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How to Write a Conclusion for Research Papers (with Examples)

How to Write a Conclusion for Research Papers (with Examples)

The conclusion of a research paper is a crucial section that plays a significant role in the overall impact and effectiveness of your research paper. However, this is also the section that typically receives less attention compared to the introduction and the body of the paper. The conclusion serves to provide a concise summary of the key findings, their significance, their implications, and a sense of closure to the study. Discussing how can the findings be applied in real-world scenarios or inform policy, practice, or decision-making is especially valuable to practitioners and policymakers. The research paper conclusion also provides researchers with clear insights and valuable information for their own work, which they can then build on and contribute to the advancement of knowledge in the field.

The research paper conclusion should explain the significance of your findings within the broader context of your field. It restates how your results contribute to the existing body of knowledge and whether they confirm or challenge existing theories or hypotheses. Also, by identifying unanswered questions or areas requiring further investigation, your awareness of the broader research landscape can be demonstrated.

Remember to tailor the research paper conclusion to the specific needs and interests of your intended audience, which may include researchers, practitioners, policymakers, or a combination of these.

Table of Contents

What is a conclusion in a research paper, summarizing conclusion, editorial conclusion, externalizing conclusion, importance of a good research paper conclusion, how to write a conclusion for your research paper, research paper conclusion examples.

  • How to write a research paper conclusion with Paperpal? 

Frequently Asked Questions

A conclusion in a research paper is the final section where you summarize and wrap up your research, presenting the key findings and insights derived from your study. The research paper conclusion is not the place to introduce new information or data that was not discussed in the main body of the paper. When working on how to conclude a research paper, remember to stick to summarizing and interpreting existing content. The research paper conclusion serves the following purposes: 1

  • Warn readers of the possible consequences of not attending to the problem.
  • Recommend specific course(s) of action.
  • Restate key ideas to drive home the ultimate point of your research paper.
  • Provide a “take-home” message that you want the readers to remember about your study.

how to start a conclusion research paper

Types of conclusions for research papers

In research papers, the conclusion provides closure to the reader. The type of research paper conclusion you choose depends on the nature of your study, your goals, and your target audience. I provide you with three common types of conclusions:

A summarizing conclusion is the most common type of conclusion in research papers. It involves summarizing the main points, reiterating the research question, and restating the significance of the findings. This common type of research paper conclusion is used across different disciplines.

An editorial conclusion is less common but can be used in research papers that are focused on proposing or advocating for a particular viewpoint or policy. It involves presenting a strong editorial or opinion based on the research findings and offering recommendations or calls to action.

An externalizing conclusion is a type of conclusion that extends the research beyond the scope of the paper by suggesting potential future research directions or discussing the broader implications of the findings. This type of conclusion is often used in more theoretical or exploratory research papers.

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The conclusion in a research paper serves several important purposes:

  • Offers Implications and Recommendations : Your research paper conclusion is an excellent place to discuss the broader implications of your research and suggest potential areas for further study. It’s also an opportunity to offer practical recommendations based on your findings.
  • Provides Closure : A good research paper conclusion provides a sense of closure to your paper. It should leave the reader with a feeling that they have reached the end of a well-structured and thought-provoking research project.
  • Leaves a Lasting Impression : Writing a well-crafted research paper conclusion leaves a lasting impression on your readers. It’s your final opportunity to leave them with a new idea, a call to action, or a memorable quote.

how to start a conclusion research paper

Writing a strong conclusion for your research paper is essential to leave a lasting impression on your readers. Here’s a step-by-step process to help you create and know what to put in the conclusion of a research paper: 2

  • Research Statement : Begin your research paper conclusion by restating your research statement. This reminds the reader of the main point you’ve been trying to prove throughout your paper. Keep it concise and clear.
  • Key Points : Summarize the main arguments and key points you’ve made in your paper. Avoid introducing new information in the research paper conclusion. Instead, provide a concise overview of what you’ve discussed in the body of your paper.
  • Address the Research Questions : If your research paper is based on specific research questions or hypotheses, briefly address whether you’ve answered them or achieved your research goals. Discuss the significance of your findings in this context.
  • Significance : Highlight the importance of your research and its relevance in the broader context. Explain why your findings matter and how they contribute to the existing knowledge in your field.
  • Implications : Explore the practical or theoretical implications of your research. How might your findings impact future research, policy, or real-world applications? Consider the “so what?” question.
  • Future Research : Offer suggestions for future research in your area. What questions or aspects remain unanswered or warrant further investigation? This shows that your work opens the door for future exploration.
  • Closing Thought : Conclude your research paper conclusion with a thought-provoking or memorable statement. This can leave a lasting impression on your readers and wrap up your paper effectively. Avoid introducing new information or arguments here.
  • Proofread and Revise : Carefully proofread your conclusion for grammar, spelling, and clarity. Ensure that your ideas flow smoothly and that your conclusion is coherent and well-structured.

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Remember that a well-crafted research paper conclusion is a reflection of the strength of your research and your ability to communicate its significance effectively. It should leave a lasting impression on your readers and tie together all the threads of your paper. Now you know how to start the conclusion of a research paper and what elements to include to make it impactful, let’s look at a research paper conclusion sample.

Summarizing ConclusionImpact of social media on adolescents’ mental healthIn conclusion, our study has shown that increased usage of social media is significantly associated with higher levels of anxiety and depression among adolescents. These findings highlight the importance of understanding the complex relationship between social media and mental health to develop effective interventions and support systems for this vulnerable population.
Editorial ConclusionEnvironmental impact of plastic wasteIn light of our research findings, it is clear that we are facing a plastic pollution crisis. To mitigate this issue, we strongly recommend a comprehensive ban on single-use plastics, increased recycling initiatives, and public awareness campaigns to change consumer behavior. The responsibility falls on governments, businesses, and individuals to take immediate actions to protect our planet and future generations.  
Externalizing ConclusionExploring applications of AI in healthcareWhile our study has provided insights into the current applications of AI in healthcare, the field is rapidly evolving. Future research should delve deeper into the ethical, legal, and social implications of AI in healthcare, as well as the long-term outcomes of AI-driven diagnostics and treatments. Furthermore, interdisciplinary collaboration between computer scientists, medical professionals, and policymakers is essential to harness the full potential of AI while addressing its challenges.

how to start a conclusion research paper

How to write a research paper conclusion with Paperpal?

A research paper conclusion is not just a summary of your study, but a synthesis of the key findings that ties the research together and places it in a broader context. A research paper conclusion should be concise, typically around one paragraph in length. However, some complex topics may require a longer conclusion to ensure the reader is left with a clear understanding of the study’s significance. Paperpal, an AI writing assistant trusted by over 800,000 academics globally, can help you write a well-structured conclusion for your research paper. 

  • Sign Up or Log In: Create a new Paperpal account or login with your details.  
  • Navigate to Features : Once logged in, head over to the features’ side navigation pane. Click on Templates and you’ll find a suite of generative AI features to help you write better, faster.  
  • Generate an outline: Under Templates, select ‘Outlines’. Choose ‘Research article’ as your document type.  
  • Select your section: Since you’re focusing on the conclusion, select this section when prompted.  
  • Choose your field of study: Identifying your field of study allows Paperpal to provide more targeted suggestions, ensuring the relevance of your conclusion to your specific area of research. 
  • Provide a brief description of your study: Enter details about your research topic and findings. This information helps Paperpal generate a tailored outline that aligns with your paper’s content. 
  • Generate the conclusion outline: After entering all necessary details, click on ‘generate’. Paperpal will then create a structured outline for your conclusion, to help you start writing and build upon the outline.  
  • Write your conclusion: Use the generated outline to build your conclusion. The outline serves as a guide, ensuring you cover all critical aspects of a strong conclusion, from summarizing key findings to highlighting the research’s implications. 
  • Refine and enhance: Paperpal’s ‘Make Academic’ feature can be particularly useful in the final stages. Select any paragraph of your conclusion and use this feature to elevate the academic tone, ensuring your writing is aligned to the academic journal standards. 

By following these steps, Paperpal not only simplifies the process of writing a research paper conclusion but also ensures it is impactful, concise, and aligned with academic standards. Sign up with Paperpal today and write your research paper conclusion 2x faster .  

The research paper conclusion is a crucial part of your paper as it provides the final opportunity to leave a strong impression on your readers. In the research paper conclusion, summarize the main points of your research paper by restating your research statement, highlighting the most important findings, addressing the research questions or objectives, explaining the broader context of the study, discussing the significance of your findings, providing recommendations if applicable, and emphasizing the takeaway message. The main purpose of the conclusion is to remind the reader of the main point or argument of your paper and to provide a clear and concise summary of the key findings and their implications. All these elements should feature on your list of what to put in the conclusion of a research paper to create a strong final statement for your work.

A strong conclusion is a critical component of a research paper, as it provides an opportunity to wrap up your arguments, reiterate your main points, and leave a lasting impression on your readers. Here are the key elements of a strong research paper conclusion: 1. Conciseness : A research paper conclusion should be concise and to the point. It should not introduce new information or ideas that were not discussed in the body of the paper. 2. Summarization : The research paper conclusion should be comprehensive enough to give the reader a clear understanding of the research’s main contributions. 3 . Relevance : Ensure that the information included in the research paper conclusion is directly relevant to the research paper’s main topic and objectives; avoid unnecessary details. 4 . Connection to the Introduction : A well-structured research paper conclusion often revisits the key points made in the introduction and shows how the research has addressed the initial questions or objectives. 5. Emphasis : Highlight the significance and implications of your research. Why is your study important? What are the broader implications or applications of your findings? 6 . Call to Action : Include a call to action or a recommendation for future research or action based on your findings.

The length of a research paper conclusion can vary depending on several factors, including the overall length of the paper, the complexity of the research, and the specific journal requirements. While there is no strict rule for the length of a conclusion, but it’s generally advisable to keep it relatively short. A typical research paper conclusion might be around 5-10% of the paper’s total length. For example, if your paper is 10 pages long, the conclusion might be roughly half a page to one page in length.

In general, you do not need to include citations in the research paper conclusion. Citations are typically reserved for the body of the paper to support your arguments and provide evidence for your claims. However, there may be some exceptions to this rule: 1. If you are drawing a direct quote or paraphrasing a specific source in your research paper conclusion, you should include a citation to give proper credit to the original author. 2. If your conclusion refers to or discusses specific research, data, or sources that are crucial to the overall argument, citations can be included to reinforce your conclusion’s validity.

The conclusion of a research paper serves several important purposes: 1. Summarize the Key Points 2. Reinforce the Main Argument 3. Provide Closure 4. Offer Insights or Implications 5. Engage the Reader. 6. Reflect on Limitations

Remember that the primary purpose of the research paper conclusion is to leave a lasting impression on the reader, reinforcing the key points and providing closure to your research. It’s often the last part of the paper that the reader will see, so it should be strong and well-crafted.

  • Makar, G., Foltz, C., Lendner, M., & Vaccaro, A. R. (2018). How to write effective discussion and conclusion sections. Clinical spine surgery, 31(8), 345-346.
  • Bunton, D. (2005). The structure of PhD conclusion chapters.  Journal of English for academic purposes ,  4 (3), 207-224.

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  • How to Write Discussions and Conclusions

How to Write Discussions and Conclusions

The discussion section contains the results and outcomes of a study. An effective discussion informs readers what can be learned from your experiment and provides context for the results.

What makes an effective discussion?

When you’re ready to write your discussion, you’ve already introduced the purpose of your study and provided an in-depth description of the methodology. The discussion informs readers about the larger implications of your study based on the results. Highlighting these implications while not overstating the findings can be challenging, especially when you’re submitting to a journal that selects articles based on novelty or potential impact. Regardless of what journal you are submitting to, the discussion section always serves the same purpose: concluding what your study results actually mean.

A successful discussion section puts your findings in context. It should include:

  • the results of your research,
  • a discussion of related research, and
  • a comparison between your results and initial hypothesis.

Tip: Not all journals share the same naming conventions.

You can apply the advice in this article to the conclusion, results or discussion sections of your manuscript.

Our Early Career Researcher community tells us that the conclusion is often considered the most difficult aspect of a manuscript to write. To help, this guide provides questions to ask yourself, a basic structure to model your discussion off of and examples from published manuscripts. 

how to start a conclusion research paper

Questions to ask yourself:

  • Was my hypothesis correct?
  • If my hypothesis is partially correct or entirely different, what can be learned from the results? 
  • How do the conclusions reshape or add onto the existing knowledge in the field? What does previous research say about the topic? 
  • Why are the results important or relevant to your audience? Do they add further evidence to a scientific consensus or disprove prior studies? 
  • How can future research build on these observations? What are the key experiments that must be done? 
  • What is the “take-home” message you want your reader to leave with?

How to structure a discussion

Trying to fit a complete discussion into a single paragraph can add unnecessary stress to the writing process. If possible, you’ll want to give yourself two or three paragraphs to give the reader a comprehensive understanding of your study as a whole. Here’s one way to structure an effective discussion:

how to start a conclusion research paper

Writing Tips

While the above sections can help you brainstorm and structure your discussion, there are many common mistakes that writers revert to when having difficulties with their paper. Writing a discussion can be a delicate balance between summarizing your results, providing proper context for your research and avoiding introducing new information. Remember that your paper should be both confident and honest about the results! 

What to do

  • Read the journal’s guidelines on the discussion and conclusion sections. If possible, learn about the guidelines before writing the discussion to ensure you’re writing to meet their expectations. 
  • Begin with a clear statement of the principal findings. This will reinforce the main take-away for the reader and set up the rest of the discussion. 
  • Explain why the outcomes of your study are important to the reader. Discuss the implications of your findings realistically based on previous literature, highlighting both the strengths and limitations of the research. 
  • State whether the results prove or disprove your hypothesis. If your hypothesis was disproved, what might be the reasons? 
  • Introduce new or expanded ways to think about the research question. Indicate what next steps can be taken to further pursue any unresolved questions. 
  • If dealing with a contemporary or ongoing problem, such as climate change, discuss possible consequences if the problem is avoided. 
  • Be concise. Adding unnecessary detail can distract from the main findings. 

What not to do

Don’t

  • Rewrite your abstract. Statements with “we investigated” or “we studied” generally do not belong in the discussion. 
  • Include new arguments or evidence not previously discussed. Necessary information and evidence should be introduced in the main body of the paper. 
  • Apologize. Even if your research contains significant limitations, don’t undermine your authority by including statements that doubt your methodology or execution. 
  • Shy away from speaking on limitations or negative results. Including limitations and negative results will give readers a complete understanding of the presented research. Potential limitations include sources of potential bias, threats to internal or external validity, barriers to implementing an intervention and other issues inherent to the study design. 
  • Overstate the importance of your findings. Making grand statements about how a study will fully resolve large questions can lead readers to doubt the success of the research. 

Snippets of Effective Discussions:

Consumer-based actions to reduce plastic pollution in rivers: A multi-criteria decision analysis approach

Identifying reliable indicators of fitness in polar bears

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How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

Last Updated: May 8, 2024 Approved

This article was co-authored by Christopher Taylor, PhD . Christopher Taylor is an Adjunct Assistant Professor of English at Austin Community College in Texas. He received his PhD in English Literature and Medieval Studies from the University of Texas at Austin in 2014. wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. This article received 43 testimonials and 83% of readers who voted found it helpful, earning it our reader-approved status. This article has been viewed 2,261,383 times.

The conclusion of a research paper needs to summarize the content and purpose of the paper without seeming too wooden or dry. Every basic conclusion must share several key elements, but there are also several tactics you can play around with to craft a more effective conclusion and several you should avoid to prevent yourself from weakening your paper's conclusion. Here are some writing tips to keep in mind when creating a conclusion for your next research paper.

Sample Conclusions

Writing a basic conclusion.

Step 1 Restate the topic.

  • Do not spend a great amount of time or space restating your topic.
  • A good research paper will make the importance of your topic apparent, so you do not need to write an elaborate defense of your topic in the conclusion.
  • Usually a single sentence is all you need to restate your topic.
  • An example would be if you were writing a paper on the epidemiology of infectious disease, you might say something like "Tuberculosis is a widespread infectious disease that affects millions of people worldwide every year."
  • Yet another example from the humanities would be a paper about the Italian Renaissance: "The Italian Renaissance was an explosion of art and ideas centered around artists, writers, and thinkers in Florence."

Step 2 Restate your thesis.

  • A thesis is a narrowed, focused view on the topic at hand.
  • This statement should be rephrased from the thesis you included in your introduction. It should not be identical or too similar to the sentence you originally used.
  • Try re-wording your thesis statement in a way that complements your summary of the topic of your paper in your first sentence of your conclusion.
  • An example of a good thesis statement, going back to the paper on tuberculosis, would be "Tuberculosis is a widespread disease that affects millions of people worldwide every year. Due to the alarming rate of the spread of tuberculosis, particularly in poor countries, medical professionals are implementing new strategies for the diagnosis, treatment, and containment of this disease ."

Step 3 Briefly summarize your main points.

  • A good way to go about this is to re-read the topic sentence of each major paragraph or section in the body of your paper.
  • Find a way to briefly restate each point mentioned in each topic sentence in your conclusion. Do not repeat any of the supporting details used within your body paragraphs.
  • Under most circumstances, you should avoid writing new information in your conclusion. This is especially true if the information is vital to the argument or research presented in your paper.
  • For example, in the TB paper you could summarize the information. "Tuberculosis is a widespread disease that affects millions of people worldwide. Due to the alarming rate of the spread of tuberculosis, particularly in poor countries, medical professionals are implementing new strategies for the diagnosis, treatment, and containment of this disease. In developing countries, such as those in Africa and Southeast Asia, the rate of TB infections is soaring. Crowded conditions, poor sanitation, and lack of access to medical care are all compounding factors in the spread of the disease. Medical experts, such as those from the World Health Organization are now starting campaigns to go into communities in developing countries and provide diagnostic testing and treatments. However, the treatments for TB are very harsh and have many side effects. This leads to patient non-compliance and spread of multi-drug resistant strains of the disease."

Step 4 Add the points up.

  • Note that this is not needed for all research papers.
  • If you already fully explained what the points in your paper mean or why they are significant, you do not need to go into them in much detail in your conclusion. Simply restating your thesis or the significance of your topic should suffice.
  • It is always best practice to address important issues and fully explain your points in the body of your paper. The point of a conclusion to a research paper is to summarize your argument for the reader and, perhaps, to call the reader to action if needed.

Step 5 Make a call to action when appropriate.

