted Elderly Healthcare Services
  • Workplace Violence Prevention Bill for Healthcare Workers
  • The Essential Issues in the Healthcare System
  • Two-Sided Message Marketing Strategy in Healthcare
  • Interoperability in the Healthcare System
  • “The Language of Healthcare Reform” by Larry Levitt
  • Developing a New Online Healthcare Education Site
  • Online Healthcare Education Program in Hospitals
  • Patient HealthCare: Early Diagnosis of Cancer
  • Main Benefits of Market Segmentation in Healthcare
  • Promoting Diversity in Healthcare
  • Increasing Cultural Awareness in Healthcare
  • Accreditations of Higher Educations Healthcare Schools
  • Analysis of Opioid Use in Healthcare
  • Vertical Integration Strategy in Healthcare Facilities
  • Cultural Competency in Healthcare
  • Mental Health Services for Healthcare Providers of Critical Patients
  • Conflict Management in the Healthcare Workplace
  • Business Principles in Healthcare
  • Barriers to Healthcare Plan Implementation
  • Financial and Organizational Barriers to Healthcare
  • Addressing Constraints in the Healthcare Setting
  • Importance of Statistical Measures for Healthcare Administrator
  • Services for Healthcare Providers of Critical Patients
  • Organizational Culture for Safety in Healthcare
  • Increasing Preventative Healthcare Measures
  • Data Collection in Healthcare Programs
  • Healthcare and Emergency Preparedness Among Rural Communities
  • Homelessness as a Major Healthcare Issue
  • Bullying and Harassment in the Healthcare Workplace
  • Genetics and Genomics in Healthcare Development
  • Innovation and Change in Healthcare
  • Role and Impact of Gospel in Healthcare
  • Healthcare Workers’ Stress Coping Strategies
  • Diversicare Healthcare Analysis and Strategic Goals
  • The Six Sigma Quality Improvement Skills in Healthcare
  • Change Champions in Healthcare Organizations
  • Healthcare Infrastructure and Private Finance Initiative
  • Diversicare Healthcare’s Financial Management
  • Application of the Internet of Things (IoT) in the Healthcare Industry
  • Healthcare Administration: The Role of Information Technologies
  • Healthcare Regulations and Federalism’s Impact
  • Public and Private Healthcare in Australia
  • Music Therapy in Healthcare
  • Non Traditional Healthcare Practices in the Healthcare System
  • The Spirituality Concept in Healthcare
  • The Pandemic’s Effect on the US Healthcare System
  • Marketing Techniques in the Healthcare Industry
  • Diversicare Healthcare Services Inc.’s Obstacles
  • A Manager’s Power Bases in a Healthcare Setting
  • Can Government Deliver Quality Rural Healthcare?
  • Does Healthcare Infrastructure Have an Impact on Delay in Diagnosis and Survival?
  • Does Institutional Quality Improve the Appropriateness of Healthcare Provision?
  • Does Leadership Matter for Healthcare Service Quality?
  • Does the United States Get the Best in Return for What We Invest in Healthcare?
  • How Does Electronic Healthcare Records Provide Additional Recommendation?
  • How Good Communication Skill Is Significant in Healthcare?
  • How Has the Healthcare Industry Changed in the Last 10 Years?
  • How Healthcare Has Advanced in Europe Since the Dark Ages Days?
  • How Health Policy Shapes Healthcare Sector Productivity?
  • How Pharmaceutical Companies Affect the Healthcare System?
  • How Technology Has Revolutionized the Dimension of Healthcare?
  • How the Price Inflation Affects the Federal Healthcare System?
  • What Makes Hospice Such a Unique Area of Healthcare Service?
  • What Privacy Concerns Docs Transmitting Healthcare?
  • What Has Been the Impact of Medicare on the Healthcare System?
  • What Effect Will the Baby Boomer Population Have on Healthcare?
  • What Competencies Are Needed for Entry Level Employment in Healthcare?
  • What Are the Current Health Setbacks in Healthcare?
  • What Is the Term Strategic Planning Window for Healthcare?
  • What Are the Issues Affecting Sustainability of Healthcare Financing in Romania?
  • What Are the Interactions Between Patient Satisfaction and Efficiency in Healthcare?
  • What Is the Importance of Healthcare Provider?
  • What Is the Significance of Values in the Healthcare Field?
  • What Are the Current Trends and Issues in Healthcare?
  • Government Regulation Titles
  • Health Promotion Research Topics
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124 Healthcare Essay Topic Ideas & Examples

Inside This Article

Healthcare is a diverse and complex field that encompasses a wide range of topics, issues, and challenges. Whether you are studying healthcare as a student, working in the healthcare industry, or simply interested in learning more about this important area, there are countless essay topics that you can explore. To help you get started, here are 124 healthcare essay topic ideas and examples that you can use for inspiration:

  • The impact of healthcare disparities on patient outcomes
  • Strategies for improving access to healthcare in underserved communities
  • The role of technology in transforming healthcare delivery
  • The ethics of healthcare rationing
  • The importance of diversity and inclusion in healthcare organizations
  • The rise of telemedicine and its implications for patient care
  • The impact of the opioid epidemic on healthcare systems
  • The role of nurses in promoting patient safety
  • The challenges of providing mental health care in a primary care setting
  • The future of healthcare: personalized medicine and precision healthcare
  • The role of healthcare providers in addressing social determinants of health
  • The impact of climate change on public health
  • The role of public health campaigns in promoting healthy behaviors
  • The challenges of healthcare delivery in rural areas
  • The impact of healthcare reform on the uninsured population
  • The role of healthcare informatics in improving patient outcomes
  • The importance of cultural competency in healthcare delivery
  • The ethical implications of genetic testing and personalized medicine
  • The impact of healthcare costs on patient access to care
  • The role of healthcare administrators in shaping the future of healthcare delivery
  • The challenges of implementing electronic health records in healthcare settings
  • The impact of healthcare privatization on patient care
  • The role of healthcare providers in promoting patient autonomy
  • The challenges of providing end-of-life care in a healthcare setting
  • The impact of healthcare disparities on maternal and child health outcomes
  • The role of healthcare providers in addressing the opioid crisis
  • The challenges of providing healthcare to undocumented immigrants
  • The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on healthcare systems
  • The role of healthcare providers in promoting vaccination uptake
  • The challenges of healthcare delivery in conflict zones
  • The impact of healthcare disparities on LGBTQ+ populations
  • The role of healthcare providers in promoting healthy aging
  • The challenges of providing healthcare to homeless populations
  • The impact of healthcare disparities on rural communities
  • The role of healthcare providers in addressing food insecurity
  • The challenges of providing healthcare to refugees and asylum seekers
  • The impact of healthcare disparities on people with disabilities
  • The role of healthcare providers in promoting mental health awareness
  • The challenges of providing healthcare to incarcerated populations
  • The impact of healthcare disparities on immigrant populations
  • The role of healthcare providers in promoting sexual health education
  • The challenges of providing healthcare to indigenous populations
  • The impact of healthcare disparities on veterans' health outcomes
  • The role of healthcare providers in promoting healthy lifestyles
  • The challenges of providing healthcare to low-income populations
  • The impact of healthcare disparities on minority populations
  • The role of healthcare providers in promoting preventive care
  • The challenges of providing healthcare to elderly populations
  • The impact of healthcare disparities on women's health outcomes
  • The role of healthcare providers in promoting maternal health
  • The challenges of providing healthcare to children and adolescents
  • The impact of healthcare disparities on mental health outcomes
  • The role of healthcare providers in promoting substance abuse treatment
  • The challenges of providing healthcare to homeless youth
  • The impact of healthcare disparities on LGBTQ+ youth
  • The role of healthcare providers in promoting healthy relationships
  • The challenges of providing healthcare to LGBTQ+ youth
  • The impact of healthcare disparities on transgender populations
  • The role of healthcare providers in promoting gender-affirming care
  • The challenges of providing healthcare to LGBTQ+ elders
  • The impact of healthcare disparities on people of color
  • The role of healthcare providers in promoting racial equity
  • The challenges of providing healthcare to immigrant populations
  • The impact of healthcare disparities on refugee populations
  • The role of healthcare providers in promoting cultural competency
  • The challenges of providing healthcare to non-English speaking populations
  • The role of healthcare providers in promoting disability rights
  • The challenges of providing healthcare to people with mental illnesses
  • The impact of healthcare disparities on people experiencing homelessness
  • The role of healthcare providers in promoting housing stability
  • The challenges of providing healthcare to people living in poverty
  • The impact of healthcare disparities on incarcerated populations
  • The role of healthcare providers in promoting criminal justice reform
  • The challenges of providing healthcare to veterans
  • The impact of healthcare

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Health Management - Free Essay Examples and Topic Ideas

Health management refers to the ways in which individuals and organizations manage their health-related needs and resources. This can include tasks such as organizing and coordinating health services, monitoring health status and progress, developing and implementing health policies, and promoting healthy behaviors and lifestyles. Effective health management involves a proactive approach to maintaining good health and preventing illness, as well as being responsive to health concerns as they arise. It is an essential component of overall health and well-being.

  • 📘 Free essay examples for your ideas about Health Management
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Health Management: An Introduction

  • First Online: 14 September 2022

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Health management is critical for improving performance, efficiency, and effectiveness of health systems and health programs, thereby improved access and availability of high-quality and affordable health care with a focus on reducing inequities and raising health status of the people. The introductory chapter provides basic understanding of concepts of health management and applications of principles of management in health systems through which health care is delivered. It highlights need for and importance of health management. It provides an overview of core functions of health management in health care—planning, organizing, monitoring and evaluation, and management processes in problem-solving and decision-making. The chapter also discusses core competencies in public health and management.

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Gupta, S.D. (2022). Health Management: An Introduction. In: Gupta, S.D. (eds) Healthcare System Management. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-3076-8_1

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Healthcare Management and Leadership

Leadership theories, transformational leadership.

The importance of healthcare management is being understood on the medicine front with various players and places. It works with a variety of health professionals. Medical experts do advanced researches and healthcare management is devoted to making the best use of the services of these people and places (Ronald Jefferson,2008, para 1).

Nancy M. Lorenzi et al. (2004) describe that leadership plays a significant role in all organizations but its importance has been understood more in the area of health informatics since it is complex; it has interdisciplinary nature; it is dependant on constant changing technology and it has the participation of users. This chaotic environment needs a leader who is actually extraordinary: an excellent communicator, knowledgeable in both the fields as technology and clinical domains; innovative and adaptable and be tactful to convince many different smart people from different backgrounds so they can achieve goals. Leaders have to be extra brilliant in informatics otherwise if they are bad leaders and fail in projects, stakeholders and users of informatics become hesitant in giving them the next projects.

Nancy M. Lorenzi et al. (2004) further say that researchers believe that leadership is the combination of traits and skills and has a clear vision. It consists of the ability to encourage people to carry out that vision. These supposed trait theories of leadership have surrendered to contingency and situation theories to take the leaders, the followers and the context into consideration. There is not any skill of that type that can be applied any time on any organization. According to Goleman emotional intelligence is the ability which manage one’s relationship with others and this ability is required by a good leader. He has made four categories of these abilities: self-awareness, self-management, social awareness and social skills.

  • Trait Theory : According to McGregor, “Researches say that it is more successful to think leadership as a relationship between leader and the situation than to think it as a universal pattern of characteristics acquired by specific people.” (Linda Roussel et al, 2005). This statement entails that leadership is dependent upon human relations roles and needs different characteristics due to different situations. Some traits are very common in all good leaders like integrity, trustworthiness, honesty, goal-oriented, experienced communicator, hardworking, dedicated and commitment (Linda Roussel et al, 2005). Gardener’s writing has related leadership with two traits: The Tasks of Leadership and Leader Constituent Interaction. According to Gardener, a leader performs nine tasks as affirming values, envisioning goals, motivating, achieving workable unity, managing, serving as a symbol, explaining, renewing, representing the group. In Leader Constituent Interaction Gardener talks about Charisma as a quality that makes one person different from others: superhuman, supernatural, gifted with exceptional qualities or power. This leadership can be good or bad (Linda Roussel et al, 2005).
  • Behavioral Theories : Douglas McGregor’s X and Y theory narrates that each person is an individual and interacts with other individuals. Then this individual reflects the behavior of other individuals. This individual is affected by the emotions and attitudes of others. The constituent becomes dependant on the leader and needs fair treatment. Both the constituent and the leader wish for a successful relationship that materializes through the actions of the leader (Linda Roussel et al, 2005). A knowledgeable person proves to be an effective leader. Leaders try to maintain the standards and also make efforts that their constituents meet those standards. A secure and independent atmosphere makes constituents responsible. Leaders also need security before they give any responsibility to the constituents (Linda Roussel et al, 2005).

