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## Hypothesis Testing: An Intuitive Guide for Making Data Driven Decisions PDF

Title Hypothesis Testing: An Intuitive Guide for Making Data Driven Decisions 2020-09-17 English EPUB 465 187 597

The world produces more data than ever. Are you ready for it? In today's data-driven world, you hear about making decisions based on data all the time. Hypothesis testing plays a crucial role in that process, whether you're in academia, business, or data science. Without hypothesis tests, you risk making bad de...

## Chapter List (151 chapters):

• Chapter 1: Hypothesis Testing: An Intuitive Guide
• Chapter 2: Goals for this Book
• Chapter 3: Fundamental Concepts
• Chapter 4: Descriptive vs. Inferential Statistics
• Chapter 5: Population Parameters vs. Sample Statistics
• Chapter 6: Random Sampling Error
• Chapter 7: Parametric versus Nonparametric Analyses
• Chapter 8: Hypothesis Testing
• Chapter 9: Null Hypothesis
• Chapter 10: Alternative Hypothesis
• Chapter 11: Effect
• Chapter 12: Significance Level (Alpha)
• Chapter 13: P-values
• Chapter 14: Statistical Significance
• Chapter 15: Confidence intervals (CIs)
• Chapter 16: Significance Levels In-Depth
• Chapter 17: How Hypothesis Tests Work
• Chapter 18: How Confidence Intervals Work
• Chapter 19: Review and Next Steps
• Chapter 20: T-Test Uses, Assumptions, and Analyses
• Chapter 21: 1-Sample t-Tests
• Chapter 22: 2-Sample t-Tests
• Chapter 23: Paired t-Tests
• Chapter 24: Why Not Accept the Null Hypothesis?
• Chapter 25: Interpreting Failures to Reject the Null
• Chapter 26: Using Confidence Intervals to Compare Means
• Chapter 27: Review and Next Steps
• Chapter 28: Test Statistics and Their Sampling Distributions
• Chapter 29: How 1-Sample t-Tests Calculate t-Values
• Chapter 30: How Two-Sample T-tests Calculate T-Values
• Chapter 31: t-Distributions and Statistical Significance
• Chapter 32: t-Distributions and Sample Size
• Chapter 33: Z-tests versus t-tests
• Chapter 34: Review and Next Steps
• Chapter 35: Interpreting P-values
• Chapter 36: It’s All About the Null Hypothesis
• Chapter 37: Defining P-values
• Chapter 38: P-values Are NOT an Error Rate
• Chapter 39: What Is the True Error Rate?
• Chapter 40: Why Are P-values Misinterpreted So Frequently?
• Chapter 41: P-values and the Reproducibility of Experiments
• Chapter 42: The Good Side of High P-values
• Chapter 43: Practical vs. Statistical Significance
• Chapter 44: Practical Tips to Avoid Being Fooled
• Chapter 45: Review and Next Steps
• Chapter 46: Types of Errors and Statistical Power
• Chapter 47: Fire Alarm Analogy
• Chapter 48: Type I Errors: False Positives
• Chapter 49: Type II Errors: False Negatives
• Chapter 50: Type II Errors and Statistical Power
• Chapter 51: Graphing Type I and Type II Errors
• Chapter 52: Is One Error Worse Than the Other?
• Chapter 53: Power and Sample Size Analysis
• Chapter 54: Low Power Tests Exaggerate Effect Sizes
• Chapter 55: Review and Next Steps
• Chapter 56: One-Tailed and Two-Tailed Hypothesis Tests
• Chapter 57: Critical Regions
• Chapter 58: Two-Tailed Tests
• Chapter 59: One-Tailed Tests
• Chapter 60: When Can I Use One-Tailed Tests?
• Chapter 61: One-Tailed Tests Can Be the Only Option
• Chapter 62: Effects can Occur in Only One Direction
• Chapter 63: Only Need to Detect Effects in One Direction
• Chapter 64: Alternative: Two-Tails with a Higher Alpha
• Chapter 65: Review and Next Steps
• Chapter 66: Sample Size Considerations
• Chapter 67: Degrees of Freedom
• Chapter 68: Central Limit Theorem
• Chapter 69: Review and Next Steps
• Chapter 70: Data Types and Hypothesis Tests
• Chapter 71: Continuous Data
• Chapter 72: Binary Data
• Chapter 73: Count Data
• Chapter 74: Categorical Data