  • Note that a call for action is not essential to all conclusions. A research paper on literary criticism, for instance, is less likely to need a call for action than a paper on the effect that television has on toddlers and young children.
  • A paper that is more likely to call readers to action is one that addresses a public or scientific need. Let's go back to our example of tuberculosis. This is a very serious disease that is spreading quickly and with antibiotic-resistant forms.
  • A call to action in this research paper would be a follow-up statement that might be along the lines of "Despite new efforts to diagnose and contain the disease, more research is needed to develop new antibiotics that will treat the most resistant strains of tuberculosis and ease the side effects of current treatments."

Step 6 Answer the “so what” question.

  • For example, if you are writing a history paper, then you might discuss how the historical topic you discussed matters today. If you are writing about a foreign country, then you might use the conclusion to discuss how the information you shared may help readers understand their own country.

Making Your Conclusion as Effective as Possible

Step 1 Stick with a basic synthesis of information.

  • Since this sort of conclusion is so basic, you must aim to synthesize the information rather than merely summarizing it.
  • Instead of merely repeating things you already said, rephrase your thesis and supporting points in a way that ties them all together.
  • By doing so, you make your research paper seem like a "complete thought" rather than a collection of random and vaguely related ideas.

Step 2 Bring things full circle.

  • Ask a question in your introduction. In your conclusion, restate the question and provide a direct answer.
  • Write an anecdote or story in your introduction but do not share the ending. Instead, write the conclusion to the anecdote in the conclusion of your paper.
  • For example, if you wanted to get more creative and put a more humanistic spin on a paper on tuberculosis, you might start your introduction with a story about a person with the disease, and refer to that story in your conclusion. For example, you could say something like this before you re-state your thesis in your conclusion: "Patient X was unable to complete the treatment for tuberculosis due to severe side effects and unfortunately succumbed to the disease."
  • Use the same concepts and images introduced in your introduction in your conclusion. The images may or may not appear at other points throughout the research paper.

Step 3 Close with logic.

  • Include enough information about your topic to back the statement up but do not get too carried away with excess detail.
  • If your research did not provide you with a clear-cut answer to a question posed in your thesis, do not be afraid to indicate as much.
  • Restate your initial hypothesis and indicate whether you still believe it or if the research you performed has begun swaying your opinion.
  • Indicate that an answer may still exist and that further research could shed more light on the topic at hand.

Step 4 Pose a question.

  • This may not be appropriate for all types of research papers. Most research papers, such as one on effective treatment for diseases, will have the information to make the case for a particular argument already in the paper.
  • A good example of a paper that might ask a question of the reader in the ending is one about a social issue, such as poverty or government policy.
  • Ask a question that will directly get at the heart or purpose of the paper. This question is often the same question, or some version of it, that you may have started with when you began your research.
  • Make sure that the question can be answered by the evidence presented in your paper.
  • If desired you can briefly summarize the answer after stating the question. You could also leave the question hanging for the reader to answer, though.

Step 5 Make a suggestion.

  • Even without a call to action, you can still make a recommendation to your reader.
  • For instance, if you are writing about a topic like third-world poverty, you can various ways for the reader to assist in the problem without necessarily calling for more research.
  • Another example would be, in a paper about treatment for drug-resistant tuberculosis, you could suggest donating to the World Health Organization or research foundations that are developing new treatments for the disease.

Avoiding Common Pitfalls

Step 1 Avoid saying

  • These sayings usually sound stiff, unnatural, or trite when used in writing.
  • Moreover, using a phrase like "in conclusion" to begin your conclusion is a little too straightforward and tends to lead to a weak conclusion. A strong conclusion can stand on its own without being labeled as such.

Step 2 Do not wait until the conclusion to state your thesis.

  • Always state the main argument or thesis in the introduction. A research paper is an analytical discussion of an academic topic, not a mystery novel.
  • A good, effective research paper will allow your reader to follow your main argument from start to finish.
  • This is why it is best practice to start your paper with an introduction that states your main argument and to end the paper with a conclusion that re-states your thesis for re-iteration.

Step 3 Leave out new information.

  • All significant information should be introduced in the body of the paper.
  • Supporting evidence expands the topic of your paper by making it appear more detailed. A conclusion should narrow the topic to a more general point.
  • A conclusion should only summarize what you have already stated in the body of your paper.
  • You may suggest further research or a call to action, but you should not bring in any new evidence or facts in the conclusion.

Step 4 Avoid changing the tone of the paper.

  • Most often, a shift in tone occurs when a research paper with an academic tone gives an emotional or sentimental conclusion.
  • Even if the topic of the paper is of personal significance for you, you should not indicate as much in your paper.
  • If you want to give your paper a more humanistic slant, you could start and end your paper with a story or anecdote that would give your topic more personal meaning to the reader.
  • This tone should be consistent throughout the paper, however.

Step 5 Make no apologies.

  • Apologetic statements include phrases like "I may not be an expert" or "This is only my opinion."
  • Statements like this can usually be avoided by refraining from writing in the first-person.
  • Avoid any statements in the first-person. First-person is generally considered to be informal and does not fit with the formal tone of a research paper.

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  • ↑ http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/724/04/
  • ↑ http://www.crlsresearchguide.org/18_Writing_Conclusion.asp
  • ↑ http://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/PlanResearchPaper.html#conclusion
  • ↑ http://writingcenter.unc.edu/handouts/conclusions/
  • ↑ http://writing2.richmond.edu/writing/wweb/conclude.html

About This Article

Christopher Taylor, PhD

To write a conclusion for a research paper, start by restating your thesis statement to remind your readers what your main topic is and bring everything full circle. Then, briefly summarize all of the main points you made throughout your paper, which will help remind your readers of everything they learned. You might also want to include a call to action if you think more research or work needs to be done on your topic by writing something like, "Despite efforts to contain the disease, more research is needed to develop antibiotics." Finally, end your conclusion by explaining the broader context of your topic and why your readers should care about it, which will help them understand why your topic is relevant and important. For tips from our Academic co-author, like how to avoid common pitfalls when writing your conclusion, scroll down! Did this summary help you? Yes No

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How to Conclude an Essay | Interactive Example

Published on January 24, 2019 by Shona McCombes . Revised on July 23, 2023.

The conclusion is the final paragraph of your essay . A strong conclusion aims to:

  • Tie together the essay’s main points
  • Show why your argument matters
  • Leave the reader with a strong impression

Your conclusion should give a sense of closure and completion to your argument, but also show what new questions or possibilities it has opened up.

This conclusion is taken from our annotated essay example , which discusses the history of the Braille system. Hover over each part to see why it’s effective.

Braille paved the way for dramatic cultural changes in the way blind people were treated and the opportunities available to them. Louis Braille’s innovation was to reimagine existing reading systems from a blind perspective, and the success of this invention required sighted teachers to adapt to their students’ reality instead of the other way around. In this sense, Braille helped drive broader social changes in the status of blindness. New accessibility tools provide practical advantages to those who need them, but they can also change the perspectives and attitudes of those who do not.

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Table of contents

Step 1: return to your thesis, step 2: review your main points, step 3: show why it matters, what shouldn’t go in the conclusion, more examples of essay conclusions, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about writing an essay conclusion.

To begin your conclusion, signal that the essay is coming to an end by returning to your overall argument.

Don’t just repeat your thesis statement —instead, try to rephrase your argument in a way that shows how it has been developed since the introduction.

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Next, remind the reader of the main points that you used to support your argument.

Avoid simply summarizing each paragraph or repeating each point in order; try to bring your points together in a way that makes the connections between them clear. The conclusion is your final chance to show how all the paragraphs of your essay add up to a coherent whole.

To wrap up your conclusion, zoom out to a broader view of the topic and consider the implications of your argument. For example:

  • Does it contribute a new understanding of your topic?
  • Does it raise new questions for future study?
  • Does it lead to practical suggestions or predictions?
  • Can it be applied to different contexts?
  • Can it be connected to a broader debate or theme?

Whatever your essay is about, the conclusion should aim to emphasize the significance of your argument, whether that’s within your academic subject or in the wider world.

Try to end with a strong, decisive sentence, leaving the reader with a lingering sense of interest in your topic.

The easiest way to improve your conclusion is to eliminate these common mistakes.

Don’t include new evidence

Any evidence or analysis that is essential to supporting your thesis statement should appear in the main body of the essay.

The conclusion might include minor pieces of new information—for example, a sentence or two discussing broader implications, or a quotation that nicely summarizes your central point. But it shouldn’t introduce any major new sources or ideas that need further explanation to understand.

Don’t use “concluding phrases”

Avoid using obvious stock phrases to tell the reader what you’re doing:

  • “In conclusion…”
  • “To sum up…”

These phrases aren’t forbidden, but they can make your writing sound weak. By returning to your main argument, it will quickly become clear that you are concluding the essay—you shouldn’t have to spell it out.

Don’t undermine your argument

Avoid using apologetic phrases that sound uncertain or confused:

  • “This is just one approach among many.”
  • “There are good arguments on both sides of this issue.”
  • “There is no clear answer to this problem.”

Even if your essay has explored different points of view, your own position should be clear. There may be many possible approaches to the topic, but you want to leave the reader convinced that yours is the best one!

  • Argumentative
  • Literary analysis

This conclusion is taken from an argumentative essay about the internet’s impact on education. It acknowledges the opposing arguments while taking a clear, decisive position.

The internet has had a major positive impact on the world of education; occasional pitfalls aside, its value is evident in numerous applications. The future of teaching lies in the possibilities the internet opens up for communication, research, and interactivity. As the popularity of distance learning shows, students value the flexibility and accessibility offered by digital education, and educators should fully embrace these advantages. The internet’s dangers, real and imaginary, have been documented exhaustively by skeptics, but the internet is here to stay; it is time to focus seriously on its potential for good.

This conclusion is taken from a short expository essay that explains the invention of the printing press and its effects on European society. It focuses on giving a clear, concise overview of what was covered in the essay.

The invention of the printing press was important not only in terms of its immediate cultural and economic effects, but also in terms of its major impact on politics and religion across Europe. In the century following the invention of the printing press, the relatively stationary intellectual atmosphere of the Middle Ages gave way to the social upheavals of the Reformation and the Renaissance. A single technological innovation had contributed to the total reshaping of the continent.

This conclusion is taken from a literary analysis essay about Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein . It summarizes what the essay’s analysis achieved and emphasizes its originality.

By tracing the depiction of Frankenstein through the novel’s three volumes, I have demonstrated how the narrative structure shifts our perception of the character. While the Frankenstein of the first volume is depicted as having innocent intentions, the second and third volumes—first in the creature’s accusatory voice, and then in his own voice—increasingly undermine him, causing him to appear alternately ridiculous and vindictive. Far from the one-dimensional villain he is often taken to be, the character of Frankenstein is compelling because of the dynamic narrative frame in which he is placed. In this frame, Frankenstein’s narrative self-presentation responds to the images of him we see from others’ perspectives. This conclusion sheds new light on the novel, foregrounding Shelley’s unique layering of narrative perspectives and its importance for the depiction of character.

If you want to know more about AI tools , college essays , or fallacies make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

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Your essay’s conclusion should contain:

  • A rephrased version of your overall thesis
  • A brief review of the key points you made in the main body
  • An indication of why your argument matters

The conclusion may also reflect on the broader implications of your argument, showing how your ideas could applied to other contexts or debates.

For a stronger conclusion paragraph, avoid including:

  • Important evidence or analysis that wasn’t mentioned in the main body
  • Generic concluding phrases (e.g. “In conclusion…”)
  • Weak statements that undermine your argument (e.g. “There are good points on both sides of this issue.”)

Your conclusion should leave the reader with a strong, decisive impression of your work.

The conclusion paragraph of an essay is usually shorter than the introduction . As a rule, it shouldn’t take up more than 10–15% of the text.

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How to write a strong conclusion for your research paper

Last updated

17 February 2024

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Short on time? Get an AI generated summary of this article instead

Writing a research paper is a chance to share your knowledge and hypothesis. It's an opportunity to demonstrate your many hours of research and prove your ability to write convincingly.

Ideally, by the end of your research paper, you'll have brought your readers on a journey to reach the conclusions you've pre-determined. However, if you don't stick the landing with a good conclusion, you'll risk losing your reader’s trust.

Writing a strong conclusion for your research paper involves a few important steps, including restating the thesis and summing up everything properly.

Find out what to include and what to avoid, so you can effectively demonstrate your understanding of the topic and prove your expertise.

  • Why is a good conclusion important?

A good conclusion can cement your paper in the reader’s mind. Making a strong impression in your introduction can draw your readers in, but it's the conclusion that will inspire them.

  • What to include in a research paper conclusion

There are a few specifics you should include in your research paper conclusion. Offer your readers some sense of urgency or consequence by pointing out why they should care about the topic you have covered. Discuss any common problems associated with your topic and provide suggestions as to how these problems can be solved or addressed.

The conclusion should include a restatement of your initial thesis. Thesis statements are strengthened after you’ve presented supporting evidence (as you will have done in the paper), so make a point to reintroduce it at the end.

Finally, recap the main points of your research paper, highlighting the key takeaways you want readers to remember. If you've made multiple points throughout the paper, refer to the ones with the strongest supporting evidence.

  • Steps for writing a research paper conclusion

Many writers find the conclusion the most challenging part of any research project . By following these three steps, you'll be prepared to write a conclusion that is effective and concise.

  • Step 1: Restate the problem

Always begin by restating the research problem in the conclusion of a research paper. This serves to remind the reader of your hypothesis and refresh them on the main point of the paper. 

When restating the problem, take care to avoid using exactly the same words you employed earlier in the paper.

  • Step 2: Sum up the paper

After you've restated the problem, sum up the paper by revealing your overall findings. The method for this differs slightly, depending on whether you're crafting an argumentative paper or an empirical paper.

Argumentative paper: Restate your thesis and arguments

Argumentative papers involve introducing a thesis statement early on. In crafting the conclusion for an argumentative paper, always restate the thesis, outlining the way you've developed it throughout the entire paper.

It might be appropriate to mention any counterarguments in the conclusion, so you can demonstrate how your thesis is correct or how the data best supports your main points.

Empirical paper: Summarize research findings

Empirical papers break down a series of research questions. In your conclusion, discuss the findings your research revealed, including any information that surprised you.

Be clear about the conclusions you reached, and explain whether or not you expected to arrive at these particular ones.

  • Step 3: Discuss the implications of your research

Argumentative papers and empirical papers also differ in this part of a research paper conclusion. Here are some tips on crafting conclusions for argumentative and empirical papers.

Argumentative paper: Powerful closing statement

In an argumentative paper, you'll have spent a great deal of time expressing the opinions you formed after doing a significant amount of research. Make a strong closing statement in your argumentative paper's conclusion to share the significance of your work.

You can outline the next steps through a bold call to action, or restate how powerful your ideas turned out to be.

Empirical paper: Directions for future research

Empirical papers are broader in scope. They usually cover a variety of aspects and can include several points of view.

To write a good conclusion for an empirical paper, suggest the type of research that could be done in the future, including methods for further investigation or outlining ways other researchers might proceed.

If you feel your research had any limitations, even if they were outside your control, you could mention these in your conclusion.

After you finish outlining your conclusion, ask someone to read it and offer feedback. In any research project you're especially close to, it can be hard to identify problem areas. Having a close friend or someone whose opinion you value read the research paper and provide honest feedback can be invaluable. Take note of any suggested edits and consider incorporating them into your paper if they make sense.

  • Things to avoid in a research paper conclusion

Keep these aspects to avoid in mind as you're writing your conclusion and refer to them after you've created an outline.

Dry summary

Writing a memorable, succinct conclusion is arguably more important than a strong introduction. Take care to avoid just rephrasing your main points, and don't fall into the trap of repeating dry facts or citations.

You can provide a new perspective for your readers to think about or contextualize your research. Either way, make the conclusion vibrant and interesting, rather than a rote recitation of your research paper’s highlights.

Clichéd or generic phrasing

Your research paper conclusion should feel fresh and inspiring. Avoid generic phrases like "to sum up" or "in conclusion." These phrases tend to be overused, especially in an academic context and might turn your readers off.

The conclusion also isn't the time to introduce colloquial phrases or informal language. Retain a professional, confident tone consistent throughout your paper’s conclusion so it feels exciting and bold.

New data or evidence

While you should present strong data throughout your paper, the conclusion isn't the place to introduce new evidence. This is because readers are engaged in actively learning as they read through the body of your paper.

By the time they reach the conclusion, they will have formed an opinion one way or the other (hopefully in your favor!). Introducing new evidence in the conclusion will only serve to surprise or frustrate your reader.

Ignoring contradictory evidence

If your research reveals contradictory evidence, don't ignore it in the conclusion. This will damage your credibility as an expert and might even serve to highlight the contradictions.

Be as transparent as possible and admit to any shortcomings in your research, but don't dwell on them for too long.

Ambiguous or unclear resolutions

The point of a research paper conclusion is to provide closure and bring all your ideas together. You should wrap up any arguments you introduced in the paper and tie up any loose ends, while demonstrating why your research and data are strong.

Use direct language in your conclusion and avoid ambiguity. Even if some of the data and sources you cite are inconclusive or contradictory, note this in your conclusion to come across as confident and trustworthy.

  • Examples of research paper conclusions

Your research paper should provide a compelling close to the paper as a whole, highlighting your research and hard work. While the conclusion should represent your unique style, these examples offer a starting point:

Ultimately, the data we examined all point to the same conclusion: Encouraging a good work-life balance improves employee productivity and benefits the company overall. The research suggests that when employees feel their personal lives are valued and respected by their employers, they are more likely to be productive when at work. In addition, company turnover tends to be reduced when employees have a balance between their personal and professional lives. While additional research is required to establish ways companies can support employees in creating a stronger work-life balance, it's clear the need is there.

Social media is a primary method of communication among young people. As we've seen in the data presented, most young people in high school use a variety of social media applications at least every hour, including Instagram and Facebook. While social media is an avenue for connection with peers, research increasingly suggests that social media use correlates with body image issues. Young girls with lower self-esteem tend to use social media more often than those who don't log onto social media apps every day. As new applications continue to gain popularity, and as more high school students are given smartphones, more research will be required to measure the effects of prolonged social media use.

What are the different kinds of research paper conclusions?

There are no formal types of research paper conclusions. Ultimately, the conclusion depends on the outline of your paper and the type of research you’re presenting. While some experts note that research papers can end with a new perspective or commentary, most papers should conclude with a combination of both. The most important aspect of a good research paper conclusion is that it accurately represents the body of the paper.

Can I present new arguments in my research paper conclusion?