Fiedler’s Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness says that an organization is responsible for a leader’s success and failure so the leaders can be trained to handle the situation and to learn which situation is better for them and which is not. His theory states that a leadership style can be effective or ineffective based on the situation. (Linda Roussel et al, 2005).

Linda Roussel et al (2005) believe that transforming leaders are concerned with the people’s basic needs, hopes, wants and expectations. They are innovative. Leaders should make their constituents independent and should develop their strengths in them.

Linda Roussel et al (2005) state that the healthcare system is going through a major change. These organizations are being redesigned and restructured to face the challenges of these changes and to meet the requirements of patient care. Additionally, People in rural areas and inner cities have a shortage of hospitals and healthcare personnel. Leaders should discover ways to motivate their staff to make balance in this chaotic kind of situation. They should be flexible and should understand the uncertainty. They should understand the needs and values of constituents.

Bennis and Nanus define a transformational leader as the one, ‘who makes people work; who transforms followers into leaders and who may translate these leaders into agents of change.’ They believe that the center of leadership is power and which has the energy to instigate and continue action transforming intention into reality’ These leaders do not make use of power to control constituents, instead, they strengthen constituents to visualize the organization and trust the leaders to achieve goals which are advantageous for them as well as for the organization (Linda Roussel et al, 2005).

Linda Roussel et al (2005) argue that leadership cannot be considered the exercise of power instead it is the empowerment of others. Here the goal of the leader and the constituent become one, having a combined purpose. Transformational leaders will organize their staff by concentrating on the wellbeing of the individual and cultivating the modern work environment. Experts appreciate that leadership signifies cooperation instead of competition. People are encouraged when they participate in decision making and they are praised for quality and excellence rather than punishment. In nursing, empowerment outcomes with improved patient care, fewer staff sick days and less destruction. Nurses who become transformational leaders possess a satisfactory staff that is happy with their job and serves the organization for a longer period.

Bennis has discovered four skills for effective transformational leadership (Linda Roussel et al, 2005):

  • Management of attention- it is achieved by keeping vision and sense of goals. This vision defines in which direction the health organization should go and how should it serve society.
  • Management of meaning- Nursing leaders make changes in the social architecture and culture of health care organizations and for that, they use group discussion, agreements and consensus-building. They favor skills like creativity and innovation in an individual. Barker believes that nurse transformational leaders will take care of vision, goals, objectives, rewards, support and appraisal. The important thing is all these elements will appeal to these leaders.
  • Management of trust- it is related to reliability. Nurses give value to those leaders who believe in fair decisions and whose judgment is sound and consistent.
  • Management of self- it tells about knowing one’s skills and using them effectively. If the leaders are not effective they can discourage a nursing unit which can lead to poor patient care. When stress is reduced, nurse leaders need to master the skills of leadership (Linda Roussel et al, 2005).

Chiapello (1998) mentions when there are strong competitive values of different worlds, there is an approach to leadership of co-leaders, like the administrative and clinical leaders of a health care organization, who actually signify individual worlds and can connect personally with the domestic world (Ewan Ferlie et al, 2005).

Linda Roussel et al (2005) discuss that successful leaders trust in the concept of decision making and even if their decisions are not much admired they do not stop taking responsibility for decision making. Constituents also become willing to participate in the decision-making process but they want the direction of their leader. It generally happens in a time of crisis.

All the above-discussed theories look for the effective skills in a healthcare leader which should actually impact his constituents. A leader is supposed to be patient, caring and tactful to handle the situation according to the needs of the healthcare management as well as the patients and this should really be done by taking care of his constituent’s benefits also.

A leader may face difficulties in achieving his target of making everyone satisfied but this proves his impression and his efficiency to handle everyone successfully. His innovative ideas can make powerful not only the whole organization but also the constituents working with him.

Linda Roussel et al (2005) finally review that transformational leaders have flexibility and adaptability according to leadership styles to face the changes happening in this healthcare environment. Gender issues related to leadership in health care organizations have not been studied well. Gender differences in leadership style do not transform one style to other. Nurses may accept leaders who have unique leadership quality and this environment will be favorable for both men and women nurses to grow self-confidence and become strong leaders.

Ferlie , Ewan et al. (2005), The Oxford handbook of public management (p.457), New York, Oxford University Press.

Jefferson, Roland (2008), Health Care Management Employs Effective Leaders , Article base free online directory.

Lorenzi, Nancy M et al. (2004), ‘Leadership’, Transforming health care through information , Edition: 2 (p.188-189).

Roussel, Linda et al. (2005), ‘Leadership and Evidence-based Management’, Management and leadership for nurse administrators , Edition: 4 (p.165-174), Sudbury, Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

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Study On The Importance Of Healthcare Management

Info: 5384 words (22 pages) Nursing Essay Published: 11th Feb 2020

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Research Methodology

To see how research purpose and research objectives are developed, let us consider the case of apollo hospital keening healthcare management in their organization. they have decided to use their resources to work a health management organization (hmo). the resources are wide, as would be predictable in a large teaching and research healthcare centers with a well-built confined reputation., leading hmos are testing with the demi-science called substitute medicine hoping to heal harms when normal medicines are unsuccessful. this is an astonishing drift. many doctors still sight some substitute methods with great cynicism- the health maintenance organizations have a status for spurning all except the most unswerving treatments. whilst most of the hmos by now offer chiropatic coverage, a number are adding acupunturists and massage therapists, in conjunction with the practitioners called naturopaths who use herbal therapies, relaxation remedies, yoga and many more., managers of apollo hospital enterprise gathered for a meeting and represent their thoughts and research to construct support for the notion within the hospital. the meeting came to an end with some sort of worries and problems. the problem was how to decide the market demand in the region to hold another hmo although each member of the planning committee was persuaded of the potential benefits of the proposal, bed consumption rate and teaching programs, the confirmation is required to demonstrate the financers before they begin investing resources into the proposal. (yin, 2009), after the second meeting with the hospital planning committee, quick agreement was achieved that the chief principle of the study was to deal with the decision as to whether the offer for an hmo should be followed to the viewpoint of marketing major investments in its execution. following is the purpose of the study consists of research questions and a statement of the study scope., question: what is the demand for the new hmo, scope: limited to staff, students and faculty of the university., the study was restricted to the university students, staff and the faculty for several reasons. first the university management was favorably liable toward the plan, giving it the best possibility of achievement in those surroundings. if support from that group was not in confirmation, then the prediction would not be bright in other organizations .second, the budget restraint made it improbable that any valuable research should be carried out for more than one organization. no geographic limits were there, as it was consider that distance from the home to hmo should have only a weak pressure on individual choice in the proposed hmo. finally, the following set of purposes and objectives are set;, purpose: what target market segments should the hmo emphasize, objective: recognize the market sections which are most paying attention in the proposed hmo. assess their feasible rate of consumption of medical services from their past medical records., purpose: what services should be offered at what price level, objectives: recognize the features or characteristics of health plans that would have the greatest control on an individual’s option among options., number of hypothesis were developed as to who was most probable to be paying attention in the plan. of course, they would have to express strong interest in the plan as described to them. besides, good prediction would be those who were disgruntled with the treatment or quality of their current plan, did not have a long standing connection with a family doctor, had positive attitudes toward the apollo hospital, and were not registered in other healthcare plans through their spouses., research design – a research design is a blueprint used to guide research study towards its objectives. the procedure of scheming research study involves many consistent decisions. the most important decision is the alternative of research because it decides how the information will be accessed. (marczyk, 2009), types of approach, exploratory approach – it is done when one is looking for imminent into the common nature of a problem, pertinent variables that require to be measured and alternative decisions. the research methods are highly elastic, qualitative and amorphous., descriptive research – descriptive research clinches a large populace of marketing research., causal research – when it is vital to present that one variable causes or develops the value for the other variables, a causal research approach must be used., the first step is o use exploratory research approach to generate all possible reasons for the problem. thereafter, a combination of descriptive and a causal approaches is used to narrow the possible causes., data collection methods, primary data – primary data are collected especially to deal with a specific research purpose. a variety of techniques, ranging from qualitative research to survey methods may be employed., secondary data – secondary data are by now available, because they were composed for some other functions other than solving the basic problem. included here are:, syndicated data sources, such as consumer purchase panels., databanks and other sources like government sources such as census bureau, existing company information system, to make choice for the best research approach for the hmo, a victorious decision has to be made which having large number of strengths and least weakness in relation to the options. once this is obtained by uniting quite a few methods to take gains of their best characteristic and curtail their limitations (axinn, 2006), our research for hmo would engage preliminary qualitative research followed by a survey to depict the notion of the healthcare organization to a wide representative sample and test of the hypothesis., the principle survey options were mail questionnaires and personal or telephone interviews. (fowler, 2009 dissertation proposal.doc), personal interviews – the interviewer interviews the respondent in person. there is direct contact between the interviewer and the respondent., personal interviews using trained interviewers are too costly and would be feasible only with a sample that was too small to identify adequately the differences., telephone interviews – the respondent is interviewed by the interviewer on telephone. there is no direct contact between the interviewer and the respondent., telephone interviews would have been difficult to conduct both because of the length of the questionnaire and the evident need for multiple category questions, which are awkward to communicate orally., mail questionnaires – the questionnaire is administered through fax. the interview may or may not have contact with the respondent., the response rate would be low unless substantial incentives and follow ups are not provided., the solution was a self administered questionnaire, with door to door delivery and pickup by untrained survey assistants., research tactics and implementation, measurement –, the first step is to understand the research purpose into information requirements and then into questions that can be answered by expected respondents. one of the purposes of hmo study is to assess viable demand for the proposed hmo in relation to their current health plan. this means the information will be required on the respondent’s overall assessment of the projected hmo, their liking for the proposed hmo relative to their current health plan and their possibility of accepting the new plan if it becomes obtainable., once the individual questions have been decided, the measuring instrument has to be developed. the researcher designing an effective questionnaire must be concerned with how questions on sensitive topics such as income can be asked, what the order of the question should be and how misinterpretations can be avoided., sampling plan, most of the marketing research studies are restricted to the sublet of the total population or sample which is applicable to the research questions. one approach is to select a sample for the proposed hmo is probability sampling, in which all population members have a chance of being in the sample., anticipating the analysis, before actual data collection commences, the researcher must be attentive to the likelihood that the data will be not enough for testing the theory or will be interesting but unable of supporting act recommendations. with these anxieties in mind, the researcher should map how each of the data items is to be examined. one useful device is to generate imaginary dummy data from the questions in the measurement tool. the dummy data can be examined to make sure that the consequences deal with the objectives., analysis of value versus cost and time involved, cost-benefit analysis should be likely to conclude if the research should be taken as designed or if it should not be conducted at all., one of the mechanisms of cost is time. a research study for the proposed hmo can take six months or more. it may be place such that a time phase will not delay a decision, thus generating the jeopardy that set of attractive circumstances will be missed. the examination can bring to a close that either the research design is cost efficient and should be preceded further or that it is not and should be ended., errors in research design, the value of research project is based on the overall excellence of the research design and on the data collected and examined based on the design. more than a few possible sources of error can have an effect on the quality of a research procedure. the errors can persuade the variety of stages of the research procedure and result in imprecise or ineffective research conclusion., quantitative and qualitative methods in health care management, quantitative research approach, these are research methods that are based on the scientific approaches in providing numeric value for the study. researcher establishes various relationships among these numeric values. statistical analysis is also being implemented to find the scope and strength of the causal relationship. (creswell, 2009), advantages:, the findings of quantitative research are in the form of numeric values or statistics that are easy to explain and bring effective working., comparing can be done easily as well as the hypothesis can be formulated and development of objectives., the researchers can be tested on the basis of its effectiveness in observations by using effective quantitative methods., disadvantages:, any false numeric value can mislead the research study and purpose., with the simplification of research study, the quantitative research becomes less meaningful., artificial environment can be set up if there is unnatural settling of numeric values., qualitative approach, healthcare management includes the planning, monitoring and coordinating the financing and delivery of medical services. healthcare professionals and managed care doctors or managers work in such an environment where there is constant increase in costs, demand for innovations in medical and care technology and regulations by government. also, healthcare managers work with multiple people like third party insurers and health care providers. healthcare management is therefore a complex and composite process. luckily, various qualitative methods are there to assist research in healthcare management., various qualitative methods, in our research, healthcare managers are concerned with the issues of developing new hmo, in which qualitative methods can be used for the effective working. qualitative methods helps in reaching to a specific decision related to the research purpose. qualitative research tools and methods can be applied to apollo hospital for healthcare management which includes nominal group technique, focus groups, brainstorming sessions and delphi. (merrium, 2009), nominal group techniques – these are kind of group discussion which are held to deal with a particular issue. at the time of nominal group techniques, each member group independent of others are asked to pen down a list of notions regarding the issue under discussion. then, group members are asked to present their ideas one at a time which is then followed by a huge discussion. after all the individual group members have accessed their thoughts and each group has discussed them, each member then ranks the notions which are being presented. ngt is a kind of interactive process that emerges after several ideas and their respective discussions., focus groups- it is the most popular technique in marketing and is a group interview. the sizes for the group can vary accordingly from eight to twelve people. in healthcare management, focus groups are best for providing discussion on important issues or in evaluating patient satisfaction. many healthcare organizations make use of focus groups to know their strengths and weaknesses from the view points of the patients. focus groups of practitioners and patients helps in exploring important issues like service delivery., brainstorming – in brainstorming sittings or sessions, healthcare managers call together or assemble a group of applicable people like medical professionals and medical providers so as to know the problems or emerging issues evaluate impacts or think for other strategic alternatives. at the time of brainstorming sessions, each individual from the group present their concepts and notions following with a short explanations such that the problems could be addressed. during these sessions, healthcare managers are needed to provide new ideas so as to meet new challenge. these sessions are helpful for the hospitals as the changes in public policy and medical technology poses new threats and challenges to the healthcare management., expert insight – according to w.j duncan and peter ginter, brainstorming and nominal group techniques are the effective decision making tools for the healthcare management. with these techniques healthcare managers are able to know the demand and applicability of the new proposed hmo., delphi – it is an effective and popular technique to evaluate qualitative data for the issues which are in relation to the environment in which healthcare organizations works or operates. under the method of delphi, healthcare mangers end to seek opinions of professionals on a specific issue. after assessing and collecting the opinions of the professionals, mangers evaluate them and the send further to the experts for their expertise judgments and opinions. by this way, synthesis of opinions generates., ethical issues regarding healthcare management, the key or the most significant ethical issue is the safeguard of data or information obtained from the patient, which is both personal and private. initially, medical records of patients were available to everybody and anybody but now it is no more obtainable. nowadays, majority of the healthcare organizations keep the records of patients confidential and safe., cite this work.