Research paper conclusions are not the place to introduce new data or arguments. The body of your paper is where you should share research and insights, where the reader is actively absorbing the content. By the time a reader reaches the conclusion of the research paper, they should have formed their opinion. Introducing new arguments in the conclusion can take a reader by surprise, and not in a positive way. It might also serve to frustrate readers.

How long should a research paper conclusion be?

There's no set length for a research paper conclusion. However, it's a good idea not to run on too long, since conclusions are supposed to be succinct. A good rule of thumb is to keep your conclusion around 5 to 10 percent of the paper's total length. If your paper is 10 pages, try to keep your conclusion under one page.

What should I include in a research paper conclusion?

A good research paper conclusion should always include a sense of urgency, so the reader can see how and why the topic should matter to them. You can also note some recommended actions to help fix the problem and some obstacles they might encounter. A conclusion should also remind the reader of the thesis statement, along with the main points you covered in the paper. At the end of the conclusion, add a powerful closing statement that helps cement the paper in the mind of the reader.

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  • Writing Tips

How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

3-minute read

  • 29th August 2023

If you’re writing a research paper, the conclusion is your opportunity to summarize your findings and leave a lasting impression on your readers. In this post, we’ll take you through how to write an effective conclusion for a research paper and how you can:

·   Reword your thesis statement

·   Highlight the significance of your research

·   Discuss limitations

·   Connect to the introduction

·   End with a thought-provoking statement

Rewording Your Thesis Statement

Begin your conclusion by restating your thesis statement in a way that is slightly different from the wording used in the introduction. Avoid presenting new information or evidence in your conclusion. Just summarize the main points and arguments of your essay and keep this part as concise as possible. Remember that you’ve already covered the in-depth analyses and investigations in the main body paragraphs of your essay, so it’s not necessary to restate these details in the conclusion.

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Highlighting the Significance of Your Research

The conclusion is a good place to emphasize the implications of your research . Avoid ambiguous or vague language such as “I think” or “maybe,” which could weaken your position. Clearly explain why your research is significant and how it contributes to the broader field of study.

Here’s an example from a (fictional) study on the impact of social media on mental health:

Discussing Limitations

Although it’s important to emphasize the significance of your study, you can also use the conclusion to briefly address any limitations you discovered while conducting your research, such as time constraints or a shortage of resources. Doing this demonstrates a balanced and honest approach to your research.

Connecting to the Introduction

In your conclusion, you can circle back to your introduction , perhaps by referring to a quote or anecdote you discussed earlier. If you end your paper on a similar note to how you began it, you will create a sense of cohesion for the reader and remind them of the meaning and significance of your research.

Ending With a Thought-Provoking Statement

Consider ending your paper with a thought-provoking and memorable statement that relates to the impact of your research questions or hypothesis. This statement can be a call to action, a philosophical question, or a prediction for the future (positive or negative). Here’s an example that uses the same topic as above (social media and mental health):

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How to write an excellent thesis conclusion [with examples]

Tips for writing thesis conclusion

Restate the thesis

Review or reiterate key points of your work, explain why your work is relevant, a take-away for the reader, more resources on writing thesis conclusions, frequently asked questions about writing an excellent thesis conclusion, related articles.

At this point in your writing, you have most likely finished your introduction and the body of your thesis, dissertation, or research paper . While this is a reason to celebrate, you should not underestimate the importance of your conclusion. The conclusion is the last thing that your reader will see, so it should be memorable.

A good conclusion will review the key points of the thesis and explain to the reader why the information is relevant, applicable, or related to the world as a whole. Make sure to dedicate enough of your writing time to the conclusion and do not put it off until the very last minute.

This article provides an effective technique for writing a conclusion adapted from Erika Eby’s The College Student's Guide to Writing a Good Research Paper: 101 Easy Tips & Tricks to Make Your Work Stand Out .

While the thesis introduction starts out with broad statements about the topic, and then narrows it down to the thesis statement , a thesis conclusion does the same in the opposite order.

  • Restate the thesis.
  • Review or reiterate key points of your work.
  • Explain why your work is relevant.
  • Include a core take-away message for the reader.

Tip: Don’t just copy and paste your thesis into your conclusion. Restate it in different words.

The best way to start a conclusion is simply by restating the thesis statement. That does not mean just copying and pasting it from the introduction, but putting it into different words.

You will need to change the structure and wording of it to avoid sounding repetitive. Also, be firm in your conclusion just as you were in the introduction. Try to avoid sounding apologetic by using phrases like "This paper has tried to show..."

The conclusion should address all the same parts as the thesis while making it clear that the reader has reached the end. You are telling the reader that your research is finished and what your findings are.

I have argued throughout this work that the point of critical mass for biopolitical immunity occurred during the Romantic period because of that era's unique combination of post-revolutionary politics and innovations in smallpox prevention. In particular, I demonstrated that the French Revolution and the discovery of vaccination in the 1790s triggered a reconsideration of the relationship between bodies and the state.

Tip: Try to reiterate points from your introduction in your thesis conclusion.

The next step is to review the main points of the thesis as a whole. Look back at the body of of your project and make a note of the key ideas. You can reword these ideas the same way you reworded your thesis statement and then incorporate that into the conclusion.

You can also repeat striking quotations or statistics, but do not use more than two. As the conclusion represents your own closing thoughts on the topic , it should mainly consist of your own words.

In addition, conclusions can contain recommendations to the reader or relevant questions that further the thesis. You should ask yourself:

  • What you would ideally like to see your readers do in reaction to your paper?
  • Do you want them to take a certain action or investigate further?
  • Is there a bigger issue that your paper wants to draw attention to?

Also, try to reference your introduction in your conclusion. You have already taken a first step by restating your thesis. Now, check whether there are other key words, phrases or ideas that are mentioned in your introduction that fit into your conclusion. Connecting the introduction to the conclusion in this way will help readers feel satisfied.

I explored how Mary Wollstonecraft, in both her fiction and political writings, envisions an ideal medico-political state, and how other writers like William Wordsworth and Mary Shelley increasingly imagined the body politic literally, as an incorporated political collective made up of bodies whose immunity to political and medical ills was essential to a healthy state.

Tip: Make sure to explain why your thesis is relevant to your field of research.

Although you can encourage readers to question their opinions and reflect on your topic, do not leave loose ends. You should provide a sense of resolution and make sure your conclusion wraps up your argument. Make sure you explain why your thesis is relevant to your field of research and how your research intervenes within, or substantially revises, existing scholarly debates.

This project challenged conventional ideas about the relationship among Romanticism, medicine, and politics by reading the unfolding of Romantic literature and biopolitical immunity as mutual, co-productive processes. In doing so, this thesis revises the ways in which biopolitics has been theorized by insisting on the inherent connections between Romantic literature and the forms of biopower that characterize early modernity.

Tip: If you began your thesis with an anecdote or historical example, you may want to return to that in your conclusion.

End your conclusion with something memorable, such as:

  • a call to action
  • a recommendation
  • a gesture towards future research
  • a brief explanation of how the problem or idea you covered remains relevant

Ultimately, you want readers to feel more informed, or ready to act, as they read your conclusion.

Yet, the Romantic period is only the beginning of modern thought on immunity and biopolitics. Victorian writers, doctors, and politicians upheld the Romantic idea that a "healthy state" was a literal condition that could be achieved by combining politics and medicine, but augmented that idea through legislation and widespread public health measures. While many nineteenth-century efforts to improve citizens' health were successful, the fight against disease ultimately changed course in the twentieth century as global immunological threats such as SARS occupied public consciousness. Indeed, as subsequent public health events make apparent, biopolitical immunity persists as a viable concept for thinking about the relationship between medicine and politics in modernity.

Need more advice? Read our 5 additional tips on how to write a good thesis conclusion.

The conclusion is the last thing that your reader will see, so it should be memorable. To write a great thesis conclusion you should:

The basic content of a conclusion is to review the main points from the paper. This part represents your own closing thoughts on the topic. It should mainly consist of the outcome of the research in your own words.

The length of the conclusion will depend on the length of the whole thesis. Usually, a conclusion should be around 5-7% of the overall word count.

End your conclusion with something memorable, such as a question, warning, or call to action. Depending on the topic, you can also end with a recommendation.

In Open Access: Theses and Dissertations you can find thousands of completed works. Take a look at any of the theses or dissertations for real-life examples of conclusions that were already approved.

how to start a conclusion research paper

How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

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By the time you write the conclusion, you should have pointed out in the body of your research paper why your topic is important to the reader, and you should have presented the reader with all your arguments. It is critical that you do not introduce new information or ideas in your conclusion. If you find that you have not yet made the arguments you wished to make or pointed out evidence you feel is crucial to your reader’s understanding of your subject, you are not yet ready to write the conclusion; add another body paragraph before writing the conclusion.

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Your research paper should have a strong, succinct concluding section, where you draw together your findings. Think of it as a conclusion, not a summary. The difference is that you are reaching overall judgments about your topic, not summarizing everything you wrote about it. How to write a conclusion for a research paper? The focus should be on:

  • Saying what your research has found, what the findings mean, and how well they support the argument of your thesis statement.
  • Establishing the limits of your argument: How widely does it apply? What are the strengths and weaknesses of your method? How clear-cut are your findings?
  • Explaining how your findings and argument fit into your field, relating them to answers others have given and to the existing literature.

You may also want to add some concise comments about possible future developments or what kind of research should come next, but don’t lay it on too thick. The place of honor goes to your own explanation. Don’t spend too much of your final section criticizing others. Don’t introduce any big new topics or ideas. You certainly don’t expect to see new characters in the last scene of a movie. For the same reasons, you shouldn’t find any big new topics being introduced in the last paragraphs of a research paper.

Your concluding statement should focus on what your findings mean. How do you interpret them? Are they just as easily explained by alternative theories or other perspectives? Here, you are returning to the questions that first animated you and answering them, based on your research. You not only want to give the answers; you also want to explain their significance. What do they mean for policy, theory, literary interpretation, moral action, or whatever? You are answering the old, hard question: “So what?”

Be wary of overreaching. You really need to do two things at the same time: explain the significance of your findings and stake out their limits. You may have a hunch that your findings apply widely but, as a social scientist, you need to assess whether you can say so confidently, based on your current research. Your reader needs to know: “Do these findings apply to all college students, to all adults, or only to white mice?” White mice don’t come up much in the humanities, but the reader still wants to know how far your approach reaches. Does your analysis apply only to this novel or this writer, or could it apply to a whole literary genre?

Make it a priority to discuss these conclusions with your professor or adviser. The main danger here is that students finally reach this final section with only a week or two left before the due date. They don’t have enough time to work through their conclusions and revise them. That leaves the research paper weakest at the end, precisely where it should be strongest, nailing down the most significant points.

Begin discussing your major findings with your adviser while you are still writing the heart of the research paper. Of course, your conclusions will be tentative at that stage, but it helps to begin talking about them. As always, a little writing helps. You could simply list your main findings or write out a few paragraphs about them. Either would serve as a launching pad for meetings with your adviser. You will find these discussions also shed light on the research that leads to these findings. That, in turn, will strengthen your middle sections. Later, when you draft the conclusion, review your notes on these talks and the short documents you wrote for them. They will serve as prewriting for the final section.

The opening sentence of the conclusion should flow smoothly and logically from the transition sentence in the previous paragraph and lead the reader to reflect on your thesis. A good conclusion however, does not simply restate the thesis. You want to remind the reader of the thesis in your conclusion but reword it in a stronger fashion so that it is interesting and memorable to your audience.After reminding the reader of the thesis, the conclusion should then reflect on the topics in the body of the paper and summarize the key findings of your research. If you are writing a persuasive paper, it should summarize your key arguments and logically point your readers to the conclusion you wish them to reach.

Phrases for Conclusions of Research Papers

  • All this requires us to (propose the next action or an alternative idea).
  • Altogether, these findings indicate (point out the logical result).
  • Finally, it is important to note (make your strongest point and follow with a recommendation).
  • In conclusion (restate your thesis with greater emphasis).
  • It is evident that (point out the logical result or obvious next action).
  • In light of the evidence, (restate your thesis with greater emphasis).
  • In short, (summarize your findings).
  • It should be evident that we need to (propose the next action or an alternative idea).
  • In summary, (summarize your findings).
  • Looking ahead, it is obvious that (propose the next action or an alternative idea).
  • My conclusion is (restate your thesis with greater emphasis).
  • One last word must be said. (Follow with your opinion and propose a next action.)
  • One concludes that (give your opinion).
  • Overall, (summarize your findings).
  • Reflecting on these facts,we can see that …
  • The evidence presented above shows that (give your opinion).
  • The reader can conclude (make the point you wish to make).
  • These facts and observations support the idea that (offer a theory).
  • This analysis reveals (state your findings).
  • To conclude, (give an opinion based on the findings presented in the paper).
  • To sum up this discussion, (summarize your findings).
  • To summarize, (summarize your findings).
  • We arrive at the following conclusion: (give an opinion based on the findings presented in the paper).
  • We cannot ignore the fact that (state an important concern and follow with a call to action).
  • We can postulate (give your opinion or offer a theory).
  • We come to the conclusion that (give your opinion or offer a theory).
  • We can now present the theory that (give your opinion or offer a theory).

Examples of Strong Conclusions

As an example of how to end your research paper, let’s turn again to John Dower’s splendid book on postwar Japan, Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II . In the final pages, Dower pulls together his findings on war-ravaged Japan and its efforts to rebuild. He then judges the legacies of that period: its continuing impact on the country’s social, political, and economic life. Some insights are unexpected, at least to me. He argues that Japan has pursued trade protection as the only acceptable avenue for its persistent nationalism. America’s overwhelming power and Japan’s self-imposed restraints—the intertwined subjects of the book—blocked any political or military expression of Japan’s nationalist sentiment. Those avenues were simply too dangerous, he says, while economic nationalism was not. Dower ends with these paragraphs:

The Japanese economists and bureaucrats who drafted the informal 1946 blueprint for a planned economy were admirably clear on these objectives [of “demilitarization and democratization”]. They sought rapid recovery and maximum economic growth, of course—but they were just as concerned with achieving economic demilitarization and economic democracy. . . . Japan became wealthy. The standard of living rose impressively at every level of society. Income distribution was far more equitable than in the United States. Job security was assured. Growth was achieved without inordinate dependence on a military-industrial complex or a thriving trade in armaments. These are hardly trivial ideas, but they are now being discarded along with all the deservedly bankrupt aspects of the postwar system. The lessons and legacies of defeat have been many and varied indeed; and their end is not yet in sight. (John W. Dower, Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II . New York: W. W. Norton, 1999, pp. 563–64)

Remember the anecdotal opening of Herbert’s book Impressionism: Art, Leisure, and Parisian Society , with Henry Tuckerman’s 1867 arrival in a much-changed Paris? (see research paper introduction examples) Herbert strikes a completely different tone in his conclusion. It synthesizes the art history he has presented, offers a large judgment about where Impressionism fits among art movements, and suggests why exhibitions of Monet, Manet, and Renoir are still so popular. He manages to do all that in a few well-crafted sentences:

Although we credit [Impressionism] with being the gateway to modern art, we also treat it as the last of the great Western styles based upon a perception of harmony with natural vision. That harmony, long since lost to us in this century of urbanization, industrialization, and world wars, remains a longed-for idea, so we look back to Impressionism as the painting of a golden era. We flock into exhibitions of paintings that represent cafes, boating, promenading, and peaceful landscapes precisely because of our yearning for less troubled times. The only history that we feel deeply is the kind that is useful to us. Impressionism still looms large at the end of the twentieth century because we use its leisure-time subjects and its brilliantly colored surfaces to construct a desirable history. (Herbert, Impressionism , p. 306)

Robert Dallek offers similarly accessible, powerful judgments in his conclusion to Flawed Giant: Lyndon Johnson and His Times, 1961–1973 :

[Johnson’s] presidency was a story of great achievement and terrible failure, of lasting gains and unforgettable losses. . . . In a not so distant future, when coming generations have no direct experience of the man and the passions of the sixties are muted, Johnson will probably be remembered as a President who faithfully reflected the country’s greatness and limitations—a man notable for his successes and failures, for his triumphs and tragedy. Only one thing seems certain: Lyndon Johnson will not join the many obscure—almost nameless, faceless—Presidents whose terms of office register on most Americans as blank slates. He will not be forgotten. (Robert Dallek, Flawed Giant: Lyndon Johnson and His Times, 1961–1973 . New York: Oxford University Press, 1998, p. 628)

Some writers not only synthesize their findings or compare them to others; they use the conclusion to say what their work means for appropriate methods or subject matter in their field. That is what Robert Bruegmann does in his final statement in The Architects and the City: Holabird & Roche of Chicago, 1880–1918 . His conclusion goes beyond saying that this was a great architectural firm or that it designed buildings of lasting importance. Bruegmann tells us that Holabird & Roche helped shape modern Chicago and that its work, properly studied, helps us understand “the city as the ultimate human artifact”:

Traditional architectural history has tended to see the city less as a process than as a product, a collection of high art architectural objects in a setting dominated by mundane buildings of little interest. This tended to perpetuate a destructive and divisive attitude about the built environment, suggesting that only a few buildings are worthy of careful study and preservation while all others are mere backdrop. I hope that these explorations in the work of Holabird & Roche have shed light on parts of the city rarely visited by the architectural historian and on some little explored aspects of its history. If so, perhaps it has achieved its most basic goal: providing an insight into the city as the ultimate human artifact, our most complex and prodigious social creation, and the most tangible result of the actions over time of all its citizens. (Robert Bruegmann, The Architects and the City: Holabird & Roche of Chicago, 1880–1918 . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997, p. 443)

These are powerful conclusions, ending major works of scholarship on a high note. What concluding paragraphs should never do is gaze off into the sunset, offer vague homilies, or claim you have found the meaning of human existence. Be concrete. Stick to your topic. Make sure your research paper conclusions stand on solid ground. Avoid vague platitudes in your conclusion. Your goal should be reaching strong, sound judgments, firmly grounded in your readings and research. Better to claim too little than too much. Best of all, claim what you’ve earned the right to say: what your research really means.

Having finished the main parts of a research paper you can write an abstract.

Back to  How To Write A Research Paper .

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SciSpace Resources

How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

Sumalatha G

Table of Contents

Writing a conclusion for a research paper is a critical step that often determines the overall impact and impression the paper leaves on the reader. While some may view the conclusion as a mere formality, it is actually an opportunity to wrap up the main points, provide closure, and leave a lasting impression. In this article, we will explore the importance of a well-crafted conclusion and discuss various tips and strategies to help you write an engaging and impactful conclusion for your research paper.

Introduction

Before delving into the specifics of writing a conclusion, it is important to understand why it is such a crucial component of a research paper. The conclusion serves to summarize the main points of the paper and reemphasize their significance. A well-written conclusion can leave the reader satisfied and inspired, while a poorly executed one may undermine the credibility of the entire paper. Therefore, it is essential to give careful thought and attention to crafting an effective conclusion.

When writing a research paper, the conclusion acts as the final destination for the reader. It is the point where all the information, arguments, and evidence presented throughout the paper converge. Just as a traveler reaches the end of a journey, the reader reaches the conclusion to find closure and a sense of fulfillment. This is why the conclusion should not be taken lightly; it is a critical opportunity to leave a lasting impact on the reader.

Moreover, the conclusion is not merely a repetition of the introduction or a summary of the main points. It goes beyond that by providing a deeper understanding of the research findings and their implications. It allows the writer to reflect on the significance of their work and its potential contributions to the field. By doing so, the conclusion elevates the research paper from a mere collection of facts to a thought-provoking piece of scholarship.

In the following sections, we will explore various strategies and techniques for crafting a compelling conclusion. By understanding the importance of the conclusion and learning how to write one effectively, you will be equipped to create impactful research papers.

Structuring the Conclusion

In order to create an effective conclusion, it is important to consider its structure. A well-structured conclusion should begin by restating the thesis statement and summarizing the main points of the paper. It should then move on to provide a concise synthesis of the key findings and arguments, highlighting their implications and relevance. Finally, the conclusion should end with a thought-provoking statement that leaves the reader with a lasting impression.

Additionally, using phrases like "this research demonstrates," "the findings show," or "it is clear that" can help to highlight the significance of your research and emphasize your main conclusions.

Tips for Writing an Engaging Conclusion

Writing an engaging conclusion requires careful consideration and attention to detail. Here are some tips to help you create an impactful conclusion for your research paper:

  • Revisit the Introduction: Start your conclusion by referencing your introduction. Remind the reader of the research question or problem you initially posed and show how your research has addressed it.
  • Summarize Your Main Points: Provide a concise summary of the main points and arguments presented in your paper. Be sure to restate your thesis statement and highlight the key findings.
  • Offer a Fresh Perspective: Use the conclusion as an opportunity to provide a fresh perspective or offer insights that go beyond the main body of the paper. This will leave the reader with something new to consider.
  • Leave a Lasting Impression: End your conclusion with a thought-provoking statement or a call to action. This will leave a lasting impression on the reader and encourage further exploration of the research topic.

Addressing Counter Arguments In Conclusion

While crafting your conclusion, you can address any potential counterarguments or limitations of your research. This will demonstrate that you have considered alternative perspectives and have taken them into account in your conclusions. By acknowledging potential counterarguments, you can strengthen the credibility and validity of your research. And by openly discussing limitations, you demonstrate transparency and honesty in your research process.

Language and Tone To Be Used In Conclusion

The language and tone of your conclusion play a crucial role in shaping the overall impression of your research paper. It is important to use clear and concise language that is appropriate for the academic context. Avoid using overly informal or colloquial language that may undermine the credibility of your research. Additionally, consider the tone of your conclusion – it should be professional, confident, and persuasive, while still maintaining a respectful and objective tone.

When it comes to the language used in your conclusion, precision is key. You want to ensure that your ideas are communicated effectively and that there is no room for misinterpretation. Using clear and concise language will not only make your conclusion easier to understand but will also demonstrate your command of the subject matter.

Furthermore, it is important to strike the right balance between formality and accessibility. While academic writing typically requires a more formal tone, you should still aim to make your conclusion accessible to a wider audience. This means avoiding jargon or technical terms that may confuse readers who are not familiar with the subject matter. Instead, opt for language that is clear and straightforward, allowing anyone to grasp the main points of your research.

Another aspect to consider is the tone of your conclusion. The tone should reflect the confidence you have in your research findings and the strength of your argument. By adopting a professional and confident tone, you are more likely to convince your readers of the validity and importance of your research. However, it is crucial to strike a balance and avoid sounding arrogant or dismissive of opposing viewpoints. Maintaining a respectful and objective tone will help you engage with your audience in a more persuasive manner.

Moreover, the tone of your conclusion should align with the overall tone of your research paper. Consistency in tone throughout your paper will create a cohesive and unified piece of writing.

Common Mistakes to Avoid While Writing a Conclusion

When writing a conclusion, there are several common mistakes that researchers often make. By being aware of these pitfalls, you can avoid them and create a more effective conclusion for your research paper. Some common mistakes include:

  • Repeating the Introduction: A conclusion should not simply be a reworded version of the introduction. While it is important to revisit the main points, try to present them in a fresh and broader perspective, by foregrounding the implications/impacts of your research.
  • Introducing New Information: The conclusion should not introduce any new information or arguments. Instead, it should focus on summarizing and synthesizing the main points presented in the paper.
  • Being Vague or General: Avoid using vague or general statements in your conclusion. Instead, be specific and provide concrete examples or evidence to support your main points.
  • Ending Abruptly: A conclusion should provide a sense of closure and completeness. Avoid ending your conclusion abruptly or leaving the reader with unanswered questions.

Editing and Revising the Conclusion

Just like the rest of your research paper, the conclusion should go through a thorough editing and revising process. This will help to ensure clarity, coherence, and impact in the conclusion. As you revise your conclusion, consider the following:

  • Check for Consistency: Ensure that your conclusion aligns with the main body of the paper and does not introduce any new or contradictory information.
  • Eliminate Redundancy: Remove any repetitive or redundant information in your conclusion. Instead, focus on presenting the key points in a concise and engaging manner.
  • Proofread for Clarity: Read your conclusion aloud or ask someone else to read it to ensure that it is clear and understandable. Check for any grammatical or spelling errors that may distract the reader.
  • Seek Feedback: Consider sharing your conclusion with peers or mentors to get their feedback and insights. This can help you strengthen your conclusion and make it more impactful.

How to Write Conclusion as a Call to Action

Finally, consider using your conclusion as a call to action. Encourage the reader to take further action, such as conducting additional research or considering the implications of your findings. By providing a clear call to action, you can inspire the reader to actively engage with your research and continue the conversation on the topic.

Adapting to Different Research Paper Types

It is important to adapt your conclusion approach based on the type of research paper you are writing. Different research paper types may require different strategies and approaches to writing the conclusion. For example, a scientific research paper may focus more on summarizing the key findings and implications, while a persuasive research paper may emphasize the call to action and the potential impact of the research. Tailor your conclusion to suit the specific goals and requirements of your research paper.

Final Thoughts

A well-crafted conclusion can leave a lasting impression on the reader and enhance the impact of your research. By following the tips and strategies outlined in this article, you can create an engaging and impactful conclusion that effectively summarizes your main points, addresses potential counterarguments, and leaves the reader with a sense of closure and inspiration. Embrace the importance of the conclusion and view it as an opportunity to showcase the significance and relevance of your research.

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How to write a conclusion for a research paper

How to write a conclusion for a research paper

Research paper conclusions provide closure for your paper—but they can be difficult to write. What should you include? In this post, we discuss how to write a conclusion for a research paper.

What is a conclusion?

The conclusion to a research paper sums of your main argument and provides closure for your reader. It will return to your thesis statement and revisit the ways that you proved it.

The content and format of your conclusion will ultimately differ depending on the subject of your paper. Some fields have more specific expectations for what needs to be included.

You should always check your assignment’s guidelines or rubric to ensure that you understand what your instructor expects in a research paper conclusion.

How to write a conclusion

In this section, we break down the main parts of a conclusion and provide tips on how to approach each one.

The opening of a conclusion

The point of a conclusion’s opening statement is to transition from the main body of your paper to the concluding section. Some types of research papers include section headers that label each part of the paper. In these cases, your reader will be able to clearly see that you’re about to conclude.

In most other cases, begin your conclusion with a signal that indicates that you’re moving into the concluding section of your paper. For instance, you might start your conclusion by stating “in conclusion,” “to conclude,” or “in sum.”

What you can include in a conclusion

Although you shouldn’t include any new data or evidence in a conclusion, you can include suggestions for further research, insights about how your research could be applied in different contexts, or a course of action.

The bulk of the conclusion should synthesize—not summarize—the main points of your paper. If your introduction included historical information or an anecdote, return to that information now.

Your conclusion should also answer the “so what” question: why is this research relevant? Who should care about your argument and why?

The ending of a conclusion

Finally, you’ll want to end your conclusion with a closing statement that wraps up your concluding section (and your paper as a whole).

Tips for writing a conclusion

1. don’t include new data or evidence.

Your conclusion should provide closure to your paper, so introducing new information is not appropriate and will likely confuse your reader.

2. Don’t simply restate your thesis

You should never simply copy and paste your thesis statement into your conclusion. Instead, revisit your thesis in light of the evidence and analysis that you put forth in the main body of your paper.

3. Provide closure for your reader

A strong conclusion provides closure for the reader by synthesizing the main points of the paper and putting to rest any questions that the reader may have during the process of reading. The best way to test if your conclusion provides closure is to ask someone to read your paper.

4. Make suggestions for further research

While conclusions should not introduce new data or arguments, they can include suggestions for further research. A single research paper never covers everything—there are always possible new angles and approaches.

Next steps for a successful research paper

Once you’ve written your conclusion, you should review what you’ve written and make revisions, as needed. Then, double-check that you’ve cited all borrowed material and that your paper has a bibliography with accurate citations.

Use BibGuru’s citation generator to quickly create accurate citations for the books, articles, websites, and other sources that you used in your research paper.

Frequently Asked Questions about how to write a conclusion for a research paper

A conclusion contains an opening statement (often a restatement of the thesis), recommendations for further studies or applications, and a closing statement.

Start by signaling to the reader that you are moving into the concluding section.

The length of your conclusion will depend on the length of your paper. Most research paper conclusions will be around 1-2 paragraphs.

End your conclusion with a closing statement that wraps up the paper and provides closure to your reader.

How to write a research proposal

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How to Write a Research Paper Conclusion Section

how to start a conclusion research paper

What is a conclusion in a research paper?

The conclusion in a research paper is the final paragraph or two in a research paper. In scientific papers, the conclusion usually follows the Discussion section , summarizing the importance of the findings and reminding the reader why the work presented in the paper is relevant.

However, it can be a bit confusing to distinguish the conclusion section/paragraph from a summary or a repetition of your findings, your own opinion, or the statement of the implications of your work. In fact, the conclusion should contain a bit of all of these other parts but go beyond it—but not too far beyond! 

The structure and content of the conclusion section can also vary depending on whether you are writing a research manuscript or an essay. This article will explain how to write a good conclusion section, what exactly it should (and should not) contain, how it should be structured, and what you should avoid when writing it.  

Table of Contents:

What does a good conclusion section do, what to include in a research paper conclusion.

  • Conclusion in an Essay
  • Research Paper Conclusion 
  • Conclusion Paragraph Outline and Example
  • What Not to Do When Writing a Conclusion

The conclusion of a research paper has several key objectives. It should:

  • Restate your research problem addressed in the introduction section
  • Summarize your main arguments, important findings, and broader implications
  • Synthesize key takeaways from your study

The specific content in the conclusion depends on whether your paper presents the results of original scientific research or constructs an argument through engagement with previously published sources.

You presented your general field of study to the reader in the introduction section, by moving from general information (the background of your work, often combined with a literature review ) to the rationale of your study and then to the specific problem or topic you addressed, formulated in the form of the statement of the problem in research or the thesis statement in an essay.

In the conclusion section, in contrast, your task is to move from your specific findings or arguments back to a more general depiction of how your research contributes to the readers’ understanding of a certain concept or helps solve a practical problem, or fills an important gap in the literature. The content of your conclusion section depends on the type of research you are doing and what type of paper you are writing. But whatever the outcome of your work is, the conclusion is where you briefly summarize it and place it within a larger context. It could be called the “take-home message” of the entire paper.

What to summarize in the conclusion

Your conclusion section needs to contain a very brief summary of your work , a very brief summary of the main findings of your work, and a mention of anything else that seems relevant when you now look at your work from a bigger perspective, even if it was not initially listed as one of your main research questions. This could be a limitation, for example, a problem with the design of your experiment that either needs to be considered when drawing any conclusions or that led you to ask a different question and therefore draw different conclusions at the end of your study (compared to when you started out).

Once you have reminded the reader of what you did and what you found, you need to go beyond that and also provide either your own opinion on why your work is relevant (and for whom, and how) or theoretical or practical implications of the study , or make a specific call for action if there is one to be made.   

How to Write an Essay Conclusion

Academic essays follow quite different structures than their counterparts in STEM and the natural sciences. Humanities papers often have conclusion sections that are much longer and contain more detail than scientific papers. There are three main types of academic essay conclusions.

Summarizing conclusion

The most typical conclusion at the end of an analytical/explanatory/argumentative essay is a summarizing conclusion . This is, as the name suggests, a clear summary of the main points of your topic and thesis. Since you might have gone through a number of different arguments or subtopics in the main part of your essay, you need to remind the reader again what those were, how they fit into each other, and how they helped you develop or corroborate your hypothesis.

For an essay that analyzes how recruiters can hire the best candidates in the shortest time or on “how starving yourself will increase your lifespan, according to science”, a summary of all the points you discussed might be all you need. Note that you should not exactly repeat what you said earlier, but rather highlight the essential details and present those to your reader in a different way. 

Externalizing conclusion

If you think that just reminding the reader of your main points is not enough, you can opt for an externalizing conclusion instead, that presents new points that were not presented in the paper so far. These new points can be additional facts and information or they can be ideas that are relevant to the topic and have not been mentioned before.

Such a conclusion can stimulate your readers to think about your topic or the implications of your analysis in a whole new way. For example, at the end of a historical analysis of a specific event or development, you could direct your reader’s attention to some current events that were not the topic of your essay but that provide a different context for your findings.

Editorial conclusion

In an editorial conclusion , another common type of conclusion that you will find at the end of papers and essays, you do not add new information but instead present your own experiences or opinions on the topic to round everything up. What makes this type of conclusion interesting is that you can choose to agree or disagree with the information you presented in your paper so far. For example, if you have collected and analyzed information on how a specific diet helps people lose weight, you can nevertheless have your doubts on the sustainability of that diet or its practicability in real life—if such arguments were not included in your original thesis and have therefore not been covered in the main part of your paper, the conclusion section is the place where you can get your opinion across.    

How to Conclude an Empirical Research Paper

An empirical research paper is usually more concise and succinct than an essay, because, if it is written well, it focuses on one specific question, describes the method that was used to answer that one question, describes and explains the results, and guides the reader in a logical way from the introduction to the discussion without going on tangents or digging into not absolutely relevant topics.

Summarize the findings

In a scientific paper, you should include a summary of the findings. Don’t go into great detail here (you will have presented your in-depth  results  and  discussion  already), but do clearly express the answers to the  research questions  you investigated.

Describe your main findings, even if they weren’t necessarily the ones anticipated, and explain the conclusion they led you to. Explain these findings in as few words as possible.

Instead of beginning with “ In conclusion, in this study, we investigated the effect of stress on the brain using fMRI …”, you should try to find a way to incorporate the repetition of the essential (and only the essential) details into the summary of the key points. “ The findings of this fMRI study on the effect of stress on the brain suggest that …” or “ While it has been known for a long time that stress has an effect on the brain, the findings of this fMRI study show that, surprisingly… ” would be better ways to start a conclusion. 

You should also not bring up new ideas or present new facts in the conclusion of a research paper, but stick to the background information you have presented earlier, to the findings you have already discussed, and the limitations and implications you have already described. The one thing you can add here is a practical recommendation that you haven’t clearly stated before—but even that one needs to follow logically from everything you have already discussed in the discussion section.

Discuss the implications

After summing up your key arguments or findings, conclude the paper by stating the broader implications of the research , whether in methods , approach, or findings. Express practical or theoretical takeaways from your paper. This often looks like a “call to action” or a final “sales pitch” that puts an exclamation point on your paper.

If your research topic is more theoretical in nature, your closing statement should express the significance of your argument—for example, in proposing a new understanding of a topic or laying the groundwork for future research.

Future research example

Future research into education standards should focus on establishing a more detailed picture of how novel pedagogical approaches impact young people’s ability to absorb new and difficult concepts. Moreover, observational studies are needed to gain more insight into how specific teaching models affect the retention of relationships and facts—for instance, how inquiry-based learning and its emphasis on lateral thinking can be used as a jumping-off point for more holistic classroom approaches.

Research Conclusion Example and Outline

Let’s revisit the study on the effect of stress on the brain we mentioned before and see what the common structure for a conclusion paragraph looks like, in three steps. Following these simple steps will make it easy for you to wrap everything up in one short paragraph that contains all the essential information: 

One: Short summary of what you did, but integrated into the summary of your findings:

While it has been known for a long time that stress has an effect on the brain, the findings of this fMRI study in 25 university students going through mid-term exams show that, surprisingly, one’s attitude to the experienced stress significantly modulates the brain’s response to it. 

Note that you don’t need to repeat any methodological or technical details here—the reader has been presented with all of these before, they have read your results section and the discussion of your results, and even (hopefully!) a discussion of the limitations and strengths of your paper. The only thing you need to remind them of here is the essential outcome of your work. 

Two: Add implications, and don’t forget to specify who this might be relevant for: 

Students could be considered a specific subsample of the general population, but earlier research shows that the effect that exam stress has on their physical and mental health is comparable to the effects of other types of stress on individuals of other ages and occupations. Further research into practical ways of modulating not only one’s mental stress response but potentially also one’s brain activity (e.g., via neurofeedback training) are warranted.

This is a “research implication”, and it is nicely combined with a mention of a potential limitation of the study (the student sample) that turns out not to be a limitation after all (because earlier research suggests we can generalize to other populations). If there already is a lot of research on neurofeedback for stress control, by the way, then this should have been discussed in your discussion section earlier and you wouldn’t say such studies are “warranted” here but rather specify how your findings could inspire specific future experiments or how they should be implemented in existing applications. 

Three: The most important thing is that your conclusion paragraph accurately reflects the content of your paper. Compare it to your research paper title , your research paper abstract , and to your journal submission cover letter , in case you already have one—if these do not all tell the same story, then you need to go back to your paper, start again from the introduction section, and find out where you lost the logical thread. As always, consistency is key.    