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  • Published: 03 July 2024

The impact of evidence-based nursing leadership in healthcare settings: a mixed methods systematic review

  • Maritta Välimäki 1 , 2 ,
  • Shuang Hu 3 ,
  • Tella Lantta 1 ,
  • Kirsi Hipp 1 , 4 ,
  • Jaakko Varpula 1 ,
  • Jiarui Chen 3 ,
  • Gaoming Liu 5 ,
  • Yao Tang 3 ,
  • Wenjun Chen 3 &
  • Xianhong Li 3  

BMC Nursing volume  23 , Article number:  452 ( 2024 ) Cite this article

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Metrics details

The central component in impactful healthcare decisions is evidence. Understanding how nurse leaders use evidence in their own managerial decision making is still limited. This mixed methods systematic review aimed to examine how evidence is used to solve leadership problems and to describe the measured and perceived effects of evidence-based leadership on nurse leaders and their performance, organizational, and clinical outcomes.

We included articles using any type of research design. We referred nurses, nurse managers or other nursing staff working in a healthcare context when they attempt to influence the behavior of individuals or a group in an organization using an evidence-based approach. Seven databases were searched until 11 November 2021. JBI Critical Appraisal Checklist for Quasi-experimental studies, JBI Critical Appraisal Checklist for Case Series, Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool were used to evaluate the Risk of bias in quasi-experimental studies, case series, mixed methods studies, respectively. The JBI approach to mixed methods systematic reviews was followed, and a parallel-results convergent approach to synthesis and integration was adopted.

Thirty-one publications were eligible for the analysis: case series ( n  = 27), mixed methods studies ( n  = 3) and quasi-experimental studies ( n  = 1). All studies were included regardless of methodological quality. Leadership problems were related to the implementation of knowledge into practice, the quality of nursing care and the resource availability. Organizational data was used in 27 studies to understand leadership problems, scientific evidence from literature was sought in 26 studies, and stakeholders’ views were explored in 24 studies. Perceived and measured effects of evidence-based leadership focused on nurses’ performance, organizational outcomes, and clinical outcomes. Economic data were not available.

Conclusions

This is the first systematic review to examine how evidence is used to solve leadership problems and to describe its measured and perceived effects from different sites. Although a variety of perceptions and effects were identified on nurses’ performance as well as on organizational and clinical outcomes, available knowledge concerning evidence-based leadership is currently insufficient. Therefore, more high-quality research and clinical trial designs are still needed.

Trail registration

The study was registered (PROSPERO CRD42021259624).

Peer Review reports

Global health demands have set new roles for nurse leaders [ 1 ].Nurse leaders are referred to as nurses, nurse managers, or other nursing staff working in a healthcare context who attempt to influence the behavior of individuals or a group based on goals that are congruent with organizational goals [ 2 ]. They are seen as professionals “armed with data and evidence, and a commitment to mentorship and education”, and as a group in which “leaders innovate, transform, and achieve quality outcomes for patients, health care professionals, organizations, and communities” [ 3 ]. Effective leadership occurs when team members critically follow leaders and are motivated by a leader’s decisions based on the organization’s requests and targets [ 4 ]. On the other hand, problems caused by poor leadership may also occur, regarding staff relations, stress, sickness, or retention [ 5 ]. Therefore, leadership requires an understanding of different problems to be solved using synthesizing evidence from research, clinical expertise, and stakeholders’ preferences [ 6 , 7 ]. If based on evidence, leadership decisions, also referred as leadership decision making [ 8 ], could ensure adequate staffing [ 7 , 9 ] and to produce sufficient and cost-effective care [ 10 ]. However, nurse leaders still rely on their decision making on their personal [ 11 ] and professional experience [ 10 ] over research evidence, which can lead to deficiencies in the quality and safety of care delivery [ 12 , 13 , 14 ]. As all nurses should demonstrate leadership in their profession, their leadership competencies should be strengthened [ 15 ].

Evidence-informed decision-making, referred to as evidence appraisal and application, and evaluation of decisions [ 16 ], has been recognized as one of the core competencies for leaders [ 17 , 18 ]. The role of evidence in nurse leaders’ managerial decision making has been promoted by public authorities [ 19 , 20 , 21 ]. Evidence-based management, another concept related to evidence-based leadership, has been used as the potential to improve healthcare services [ 22 ]. It can guide nursing leaders, in developing working conditions, staff retention, implementation practices, strategic planning, patient care, and success of leadership [ 13 ]. Collins and Holton [ 23 ] in their systematic review and meta-analysis examined 83 studies regarding leadership development interventions. They found that leadership training can result in significant improvement in participants’ skills, especially in knowledge level, although the training effects varied across studies. Cummings et al. [ 24 ] reviewed 100 papers (93 studies) and concluded that participation in leadership interventions had a positive impact on the development of a variety of leadership styles. Clavijo-Chamorro et al. [ 25 ] in their review of 11 studies focused on leadership-related factors that facilitate evidence implementation: teamwork, organizational structures, and transformational leadership. The role of nurse managers was to facilitate evidence-based practices by transforming contexts to motivate the staff and move toward a shared vision of change.

As far as we are aware, however, only a few systematic reviews have focused on evidence-based leadership or related concepts in the healthcare context aiming to analyse how nurse leaders themselves uses evidence in the decision-making process. Young [ 26 ] targeted definitions and acceptance of evidence-based management (EBMgt) in healthcare while Hasanpoor et al. [ 22 ] identified facilitators and barriers, sources of evidence used, and the role of evidence in the process of decision making. Both these reviews concluded that EBMgt was of great importance but used limitedly in healthcare settings due to a lack of time, a lack of research management activities, and policy constraints. A review by Williams [ 27 ] showed that the usage of evidence to support management in decision making is marginal due to a shortage of relevant evidence. Fraser [ 28 ] in their review further indicated that the potential evidence-based knowledge is not used in decision making by leaders as effectively as it could be. Non-use of evidence occurs and leaders base their decisions mainly on single studies, real-world evidence, and experts’ opinions [ 29 ]. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses rarely provide evidence of management-related interventions [ 30 ]. Tate et al. [ 31 ] concluded based on their systematic review and meta-analysis that the ability of nurse leaders to use and critically appraise research evidence may influence the way policy is enacted and how resources and staff are used to meet certain objectives set by policy. This can further influence staff and workforce outcomes. It is therefore important that nurse leaders have the capacity and motivation to use the strongest evidence available to effect change and guide their decision making [ 27 ].

Despite of a growing body of evidence, we found only one review focusing on the impact of evidence-based knowledge. Geert et al. [ 32 ] reviewed literature from 2007 to 2016 to understand the elements of design, delivery, and evaluation of leadership development interventions that are the most reliably linked to outcomes at the level of the individual and the organization, and that are of most benefit to patients. The authors concluded that it is possible to improve individual-level outcomes among leaders, such as knowledge, motivation, skills, and behavior change using evidence-based approaches. Some of the most effective interventions included, for example, interactive workshops, coaching, action learning, and mentoring. However, these authors found limited research evidence describing how nurse leaders themselves use evidence to support their managerial decisions in nursing and what the outcomes are.

To fill the knowledge gap and compliment to existing knowledgebase, in this mixed methods review we aimed to (1) examine what leadership problems nurse leaders solve using an evidence-based approach and (2) how they use evidence to solve these problems. We also explored (3) the measured and (4) perceived effects of the evidence-based leadership approach in healthcare settings. Both qualitative and quantitative components of the effects of evidence-based leadership were examined to provide greater insights into the available literature [ 33 ]. Together with the evidence-based leadership approach, and its impact on nursing [ 34 , 35 ], this knowledge gained in this review can be used to inform clinical policy or organizational decisions [ 33 ]. The study is registered (PROSPERO CRD42021259624). The methods used in this review were specified in advance and documented in a priori in a published protocol [ 36 ]. Key terms of the review and the search terms are defined in Table  1 (population, intervention, comparison, outcomes, context, other).

In this review, we used a mixed methods approach [ 37 ]. A mixed methods systematic review was selected as this approach has the potential to produce direct relevance to policy makers and practitioners [ 38 ]. Johnson and Onwuegbuzie [ 39 ] have defined mixed methods research as “the class of research in which the researcher mixes or combines quantitative and qualitative research techniques, methods, approaches, concepts or language into a single study.” Therefore, we combined quantitative and narrative analysis to appraise and synthesize empirical evidence, and we held them as equally important in informing clinical policy or organizational decisions [ 34 ]. In this review, a comprehensive synthesis of quantitative and qualitative data was performed first and then discussed in discussion part (parallel-results convergent design) [ 40 ]. We hoped that different type of analysis approaches could complement each other and deeper picture of the topic in line with our research questions could be gained [ 34 ].

Inclusion and exclusion criteria

Inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study are described in Table  1 .

Search strategy

A three-step search strategy was utilized. First, an initial limited search with #MEDLINE was undertaken, followed by analysis of the words used in the title, abstract, and the article’s key index terms. Second, the search strategy, including identified keywords and index terms, was adapted for each included data base and a second search was undertaken on 11 November 2021. The full search strategy for each database is described in Additional file 1 . Third, the reference list of all studies included in the review were screened for additional studies. No year limits or language restrictions were used.

Information sources

The database search included the following: CINAHL (EBSCO), Cochrane Library (academic database for medicine and health science and nursing), Embase (Elsevier), PsycINFO (EBSCO), PubMed (MEDLINE), Scopus (Elsevier) and Web of Science (academic database across all scientific and technical disciplines, ranging from medicine and social sciences to arts and humanities). These databases were selected as they represent typical databases in health care context. Subject headings from each of the databases were included in the search strategies. Boolean operators ‘AND’ and ‘OR’ were used to combine the search terms. An information specialist from the University of Turku Library was consulted in the formation of the search strategies.

Study selection

All identified citations were collated and uploaded into Covidence software (Covidence systematic review software, Veritas Health Innovation, Melbourne, Australia www.covidence.org ), and duplicates were removed by the software. Titles and abstracts were screened and assessed against the inclusion criteria independently by two reviewers out of four, and any discrepancies were resolved by the third reviewer (MV, KH, TL, WC). Studies meeting the inclusion criteria were retrieved in full and archived in Covidence. Access to one full-text article was lacking: the authors for one study were contacted about the missing full text, but no full text was received. All remaining hits of the included studies were retrieved and assessed independently against the inclusion criteria by two independent reviewers of four (MV, KH, TL, WC). Studies that did not meet the inclusion criteria were excluded, and the reasons for exclusion were recorded in Covidence. Any disagreements that arose between the reviewers were resolved through discussions with XL.

Assessment of methodological quality

Eligible studies were critically appraised by two independent reviewers (YT, SH). Standardized critical appraisal instruments based on the study design were used. First, quasi-experimental studies were assessed using the JBI Critical Appraisal Checklist for Quasi-experimental studies [ 44 ]. Second, case series were assessed using the JBI Critical Appraisal Checklist for Case Series [ 45 ]. Third, mixed methods studies were appraised using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool [ 46 ].

To increase inter-reviewer reliability, the review agreement was calculated (SH) [ 47 ]. A kappa greater than 0.8 was considered to represent a high level of agreement (0–0.1). In our data, the agreement was 0.75. Discrepancies raised between two reviewers were resolved through discussion and modifications and confirmed by XL. As an outcome, studies that met the inclusion criteria were proceeded to critical appraisal and assessed as suitable for inclusion in the review. The scores for each item and overall critical appraisal scores were presented.

Data extraction

For data extraction, specific tables were created. First, study characteristics (author(s), year, country, design, number of participants, setting) were extracted by two authors independently (JC, MV) and reviewed by TL. Second, descriptions of the interventions were extracted by two reviewers (JV, JC) using the structure of the TIDIeR (Template for Intervention Description and Replication) checklist (brief name, the goal of the intervention, material and procedure, models of delivery and location, dose, modification, adherence and fidelity) [ 48 ]. The extractions were confirmed (MV).

Third, due to a lack of effectiveness data and a wide heterogeneity between study designs and presentation of outcomes, no attempt was made to pool the quantitative data statistically; the findings of the quantitative data were presented in narrative form only [ 44 ]. The separate data extraction tables for each research question were designed specifically for this study. For both qualitative (and a qualitative component of mixed-method studies) and quantitative studies, the data were extracted and tabulated into text format according to preplanned research questions [ 36 ]. To test the quality of the tables and the data extraction process, three authors independently extracted the data from the first five studies (in alphabetical order). After that, the authors came together to share and determine whether their approaches of the data extraction were consistent with each other’s output and whether the content of each table was in line with research question. No reason was found to modify the data extraction tables or planned process. After a consensus of the data extraction process was reached, the data were extracted in pairs by independent reviewers (WC, TY, SH, GL). Any disagreements that arose between the reviewers were resolved through discussion and with a third reviewer (MV).

Data analysis

We were not able to conduct a meta-analysis due to a lack of effectiveness data based on clinical trials. Instead, we used inductive thematic analysis with constant comparison to answer the research question [ 46 , 49 ] using tabulated primary data from qualitative and quantitative studies as reported by the original authors in narrative form only [ 47 ]. In addition, the qualitizing process was used to transform quantitative data to qualitative data; this helped us to convert the whole data into themes and categories. After that we used the thematic analysis for the narrative data as follows. First, the text was carefully read, line by line, to reveal topics answering each specific review question (MV). Second, the data coding was conducted, and the themes in the data were formed by data categorization. The process of deriving the themes was inductive based on constant comparison [ 49 ]. The results of thematic analysis and data categorization was first described in narrative format and then the total number of studies was calculated where the specific category was identified (%).

Stakeholder involvement

The method of reporting stakeholders’ involvement follows the key components by [ 50 ]: (1) people involved, (2) geographical location, (3) how people were recruited, (4) format of involvement, (5) amount of involvement, (6) ethical approval, (7) financial compensation, and (8) methods for reporting involvement.

In our review, stakeholder involvement targeted nurses and nurse leader in China. Nurse Directors of two hospitals recommended potential participants who received a personal invitation letter from researchers to participate in a discussion meeting. Stakeholders’ participation was based on their own free will. Due to COVID-19, one online meeting (1 h) was organized (25 May 2022). Eleven participants joined the meeting. Ethical approval was not applied and no financial compensation was offered. At the end of the meeting, experiences of stakeholders’ involvement were explored.

The meeting started with an introductory presentation with power points. The rationale, methods, and preliminary review results were shared with the participants [ 51 ].The meeting continued with general questions for the participants: (1) Are you aware of the concepts of evidence-based practice or evidence-based leadership?; (2) How important is it to use evidence to support decisions among nurse leaders?; (3) How is the evidence-based approach used in hospital settings?; and (4) What type of evidence is currently used to support nurse leaders’ decision making (e.g. scientific literature, organizational data, stakeholder views)?

Two people took notes on the course and content of the conversation. The notes were later transcripted in verbatim, and the key points of the discussions were summarised. Although answers offered by the stakeholders were very short, the information was useful to validate the preliminary content of the results, add the rigorousness of the review, and obtain additional perspectives. A recommendation of the stakeholders was combined in the Discussion part of this review increasing the applicability of the review in the real world [ 50 ]. At the end of the discussion, the value of stakeholders’ involvement was asked. Participants shared that the experience of participating was unique and the topic of discussion was challenging. Two authors of the review group further represented stakeholders by working together with the research team throughout the review study.

Search results

From seven different electronic databases, 6053 citations were identified as being potentially relevant to the review. Then, 3133 duplicates were removed by an automation tool (Covidence: www.covidence.org ), and one was removed manually. The titles and abstracts of 3040 of citations were reviewed, and a total of 110 full texts were included (one extra citation was found on the reference list but later excluded). Based on the eligibility criteria, 31 studies (32 hits) were critically appraised and deemed suitable for inclusion in the review. The search results and selection process are presented in the PRISMA [ 52 ] flow diagram Fig.  1 . The full list of references for included studies can be find in Additional file 2 . To avoid confusion between articles of the reference list and studies included in the analysis, the studies included in the review are referred inside the article using the reference number of each study (e.g. ref 1, ref 2).

figure 1

Search results and study selection and inclusion process [ 52 ]

Characteristics of included studies

The studies had multiple purposes, aiming to develop practice, implement a new approach, improve quality, or to develop a model. The 31 studies (across 32 hits) were case series studies ( n  = 27), mixed methods studies ( n  = 3) and a quasi-experimental study ( n  = 1). All studies were published between the years 2004 and 2021. The highest number of papers was published in year 2020.

Table  2 describes the characteristics of included studies and Additional file 3 offers a narrative description of the studies.

Methodological quality assessment

Quasi-experimental studies.

We had one quasi-experimental study (ref 31). All questions in the critical appraisal tool were applicable. The total score of the study was 8 (out of a possible 9). Only one response of the tool was ‘no’ because no control group was used in the study (see Additional file 4 for the critical appraisal of included studies).

Case series studies . A case series study is typically defined as a collection of subjects with common characteristics. The studies do not include a comparison group and are often based on prevalent cases and on a sample of convenience [ 53 ]. Munn et al. [ 45 ] further claim that case series are best described as observational studies, lacking experimental and randomized characteristics, being descriptive studies, without a control or comparator group. Out of 27 case series studies included in our review, the critical appraisal scores varied from 1 to 9. Five references were conference abstracts with empirical study results, which were scored from 1 to 3. Full reports of these studies were searched in electronic databases but not found. Critical appraisal scores for the remaining 22 studies ranged from 1 to 9 out of a possible score of 10. One question (Q3) was not applicable to 13 studies: “Were valid methods used for identification of the condition for all participants included in the case series?” Only two studies had clearly reported the demographic of the participants in the study (Q6). Twenty studies met Criteria 8 (“Were the outcomes or follow-up results of cases clearly reported?”) and 18 studies met Criteria 7 (“Q7: Was there clear reporting of clinical information of the participants?”) (see Additional file 4 for the critical appraisal of included studies).

Mixed-methods studies

Mixed-methods studies involve a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. This is a common design and includes convergent design, sequential explanatory design, and sequential exploratory design [ 46 ]. There were three mixed-methods studies. The critical appraisal scores for the three studies ranged from 60 to 100% out of a possible 100%. Two studies met all the criteria, while one study fulfilled 60% of the scored criteria due to a lack of information to understand the relevance of the sampling strategy well enough to address the research question (Q4.1) or to determine whether the risk of nonresponse bias was low (Q4.4) (see Additional file 4 for the critical appraisal of included studies).

Intervention or program components

The intervention of program components were categorized and described using the TiDier checklist: name and goal, theory or background, material, procedure, provider, models of delivery, location, dose, modification, and adherence and fidelity [ 48 ]. A description of intervention in each study is described in Additional file 5 and a narrative description in Additional file 6 .

Leadership problems

In line with the inclusion criteria, data for the leadership problems were categorized in all 31 included studies (see Additional file 7 for leadership problems). Three types of leadership problems were identified: implementation of knowledge into practice, the quality of clinical care, and resources in nursing care. A narrative summary of the results is reported below.

Implementing knowledge into practice

Eleven studies (35%) aimed to solve leadership problems related to implementation of knowledge into practice. Studies showed how to support nurses in evidence-based implementation (EBP) (ref 3, ref 5), how to engage nurses in using evidence in practice (ref 4), how to convey the importance of EBP (ref 22) or how to change practice (ref 4). Other problems were how to facilitate nurses to use guideline recommendations (ref 7) and how nurses can make evidence-informed decisions (ref 8). General concerns also included the linkage between theory and practice (ref 1) as well as how to implement the EBP model in practice (ref 6). In addition, studies were motivated by the need for revisions or updates of protocols to improve clinical practice (ref 10) as well as the need to standardize nursing activities (ref 11, ref 14).

The quality of the care

Thirteen (42%) focused on solving problems related to the quality of clinical care. In these studies, a high number of catheter infections led a lack of achievement of organizational goals (ref 2, ref 9). A need to reduce patient symptoms in stem cell transplant patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy (ref 24) was also one of the problems to be solved. In addition, the projects focused on how to prevent pressure ulcers (ref 26, ref 29), how to enhance the quality of cancer treatment (ref 25) and how to reduce the need for invasive constipation treatment (ref 30). Concerns about patient safety (ref 15), high fall rates (ref 16, ref 19), dissatisfaction of patients (ref 16, ref 18) and nurses (ref 16, ref 30) were also problems that had initiated the projects. Studies addressed concerns about how to promote good contingency care in residential aged care homes (ref 20) and about how to increase recognition of human trafficking problems in healthcare (ref 21).

Resources in nursing care

Nurse leaders identified problems in their resources, especially in staffing problems. These problems were identified in seven studies (23%), which involved concerns about how to prevent nurses from leaving the job (ref 31), how to ensure appropriate recruitment, staffing and retaining of nurses (ref 13) and how to decrease nurses’ burden and time spent on nursing activities (ref 12). Leadership turnover was also reported as a source of dissatisfaction (ref 17); studies addressed a lack of structured transition and training programs, which led to turnover (ref 23), as well as how to improve intershift handoff among nurses (ref 28). Optimal design for new hospitals was also examined (ref 27).

Main features of evidence-based leadership

Out of 31 studies, 17 (55%) included all four domains of an evidence-based leadership approach, and four studies (13%) included evidence of critical appraisal of the results (see Additional file 8 for the main features of evidence-based Leadership) (ref 11, ref 14, ref 23, ref 27).

Organizational evidence

Twenty-seven studies (87%) reported how organizational evidence was collected and used to solve leadership problems (ref 2). Retrospective chart reviews (ref 5), a review of the extent of specific incidents (ref 19), and chart auditing (ref 7, ref 25) were conducted. A gap between guideline recommendations and actual care was identified using organizational data (ref 7) while the percentage of nurses’ working time spent on patient care was analyzed using an electronic charting system (ref 12). Internal data (ref 22), institutional data, and programming metrics were also analyzed to understand the development of the nurse workforce (ref 13).