Problems to Avoid When Writing a Conclusion 

  • Do not suddenly introduce new information that has never been mentioned before (unless you are writing an essay and opting for an externalizing conclusion, see above). The conclusion section is not where you want to surprise your readers, but the take-home message of what you have already presented.
  • Do not simply copy your abstract, the conclusion section of your abstract, or the first sentence of your introduction, and put it at the end of the discussion section. Even if these parts of your paper cover the same points, they should not be identical.
  • Do not start the conclusion with “In conclusion”. If it has its own section heading, that is redundant, and if it is the last paragraph of the discussion section, it is inelegant and also not really necessary. The reader expects you to wrap your work up in the last paragraph, so you don’t have to announce that. Just look at the above example to see how to start a conclusion in a natural way.
  • Do not forget what your research objectives were and how you initially formulated the statement of the problem in your introduction section. If your story/approach/conclusions changed because of methodological issues or information you were not aware of when you started, then make sure you go back to the beginning and adapt your entire story (not just the ending). 

Consider Receiving Academic Editing Services

When you have arrived at the conclusion of your paper, you might want to head over to Wordvice AI’s AI Writing Assistant to receive a free grammar check for any academic content. 

After drafting, you can also receive English editing and proofreading services , including paper editing services for your journal manuscript. If you need advice on how to write the other parts of your research paper , or on how to make a research paper outline if you are struggling with putting everything you did together, then head over to the Wordvice academic resources pages , where we have a lot more articles and videos for you.

how to start a conclusion research paper

How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

how to start a conclusion research paper

When you're wrapping up a research paper, the conclusion is like the grand finale of a fireworks show – it's your chance to leave a lasting impression. In this article, we'll break down the steps to help you write a winning research paper conclusion that not only recaps your main points but also ties everything together. Consider it the "So what?" moment – why should people care about your research? Our professional essay writers will guide you through making your conclusion strong, clear, and something that sticks with your readers long after they've put down your paper. So, let's dive in and ensure your research ends on a high note!

What Is a Conclusion in a Research Paper

In a research paper, the conclusion serves as the final segment, where you summarize the main points and findings of your study. It's not just a repetition of what you've already said but rather a chance to tie everything together and highlight the significance of your research. As you learn how to start a research paper , a good conclusion also often discusses the implications of your findings, suggests potential areas for further research, and leaves the reader with a lasting impression of the importance and relevance of your work in the broader context of the field. Essentially, it's your last opportunity to make a strong impact and leave your readers with a clear understanding of the significance of your research. Here’s a research paper conclusion example:

In conclusion, this research paper has navigated the intricacies of sustainable urban development, shedding light on the pivotal role of community engagement and innovative planning strategies. Through applying qualitative and quantitative research methods, we've uncovered valuable insights into the challenges and opportunities inherent in fostering environmentally friendly urban spaces. The implications of these findings extend beyond the confines of this study, emphasizing the imperative for continued exploration in the realms of urban planning and environmental sustainability. By emphasizing both the practical applications and theoretical contributions, this research underscores the significance of community involvement and forward-thinking strategies in shaping the future of urban landscapes. As cities evolve, incorporating these insights into planning and development practices will create resilient and harmonious urban environments.

Conclusion Outline for Research Paper

This outline for a research paper conclusion provides a structured framework to ensure that your ending effectively summarizes the key elements of your research paper and leaves a lasting impression on your readers. Adjust the content based on the specific requirements and focus of your research.

Restate the Thesis Statement

  • Briefly restate the main thesis or research question.
  • Emphasize the core objective or purpose of the study.

Summarize Key Findings

  • Recap the main points and key findings from each section of the paper.
  • Provide a concise overview of the research journey.

Discuss Implications

  • Explore the broader implications of the research findings.
  • Discuss how the results contribute to the existing body of knowledge in the field.

Address Limitations

  • Acknowledge any limitations or constraints encountered during the research process.
  • Explain how these limitations may impact the interpretation of the findings.

Suggest Areas for Future Research

  • Propose potential directions for future studies related to the topic.
  • Identify gaps in the current research that warrant further exploration.

Reaffirm Significance

  • Reaffirm the importance and relevance of the research in the broader context.
  • Highlight the practical applications or real-world implications of the study.

Concluding Statement

  • Craft a strong, memorable closing statement that leaves a lasting impression.
  • Sum up the overall impact of the research and its potential contribution to the field.

Study the full guide on how to make a research paper outline here, which will also specify the conclusion writing specifics to improve your general prowess.

Tips on How to Make a Conclusion in Research

Here are key considerations regarding a conclusion for research paper to not only recap the primary ideas in your work but also delve deeper to earn a higher grade:

Research Paper Conclusion

  • Provide a concise recap of your main research outcomes.
  • Remind readers of your research goals and their accomplishments.
  • Stick to summarizing existing content; refrain from adding new details.
  • Emphasize why your research matters and its broader implications.
  • Clearly explain the practical or theoretical impact of your findings.
  • Prompt readers to reflect on how your research influences their perspective.
  • Briefly discuss the robustness of your research methods.
  • End with a suggestion for future research or a practical application.
  • Transparently address any constraints or biases in your study.
  • End on a powerful note, leaving a memorable impression on your readers.

devices in research paper conclusion

For your inspiration, we’ve also prepared this research proposal example APA , which dwells on another important aspect of research writing.

How to Write a Research Paper Conclusion

As you finish your research paper, the conclusion takes center stage. In this section, we've got five practical tips for writing a conclusion for a research paper. We'll guide you through summarizing your key findings, revisiting your research goals, discussing the bigger picture, addressing any limitations, and ending on a powerful note. Think of it as your roadmap to creating a conclusion that not only wraps up your research but also leaves a lasting impact on your readers. Let's dive in and make sure your conclusion stands out for all the right reasons!

How to Write a Research Paper Conclusion

Synthesize Core Discoveries. Initiate your conclusion by synthesizing the essential discoveries of your research. Offer a succinct recapitulation of the primary points and outcomes you have elucidated in your paper. This aids in reinforcing the gravity of your work and reiterates the pivotal information you have presented.

Revisit Research Objectives. Revisit the research objectives or questions you outlined at the beginning of your paper. Assess whether you have successfully addressed these objectives and if your findings align with the initial goals of your research. This reflection helps tie your conclusion back to the purpose of your study.

Discuss Implications and Contributions. Discuss the broader implications of your research and its potential contributions to the field. Consider how your findings might impact future research, applications, or understanding of the subject matter. This demonstrates the significance of your work and places it within a larger context.

Address Limitations and Future Research. Acknowledge any limitations in your study, such as constraints in data collection or potential biases. Briefly discuss how these limitations might have affected your results. Additionally, suggest areas for future research that could build upon your work, addressing any unanswered questions or unexplored aspects. This demonstrates a thoughtful approach to your research.

End with a Strong Conclusion Statement. Conclude your research paper with a strong and memorable statement that reinforces the key message you want readers to take away. This could be a call to action, a proposal for further investigation, or a reflection on the broader significance of your findings. Leave your readers with a lasting impression that emphasizes the importance of your research. Remember that you can buy a research paper anytime if you lack time or get stuck in writer’s block.

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Stylistic Devices to Use in a Conclusion

Discover distinctive stylistic insights that you can apply when writing a conclusion for a research paper:

  • Rhetorical Questions. When using rhetorical questions, strategically place them to engage readers' minds. For instance, you might pose a question that prompts reflection on the broader implications of your findings, leaving your audience with something to ponder.
  • Powerful Language. Incorporate strong language to convey a sense of conviction and importance. Choose words that resonate with the overall tone of your research and amplify the significance of your conclusions. This adds weight to your key messages.
  • Repetitions. Repetitions can be employed to reinforce essential ideas. Reiterate key phrases or concepts in a way that emphasizes their importance without sounding redundant. This technique serves to drive home your main points.
  • Anecdotes. Integrating anecdotes into your conclusion can provide a human touch. Share a brief and relevant story that connects with your research, making the information more relatable and memorable for your audience.
  • Vivid Imagery. Lastly, use vivid imagery to paint a picture in the minds of your readers. Appeal to their senses by describing scenarios or outcomes related to your research. This creates a more immersive and lasting impression.

If you have a larger paper to write, for example a thesis, use our custom dissertation writing can help you in no time.

How to Make a Conclusion Logically Appealing

Knowing how to write a conclusion for a research paper that is logically appealing is important for leaving a lasting impression on your readers. Here are some tips to achieve this:

Logical Sequencing

  • Present your conclusion in a structured manner, following the natural flow of your paper. Readers should effortlessly follow your thought process, making your conclusion more accessible and persuasive.

Reinforce Main Arguments

  • Emphasize the core arguments and findings from your research. By reinforcing key points, you solidify your stance and provide a logical culmination to your paper.

Address Counterarguments

  • Acknowledge and address potential counterarguments or limitations in your research. Demonstrate intellectual honesty and strengthen your conclusion by preemptively addressing potential doubts.

Connect with Introduction

  • Revisit themes or concepts introduced in your introduction to create a cohesive narrative, allowing readers to trace the logical progression of your research from start to finish.

Propose Actionable Insights

  • Suggest practical applications or recommendations based on your findings. This will add a forward-looking dimension, making your conclusion more relevant and compelling.

Highlight Significance

  • Clearly articulate the broader implications of your research to convey the importance of your work and its potential impact on the field, making your conclusion logically compelling.

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Avoid These Things When Writing a Research Paper Conclusion

As you write your conclusion of research paper, there’s a list of things professional writers don’t recommend doing. Consider these issues carefully:

Avoid in Your Research Paper Conclusion

  • Repetition of Exact Phrases
  • Repetitively using the same phrases or sentences from the main body. Repetition can make your conclusion seem redundant and less engaging.
  • Overly Lengthy Summaries
  • Providing excessively detailed summaries of each section of your paper. Readers may lose interest if the conclusion becomes too long and detailed.
  • Unclear Connection to the Introduction
  • Failing to connect the conclusion back to the introduction. A lack of continuity may make the paper feel disjointed.
  • Adding New Arguments or Ideas
  • Introducing new arguments or ideas that were not addressed in the body. This can confuse the reader and disrupt the coherence of your paper.
  • Overuse of Complex Jargon
  • Using excessively complex or technical language without clarification. Clear communication is essential in the conclusion, ensuring broad understanding.
  • Apologizing or Undermining Confidence
  • Apologizing for limitations or expressing doubt about your work. Maintain a confident tone; if limitations exist, present them objectively without undermining your research.
  • Sweeping Generalizations
  • Making overly broad or unsupported generalizations. Such statements can weaken the credibility of your conclusion.
  • Neglecting the Significance
  • Failing to emphasize the broader significance of your research. Readers need to understand why your findings matter in a larger context.
  • Abrupt Endings
  • Concluding abruptly without a strong closing statement. A powerful ending leaves a lasting impression; avoid a sudden or weak conclusion.

Research Paper Conclusion Example

That covers the essential aspects of summarizing a research paper. The only remaining step is to review the conclusion examples for research paper provided by our team.

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Final Thoughts

In conclusion, the knowledge of how to write the conclusion of a research paper is pivotal for presenting your findings and leaving a lasting impression on your readers. By summarizing the key points, reiterating the significance of your research, and offering avenues for future exploration, you can create a conclusion that not only reinforces the value of your study but also encourages further academic discourse. Remember to balance brevity and completeness, ensuring your conclusion is concise yet comprehensive. Emphasizing the practical implications of your research and connecting it to the broader academic landscape will help solidify the impact of your work. Pay someone to write a research paper if you are having a hard time finishing your coursework on time.

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How To Write A Conclusion For A Research Paper?

What should the conclusion of a research paper contain, how to start a conclusion paragraph for a research paper.

Daniel Parker

Daniel Parker

is a seasoned educational writer focusing on scholarship guidance, research papers, and various forms of academic essays including reflective and narrative essays. His expertise also extends to detailed case studies. A scholar with a background in English Literature and Education, Daniel’s work on EssayPro blog aims to support students in achieving academic excellence and securing scholarships. His hobbies include reading classic literature and participating in academic forums.

how to start a conclusion research paper

is an expert in nursing and healthcare, with a strong background in history, law, and literature. Holding advanced degrees in nursing and public health, his analytical approach and comprehensive knowledge help students navigate complex topics. On EssayPro blog, Adam provides insightful articles on everything from historical analysis to the intricacies of healthcare policies. In his downtime, he enjoys historical documentaries and volunteering at local clinics.

How to Write a 5 Paragraph Essay

How to Start a Conclusion in Research? [With Examples]

The examples below are from 47,803 full-text PubMed research papers that I analyzed in order to explore common ways to start a Conclusion section.

The research papers included in this analysis were selected at random from those uploaded to PubMed Central between the years 2016 and 2021. Note that I used the BioC API to download the data (see the References section below).

Examples of how to start a Conclusion section

The Conclusion section should remind the reader of the most important finding and its implications. [Source: How to Write & Publish a Research Paper: Step-by-Step Guide ]

It can start with a sentence that:

1. Restates the objective of the study

For example:

“ The aim of this study was to develop novel type of nanobiomaterials for biomedical applications with advanced properties using only biocompatible components.” Source: taken from the conclusion section of this PubMed article

2. Emphasizes the strength of the study

“ To the best of our knowledge, this was the first study that analyzed children’s energy balance, in both a school setting and a summer camp, with the aim of assessing whether the dietary intake of children was adequate to cover their needs during both school and summer camp days.” Source: taken from the conclusion section of this PubMed article

3. Summarizes the most important finding of the study

“ The results of this study demonstrate that early application of combined echinocandins/TMP-SMX treatment for AIDS-PCP patients can improve patient prognosis, increase their survival rate, and decrease their mortality rate.” Source: taken from the conclusion section of this PubMed article

Common words used to start a conclusion

Here’s a decision tree that shows the most popular words used at the start of a conclusion:

Common ways to start a conclusion section

5.74% of studies start the Conclusion section with: “In conclusion”

In our sample of 47,803 research papers, 2,744 (5.74%) Conclusion sections started with the words: “In conclusion”.

“ In conclusion, we have identified the radical species that promoted the stereoinversion of vinylic compounds during the preparation of potassium vinyltrifluoroborate salts.” Source: taken from the conclusion section of this PubMed article
“ In conclusion, liver cell injury might occur in the early stage of COVID-19.” Source: taken from the conclusion section of this PubMed article
“ In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate the potential use of themedicinal species for oral candidosis prevention or treatment and emphasize the action of the crude C. sativum essential oil, which demonstrates a strong activity against Candida spp. planktonic cells and C. albicans biofilm.” Source: taken from the conclusion section of this PubMed article

0.07% of Conclusions end with a question

Only 34 out of 47,803 (0.07%) of the Conclusion sections in our sample ended with a question.

“Future experiments may seek the answers to a number of important questions: Are the effects of light quality on plants permanent ? What portion of the blue spectrum is actually needed for the growth of grape plantlets in vitro ? Do the physiological and transcriptional responses of grape plantlets grown in vivo and in vitro differ ? “ Source: taken from the conclusion section of this PubMed article
“The above observations raise an intriguing question: how SAHase, the protein with two Rossmann-folds, had evolved during the development of life on Earth ? “ Source: taken from the conclusion section of this PubMed article
“Researchers using these tools will be able to confirm and verify any hypothesis in HD and answer the question why and how do striatal neurons primarily die ? “ Source: taken from the conclusion section of this PubMed article
  • Comeau DC, Wei CH, Islamaj Doğan R, and Lu Z. PMC text mining subset in BioC: about 3 million full text articles and growing,  Bioinformatics , btz070, 2019.

Further reading

  • How to Write & Publish a Research Paper: Step-by-Step Guide
  • How Long Should a Research Paper Be? Data from 61,519 Examples
  • How Many References to Cite? Based on 96,685 Research Papers
  • How Old Should References Be? Based on 3,823,919 Examples

Writing Beginner

How to Write a Good Conclusion Paragraph (+30 Examples)

A good conclusion paragraph is the lasting impression you want to leave with your reader.

Here is a quick summary of how to write a good conclusion paragraph:

Write a good conclusion paragraph by summarizing key points, restating your thesis, and providing a final thought or call to action. Ensure it wraps up your main ideas, reinforces your argument, and leaves the reader with something to ponder.

This ultimate guide will walk you through the steps to craft an effective conclusion, along with 30 examples to inspire you.

5 Steps for Writing a Good Conclusion Paragraph

Person typing on a laptop at sunset on a cliff -- How to Write a Good Conclusion Paragraph

Table of Contents

There are five main steps to writing a good conclusion.

Let’s go through each step

1. Understand the Purpose

The conclusion is your final opportunity to leave an impact.

It should tie together your main ideas, reinforce your message, and give the reader a sense of closure.

Wrap Up Your Main Ideas

The conclusion should succinctly wrap up the main points of your writing. Think of it as a summary that captures the essence of your arguments without going into detailed explanations.

This helps reinforce what you have discussed and ensures that the reader remembers the core message.

Reinforce Your Thesis

Your thesis statement is the foundation of your writing.

In the conclusion, restate it in a new way to reinforce your central argument. This reminds the reader of the purpose of your writing and underscores its significance.

Give a Sense of Closure

A good conclusion gives a sense of closure to the reader. It signals that the discussion has come to an end and that all points have been addressed. This helps the reader feel that the piece is complete and that their time was well-spent.

Leave the Reader with Something to Think About

The best conclusions go beyond merely summarizing the content.

They leave the reader with a final thought or reflection that stays with them. This could be a call to action, a prediction about the future, or a thought-provoking question that encourages further reflection on the topic.

2. Summarize Key Points

Briefly summarize the key points discussed in the body of your text.

Avoid introducing new information. This helps the reader recall the main ideas.

Brief Summary

The summary should be concise and to the point. Highlight the main ideas discussed in your writing without going into detailed explanations. This helps refresh the reader’s memory of your key points.

Avoid New Information

Introducing new information in the conclusion can confuse the reader. The conclusion is not the place to present new arguments or data. Stick to summarizing what has already been discussed.

Recall Main Ideas

Summarizing the key points helps the reader recall the main ideas of your writing. This reinforces the message and ensures that the reader takes away the most important information from your piece.

“In conclusion, adopting sustainable practices, reducing waste, and promoting renewable energy are essential steps towards a greener future.”

3. Restate the Thesis

Restate your thesis in a new way. This reinforces your argument without sounding repetitive.

Restate, Don’t Repeat

Restating the thesis means expressing it in a new way.

Avoid repeating it verbatim.

Instead, rephrase it to reinforce your argument and show that you have successfully argued your point throughout the piece.

Reinforce the Argument

Restating the thesis helps reinforce your central argument. It reminds the reader of the purpose of your writing and underscores its significance.

Provide Closure Restating the thesis in the conclusion gives a sense of closure.

It signals that the discussion has come full circle and that you have addressed your initial argument.

“By implementing these strategies, we can significantly reduce our carbon footprint and protect our planet for future generations.”

4. Provide a Final Thought

Offer a final thought or reflection to leave a lasting impression. This could be a call to action, a prediction, or a thought-provoking question.

Final Thought or Reflection

A final thought or reflection can leave a lasting impression on the reader.

It shows that you are not just summarizing your points but also offering a deeper insight or perspective.

Call to Action

A call to action encourages the reader to take the next step.

It motivates them to act based on the information or arguments presented in your writing.

Prediction or Question

A prediction about the future or a thought-provoking question can engage the reader and encourage further reflection. This leaves the reader with something to think about even after they have finished reading.

“As we move forward, it’s crucial to remember that every small effort counts. Together, we can make a difference.”

5. Use a Call to Action (if applicable)

If your piece is meant to persuade or encourage action, include a call to action. This motivates the reader to take the next step.

Motivate the Reader

A call to action motivates the reader to take the next step.

It encourages them to act based on the information or arguments presented in your writing.

Encourage Action

Including a call to action is especially important in persuasive writing. It encourages the reader to act on the information provided and make a change or take a specific action.

Provide Clear Steps

A good call to action provides clear steps for the reader to follow.

It should be specific and actionable, guiding the reader on what to do next.

“Join us in making a positive change. Start today by reducing your plastic use and spreading awareness about environmental conservation.”

Check out this video about how to write a good conclusion:

How to Write a Good Conclusion for an Essay

Writing a good conclusion for an essay involves summarizing your main points, restating your thesis, and providing a final thought or reflection.

Here’s how:

  • Summarize Main Points : Briefly recap the key points discussed in the body of your essay.
  • Restate Thesis : Paraphrase your thesis statement to reinforce your argument.
  • Final Thought : Offer a final insight, question, or call to action to leave a lasting impression.

This approach ensures your essay feels complete and leaves the reader with a clear understanding of your argument.

How to Write a Good Conclusion for an Argumentative Essay

A strong conclusion for an argumentative essay should not only summarize the main points and restate the thesis but also emphasize the importance of your argument.

Follow these steps:

  • Summarize Arguments : Briefly outline the main arguments presented.
  • Restate Thesis : Rephrase your thesis to highlight its significance.
  • Address Counterarguments : Acknowledge opposing viewpoints and reinforce why your argument is stronger.
  • Call to Action : Encourage the reader to take action or reconsider their position.

How to Write a Good Conclusion for a Research Paper

Crafting a good conclusion for a research paper involves summarizing your findings, discussing their implications, and suggesting future research.

Here’s a guide:

  • Summarize Findings : Recap the key results of your research.
  • Discuss Implications : Explain the significance of your findings and how they contribute to the field.
  • Restate Research Question : Reiterate the research question and how your findings address it.
  • Suggest Future Research : Propose areas for further investigation.

This format provides a comprehensive and thoughtful conclusion that underscores the importance of your research and its potential impact.

30 Examples of Good Conclusion Paragraphs

Let’s explore some good examples of good conclusions.

Example 1: Environmental Essay

“In conclusion, the preservation of our natural resources is not just a necessity but a responsibility we owe to future generations. By taking small steps today, we can ensure a healthier planet tomorrow.”

Example 2: Technology Article

“As we embrace the advancements in technology, it is vital to remain vigilant about privacy and security. Staying informed and proactive can help us navigate the digital landscape safely.”

Example 3: Health and Wellness Blog

“Ultimately, achieving a balanced lifestyle requires dedication and mindfulness. By prioritizing our well-being, we can lead healthier and more fulfilling lives.”

Example 4: Business Report

“In summary, the market analysis indicates a positive trend for our product. With strategic planning and execution, we can capitalize on these opportunities and drive growth.”

Example 5: Education Essay

“In the end, fostering a love for learning in students is the key to their success. By creating engaging and supportive educational environments, we can inspire the next generation of leaders.”

Example 6: Travel Blog

“To conclude, exploring new destinations enriches our lives and broadens our perspectives. Embrace the adventure and discover the beauty of our world.”

Example 7: Personal Development Article

“In the final analysis, personal growth is a lifelong journey. Embrace challenges, learn from experiences, and continue striving to become the best version of yourself.”

Example 8: Marketing Case Study

“In closing, the data clearly shows that targeted marketing strategies significantly improve customer engagement and sales. By refining our approach, we can achieve even greater success.”

Example 9: Historical Analysis

“In conclusion, the events of the past continue to shape our present and future. Understanding history is essential to making informed decisions and avoiding past mistakes.”

Example 10: Scientific Research Paper

“Ultimately, the findings of this study contribute to our understanding of the subject and open the door for further research. Continued exploration in this field is vital for advancing knowledge.”

Example 11: Political Commentary

“In the end, civic engagement is crucial for a functioning democracy. Stay informed, participate in discussions, and exercise your right to vote.”

Example 12: Fashion Blog

“To wrap up, fashion is a powerful form of self-expression. Embrace your unique style and let your wardrobe reflect your personality.”

Example 13: Food Blog

“In conclusion, cooking at home not only saves money but also allows you to experiment with flavors and ingredients. Start your culinary journey today and discover the joys of homemade meals.”

Example 14: Sports Article

“Ultimately, teamwork and perseverance are the foundations of success in sports. Keep pushing your limits and strive for excellence on and off the field.”

Example 15: Literature Analysis

“In summary, the themes explored in this novel resonate with readers and offer valuable insights into the human condition. Its timeless message continues to inspire and provoke thought.”

Example 16: Parenting Blog

“In the end, raising children requires patience, love, and commitment. Cherish the moments, and remember that every effort you make shapes their future.”

Example 17: Finance Article

“To conclude, financial planning is essential for securing your future. Start today by setting clear goals and creating a budget that aligns with your aspirations.”

Example 18: Career Advice Blog

“In conclusion, building a successful career takes time and dedication. Stay focused, seek opportunities for growth, and never stop learning.”

Example 19: Fitness Blog

“Ultimately, regular exercise and a balanced diet are key to maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Stay motivated, and remember that every step counts towards your fitness goals.”

Example 20: DIY Blog

“In summary, DIY projects are a rewarding way to personalize your space and learn new skills. Get creative and start your next project today.”

Example 21: Relationship Advice

“In the end, strong relationships are built on communication, trust, and mutual respect. Nurture your connections and strive for harmony in your interactions.”

Example 22: Pet Care Blog

“To wrap up, responsible pet ownership involves understanding your pet’s needs and providing them with a loving home. Invest in their well-being, and they’ll reward you with unconditional love.”

Example 23: Environmental Science Paper

“In conclusion, addressing climate change requires global cooperation and immediate action. Every effort counts, and together we can create a sustainable future.”

Example 24: Technology Review

“Ultimately, this gadget offers impressive features that enhance convenience and efficiency. Consider it for your next tech upgrade.”

Example 25: Psychology Article

“In summary, understanding human behavior is crucial for improving mental health and well-being. Continue exploring this fascinating field for more insights.”

Example 26: Gardening Blog

“In the end, gardening is a therapeutic and rewarding hobby that connects us with nature. Start your garden today and enjoy the benefits of fresh produce and beautiful blooms.”

Example 27: Home Improvement Article

“To conclude, home improvement projects can significantly enhance your living space and increase property value. Plan carefully and enjoy the transformation.”

Example 28: Social Media Marketing

“In conclusion, effective social media marketing requires consistency, creativity, and engagement. Develop a strategy that resonates with your audience and watch your brand grow.”

Example 29: Automotive Review

“Ultimately, this vehicle combines performance, style, and safety. Take it for a test drive and experience its capabilities firsthand.”

Example 30: Music Blog

“In summary, music has the power to evoke emotions and bring people together. Explore different genres and find the soundtrack to your life.”

Tips for Writing a Strong Conclusion

Here are some simple but good tips for writing a powerful conclusion:

  • Keep it Concise – A good conclusion should be short and to the point. Avoid unnecessary details and focus on wrapping up your main ideas.
  • Use Clear Language – Ensure your language is clear and easy to understand. Avoid jargon and complex sentences.
  • Be Consistent – Maintain the same tone and style as the rest of your text. Consistency helps create a seamless reading experience.
  • End on a Positive Note – Whenever possible, end with a positive or uplifting message. This leaves the reader with a good impression.

Common Mistakes to Avoid

There are some common mistakes that many writers make when crafting their conclusions.

  • Introducing New Information – Don’t introduce new ideas or arguments in the conclusion. This can confuse the reader and dilute your main points.
  • Being Vague – Avoid vague statements that don’t add value. Be specific and clear in your summary.
  • Repetitiveness – Don’t repeat the same points over and over. Restate your thesis and key points in a new way.
  • Ignoring the Thesis – Make sure to tie your conclusion back to your thesis. This reinforces your argument and gives a sense of closure.

Final Thoughts: How to Write a Good Conclusion Paragraph

Writing a good conclusion paragraph is essential for creating a cohesive and impactful piece of writing.

By summarizing key points, restating the thesis, providing a final thought, and using a call to action, you can craft a strong conclusion that leaves a lasting impression.

Use the 30 examples provided to inspire your own writing and ensure your conclusions are always effective and engaging.

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Research Paper Conclusion: How to Wrap Up Research

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Table of contents

  • 1 What Is a Research Paper Conclusion?
  • 2.1 Summary Conclusion
  • 2.2 Editorial Conclusion
  • 2.3 Externalizing Conclusion
  • 2.4 Synthesis Conclusion
  • 2.5 Projective Conclusion
  • 3 Core Elements of a Strong Conclusion
  • 4.1 Repeat Your Research Question
  • 4.2 Explore the Main Points
  • 4.3 Synthesize, not Summarize
  • 4.4 Talk About Implications
  • 4.5 Set Up the Limitations
  • 4.6 Guide to the Future Directions
  • 4.7 Provide a Strong Thesis Statement
  • 4.8 Keep It Short
  • 4.9 Watch Out Your Paper’s Tone
  • 5 Dos and Don’ts to End a Research Paper
  • 6.1 Research Paper Conclusion Example #1
  • 6.2 Research Paper Conclusion Example #2
  • 7 Summing Up

When writing a research paper conclusion, It may be fascinating and difficult to summarize your key points. What should you do when the deadline is close, and you still have a blank piece of paper? To score well and make an impression on your professor, you must put in much mental effort and write with complete focus and attention.

Alternatively, you can pay for research papers and get expert guidance on any topic if you have a short deadline.

To give you a starting point, we will reckon on the following points:

  • What is the conclusion of the research paper?
  • What are the types of research paper conclusions?
  • How to synthesize information to reinforce your central argument?
  • How to write a research paper conclusion?

What Is a Research Paper Conclusion?

The conclusion is a summary of the research key findings and offers a general perspective on the study’s objectives. It often reiterates the research question, summarizing the main results and their significance. This section typically addresses whether the initial hypothesis was supported and discusses any unexpected outcomes.

Additionally, researchers may highlight the study’s limitations and propose avenues for future research.

The conclusion in the research serves to leave a lasting impression on the reader, emphasizing the broader implications of the study and its potential impact. It provides closure by reinforcing and contextualizing the study’s contributions within the existing knowledge.

5 Types of Research Paper Conclusions

The quality of a research paper can be significantly impacted by its conclusion. A strong conclusion for research paper will draw together the key findings, key arguments, and supporting evidence. Your research’s major components and concluding paragraphs offer the reader a feeling of finality.

Research paper layout can include a variety of conclusions, each with a unique goal of influencing the reader.

Summary Conclusion

The most typical kind of research paper conclusion is the direct summary, which briefly restates the main ideas. Before you write a conclusion for a research paper, remember to do more than just a summary. Include a few words that provide context or more information.

Editorial Conclusion

This type of conclusion focuses on the author’s opinion about the research findings. It needs to have an impelling lead paragraph, with the most emphatic writing at the beginning and the end.

Externalizing Conclusion

An externalizing conclusion paragraph for research paper presents a solution to the issue or an ongoing argument you’re covering. It also provides the prospective outcomes in case the problem remains unsolved.

Synthesis Conclusion

The synthesis conclusion shows the interconnection between all the ideas presented in the paper body. To conclude a research paper with an open end, you must examine various sources and prove that they connect with your primary thesis.

Projective Conclusion

This type of conclusion works especially well for answering research question . It describes the future outcomes of actions presented in the paper body.

Core Elements of a Strong Conclusion

The start of a conclusion serves as the final impression of a written work, encapsulating the content essence.

  • Summarization is a key element, where the main points and findings are concisely restated. To write a good research paper , you should reaffirm the reader’s understanding and reinforce the significance of the research.
  • Synthesis involves combining different paper elements and weaving them into a cohesive narrative. It goes beyond summarization by highlighting the connections between various sections and demonstrating how they contribute to the thesis. It helps in providing a holistic view of the subject matter.
  • Discussing implications is crucial for a comprehensive conclusion. Writing a conclusion for a research paper involves exploring the work’s broader significance – how the findings impact the field of study or real-world applications. It extends the relevance of the research beyond its immediate context.
  • Recommendations offer guidance for future research or practical actions. They provide a forward-looking perspective, whether suggesting avenues for further study or proposing applications of the findings. Besides, they encourage the continuation of scholarly inquiry.

As a result, a strong conclusion marries summarization, synthesis, implications, and recommendations. It leaves a lasting impression by reinforcing the paper’s key elements and positioning them within a larger context, making a compelling case for the significance and future directions of the work.

The Best Strategy for Writing an Effective Conclusion

Writing an effective conclusion for a research paper is a critical aspect of the overall document, providing a sense of closure while leaving a lasting impression on the reader. Several key strategies contribute to crafting a conclusion that encapsulates the essence of the research and reinforces its significance.

So, how to write a conclusion to a research paper you’ll be proud of? Let’s explore the best working strategies!

Repeat Your Research Question

The conclusion should circle back to the core argument or inquiry posed at the beginning of the paper. Among various steps to writing a conclusion, this reaffirmation reminds the reader of the central focus, providing a clear anchor for the closing remarks.

Explore the Main Points

While restating the thesis addresses the central idea, summarizing key points ensures that the reader comprehensively understands the main findings and supporting arguments. This concise recapitulation sets the stage for the subsequent elements of the conclusion.

Synthesize, not Summarize

A strong conclusion goes beyond mere summarization – it synthesizes the information. Instead of presenting a linear repetition of facts, combine the main points, emphasizing the interconnectedness of ideas. This synthesis demonstrates the depth of understanding and mastery of the subject matter, leaving a more profound impact on the reader.

Talk About Implications

What real-world applications or theoretical advancements does it suggest? Addressing these questions, the conclusion elevates the research from a mere academic exercise to a meaningful contribution to the field.

Set Up the Limitations

Every research endeavor has its methodological, logistical, or conceptual constraints. Acknowledging these limitations demonstrates transparency and intellectual honesty. It also allows future researchers to build upon the current work, contributing to the ongoing evolution of knowledge in the field.

Guide to the Future Directions

While acknowledging limitations, the conclusion should also offer constructive insights. What areas warrant further investigation? Are there practical applications of the research that could be explored? These recommendations provide a forward-looking perspective, emphasizing the dynamic nature of scholarly inquiry.

Provide a Strong Thesis Statement

It can be a thought-provoking insight, a call to action, or a reflection on the broader implications of the research. A memorable closing statement leaves a lasting impression, reinforcing the work’s significance in the reader’s mind.

Keep It Short

The conclusion is not the place for extensive elaboration. Remember to encapsulate the main points and findings to write a good conclusion for a research paper.

While the introduction of the paper covers the essential elements, it’s crucial to avoid unnecessary repetition or the new information introduction.

Watch Out Your Paper’s Tone

The conclusion should follow suit if the research paper has maintained a formal and academic tone. Similarly, if the paper adopted a more conversational or persuasive style, the conclusion should harmonize with that tone. Consistency in tone enhances the overall coherence and impact of the paper.

By following these steps, you can create a conclusion that effectively summarizes your research and leaves a lasting impression on your readers.

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Dos and Don’ts to End a Research Paper

Here are some tips on how to write a conclusion for a research paper:

  • Primarily, start characterizing your attitude to the topic and substantiating its relevance. Afterward, explain the difficulties you’ve encountered during the analysis. The outcome of this paragraph should be riveting and informative. A professor should convince himself that the student approached the analysis with enthusiasm.
  • Secondly, read all your tasks recollected in the introduction and describe in detail the process of achieving them while writing the thesis. In the concluding paragraph, scribe a brief statement of the ideas resolved based on the evidence contained within the paper. Describe how you coped with the task and summarize your main conclusions.
  • Thirdly, make a short description of each section. This helps draw an illation and finish statements giving voice to your ideas. Remember that every paragraph should be linked to the previous one.

It is crucial to keep in mind both the sort of paper you are writing and the main goal while you write a conclusion for research paper.

Among the most important things to leave out of a conclusion are:

  • Make any new claims or introduce new material that does not directly relate to your points in the paper.
  • Incorporate your opinion on the topic or speculate on future research.
  • Summarize what has already been stated in the paper.
  • Insert unrelated anecdotes.
  • Draw overly general conclusions and lab reports that do not fully reflect the evidence presented in the paper. It shows negative aspects to a conclusion.

The conclusion must highlight your most important discoveries in a favorable light and demonstrate how your work advances the field. Thus, it should promote introspection on one’s life and how this subject could apply to society or our lives.

Before you start a conclusion paragraph for a research paper, remember to inspire readers to think about the consequences of your study for a considerable amount of time.

Research Paper Conclusion Example

A research article’s conclusion should use all available data to bolster its findings. It’s crucial to avoid adding any fresh concepts or supporting data in this part. Additionally, the conclusion must highlight the ideas discussed in the paper and throughout the oral presentations.

Consider the best way to summarize the evidence and how it relates to the research paper topic while writing the conclusion. When you write a conclusion in a research paper, provide a thorough justification and a comprehensive grasp of your study.

Research Paper Conclusion Example #1

This research sheds light on the intricate relationship between social media use and mental health outcomes among adolescents. Through a comprehensive analysis of survey data and psychological assessments, it becomes evident that excessive social media engagement correlates with heightened levels of anxiety and depression.

While the findings underscore the need for increased awareness and responsible social media usage, they also point towards potential intervention strategies. Incorporating digital literacy programs in schools and fostering open dialogues between parents, educators, and young individuals can play pivotal roles in mitigating the adverse effects identified in this study.

By addressing the challenges associated with social media, society can harness its benefits while safeguarding the mental well-being of its youngest members.