Surveys (ref 3, ref 25), interviews (ref 3, ref 25) and group reviews (ref 18) were used to better understand the leadership problem to be solved. Employee opinion surveys on leadership (ref 17), a nurse satisfaction survey (ref 30) and a variety of reporting templates were used for the data collection (ref 28) reported. Sometimes, leadership problems were identified by evidence facilitators or a PI’s team who worked with staff members (ref 15, ref 17). Problems in clinical practice were also identified by the Nursing Professional Council (ref 14), managers (ref 26) or nurses themselves (ref 24). Current practices were reviewed (ref 29) and a gap analysis was conducted (ref 4, ref 16, ref 23) together with SWOT analysis (ref 16). In addition, hospital mission and vision statements, research culture established and the proportion of nursing alumni with formal EBP training were analyzed (ref 5). On the other hand, it was stated that no systematic hospital-specific sources of data regarding job satisfaction or organizational commitment were used (ref 31). In addition, statements of organizational analysis were used on a general level only (ref 1).

Scientific evidence identified

Twenty-six studies (84%) reported the use of scientific evidence in their evidence-based leadership processes. A literature search was conducted (ref 21) and questions, PICO, and keywords were identified (ref 4) in collaboration with a librarian. Electronic databases, including PubMed (ref 14, ref 31), Cochrane, and EMBASE (ref 31) were searched. Galiano (ref 6) used Wiley Online Library, Elsevier, CINAHL, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library while Hoke (ref 11) conducted an electronic search using CINAHL and PubMed to retrieve articles.

Identified journals were reviewed manually (ref 31). The findings were summarized using ‘elevator speech’ (ref 4). In a study by Gifford et al. (ref 9) evidence facilitators worked with participants to access, appraise, and adapt the research evidence to the organizational context. Ostaszkiewicz (ref 20) conducted a scoping review of literature and identified and reviewed frameworks and policy documents about the topic and the quality standards. Further, a team of nursing administrators, directors, staff nurses, and a patient representative reviewed the literature and made recommendations for practice changes.

Clinical practice guidelines were also used to offer scientific evidence (ref 7, ref 19). Evidence was further retrieved from a combination of nursing policies, guidelines, journal articles, and textbooks (ref 12) as well as from published guidelines and literature (ref 13). Internal evidence, professional practice knowledge, relevant theories and models were synthesized (ref 24) while other study (ref 25) reviewed individual studies, synthesized with systematic reviews or clinical practice guidelines. The team reviewed the research evidence (ref 3, ref 15) or conducted a literature review (ref 22, ref 28, ref 29), a literature search (ref 27), a systematic review (ref 23), a review of the literature (ref 30) or ‘the scholarly literature was reviewed’ (ref 18). In addition, ‘an extensive literature review of evidence-based best practices was carried out’ (ref 10). However, detailed description how the review was conducted was lacking.

Views of stakeholders

A total of 24 studies (77%) reported methods for how the views of stakeholders, i.e., professionals or experts, were considered. Support to run this study was received from nursing leadership and multidisciplinary teams (ref 29). Experts and stakeholders joined the study team in some cases (ref 25, ref 30), and in other studies, their opinions were sought to facilitate project success (ref 3). Sometimes a steering committee was formed by a Chief Nursing Officer and Clinical Practice Specialists (ref 2). More specifically, stakeholders’ views were considered using interviews, workshops and follow-up teleconferences (ref 7). The literature review was discussed with colleagues (ref 11), and feedback and support from physicians as well as the consensus of staff were sought (ref 16).

A summary of the project findings and suggestions for the studies were discussed at 90-minute weekly meetings by 11 charge nurses. Nurse executive directors were consulted over a 10-week period (ref 31). An implementation team (nurse, dietician, physiotherapist, occupational therapist) was formed to support the implementation of evidence-based prevention measures (ref 26). Stakeholders volunteered to join in the pilot implementation (ref 28) or a stakeholder team met to determine the best strategy for change management, shortcomings in evidence-based criteria were discussed, and strategies to address those areas were planned (ref 5). Nursing leaders, staff members (ref 22), ‘process owners (ref 18) and program team members (ref 18, ref 19, ref 24) met regularly to discuss the problems. Critical input was sought from clinical educators, physicians, nutritionists, pharmacists, and nurse managers (ref 24). The unit director and senior nursing staff reviewed the contents of the product, and the final version of clinical pathways were reviewed and approved by the Quality Control Commission of the Nursing Department (ref 12). In addition, two co-design workshops with 18 residential aged care stakeholders were organized to explore their perspectives about factors to include in a model prototype (ref 20). Further, an agreement of stakeholders in implementing continuous quality services within an open relationship was conducted (ref 1).

Critical appraisal

In five studies (16%), a critical appraisal targeting the literature search was carried out. The appraisals were conducted by interns and teams who critiqued the evidence (ref 4). In Hoke’s study, four areas that had emerged in the literature were critically reviewed (ref 11). Other methods were to ‘critically appraise the search results’ (ref 14). Journal club team meetings (ref 23) were organized to grade the level and quality of evidence and the team ‘critically appraised relevant evidence’ (ref 27). On the other hand, the studies lacked details of how the appraisals were done in each study.

The perceived effects of evidence-based leadership

Perceived effects of evidence-based leadership on nurses’ performance.

Eleven studies (35%) described perceived effects of evidence-based leadership on nurses’ performance (see Additional file 9 for perceived effects of evidence-based leadership), which were categorized in four groups: awareness and knowledge, competence, ability to understand patients’ needs, and engagement. First, regarding ‘awareness and knowledge’, different projects provided nurses with new learning opportunities (ref 3). Staff’s knowledge (ref 20, ref 28), skills, and education levels improved (ref 20), as did nurses’ knowledge comprehension (ref 21). Second, interventions and approaches focusing on management and leadership positively influenced participants’ competence level to improve the quality of services. Their confidence level (ref 1) and motivation to change practice increased, self-esteem improved, and they were more positive and enthusiastic in their work (ref 22). Third, some nurses were relieved that they had learned to better handle patients’ needs (ref 25). For example, a systematic work approach increased nurses’ awareness of the patients who were at risk of developing health problems (ref 26). And last, nurse leaders were more engaged with staff, encouraging them to adopt the new practices and recognizing their efforts to change (ref 8).

Perceived effects on organizational outcomes

Nine studies (29%) described the perceived effects of evidence-based leadership on organizational outcomes (see Additional file 9 for perceived effects of evidence-based leadership). These were categorized into three groups: use of resources, staff commitment, and team effort. First, more appropriate use of resources was reported (ref 15, ref 20), and working time was more efficiently used (ref 16). In generally, a structured approach made implementing change more manageable (ref 1). On the other hand, in the beginning of the change process, the feedback from nurses was unfavorable, and they experienced discomfort in the new work style (ref 29). New approaches were also perceived as time consuming (ref 3). Second, nurse leaders believed that fewer nursing staff than expected left the organization over the course of the study (ref 31). Third, the project helped staff in their efforts to make changes, and it validated the importance of working as a team (ref 7). Collaboration and support between the nurses increased (ref 26). On the other hand, new work style caused challenges in teamwork (ref 3).

Perceived effects on clinical outcomes

Five studies (16%) reported the perceived effects of evidence-based leadership on clinical outcomes (see Additional file 9 for perceived effects of evidence-based leadership), which were categorized in two groups: general patient outcomes and specific clinical outcomes. First, in general, the project assisted in connecting the guideline recommendations and patient outcomes (ref 7). The project was good for the patients in general, and especially to improve patient safety (ref 16). On the other hand, some nurses thought that the new working style did not work at all for patients (ref 28). Second, the new approach used assisted in optimizing patients’ clinical problems and person-centered care (ref 20). Bowel management, for example, received very good feedback (ref 30).

The measured effects of evidence-based leadership

The measured effects on nurses’ performance.

Data were obtained from 20 studies (65%) (see Additional file 10 for measured effects of evidence-based leadership) and categorized nurse performance outcomes for three groups: awareness and knowledge, engagement, and satisfaction. First, six studies (19%) measured the awareness and knowledge levels of participants. Internship for staff nurses was beneficial to help participants to understand the process for using evidence-based practice and to grow professionally, to stimulate for innovative thinking, to give knowledge needed to use evidence-based practice to answer clinical questions, and to make possible to complete an evidence-based practice project (ref 3). Regarding implementation program of evidence-based practice, those with formal EBP training showed an improvement in knowledge, attitude, confidence, awareness and application after intervention (ref 3, ref 11, ref 20, ref 23, ref 25). On the contrary, in other study, attitude towards EBP remained stable ( p  = 0.543). and those who applied EBP decreased although no significant differences over the years ( p  = 0.879) (ref 6).

Second, 10 studies (35%) described nurses’ engagement to new practices (ref 5, ref 6, ref 7, ref 10, ref 16, ref 17, ref 18, ref 21, ref 25, ref 27). 9 studies (29%) studies reported that there was an improvement of compliance level of participants (ref 6, ref 7, ref 10, ref 16, ref 17, ref 18, ref 21, ref 25, ref 27). On the contrary, in DeLeskey’s (ref 5) study, although improvement was found in post-operative nausea and vomiting’s (PONV) risk factors documented’ (2.5–63%), and ’risk factors communicated among anaesthesia and surgical staff’ (0–62%), the improvement did not achieve the goal. The reason was a limited improvement was analysed. It was noted that only those patients who had been seen by the pre-admission testing nurse had risk assessments completed. Appropriate treatment/prophylaxis increased from 69 to 77%, and from 30 to 49%; routine assessment for PONV/rescue treatment 97% and 100% was both at 100% following the project. The results were discussed with staff but further reasons for a lack of engagement in nursing care was not reported.

And third, six studies (19%) reported nurses’ satisfaction with project outcomes. The study results showed that using evidence in managerial decisions improved nurses’ satisfaction and attitudes toward their organization ( P  < 0.05) (ref 31). Nurses’ overall job satisfaction improved as well (ref 17). Nurses’ satisfaction with usability of the electronic charting system significantly improved after introduction of the intervention (ref 12). In handoff project in seven hospitals, improvement was reported in all satisfaction indicators used in the study although improvement level varied in different units (ref 28). In addition, positive changes were reported in nurses’ ability to autonomously perform their job (“How satisfied are you with the tools and resources available for you treat and prevent patient constipation?” (54%, n  = 17 vs. 92%, n  = 35, p  < 0.001) (ref 30).

The measured effects on organizational outcomes

Thirteen studies (42%) described the effects of a project on organizational outcomes (see Additional file 10 for measured effects of evidence-based leadership), which were categorized in two groups: staff compliance, and changes in practices. First, studies reported improved organizational outcomes due to staff better compliance in care (ref 4, ref 13, ref 17, ref 23, ref 27, ref 31). Second, changes in organization practices were also described (ref 11) like changes in patient documentation (ref 12, ref 21). Van Orne (ref 30) found a statistically significant reduction in the average rate of invasive medication administration between pre-intervention and post-intervention ( p  = 0.01). Salvador (ref 24) also reported an improvement in a proactive approach to mucositis prevention with an evidence-based oral care guide. On the contrary, concerns were also raised such as not enough time for new bedside report (ref 16) or a lack of improvement of assessment of diabetic ulcer (ref 8).

The measured effects on clinical outcomes

A variety of improvements in clinical outcomes were reported (see Additional file 10 for measured effects of evidence-based leadership): improvement in patient clinical status and satisfaction level. First, a variety of improvement in patient clinical status was reported. improvement in Incidence of CAUTI decreased 27.8% between 2015 and 2019 (ref 2) while a patient-centered quality improvement project reduced CAUTI rates to 0 (ref 10). A significant decrease in transmission rate of MRSA transmission was also reported (ref 27) and in other study incidences of CLABSIs dropped following of CHG bathing (ref 14). Further, it was possible to decrease patient nausea from 18 to 5% and vomiting to 0% (ref 5) while the percentage of patients who left the hospital without being seen was below 2% after the project (ref 17). In addition, a significant reduction in the prevalence of pressure ulcers was found (ref 26, ref 29) and a significant reduction of mucositis severity/distress was achieved (ref 24). Patient falls rate decreased (ref 15, ref 16, ref 19, ref 27).

Second, patient satisfaction level after project implementation improved (ref 28). The scale assessing healthcare providers by consumers showed improvement, but the changes were not statistically significant. Improvement in an emergency department leadership model and in methods of communication with patients improved patient satisfaction scores by 600% (ref 17). In addition, new evidence-based unit improved patient experiences about the unit although not all items improved significantly (ref 18).

Stakeholder involvement in the mixed-method review

To ensure stakeholders’ involvement in the review, the real-world relevance of our research [ 53 ], achieve a higher level of meaning in our review results, and gain new perspectives on our preliminary findings [ 50 ], a meeting with 11 stakeholders was organized. First, we asked if participants were aware of the concepts of evidence-based practice or evidence-based leadership. Responses revealed that participants were familiar with the concept of evidence-based practice, but the topic of evidence-based leadership was totally new. Examples of nurses and nurse leaders’ responses are as follows: “I have heard a concept of evidence-based practice but never a concept of evidence-based leadership.” Another participant described: “I have heard it [evidence-based leadership] but I do not understand what it means.”