Explanation:

In this example, the conclusion summarizes the main findings – specifically, the correlation between social media use and adolescent mental health issues. It succinctly restates the importance of the research and its implications. The synthesis of the information is evident in the proposed intervention strategies, showcasing a forward-looking perspective.

Acknowledging the need for responsible social media usage and recommending concrete actions add depth to the conclusion. The final sentence wraps up the conclusion by emphasizing the balance between harnessing the benefits of social media and safeguarding the mental well-being of adolescents. Thus, it leaves the reader with a clear takeaway from the research.

Research Paper Conclusion Example #2

In conclusion, this research has shown that social media can impact mental health in teens. It was found that some teens feel bad when they use social media a lot. This is important because mental health is important. In the future, more research should be done on this topic.

This conclusion example is considered weak for several reasons. Firstly, it lacks a clear restatement of the thesis or main research question, failing to provide a strong focus for the conclusion. The summary of findings is overly general and lacks specificity, merely stating that social media can impact mental health without delving into the nuances revealed in the study.

Additionally, the statement on the importance of mental health is vague and does not draw on the specific results of the research. The recommendation for future research is generic and does not offer concrete suggestions or insights into potential areas of exploration. Overall, this conclusion lacks depth, fails to synthesize key information, and does not leave a lasting impression on the reader.

Close off the paper by revisiting the issue addressed in your introduction. Connecting the beginning and end of your essay is essential if you want it to feel complete. Refrain from leaving any questions unanswered. Doing so will leave the reader satisfied, and they will remember it while pursuing their research path.

Wondering what should the conclusion of a research paper contain? If you follow these tips when writing your conclusion paper, you’ll finish the assignment as effectively as possible. Since we’ve previously assisted, there’s no need to make up new guidelines or ask for it.

Plus, if you need assistance describing your academic study, our pro essay writers at PapersOwl offer experienced research paper writing services. Let us assist you; we’ll handle the task! With our assistance, you may get the greatest outcomes and save time and effort.

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Writing a research paper is tedious, and after all that work, you’d think the conclusion would be the easy part. In reality, this is often one of the most difficult sections of a research paper to write, since you have to neatly tie up pages and pages of research in a short amount of time.

To help you with this, we’ve put together some instructions and tips on how to write a research paper conclusion. We’ll also talk about what conclusions are, why they’re important, and different ways you can format them.

Key Takeaways

Research paper conclusions serve to close the argument the introduction opened and restate the main points of the research paper.

There are three research paper conclusion formats: summarization, reflective, and projective.

Your research paper conclusion should be concise, straightforward, and accurate.

How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

How To Write A Research Paper Conclusion

6 tips for writing a research paper conclusion, different formats of research paper conclusions, what is the conclusion of a research paper, why is writing a conclusion important for a research paper, research paper conclusion faq.

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Many students understand that the conclusion is a crucial part of their research paper, but they don’t know how to go about writing one.

Follow the steps below for how to write a research paper conclusion.

Open With The Research Topic. To begin a conclusion paragraph, use the first sentence to reiterate the comprehensive subject matter that your paper covered. Since this is just a sentence-long retelling of your research topic and why it’s important, it doesn’t have to be specific, but it does need clarity.

Dragonflies are a magnificently complex insect whose advanced physical mechanics and vast species differences make them a notable study in the scientific community.

Focus On Your Specific Thesis. Every research paper focuses on targetted intricacies within a larger topic. Now that the more extensive topic of the research paper has been mentioned, the next sentence or two highlights the specific thesis presented.

Don’t merely copy and paste the introduction of your thesis from the first paragraph. Restate it in different words that illicit a more in-depth understanding from the reader .

The overall characteristics found only within the Odonata family unites the dragonfly under a singular title. All species of dragonfly faced the same path towards the modern structure known today, and therefore, they are all similar in one way or another. However, there are also significant differences apparent to the naked eye between a species that shares so much of the same structure.

Summarize And Connect Main Points. Throughout a research paper, the writer presents points to support the initial thesis claim. Very briefly summarize and tie together these points in a way that supports your thesis. This is the place to restate your research findings.

By examining the striped meadowhawk and migrant hawker dragonflies, it is shown that habitat governs many aspects pertaining to that specific species’ lifestyle. It is also proven that color and patterns perceived on this insect serve a greater purpose of individualizing and distinguishing between these two species.

Bring It All Together. It sounds redundant to say you need to conclude your conclusion, but that’s the final step. You’ve done the mini recap of your research paper through the beginning sentences of your essay. Close the conclusion by making a final encouragement for an action, idea, or fact.

The dragonfly is a unique insect with uniting factors and specialization. However, the most attributed aspect to this insect as a whole is the enormity of their differences. The evolved genetic features attributed to various species of dragonflies both individualize them and apply unification to the insect as a whole.

Consider What Conclusion Format To Use Carefully. The way you structure a conclusion has a massive effect on how impactful it will be to a reader.

Some types of writing can work well with a variety of conclusion formats, but others will confuse a paper’s message. For example, using a reflective style conclusion on a scientific research paper comes across as too opinion-based for a topic that’s shrouded in measurable fact.

Don’t Make It Too Complex. It’s best to use plain language when summarizing the information presented in a research paper or making a claim. Many students are tempted to use impressive wording and complex writing in a research paper conclusion to present themselves as experts in the subject , but it only gives the reader a headache.

Conclusions Should Be Concise . Research papers give the writer pages of leeway to make all the drawn-out points that they need, but conclusions don’t offer as much room. An essay’s conclusion needs to be short by definition because it’s merely a last takeaway for the reader. A research paper conclusion is a final paragraph, not the entire page .

Double Check Your Information. There’s nothing worse for a research paper’s validity than confidently making a claim in the conclusion that turns out to be false. It’s fundamental that all the facts and information your detail in a research paper are backed up with credible sources listed neatly on the works cited page.

Empathize With The Reader. Whether you’re submitting a research paper for an introductory university class or publishing a scholarly journal, you still need to keep the reader in mind when writing a conclusion. Think about who you’re communicating with through your research paper and what you’re hoping to accomplish with it.

Do Research . One way to fix the problem if you’re unsure of what makes an essay conclusion compelling is researching the topic. Reading articles (like this one) is helpful because they give you a clear demonstration of how to create a conclusion, but applying this structure to your own work can be difficult. A case of easier said than done.

Based on the goal or subject of your research paper, the structure of your conclusion changes. Pick a type of conclusion that will strengthen the point of your essay. Below are examples of different formats to use when writing research paper conclusions.

Summarization. The summarization conclusion is most commonly used for research papers that are presenting a series of concrete facts.

It’s the form of conclusion that most people are familiar with. Using the summary technique requires a succinct compiling of the most critical points you’ve made in an essay.

Summarization Conclusion Formatting Works Best For:

Solution-Based Research

Persuasive Writing

History and Science Studies

Structuring An Argument

Reflective. A conclusion that uses a reflective structure takes the information outlined in the research paper to arrive at a grander insight about the topic at hand. This type of conclusion is popular when you’re attempting to change the reader’s viewpoint with a paper.

Reflective Conclusion Formatting Works Best For:

Persuasive Essays

English and Political Studies

Projective. When using a projective conclusion, the writer applies their work presented earlier in the thesis to eventual outcomes that can arise. It is called a projective conclusion because it is more results-based than summarizing facts or establishing an overarching lesson.

Projective Conclusion Formatting Works Best For:

Research Paper

Expository Essay

Narrative Works (Sometimes)

The conclusion of a research paper ties together all the prior information you’ve covered. It leaves the reader with a final thought about the research paper and the message it’s trying to convey.

Unlike the body paragraphs of a research paper, which aim at specificity and focus on developing a single concept or piece of information, conclusions are broader. The goal is to gloss over what’s already been stated earlier in the essay to solidify it with the reader.

The conclusion also serves a different purpose than the introduction . An introductory paragraph is for establishing what the reader will be learning more about. It opens the metaphorical door towards understanding a research endeavor or topic. The conclusion closes the argument that the introductory paragraph opens.

Including a conclusion is an important part of writing a research paper because it creates an organized summarization of information and outlines inferences about the subject studied. It provides an additional layer of clarity in a short written work.

Research papers are often lengthy and dull, so it’s easy for a reader’s attention to stray. A conclusion brings the reader back and offers them the most critical takeaways from the paper.

How long should a good conclusion be?

A good conclusion should be one paragraph or three to five sentences long. Your research paper conclusion should be concise, which means you don’t need to take up a whole page for just your conclusion. Instead, try to stick to about one paragraph in length.

What are the general rules in crafting conclusions in your research paper?

The general rules for crafting conclusions for your research paper include:

Choose the right conclusion format.

Keep it simple.

Be concise.

Be accurate.

Keep the reader’s needs (or requirements) in mind.

Remind the reader of your thesis.

Summarize and connect main points.

End with a concluding sentence.

What is a better way to say, “In conclusion”?

A better way to say, “In conclusion,” is “Therefore,” “Finally,” or “Lastly.” Other good words include, “As expressed” or “As a result.” You can also simply launch into your concluding paragraph if a transition isn’t needed.

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Sky Ariella is a professional freelance writer, originally from New York. She has been featured on websites and online magazines covering topics in career, travel, and lifestyle. She received her BA in psychology from Hunter College.

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Writing a research paper can seem like a daunting task, especially if you are new to academic writing. However, with the right approach and understanding of the process, you can craft a well-structured and insightful paper that will stand out. In this guide, we will walk you through the essential steps and provide tips on how to write a research paper like a pro. From understanding the research paper format to knowing how to start a research paper, we've got you covered.

Understanding the Research Paper Format

Before diving into the writing process, it's crucial to understand what the standard research paper format entails. Academic research papers generally follow a specific structure, which includes the following sections:

Title Page : This includes the title of your paper, your name, and your institutional affiliation. Abstract : A brief summary of your research, usually around 150-250 words, highlighting the key points. Introduction : This section introduces the topic, presents the research question, and outlines the purpose of the study. Literature Review : A review of existing research relevant to your topic, identifying gaps your research aims to fill . Methodology : A detailed description of the methods used to conduct your research. Results : Presentation of the data and findings of your study. Discussion : Interpretation of the results, discussing their implications and how they fit into the broader context. Conclusion: A summary of the findings, their significance, and suggestions for future research. References : A list of all the sources cited in your paper, formatted according to a specific citation style (e.g., APA, MLA, Chicago).

Understanding this format is the first step if you want to write an impactful research paper. Each section serves a specific purpose and helps guide the reader through your research process.

How to Start a Research Paper

Knowing how to start a research paper is often the most challenging part of the writing process. A good way to start a research report is by clearly defining your research question or thesis statement. This will serve as the foundation of your paper and guide your research and writing. Here are some steps to help you get started:

1. Choose a Topic

Select a topic that interests you and is relevant to your field of study. Make sure it is specific enough to be manageable but broad enough to find sufficient research materials.

2. Conduct Preliminary Research

Before you start writing, conduct preliminary research to understand the existing literature and identify gaps that your paper can address. This will help you refine your research question and thesis statement.

3. Develop a Thesis Statement

Your thesis statement should clearly state the main argument or point of your paper. It should be specific and concise, providing a clear direction for your research.

4. Create an Outline

An outline helps organise your thoughts and ensures that your paper follows a logical structure. It should include the main sections of your paper and the key points you want to address in each section.

5. Write the Introduction

The introduction sets the stage for your research paper. Start with a hook to grab the reader's attention, provide some background information on the topic, and end with your thesis statement. A strong introduction will engage the reader and provide a clear roadmap for the rest of the paper.

how to start a conclusion research paper

Conducting Thorough Research

Once you have a clear understanding of your topic and a well-defined thesis statement, it's time to conduct thorough research. Here are some tips for effective research:

Use Credible Sources

Ensure that you use credible sources such as academic journals, books, and reputable websites. Peer-reviewed articles are particularly valuable as they have been evaluated by experts in the field.

Take Detailed Notes

As you research, take detailed notes and organise them by theme or section. This will make it easier to reference and cite sources later on.

Keep Track of Your Sources

Maintain a record of all the sources you consult, including full citation information. This will save you time when creating your reference list and help avoid plagiarism.

Writing the First Draft

With your research complete, it's time to start writing the first draft of your paper. Here are some tips to guide you through this process:

Follow Your Outline

Stick to the outline you created earlier. This will help ensure that your paper has a logical flow and covers all the key points you want to address.

Write Clearly and Concisely

Use clear and concise language to communicate your ideas. Avoid jargon and overly complex sentences that might confuse the reader.

Stay Focused

Each section of your paper should stay focused on its specific purpose. For example, the literature review should summarise and analyse existing research, while the methodology section should detail your research methods.

Use Evidence to Support Your Arguments

Back up your arguments with evidence from your research. Use direct quotes, paraphrasing, and summarising to integrate sources into your paper, and always provide proper citations.

how to start a conclusion research paper

Revising and Editing

Once you have completed your first draft, take a break before revising and editing your paper. This will give you a fresh perspective and help you identify areas for improvement. Here are some steps to follow during the revision process:

Review for Clarity and Coherence

Ensure that your paper is clear and coherent. Each section should flow logically into the next, and your arguments should be well-supported and easy to follow.

Check for Consistency

Make sure that your paper is consistent in terms of style, tone, and formatting. Ensure that all citations and references are correctly formatted according to the required style guide.

Proofread for Grammar and Spelling

Carefully proofread your paper for grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors. Consider using a grammar-checking tool or asking a peer to review your paper for additional feedback.

Seek Feedback

If possible, seek feedback from your peers, professors, or mentors. They can provide valuable insights and help you identify any weaknesses in your paper.

Finalising Your Research Paper

After revising and editing your paper, you are ready to finalise it. Here are some final steps to ensure your paper is polished and ready for submission:

Format Your Paper

Ensure that your paper is formatted according to the required guidelines. This includes the title page, headings, margins, font size, and spacing.

Prepare the References

Double-check your reference list to ensure that all sources are correctly cited and formatted. Verify that every in-text citation has a corresponding entry in the reference list.

Create a Final Proofread

Give your paper a final proofread to catch any remaining errors. Reading your paper aloud can help you identify awkward phrasing or unclear sentences.

Submit Your Paper

Once you are confident that your paper is polished and complete, submit it according to the submission guidelines provided by your instructor or publisher.

Writing a research paper like a pro requires careful planning, thorough research, and meticulous revision. By understanding the research paper format and following the steps outlined in this guide, you can produce a high-quality academic research paper that effectively communicates your findings. Knowing how to start a research paper is crucial, and a good way to start a research report is by clearly defining your research question and thesis statement.

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How to Write a Conclusion - Steps with Examples

I remember my college days when one of the most dreadful assignments was writing a research paper. It made me wonder if there was an easier way to help me through it. The worst part was writing the conclusion, which meant wrapping up the entire paper and finally drawing conclusions. It sounds pretty intimidating, doesn't it? How are you supposed to fit all that information into such a short space, and what else might you be missing? In this guide, I will show you how to write a conclusion so you can spare yourself from the distress of it all.

What to Include/ Not Include in a Conclusion?

Professors often stress a lot on writing a good conclusion that includes a wrap-up for your paper or essay. These are some factors you must consider to include in your conclusion:

Restate Your Thesis:

Begin by restating the main argument or thesis of your paper. This reinforces the central point you have been arguing throughout your work.

Summarize Key Points:

Provide a concise summary of the key points and findings from your paper. Highlight the most significant pieces of evidence that support your thesis.

Discuss the Implications:

Explain the broader implications of your findings. How do they contribute to the field of study? What practical applications or theoretical advancements arise from your research?

Address Limitations:

Acknowledge any limitations or weaknesses in your study. This demonstrates a critical and reflective approach to your research and provides a foundation for future work.

Suggest Future Research:

Propose areas for future research. What questions remain unanswered? What further investigations could build on your findings?

End with a Strong Closing Statement:

Conclude with a strong, impactful statement that leaves a lasting impression on your reader. This could be a call to action, a prediction, or a thought-provoking question related to your research topic.

There may also be certain things you would unknowingly add in your conclusion that would ultimately leave a bad impression on the reader. Keep these factors in mind so you may avoid when writing your conclusion for your paper:

New Information:

Avoid introducing new information or ideas that were not covered in the body of the paper. The conclusion is for synthesizing and reflecting on the information already presented.

Detailed Methodology:

Do not include detailed descriptions of your research methods. This information belongs in the methodology section of your paper.

Repetitive Summaries:

Refrain from simply reiterating points that were already made in the results or discussion sections. Instead, focus on synthesizing the information and highlighting its significance.

Speculative Statements:

Avoid idle speculation or guesswork about potential outcomes or implications that are not supported by your research findings.

Apologies or Undermining Your Work:

Do not undermine your work by apologizing for any perceived shortcomings. Present your conclusions confidently and assert the value of your research.

Excessive Length:

Keep the conclusion concise and to the point. Long, drawn-out conclusions can dilute the impact of your final statements.

To put things into perspective, here's what a good and bad conclusion example look like:

Good Example:

Bad Example:

Types of Conclusion

Summarizing conclusion:.

This type is the most common and involves summarizing the main points of the research, reiterating the research question, and restating the significance of the findings.

It is broadly used across different disciplines.

Example: If a study investigated the impact of social media on adolescents' mental health, a summarizing conclusion would reiterate key findings, such as the association between high social media use and increased anxiety and depression levels among adolescents, and emphasize the importance of these findings for developing effective interventions.

Editorial Conclusion:

This type is used less frequently and is suited for research papers that advocate for a particular viewpoint or policy. It presents a strong editorial opinion based on the research findings and offers recommendations or calls to action.

It is suitable for papers focusing on policy recommendations or advocating a specific viewpoint.

Example: For a study on the environmental impact of plastic waste, an editorial conclusion might call for a comprehensive ban on single-use plastics and increased recycling initiatives, urging governments, businesses, and individuals to take immediate action to protect the environment.

Externalizing Conclusion:

This type extends the research beyond the scope of the paper by suggesting future research directions or discussing broader implications of the findings. It is often used in theoretical or exploratory research papers.

It is Ideal for theoretical or exploratory studies.

Example: In a study exploring AI applications in healthcare, an externalizing conclusion might suggest future research into the ethical, legal, and social implications of AI in healthcare and emphasize the need for interdisciplinary collaboration to harness AI's potential while addressing its challenges.

How to Write a Conclusion in 4 Steps [With Examples]

Writing a conclusion may seem a bit tricky, but once you fully understand the essence of what goes into a conclusion, it will become much easier. To demonstrate how to write a conclusion, I will be using WPS Office , a tool designed to be convenient for students, thanks to its easy-to-use interface and free features. You can also utilize WPS AI, as I am in these simple 4 steps, to make the entire process smoother for yourself.

Step 1: Restate The Thesis Statement

Start your conclusion by restating the thesis statement of your research paper. This reminds the reader of the main focus and purpose of your study.

Example: If your thesis statement is "This study investigates the impact of social media on adolescents' mental health, revealing a significant association between high social media usage and increased levels of anxiety and depression.", you can use WPS AI to help improve and rewrite your thesis statement.

Here's how WPS AI can assist you with your thesis statement.

Write your thesis statement in WPS Writer and select the entire text using your mouse.

After selecting the text, a small hover menu will appear. Click on the "WPS AI" icon in this menu.

This will open a list of AI assistance options you can choose from. To ask WPS AI to improve your thesis statement, click on "Improve Writing".

WPS AI will process and return an improved thesis statement. If you don’t like the improved version, click on "Rewrite", or click on "Accept" to replace your text with the improved version.

Step 2: Review Main Supporting Points

Next, we need to summarize the key points of our research. When summarizing the key findings of your research, it’s important to highlight the most significant results and their implications.

Example: Let's say that from our research the most important findings were:

The study found that high social media usage negatively affects adolescents' self-esteem due to constant exposure to idealized images and lifestyles.

Excessive use of social media, particularly before bedtime, was linked to disrupted sleep patterns and insufficient rest, contributing to mental health issues.

Despite being a tool for connection, high social media usage can lead to feelings of loneliness and social isolation as face-to-face interactions decrease.

Here's how WPS AI can assist you summarize the key points of your research for your conclusion.

Let's switch to WPS Office again, and this time let's select the key points that we have written down from our research.

Click on the WPS AI icon from the hover menu to open the list of options you can choose from.

From the list, let's click on "Summarize" to shorten and summarize the key points from our research.

You can now choose to either accept or ask WPS AI to rewrite this summary of key points again.

Step 3: Show Why It Matters

Now that you have laid out all the findings from your paper and WPS AI has effectively summarized them, you can further prompt it to broaden the implications of your findings and follow up with real-world problems.

To get real-world insights using WPS AI, follow these steps:

Click on the WPS AI widget at the top right corner of the WPS Writer interface.

The WPS AI pane will open on the right. Here, simply type in your prompt. Here is an example of a prompt:

"Explain the significance of high social media usage leading to increased anxiety and depression in adolescents, and discuss potential real-world problems and solutions."

WPS AI will display the results, which can now be a part of your summary or can be further summarized or improved with the help of WPS AI.

Step 4: Offer Meaningful Insights

Lastly, provide some final thoughts or insights that will leave a lasting impression on your reader. This can include suggestions for future research, practical applications of your findings, or a call to action based on your conclusions.

Example: Here is an example of how Meaningful Insights can be presented:

Further research is needed to explore the long-term effects of social media usage on adolescent mental health and to identify effective interventions.

Developing and promoting apps that encourage healthy social media use and provide mental health support could mitigate the negative effects identified in the study.

Stakeholders, including policymakers, educators, and parents, should collaborate to create environments that foster healthy digital habits and support adolescents' mental health.

Now, with the help of WPS AI, these points can simply be summarized to get more concise and structured Meaningful Insights for our conclusion.

Bonus Tips: How to Polish your Conclusion with WPS AI

Writing a strong conclusion for your research paper is crucial, and WPS Office is designed to be exceptionally student-friendly. It offers accessible options and advanced features for free, making it an excellent tool for students. One of the standout features is WPS AI, which integrates AI into its writing and proofreading abilities.

Draft Generation: WPS AI can assist you in writing a conclusion by generating an initial draft. This draft serves as a solid foundation, ensuring that all essential elements are included and properly structured.

Grammar and Style Check: WPS AI can identify grammar errors, awkward phrasing, and inconsistencies in your conclusion paragraph. This ensures that your writing is polished and professional.

Sentence Structure Enhancement: The AI can suggest improvements to sentence structures, helping you to vary sentence lengths and styles for better readability and flow. This makes your conclusion more engaging and easier to read.

Vocabulary Enhancement: WPS AI offers synonyms and alternative word choices to enhance the vocabulary in your conclusion, making your writing more sophisticated and engaging.

Clarity and Conciseness: WPS AI can help you refine your conclusion to ensure it effectively summarizes your main points without unnecessary repetition or tangents. This keeps your conclusion focused and impactful.

Refinement and Customization: Once WPS AI has generated the draft, you can refine and personalize it to align with your research and style. This step allows you to inject your voice and insights into the conclusion, making it uniquely yours.

Polishing and Proofreading: After refining the draft, you can use WPS AI to polish the conclusion further. WPS AI's advanced proofreading capabilities ensure that your conclusion is not only coherent and concise but also free of grammatical errors and stylistic inconsistencies.

ByIncorporating WPS AI into your writing routine you can significantly improve your efficiency and the overall quality of your academic work. You can streamline the process of writing your research paper conclusion, saving time and effort while ensuring a high-quality result. Whether you’re summarizing key findings, making policy recommendations, or suggesting future research directions, WPS AI helps you create a compelling and impactful conclusion.

So we have seen how WPS AI can help us write more effective and accurate conclusions, but is this all the help it offers? Absolutely not! With the help of WPS AI, you can further improve your conclusion by making it more fluent and easier to read.

Furthermore, WPS AI is not just a writing tool; it also offers AI spell check features, which can help students proofread their work according to their academic style such as APA, MLA, or Chicago style.

WPS Office has a lot to offer and is a perfect tool for students who need help writing not just effective conclusions but also effective research papers. So if you are stuck with a conclusion or a research paper, consider turning to WPS AI for help.

FAQs about writing a conclusion for paper/ essay

1. how long should a conclusion be.

A well-constructed conclusion typically constitutes approximately 10% of your document's total word count. For instance, in a 1,500-word paper, aim for a conclusion of about 150 words. This provides sufficient space to summarize key points and offer a final overview of the main ideas discussed.

2. How can I make my Conclusion impactful?

Here are some effective strategies for creating an impactful conclusion:

Utilize compelling language to engage the reader effectively.

Ensure the conclusion remains clear and concise, omitting insignificant specifics.

Conclude with a stimulating statement, a call to action, or a reflection on the broader implications of your research findings to make a lasting impact.

3. How do I avoid simply repeating what I've already said in the Conclusion?

To avoid repeating yourself in your conclusion, focus on cohesively summarizing your main ideas rather than reiterating them. Additionally, consider exploring the wider impact of your arguments or suggesting directions for future research on your topic. This approach ensures your conclusion provides fresh perspectives and maintains reader interest.

Perfect Your Conclusion With WPS Office

Your research paper is not complete without a strong conclusion. The person who reads your paper should feel like they have taken away significant key insights from your work. Writing an effective conclusion can sometimes be challenging, but WPS Office, with its AI capabilities, can assist you in helping you with how to write a conclusion to perfection. Incorporate WPS AI into your writing routine to significantly improve your efficiency and the overall quality of your academic work. Try WPS Office today and experience the benefits of AI-assisted writing firsthand.

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How to Write a Good Conclusion For a Lab Report

How to Write a Good Conclusion For a Lab Report

Writing a good conclusion for your science lab report can be the difference between a good grade and a great one. It's your last chance to show you understand the experiment and why it matters. This article will help you learn how to write a lab conclusion that sums up your work and shows your teacher that you understood what you did.

What Should Be in Your Lab Report Conclusion?

A good lab report conclusion wraps up your lab work in a neat package. When you're thinking about how to write a conclusion for a lab report, focus on four main things. First, remind everyone in a sentence or two of your experiment objectives. Then, quickly mention how you did the experiment and what you found out, but don't introduce new ideas.

Next, talk about the most important things you learned from your experiment. Show how what you found out connects to what you initially tried to do. Lastly, think briefly about what your work means or any limitations you faced during the process. You may include suggestions for further investigation but refrain from proposing solutions.

How to Write a Lab Report Conclusion

To write a good lab conclusion, follow these steps:

  • Remind the reader why you did the experiment and its aims. 
  • Describe how you did the experiment and what tools you used.
  • Briefly discuss the samples used and the results obtained.
  • Provide a short analysis, including your arguments and assumptions.
  • Relate your findings to the broader scientific context of your discipline.
Important: Keep your conclusion short and easy to understand. A lab conclusion should be about 200-300 words or one paragraph. But if your experiment was really complex, you might need up to 500 words.

Remember, your lab conclusion is part of a bigger report. Always make sure your whole report is well-organized, with a title, introduction, how you did things, what you found, what it means, conclusion, and a list of where you got your information. If you have a lot of numbers or calculations, put them at the end in a separate section to make your report easier to read.

A Sample Lab Report Conclusion

Here's an example of how to write a scientific conclusion for a plant experiment:

The experiment examined how various light wavelengths impact tomato seedling growth. Our findings revealed that blue light (450-495 nm) significantly enhanced stem elongation and leaf surface area in tomato seedlings compared to red (620-750 nm) or full-spectrum white light. Throughout the 4-week study, seedlings exposed to blue light achieved an average height of 15.3 cm, surpassing those exposed to red (10.7 cm) and white light (12.1 cm).  These results align with our hypothesis that blue light promotes more vigorous vegetative growth in tomato seedlings, potentially due to its activation of phototropins and cryptochromes. While these outcomes provide valuable insights into early-stage tomato plant development, additional research is necessary to determine the long-term effects on fruit production and quality. This study contributes to our understanding of optimizing light conditions for improved seedling growth in controlled agricultural environments.

This example shows the important parts of a good lab conclusion: it reminds us what the experiment was for, tells how it was done, shares the results, and explains what it all means.

Useful Tips for Improving Your Lab Conclusion

To make your conclusion lab report better, try these tips:

  • Review your grading rubric to ensure you meet all requirements.
  • Maintain an appropriate tone (explanatory, descriptive, or process-oriented).
  • Keep your notes nearby so you can check your facts.
  • Use your own words to say what you were trying to do; don't just copy from your lab instructions.
  • Use passive voice and past tense , typically avoiding first-person perspective. Most lab reports are written in the third person.

When writing a discussion lab report, focus on clarity and sticking to what's important. Don't add new information or discuss things that aren't part of your experiment.

Making Your Scientific Conclusion Clear and Impactful

Writing a great lab report conclusion doesn't have to be hard. With the tips we've discussed on writing a scientific conclusion, you can now write good summaries of your science work. Remember, when writing your discussion lab report, stay focused on your experiment and what you found out. Don't talk about things that aren't related or say things you can't prove. Instead, explain your results, their meaning, and why they matter in science.

Need a little extra help polishing your scientific writing? Aithor might be just what you're looking for. This nifty AI writing tool will streamline your essay and report writing processes. It keeps your original ideas intact while giving your work a professional shine. Whether tackling a tricky lab report or a complex essay, this tool can help you craft well-structured, engaging content in no time. 

Give Aithor a try and see the difference it can make in your academic work.

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  1. How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper (with Pictures)

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  2. How to Write a Research Paper Conclusion: Tips & Examples

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  3. How To Write A Conclusion for Research Paper: Easy Hints & Guide

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  4. How To Write a Conclusion for an Essay: Expert Tips and Examples

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  1. How to Write a Conclusion for Research Papers (with Examples)

    Generate the conclusion outline: After entering all necessary details, click on 'generate'. Paperpal will then create a structured outline for your conclusion, to help you start writing and build upon the outline. Write your conclusion: Use the generated outline to build your conclusion.

  2. Writing a Research Paper Conclusion

    Step 1: Restate the problem. The first task of your conclusion is to remind the reader of your research problem. You will have discussed this problem in depth throughout the body, but now the point is to zoom back out from the details to the bigger picture. While you are restating a problem you've already introduced, you should avoid phrasing ...

  3. How to Write Discussions and Conclusions

    Begin with a clear statement of the principal findings. This will reinforce the main take-away for the reader and set up the rest of the discussion. Explain why the outcomes of your study are important to the reader. Discuss the implications of your findings realistically based on previous literature, highlighting both the strengths and ...

  4. How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper (with Pictures)

    The point of a conclusion to a research paper is to summarize your argument for the reader and, perhaps, to call the reader to action if needed. 5. Make a call to action when appropriate. If and when needed, you can state to your readers that there is a need for further research on your paper's topic.

  5. How to Conclude an Essay

    Step 1: Return to your thesis. To begin your conclusion, signal that the essay is coming to an end by returning to your overall argument. Don't just repeat your thesis statement —instead, try to rephrase your argument in a way that shows how it has been developed since the introduction. Example: Returning to the thesis.

  6. Research Paper Conclusion

    Here are some steps you can follow to write an effective research paper conclusion: Restate the research problem or question: Begin by restating the research problem or question that you aimed to answer in your research. This will remind the reader of the purpose of your study. Summarize the main points: Summarize the key findings and results ...

  7. How to write a strong conclusion for your research paper

    Step 1: Restate the problem. Always begin by restating the research problem in the conclusion of a research paper. This serves to remind the reader of your hypothesis and refresh them on the main point of the paper. When restating the problem, take care to avoid using exactly the same words you employed earlier in the paper.

  8. How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

    Begin your conclusion by restating your thesis statement in a way that is slightly different from the wording used in the introduction. Avoid presenting new information or evidence in your conclusion. Just summarize the main points and arguments of your essay and keep this part as concise as possible. Remember that you've already covered the ...

  9. How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

    A conclusion is the final paragraph of a research paper and serves to help the reader understand why your research should matter to them. The conclusion of a conclusion should: Restate your topic and why it is important. Restate your thesis/claim. Address opposing viewpoints and explain why readers should align with your position.

  10. How to write an excellent thesis conclusion [with examples]

    A good conclusion will review the key points of the thesis and explain to the reader why the information is relevant, applicable, or related to the world as a whole. Make sure to dedicate enough of your writing time to the conclusion and do not put it off until the very last minute. Organize your papers in one place. Try Paperpile.

  11. How to Write a Research Paper Conclusion in 3 Steps

    1. Empirical research paper conclusion. Here's a basic structure for the conclusion of an empirical paper. By [research methods or procedures], this study demonstrated that [findings]. [How findings relate to previous research]. [Evidence], despite [limitations], suggests that [overall takeaway from the research]. [Future implications of the ...

  12. How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

    Looking ahead, it is obvious that (propose the next action or an alternative idea). My conclusion is (restate your thesis with greater emphasis). One last word must be said. (Follow with your opinion and propose a next action.) One concludes that (give your opinion). Overall, (summarize your findings).

  13. How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

    Offer a Fresh Perspective: Use the conclusion as an opportunity to provide a fresh perspective or offer insights that go beyond the main body of the paper. This will leave the reader with something new to consider. Leave a Lasting Impression: End your conclusion with a thought-provoking statement or a call to action.

  14. How to write a conclusion for a research paper

    Tips for writing a conclusion. 1. Don't include new data or evidence. Your conclusion should provide closure to your paper, so introducing new information is not appropriate and will likely confuse your reader. 2. Don't simply restate your thesis. You should never simply copy and paste your thesis statement into your conclusion.

  15. How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

    Remember about the main topic. The statement must be written clearly and concisely to be effective, just one sentence. Remember that your conclusion should be concise and precise, expressing only the most important elements. 2. Reaffirm your thesis. Restate the research paper's thesis after that.

  16. How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper: Effective Tips and

    The conclusion is where you describe the consequences of your arguments by justifying to your readers why your arguments matter (Hamilton College, 2014). Derntl (2014) also describes conclusion as the counterpart of the introduction. Using the Hourglass Model (Swales, 1993) as a visual reference, Derntl describes conclusion as the part of the ...

  17. How to Write a Research Paper Conclusion Section

    The conclusion of a research paper has several key objectives. It should: Restate your research problem addressed in the introduction section. Summarize your main arguments, important findings, and broader implications. Synthesize key takeaways from your study. The specific content in the conclusion depends on whether your paper presents the ...

  18. How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

    Conclude your research paper with a strong and memorable statement that reinforces the key message you want readers to take away. This could be a call to action, a proposal for further investigation, or a reflection on the broader significance of your findings. Leave your readers with a lasting impression that emphasizes the importance of your ...

  19. How to Start a Conclusion in Research? [With Examples]

    In our sample of 47,803 research papers, 2,744 (5.74%) Conclusion sections started with the words: "In conclusion". Example 1: " In conclusion, we have identified the radical species that promoted the stereoinversion of vinylic compounds during the preparation of potassium vinyltrifluoroborate salts.". Example 2:

  20. How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

    Research paper conclusion examples. Below, we've created basic templates showing the key parts of a research paper conclusion. Keep in mind that the length of your conclusion will depend on the length of your paper. The order of the parts may vary, too; these templates only demonstrate how to tie them together. 1. Empirical research paper ...

  21. How to Write a Good Conclusion Paragraph (+30 Examples)

    Let's go through each step. 1. Understand the Purpose. The conclusion is your final opportunity to leave an impact. It should tie together your main ideas, reinforce your message, and give the reader a sense of closure. Wrap Up Your Main Ideas. The conclusion should succinctly wrap up the main points of your writing.

  22. How to Write a Conclusion for Research Paper

    Insert unrelated anecdotes. Draw overly general conclusions and lab reports that do not fully reflect the evidence presented in the paper. It shows negative aspects to a conclusion. The conclusion must highlight your most important discoveries in a favorable light and demonstrate how your work advances the field.

  23. How To Write A Conclusion For A Research Paper

    Open With The Research Topic. To begin a conclusion paragraph, use the first sentence to reiterate the comprehensive subject matter that your paper covered. Since this is just a sentence-long retelling of your research topic and why it's important, it doesn't have to be specific, but it does need clarity. Example.

  24. How to Write a Research Paper Like a Pro

    How to Start a Research Paper . Knowing how to start a research paper is often the most challenging part of the writing process. A good way to start a research report is by clearly defining your research question or thesis statement. This will serve as the foundation of your paper and guide your research and writing.

  25. How to Write a Conclusion

    Start your conclusion by restating the thesis statement of your research paper. This reminds the reader of the main focus and purpose of your study. ... You can streamline the process of writing your research paper conclusion, saving time and effort while ensuring a high-quality result. Whether you're summarizing key findings, making policy ...

  26. How to Write a Good Conclusion For a Lab Report

    Important: Keep your conclusion short and easy to understand. A lab conclusion should be about 200-300 words or one paragraph. But if your experiment was really complex, you might need up to 500 words. Remember, your lab conclusion is part of a bigger report.