Second, as stakeholder involvement is beneficial to the relevance and impact of health research [ 54 ], we asked how important evidence is to them in supporting decisions in health care services. One participant described as follows: “Using evidence in decisions is crucial to the wards and also to the entire hospital.” Third, we asked how the evidence-based approach is used in hospital settings. Participants expressed that literature is commonly used to solve clinical problems in patient care but not to solve leadership problems. “In [patient] medication and care, clinical guidelines are regularly used. However, I am aware only a few cases where evidence has been sought to solve leadership problems.”

And last, we asked what type of evidence is currently used to support nurse leaders’ decision making (e.g. scientific literature, organizational data, stakeholder views)? The participants were aware that different types of information were collected in their organization on a daily basis (e.g. patient satisfaction surveys). However, the information was seldom used to support decision making because nurse leaders did not know how to access this information. Even so, the participants agreed that the use of evidence from different sources was important in approaching any leadership or managerial problems in the organization. Participants also suggested that all nurse leaders should receive systematic training related to the topic; this could support the daily use of the evidence-based approach.

To our knowledge, this article represents the first mixed-methods systematic review to examine leadership problems, how evidence is used to solve these problems and what the perceived and measured effects of evidence-based leadership are on nurse leaders and their performance, organizational, and clinical outcomes. This review has two key findings. First, the available research data suggests that evidence-based leadership has potential in the healthcare context, not only to improve knowledge and skills among nurses, but also to improve organizational outcomes and the quality of patient care. Second, remarkably little published research was found to explore the effects of evidence-based leadership with an efficient trial design. We validated the preliminary results with nurse stakeholders, and confirmed that nursing staff, especially nurse leaders, were not familiar with the concept of evidence-based leadership, nor were they used to implementing evidence into their leadership decisions. Our data was based on many databases, and we screened a large number of studies. We also checked existing registers and databases and found no registered or ongoing similar reviews being conducted. Therefore, our results may not change in the near future.

We found that after identifying the leadership problems, 26 (84%) studies out of 31 used organizational data, 25 (81%) studies used scientific evidence from the literature, and 21 (68%) studies considered the views of stakeholders in attempting to understand specific leadership problems more deeply. However, only four studies critically appraised any of these findings. Considering previous critical statements of nurse leaders’ use of evidence in their decision making [ 14 , 30 , 31 , 34 , 55 ], our results are still quite promising.

Our results support a previous systematic review by Geert et al. [ 32 ], which concluded that it is possible to improve leaders’ individual-level outcomes, such as knowledge, motivation, skills, and behavior change using evidence-based approaches. Collins and Holton [ 23 ] particularly found that leadership training resulted in significant knowledge and skill improvements, although the effects varied widely across studies. In our study, evidence-based leadership was seen to enable changes in clinical practice, especially in patient care. On the other hand, we understand that not all efforts to changes were successful [ 56 , 57 , 58 ]. An evidence-based approach causes negative attitudes and feelings. Negative emotions in participants have also been reported due to changes, such as discomfort with a new working style [ 59 ]. Another study reported inconvenience in using a new intervention and its potential risks for patient confidentiality. Sometimes making changes is more time consuming than continuing with current practice [ 60 ]. These findings may partially explain why new interventions or program do not always fully achieve their goals. On the other hand, Dubose et al. [ 61 ] state that, if prepared with knowledge of resistance, nurse leaders could minimize the potential negative consequences and capitalize on a powerful impact of change adaptation.

We found that only six studies used a specific model or theory to understand the mechanism of change that could guide leadership practices. Participants’ reactions to new approaches may be an important factor in predicting how a new intervention will be implemented into clinical practice. Therefore, stronger effort should be put to better understanding the use of evidence, how participants’ reactions and emotions or practice changes could be predicted or supported using appropriate models or theories, and how using these models are linked with leadership outcomes. In this task, nurse leaders have an important role. At the same time, more responsibilities in developing health services have been put on the shoulders of nurse leaders who may already be suffering under pressure and increased burden at work. Working in a leadership position may also lead to role conflict. A study by Lalleman et al. [ 62 ] found that nurses were used to helping other people, often in ad hoc situations. The helping attitude of nurses combined with structured managerial role may cause dilemmas, which may lead to stress. Many nurse leaders opt to leave their positions less than 5 years [ 63 ].To better fulfill the requirements of health services in the future, the role of nurse leaders in evidence-based leadership needs to be developed further to avoid ethical and practical dilemmas in their leadership practices.

It is worth noting that the perceived and measured effects did not offer strong support to each other but rather opened a new venue to understand the evidence-based leadership. Specifically, the perceived effects did not support to measured effects (competence, ability to understand patients’ needs, use of resources, team effort, and specific clinical outcomes) while the measured effects could not support to perceived effects (nurse’s performance satisfaction, changes in practices, and clinical outcomes satisfaction). These findings may indicate that different outcomes appear if the effects of evidence-based leadership are looked at using different methodological approach. Future study is encouraged using well-designed study method including mixed-method study to examine the consistency between perceived and measured effects of evidence-based leadership in health care.

There is a potential in nursing to support change by demonstrating conceptual and operational commitment to research-based practices [ 64 ]. Nurse leaders are well positioned to influence and lead professional governance, quality improvement, service transformation, change and shared governance [ 65 ]. In this task, evidence-based leadership could be a key in solving deficiencies in the quality, safety of care [ 14 ] and inefficiencies in healthcare delivery [ 12 , 13 ]. As WHO has revealed, there are about 28 million nurses worldwide, and the demand of nurses will put nurse resources into the specific spotlight [ 1 ]. Indeed, evidence could be used to find solutions for how to solve economic deficits or other problems using leadership skills. This is important as, when nurses are able to show leadership and control in their own work, they are less likely to leave their jobs [ 66 ]. On the other hand, based on our discussions with stakeholders, nurse leaders are not used to using evidence in their own work. Further, evidence-based leadership is not possible if nurse leaders do not have access to a relevant, robust body of evidence, adequate funding, resources, and organizational support, and evidence-informed decision making may only offer short-term solutions [ 55 ]. We still believe that implementing evidence-based strategies into the work of nurse leaders may create opportunities to protect this critical workforce from burnout or leaving the field [ 67 ]. However, the role of the evidence-based approach for nurse leaders in solving these problems is still a key question.

Limitations

This study aimed to use a broad search strategy to ensure a comprehensive review but, nevertheless, limitations exist: we may have missed studies not included in the major international databases. To keep search results manageable, we did not use specific databases to systematically search grey literature although it is a rich source of evidence used in systematic reviews and meta-analysis [ 68 ]. We still included published conference abstract/proceedings, which appeared in our scientific databases. It has been stated that conference abstracts and proceedings with empirical study results make up a great part of studies cited in systematic reviews [ 69 ]. At the same time, a limited space reserved for published conference publications can lead to methodological issues reducing the validity of the review results [ 68 ]. We also found that the great number of studies were carried out in western countries, restricting the generalizability of the results outside of English language countries. The study interventions and outcomes were too different across studies to be meaningfully pooled using statistical methods. Thus, our narrative synthesis could hypothetically be biased. To increase transparency of the data and all decisions made, the data, its categorization and conclusions are based on original studies and presented in separate tables and can be found in Additional files. Regarding a methodological approach [ 34 ], we used a mixed methods systematic review, with the core intention of combining quantitative and qualitative data from primary studies. The aim was to create a breadth and depth of understanding that could confirm to or dispute evidence and ultimately answer the review question posed [ 34 , 70 ]. Although the method is gaining traction due to its usefulness and practicality, guidance in combining quantitative and qualitative data in mixed methods systematic reviews is still limited at the theoretical stage [ 40 ]. As an outcome, it could be argued that other methodologies, for example, an integrative review, could have been used in our review to combine diverse methodologies [ 71 ]. We still believe that the results of this mixed method review may have an added value when compared with previous systematic reviews concerning leadership and an evidence-based approach.

Our mixed methods review fills the gap regarding how nurse leaders themselves use evidence to guide their leadership role and what the measured and perceived impact of evidence-based leadership is in nursing. Although the scarcity of controlled studies on this topic is concerning, the available research data suggest that evidence-based leadership intervention can improve nurse performance, organizational outcomes, and patient outcomes. Leadership problems are also well recognized in healthcare settings. More knowledge and a deeper understanding of the role of nurse leaders, and how they can use evidence in their own managerial leadership decisions, is still needed. Despite the limited number of studies, we assume that this narrative synthesis can provide a good foundation for how to develop evidence-based leadership in the future.

Implications

Based on our review results, several implications can be recommended. First, the future of nursing success depends on knowledgeable, capable, and strong leaders. Therefore, nurse leaders worldwide need to be educated about the best ways to manage challenging situations in healthcare contexts using an evidence-based approach in their decisions. This recommendation was also proposed by nurses and nurse leaders during our discussion meeting with stakeholders.

Second, curriculums in educational organizations and on-the-job training for nurse leaders should be updated to support general understanding how to use evidence in leadership decisions. And third, patients and family members should be more involved in the evidence-based approach. It is therefore important that nurse leaders learn how patients’ and family members’ views as stakeholders are better considered as part of the evidence-based leadership approach.

Future studies should be prioritized as follows: establishment of clear parameters for what constitutes and measures evidence-based leadership; use of theories or models in research to inform mechanisms how to effectively change the practice; conducting robust effectiveness studies using trial designs to evaluate the impact of evidence-based leadership; studying the role of patient and family members in improving the quality of clinical care; and investigating the financial impact of the use of evidence-based leadership approach within respective healthcare systems.

Data availability

The authors obtained all data for this review from published manuscripts.

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Acknowledgements

We want to thank the funding bodies, the Finnish National Agency of Education, Asia Programme, the Department of Nursing Science at the University of Turku, and Xiangya School of Nursing at the Central South University. We also would like to thank the nurses and nurse leaders for their valuable opinions on the topic.

The work was supported by the Finnish National Agency of Education, Asia Programme (grant number 26/270/2020) and the University of Turku (internal fund 26003424). The funders had no role in the study design and will not have any role during its execution, analysis, interpretation of the data, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

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Department of Nursing Science, University of Turku, Turku, FI-20014, Finland

Maritta Välimäki, Tella Lantta, Kirsi Hipp & Jaakko Varpula

School of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, FI-00014, Finland

Maritta Välimäki

Xiangya Nursing, School of Central South University, Changsha, 410013, China

Shuang Hu, Jiarui Chen, Yao Tang, Wenjun Chen & Xianhong Li

School of Health and Social Services, Häme University of Applied Sciences, Hämeenlinna, Finland

Hunan Cancer Hospital, Changsha, 410008, China

Gaoming Liu

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Contributions

Study design: MV, XL. Literature search and study selection: MV, KH, TL, WC, XL. Quality assessment: YT, SH, XL. Data extraction: JC, MV, JV, WC, YT, SH, GL. Analysis and interpretation: MV, SH. Manuscript writing: MV. Critical revisions for important intellectual content: MV, XL. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Differences between the original protocol

We modified criteria for the included studies: we included published conference abstracts/proceedings, which form a relatively broad knowledge base in scientific knowledge. We originally planned to conduct a survey with open-ended questions followed by a face-to-face meeting to discuss the preliminary results of the review. However, to avoid extra burden in nurses due to COVID-19, we decided to limit the validation process to the online discussion only.

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Välimäki, M., Hu, S., Lantta, T. et al. The impact of evidence-based nursing leadership in healthcare settings: a mixed methods systematic review. BMC Nurs 23 , 452 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12912-024-02096-4

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Health Management Leadership 4

Transformational Leadership Theory in the HealthSector

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Word Count: 2259

All over the world, leadership is regarded as an essential featurefor the future success of institutions. 1 West et al. 2 suggest that system changes, setting targets and competition increaseare still inadequate measure for change within an organization. Thehealth care sector is one of the organizations that critically need achange of culture in management for the continual improvement ofquality health care provision. To have a realized change of culturein a health organization, influence from leadership is needed. One ofthe leadership theories that has gained recognition and muchattention is the transformational leadership. 1 Theleadership style was first put across by James Burns in 1978 andfurther research into the model was quickly researched by otherindividuals. 1 This paper will, therefore, evaluate theleadership style in detail, noting the various dimensions articulatedfor the model as well its characteristics. Presently, the paper willevaluate the positive and negative aspects of the leadership approachwhile stating its contribution to knowledge. An application of thetheory will also be included which involves an internship programthat was undertaken in an international pharmaceutical company.Finally, the paper will end with a personal reflection of the modeland a conclusion after that.

The reason for choosing this topic under evaluation was…..

Matthews 3 points out that a transformational leaderusually seeks to satisfy the higher needs of the followers whileengaging their full potential. These leaders go beyond satisfactionof social material but go deeper into satisfying psychological needssuch as competence and affection. 1 Consequently, theirattention and attendance to the psychological needs of followersstrengthen further efforts and commitment of the followers towardsthe organization’s goal. 1 Transformational leadershipcontains four critical dimensions. They include inspirationmotivation, idealized influence, individualised consideration andintellectual stimulation. 1,2,3

Inspiration Motivation

This dimension refers to the way the leader views the followers’future with optimism by selling a vision to them while influencingtheir commitment to the vision by communicating the achievability ofthe set goals. The leader stresses on ambitious goals and offers aprojection of the vision to the followers.

Idealised Influence

It involves engaging in charismatic behaviour which is admirable tothe followers. The leader puts across high expectations of the futurethrough his beliefs, values and sense of mission which earn respectand trust to the leader.

Individualised Consideration

This dimension focuses on the individual needs of the followers byaddressing their aspirations and strengths. The head showsself-awareness of the individual needs of the followers and attemptto satisfy each individual’s needs. The satisfaction may come inthe form of advice, paying attention to the needs, and supporting thefollowers so that they can self-actualize and further develop.

Intellectual Stimulation

The leader stimulates the intellectual ability of the followers bychallenging their decision-making skills through incorporation intoproblem-solving mechanisms. Followers can also be encouraged tochallenge existing frameworks and assumptions to provide logicalsolutions for the various institutional functions.

Transformational Leadership and the Satisfaction of PsychologicalNeeds

As indicated earlier, transformational leadership is embedded in fourkey dimensions which conceptualize the leadership framework thusmaking it effective. 1 Kovjanic et al. 1 suggeststhat the self-determination theory provides a key framework for theeffectiveness of the transformational leadership model. They pointout the theory’s postulation of three psychological needs which areessential preconditions for human development and blossoming. 1(p1033) these three human needs are autonomy, competence, and relatedness. 1 Autonomy means the need for self-organizing a feeling ofself-choices and not through external influence. Competence is thefeeling and ability to be effective through mastery of capabilities.It involves the provision of opportunities which will further enhancethe mastery of these skills and abilities. Relatedness is the feelingof connectedness to the others including other followers and leader.Below is a linkage between transformational leadership and itsfulfilment of the three human psychological needs.

Need for autonomy

Followers need the feeling of self-organizing without externalinfluence. Transformational leaders use idealised influence dimensionby being portraying charismatic behaviours which are easily admiredby the followers. The leaders then use the opportunity to extendtasks that are value encumbered. The leaders also view the futureexpectations of the followers and provide a vision for them which arefollowed by an influenced commitment on the side of the followers. 1 Consequently, the followers take up these attractive goals from theleader and perceive them as theirs. Not only do the transformationalleaders provide followers with goals which seem autonomous tofollowers but also provide them with the opportunity to challengeframeworks and give out solutions to problems (intellectualstimulation).

Need for Competence

As noted in the dimensions of transformational leadership, the leadergives adequate attention to the development of follower skills,knowledge and abilities (Individualised consideration). Theseleaders, therefore, endeavour to provide training to theirfollowers. 1 Similarly, transformational leaders areregarded as coaches as they provide adequate feedback and anexcellent environment that fosters mutual respect and trust amongfollowers. 1 The leaders also build employee confidence asthey engage in idealised influence while articulating to them thatthe goals are achievable through inspirational motivation. Finally,transformational leaders satisfy the competence need of theirfollowers through role modelling. The leaders act as points ofreference to the employees as they learn. The great exhibition ofconfidence and optimism about the future is easily emulated to thefollowers. As a result, these leaders offer an environment thatcontains challenges, support, and responsive feedback, which arecrucial for the enhancement of competence.

Need for Relatedness

Transformational leaders strive to create a sense of connection amongthe employees. 1 The connection is twofold between theleader and the employee and among the several employees. Throughidealised influence, the leader can create a high ethicalconsideration standard that ought to be met by followers. Through theemployees’ fervour towards the shared goal, the team is pushed toacting in a self-sacrificial manner placing the team’s aspirationsbefore theirs subsequently earning respect among themselves.Transformational leaders are also familiar with motivating the teaminto accepting the set goals and mission. 4(p265) Theyconnect the aspirations with the employees thus connecting thefollowers to a common aspect. Social identification is a factoridentified by Kovjanic et al. 1(p1035) whereby the leadercompares and separates the team from all other teams through thearticulation of past achievements.

All the three psychological needs are, therefore, addressed by thetransformational leader through the four dimensions oftransformational leadership framework.

Leadership structures usually contain both positive and negativeaspects. Similarly, the transformational leadership model has bothpositive and negative factors. Most of the advantages of theleadership model are connected to the four dimensions oftransformational leadership approach.

Positive Aspects of the Transformational Leadership Framework

Builds Trust

Using the idealised dimension, the leader can gradually gainconfidence from the followers. The charismatic behaviour exhibited bythe leader builds trust among the followers and over time the leaderlearns to trust the employees. 3 the idealised influenceelement of the leadership model allows for trust development as theleader continues to act and behave as the followers’ role model.

Influence Employees to be Leaders

As the leader demonstrates the charismatic behaviour and the optimismheld of the future, the employees are left with a large admirationover their leader. 1 The high level of risk engaged by theleader coupled with a set of core values and principles make theleader greatly admired pushing employees into seeking leadershipopportunities in future. The leadership model can, therefore, beargued to foster leadership and cultivate leaders in the workenvironment.

Build Communication Skills

In the description of this leadership model, the leader identifiesindividual needs among the followers and searches for appropriatemotivation that suits each follower. 1,2,3,4 Motivating thefollowers while maintaining high charisma takes a lot ofcommunication skills. Similarly, the leader often needs vigour, senseof authority, precision, and power to effectively communicate thevision to the followers. The leader also develops optimism for thefuture which is communicated to the rest of the team. Over time, theleader develops a high communication skill standard as frequentexposure to different circumstances calls for proper communicationthat will easily be received.

Creativity and Innovation

Transformational leadership always place employees in challengingsituations. 3 The leaders frequently challenge theemployees on various institutional approaches and, in turn, theirdecision-making skills are enhanced. Through the leaders’ valuationof employee autonomy, their creativity and innovation skills areenhanced. Transformational leaders also help employees discoverproblems within frameworks and stimulate them into providingsolutions for the problems without criticism. The leader helps thefollowers to view problems deeply by selling the vision which makesthem view the bigger picture of a problem. As a result, employeesacquire their full potential which improves the overall performanceof the organization. 2

Role modelling is a key aspect of the transformational leadershipframework. The leader is a leading example to the followers. Asdiscussed earlier, the leader displays a set of values and positivebehaviour that are beneficial. The transformational leader usuallymust identify every follower’s motivation through observation orlistening in people’s conversations. Through that, the leader thenoffers customized training to each follower addressing to individualneeds. 1 These pieces of training allow attainment of fullpotential and growth among followers. Similarly, the relatednessamong followers as well as between the leader and followers makes thegrowth process more involving for newer members or veteran employees.

Apart from developing the skills and fulfilling the needs of thefollowers, the leader also has a vision for the organization’sfuture. 3 The vision could involve a change in businessplan or change departmental structures. The leader has ideas that themanagement would gladly receive as they would be beneficial for theoverall growth of the institution.

Employee Retention

The focus of a transformational leader is to develop followers andmake them realise their full potential. 1 the leader oftenengages in communication with individual employees and discuss waysof developing their careers. Therefore, the leader creates a strongbond with the followers which reduces employee turnover. Theemployees feel a corporate fit as they can easily report anything totheir leader. In turn, the organization avoids costs arising fromtraining and hiring of new employees.

Negative Aspects of the Transformational Leadership Framework

Tourish presented a book titled The Dark Side of TransformationalLeadership where he scorned the transformational leadershipframework.

Coercive Control

Tourish 5 argues that transformational leaders use coercivemeans to assert their power and authority. Tourish comparestransformational leaders with captors who use mechanisms such as rolemodelling to use force as a mechanism. 1(p40) Similarly,the leaders use manipulation into showing employees they are highlyvalued only to be expecting performance in return.

Authoritarian Form of Organization

The leader advocates for a strict obedience to rules in theorganization. Tourish 5(p37) suggests that the leader hasall the power in the organizational environment leaving the followerswith none. The followers are left with no choice of opposition totheir leaders as their behaviours assert an authoritarian rule.

Use of Ideology to Enhance Power

Transformational leaders use different ideas to spread values totheir followers. Tourish 5(p59) puts across one ideology ofspirituality which is used by leaders to enhance their powers.

The Framework Stifles Dissent

Transformational leaders support feedback from followers. However,this feedback always has barriers hence no feedback is made. Tourishdescribes how the model suppresses any opposing expressions from theleaders. The leader is the role model for the team and going againstany decision made earlier will be perceived as rebellious.

Application of the Transformational Leadership Theory

In the assessment of how the theory of transformational leadership isapplied to the health care sector, the paper considered ….

Personal reflection

While conducting this study, I ….

Transformational leadership is a leadership framework with globalrecognition for its focus on the needs of the employees whilestriving to develop their competence. The model identifies the leaderas a role model to the followers who emulate values and behaviourfrom. As a result, there exists interconnectedness among theemployees and between the leader and the employees. This leadershipmodel builds trust among employees while ensuring the gradual growthof employees. Therefore, the company can reduce employee turnover asthey acquire a sense of belonging. However, some postulates arguethat this leadership model uses coercive mechanisms to manageemployees. 5 Nevertheless this leadership model holds thekey to organizational success as it focuses on employee growth anddevelopment to reach full potentials. This is evident in England’sNational Health System (NHS) which continues to be successful due toits embrace of transformational leadership model. 6 However, NHS has problems with maintaining these leaders as they are soonreplaced once they get into difficulty. NHS needs to support itsleaders and give priority to developing more collective leadershipwithin local systems of care.

Kovjanic S, Schuh SC, Jonas K, Quaquebeke NV, Dick R. How do transformational leaders foster positive employee outcomes? A self‐determination‐based analysis of employees` needs as mediating links. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 2012 Nov 133(8):1031-52.

West M, Armit K, Loewenthal L, Eckert R, West T, Lee A. Leadership and leadership development in healthcare: the evidence base. London: The Kings Fund. 2015.

Mathews J. Leadership and Motivation: Developing an Effective Climate. University College Dublin 2016.

Antonakis J, Avolio BJ, Sivasubramaniam N. Context and leadership: An examination of the nine-factor full-range leadership theory using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. The leadership quarterly. 2003 Jun 3014(3):261-95.

Tourish D. The dark side of transformational leadership: A critical perspective. Routledge 2013 Mar 4.

Rughani A. Transformational leadership is for everyone. Education for Primary Care. 2015 Sep 326(5):286-8.

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Essay on Health and Fitness

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100 Words Essay on Health and Fitness

Introduction.

Health and fitness are vital for a happy life. They are like two sides of the same coin. If we are healthy, we can enjoy our life. Fitness, on the other hand, helps us stay active.

Importance of Health

Good health helps us perform our tasks with ease. A healthy person can study well, play, and do their chores efficiently. However, poor health can hinder these activities.

Role of Fitness

Fitness is about being physically active. Regular exercise strengthens our muscles, improves heart health, and boosts our mood. It can also prevent various diseases.

In conclusion, health and fitness are essential for a fulfilling life. We must strive to maintain them for our well-being.

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250 Words Essay on Health and Fitness

Introduction to health and fitness.

Health and fitness are two interrelated concepts that significantly influence our overall well-being. Health, a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, is not merely the absence of disease. Fitness, on the other hand, is the ability to perform daily tasks efficiently without undue fatigue.

The Importance of Health and Fitness

In the modern world, the importance of health and fitness cannot be understated. Sedentary lifestyles, unhealthy diets, and increasing stress levels have led to a rise in lifestyle diseases. Regular exercise and a balanced diet are vital to maintaining good health and high fitness levels, which can ward off these diseases.

The Interplay between Health and Fitness

Health and fitness are intricately linked. Good health allows for increased fitness levels, and high fitness levels, in turn, contribute to better health. For instance, regular exercise can help control weight, combat health conditions, and boost mood and energy.

Role of Discipline in Health and Fitness

Discipline plays a crucial role in maintaining health and fitness. Regular workout routines, balanced diets, adequate sleep, and stress management techniques are all part of a disciplined lifestyle that promotes health and fitness.

In conclusion, health and fitness are essential for a happy and productive life. They are not just about physical well-being, but also about mental and social well-being. Achieving health and fitness requires discipline, effort, and a commitment to making long-term lifestyle changes.

500 Words Essay on Health and Fitness

The interplay of health and fitness.

Health, as defined by the World Health Organization, is not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, but also the complete state of physical, mental, and social well-being. Fitness, on the other hand, is a state where you are not just physically healthy, but also have the endurance, flexibility, and strength to meet the demands of daily life.

It’s crucial to understand that health and fitness are interdependent. A high level of fitness often equates to a robust immune system, lower risk of chronic diseases, and improved mental health. Conversely, poor health can make it challenging to maintain an adequate fitness level.

The Role of Lifestyle in Health and Fitness

Lifestyle plays a significant role in shaping our health and fitness. Sedentary behavior, unhealthy dietary habits, and stress are some of the common lifestyle factors that adversely affect our health and fitness levels.

A balanced diet is another essential aspect of maintaining health and fitness. It provides the necessary nutrients required for the body to function optimally, contributes to a healthy weight, and reduces the risk of chronic diseases.

Challenges and Solutions

In conclusion, health and fitness are crucial elements in our lives that directly influence our quality of life. They are interconnected, with each influencing and supporting the other. By adopting a healthy lifestyle that includes regular physical activity and a balanced diet, we can improve our health and fitness levels. Despite the challenges, with the right strategies and mindset, we can overcome these barriers and pave the way for a healthier and fitter life.

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Using Artificial Intelligence in Electronic Health Record Systems to Mitigate Physician Burnout: A Roadmap

Fawzy Eid, Mariam

Robbins Institute for Health Policy & Leadership, Baylor University, Waco, Texas

For more information, contact Ms. Eid at [email protected] .

Ms. Eid, a Master of Healthcare Administration graduate of Baylor University and a member of the Robbins Healthcare MBA Alumni Group, is the first-place winner in the graduate division of the 2024 ACHE Richard J. Stull Student Essay Competition in Healthcare Management. For more information about this competition, contact Sheila T. Brown at (312) 424-9316.

The author declares no conflicts of interest.

SUMMARY 

Physician burnout, a significant problem in modern healthcare, adversely affects healthcare professionals and their organizations. This essay explores the potential of artificial intelligence (AI) to positively address this issue through its integration into the electronic health record and the automation of administrative tasks. Recent initiatives and research highlight the positive impact of AI assistants in alleviating physician burnout and suggest solutions to enhance physician well-being. By examining the causes and consequences of burnout, the promise of AI in healthcare, and its integration into electronic health record systems, this essay explores how AI can not only reduce physician burnout but also improve the efficiency of healthcare organizations. A roadmap provides a visualization of how AI could be integrated into electronic health records during the previsit, visit, and postvisit stages of a clinical encounter.

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By Rachael Bedard

Dr. Bedard is a physician and writes about medicine and criminal justice.

Last week, President Biden tried to acknowledge and mitigate concerns about his capacity to stay on in the most important job in the world. “I know I’m not a young man, to state the obvious,” he said after a disastrous debate against Donald Trump. “I don’t walk as easy as I used to. I don’t speak as smoothly as I used to. I don’t debate as well as I used to.” But, the president went on, “I know, like millions of Americans know, when you get knocked down, you get back up.”

He was asking Americans to see themselves in him and to recognize his debate performance as both an aberration from and a continuation of who he has always been: a person who may suffer and stumble but whose ambition, commitment and confidence in himself have provided a backstop of resilience against insult and injury.

Reporters and Mr. Biden’s biographers have been reflecting over the past week about the severity and nature of his condition and on whether they missed signs or were duped. Americans are suddenly engaged in a speculative conversation about whether the president is physically and mentally fit to lead the country and whether they can trust his self-assessment. What would it mean for a person to “get back up” who also can’t walk, speak or debate with the ease he once did? And how to make sense of his appearance at the debate and the stories that have emerged since about lapses of memory, naps during the day and occasional bouts of confusion?

I’m a geriatrician, a physician whose specialty is the care of older adults. I watched the debate and saw what other viewers saw: a president valiantly trying to stand up for his record and for his nation but who seemed to have declined precipitously since the State of the Union address he gave only a few months earlier.

As a country, we are not having a complete or accurate discussion of age-related debility. I know no specifics — and won’t speculate here — about Mr. Biden’s clinical circumstances. But in the face of so much confused conjecture, I think it’s important to untangle some of the misunderstanding around what age-related decline may portend. Doing so requires understanding a well-characterized but underrecognized concept: clinical frailty.

As we age, everyone accumulates wear and tear, illness and stress. We can all expect to occasionally lose a night’s sleep, struggle with jet lag, catch a virus, trip and fall or experience side effects from medication. But for young and middle-aged people who are not chronically or seriously ill, these types of insults don’t usually change the way we function in the long term. This is not so for frail elders.

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Elektrostal

Elektrostal

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essays on health management

Elektrostal , city, Moscow oblast (province), western Russia . It lies 36 miles (58 km) east of Moscow city. The name, meaning “electric steel,” derives from the high-quality-steel industry established there soon after the October Revolution in 1917. During World War II , parts of the heavy-machine-building industry were relocated there from Ukraine, and Elektrostal is now a centre for the production of metallurgical equipment. Pop. (2006 est.) 146,189.

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    Introduction. As a health care manager, the most important health care functions that a manager can play include: leading, organizing, planning, and controlling. This involves reporting to the Board members and briefing them about the progress in the organization in terms of potential profitability, costs, patient care, and any setbacks.

  2. How to build a better health system: 8 expert essays

    Health benefits aside, increasing investment in primary prevention presents a strong economic imperative. For example, obesity contributes to the treatment costs of many other diseases: 70% of diabetes costs, 23% for CVD and 9% for cancers. Economic losses further extend to absenteeism and decreased productivity.

  3. Healthcare Management Essays (Examples)

    Healthcare Management The ureau of Labor Statistics expresses that the profession of healthcare management is experiencing rapid growth, which can mainly be attributed "to the expansion and diversification of the healthcare industry"[footnoteRef:1]. Employment of health service and medical managers is expected to grow by a massive 16% between 2010 and 2018.

  4. Healthcare Management Essay Examples

    Character Drives Leadership. Introduction: Provision Medical Services, a prestigious medical care facility, is undergoing several changes requiring effective management strategies to ensure its continued growth. This essay examines the dangers Providence Healthcare faced and is based on the article "Boldly Go: "Character Drives Leadership ...

  5. Priorities and challenges for health leadership and workforce

    A range of text words, synonyms and subject headings were developed for the major concepts of global health, health service management and health leadership. An explorative review of three electronic databases (MEDLINE®, Pubmed and Scopus) was undertaken to identify the key publication outlets for relevant content between January 2010 to July ...

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    Health Care Essay Example. Management does not have a specific meaning. The word management is a very broad term. Most of the authors consider it to get people to be cooperative together to achieve the primary goals and objectives. A general meaning comprises the sodality and coordination of the exercises of a business sector with a specific ...

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  8. 124 Healthcare Essay Topic Ideas & Examples

    To help you get started, here are 124 healthcare essay topic ideas and examples that you can use for inspiration: The impact of healthcare disparities on patient outcomes. Strategies for improving access to healthcare in underserved communities. The role of technology in transforming healthcare delivery.

  9. Health Management

    Health Management - Free Essay Examples and Topic Ideas. Health management refers to the ways in which individuals and organizations manage their health-related needs and resources. This can include tasks such as organizing and coordinating health services, monitoring health status and progress, developing and implementing health policies, and ...

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    Health Management Information System: A functional and an effective information management system critical for is good planning and management, problem-solving and decision-making in health systems and programs. The managers should have understanding of basic concepts in Health Management Information Systems (HMIS) and its role in ongoing ...

  11. Healthcare Management and Leadership

    The importance of healthcare management is being understood on the medicine front with various players and places. It works with a variety of health professionals. Medical experts do advanced researches and healthcare management is devoted to making the best use of the services of these people and places (Ronald Jefferson,2008, para 1).

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  13. Study On The Importance Of Healthcare Management

    Healthcare management is a kind of process that seeks to manage and overlook properly one or two elements of the healthcare system. Today, great chances are there to become a manager within the healthcare field. If we find Apollo Hospital groups, it tends clear that they have applied healthcare management properly in their vast business.

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    Health Management Essay. The human race is living longer, healthier than ever before. Take Hong Kong for example, where the older generation requires the use of hospital facilities more than ever. The UCH (United Christian Hospital) provides these services to the residents located in East Kowloon, where there is a relatively high concentration ...

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    Global health demands have set new roles for nurse leaders [].Nurse leaders are referred to as nurses, nurse managers, or other nursing staff working in a healthcare context who attempt to influence the behavior of individuals or a group based on goals that are congruent with organizational goals [].They are seen as professionals "armed with data and evidence, and a commitment to mentorship ...

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    Health Management Leadership 4 Transformational Leadership Theory in the HealthSector Department Contact Word Count: 2259 All over the world, leadership is regarded as an essential featurefor the future success of institutions.1 West et al.2suggest that system changes, setting targets and competition increaseare still inadequate measure for change within an organization. Thehealth care sector ...

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    Healthcare Management essay. Body Overview of the healthcare delivery system Healthcare delivery Is the provision of healthcare, In which deals with the actively of applying or providing something. Although to me healthcare delivery is basically the service or products that has been provided. Healthcare delivery can mean several things; it ...

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    250 Words Essay on Health and Fitness ... Regular workout routines, balanced diets, adequate sleep, and stress management techniques are all part of a disciplined lifestyle that promotes health and fitness. Conclusion. In conclusion, health and fitness are essential for a happy and productive life. They are not just about physical well-being ...

  21. The Impact of Hospital Acquisitions on Access to Care and Health

    Academy of Management Annual Meeting Proceedings includes abstracts of all papers and symposia presented at the annual conference, plus 6-page abridged versions of the "Best Papers" accepted for inclusion in the program (approximately 10%). Papers published in the Proceedings are abridged because presenting papers at their full length could preclude subsequent journal publication.

  22. Journal of Healthcare Management

    Robbins Institute for Health Policy & Leadership, Baylor University, Waco, Texas. For more information, contact Ms. Eid at [email protected].. Ms. Eid, a Master of Healthcare Administration graduate of Baylor University and a member of the Robbins Healthcare MBA Alumni Group, is the first-place winner in the graduate division of the 2024 ACHE Richard J. Stull Student Essay Competition in ...

  23. The Vantage Point: Perspectives of Mental Health Experiences at Work

    Academy of Management Annual Meeting Proceedings includes abstracts of all papers and symposia presented at the annual conference, plus 6-page abridged versions of the "Best Papers" accepted for inclusion in the program (approximately 10%). Papers published in the Proceedings are abridged because presenting papers at their full length could preclude subsequent journal publication.

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  27. Opinion

    Dr. Bedard is a physician and writes about medicine and criminal justice. Last week, President Biden tried to acknowledge and mitigate concerns about his capacity to stay on in the most important ...

  28. Elektrostal

    Elektrostal, city, Moscow oblast (province), western Russia.It lies 36 miles (58 km) east of Moscow city. The name, meaning "electric steel," derives from the high-quality-steel industry established there soon after the October Revolution in 1917. During World War II, parts of the heavy-machine-building industry were relocated there from Ukraine, and Elektrostal is now a centre for the ...

  29. New HealthSelect programs coming soon

    2-minute read. Starting Sept. 1, 2024, HealthSelect of Texas ® medical plans, including Consumer Directed HealthSelect SM, will include new condition management programs at no additional cost to eligible participants: Hello Heart, Hinge Health ® and Learn to Live. These programs can help if you are dealing with heart health issues, need musculoskeletal-related help or want to improve your ...

  30. Elektrostal

    In 1938, it was granted town status. [citation needed]Administrative and municipal status. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as Elektrostal City Under Oblast Jurisdiction—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, Elektrostal City Under Oblast Jurisdiction is incorporated as Elektrostal Urban Okrug.