• Chapter 75: Ordinal Data
• Chapter 76: Review and Next Steps
• Chapter 77: ANOVA Compares More Than Two Groups
• Chapter 78: One-Way ANOVA
• Chapter 79: How F-tests work in ANOVA
• Chapter 80: Using Post Hoc Tests with ANOVA
• Chapter 81: What is the Experiment-wise Error Rate?
• Chapter 82: Tukey’s Method
• Chapter 83: Post Hoc Tests and the Statistical Power Tradeoff
• Chapter 84: Dunnett’s Compares Treatments to a Control
• Chapter 85: Hsu’s MCB to Find the Best
• Chapter 86: Recap of Using Multiple Comparison Methods
• Chapter 87: Two-Way ANOVA
• Chapter 88: Two-Way ANOVA without Interaction
• Chapter 89: Two-Way ANOVA with Interaction
• Chapter 90: Interaction Effects in Depth
• Chapter 91: Review and Next Steps
• Chapter 92: Continuous Data: Variability, Correlations, Distributions & Outliers
• Chapter 93: Testing Variability
• Chapter 94: One-Sample Variance Test
• Chapter 95: Two-Sample Variances Test
• Chapter 96: Variances Testing Methods
• Chapter 97: Test of Pearson’s Correlation
• Chapter 98: Testing the Distribution of Your Continuous Data
• Chapter 99: Using Distribution Tests
• Chapter 100: Normality Test
• Chapter 101: Goodness-of-Fit Tests for Other Distributions
• Chapter 102: Using Probability Plots
• Chapter 103: Three-Parameter Distributions
• Chapter 104: Parameter Values for Our Distribution
• Chapter 105: Caution: What These Tests Do NOT Tell You!
• Chapter 106: Outliers
• Chapter 107: Guidelines for Removing Outliers
• Chapter 108: Five Ways to Find Outliers
• Chapter 109: Finding Outliers with Hypothesis Tests
• Chapter 110: My Philosophy about Finding Outliers
• Chapter 111: Statistical Analyses that Can Handle Outliers
• Chapter 112: Review and Next Steps
• Chapter 113: Binary Data and Testing Proportions
• Chapter 114: One-Sample Proportion Test
• Chapter 115: How the Proportion Test Works
• Chapter 116: Two-Sample Proportions Test
• Chapter 117: Binomial Exact Test vs. Normal Approximation
• Chapter 118: Mythbusters Example: Are Yawns Contagious?
• Chapter 119: 2 Proportions Example: Flu Shot Effectiveness
• Chapter 120: Distributions for Binary Data
• Chapter 121: Review and Next Steps
• Chapter 122: Count Data and Rates of Occurrence
• Chapter 123: One-Sample Poisson Rate Test
• Chapter 124: Two-Sample Poisson Rate Test
• Chapter 125: Poisson Exact Test vs. Normal Approximation
• Chapter 126: Goodness-of-Fit for a Poisson Distribution
• Chapter 127: Review and Next Steps
• Chapter 128: Categorical Variables
• Chapter 129: Chi-Square Test of Independence
• Chapter 130: How the Chi-square Test Works
• Chapter 131: Bonus Analysis!
• Chapter 132: Categorical Variables and Discrete Distributions
• Chapter 133: Review and Next Steps
• Chapter 134: Alternative Methods
• Chapter 135: Nonparametric Tests vs. Parametric Tests
• Chapter 136: Analyzing Likert Scale Data
• Chapter 137: Example of the Mann-Whitney Median Test
• Chapter 138: Bootstrapping Method
• Chapter 139: Wrapping Up
• Chapter 140: Hypothesis Tests by Data Types
• Chapter 141: Continuous Data
• Chapter 142: Binary Data
• Chapter 143: Count Data
• Chapter 144: Categorical Data
• Chapter 145: Ordinal and Ranked Data
• Chapter 146: My Other Books
• Chapter 147: Introduction to Statistics: An Intuitive Guide
• Chapter 148: Regression Analysis: An Intuitive Guide
• Chapter 149: References
• Chapter 150: Recommended Citation for This Book
• Chapter 151: About the Author

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Statistics By Jim

Making statistics intuitive

## New eBook Release! Introduction to Statistics: An Intuitive Guide

I’m thrilled to release my new book! Introduction to Statistics: An Intuitive Guide for Analyzing Data and Unlocking Discoveries .

This 236-page book takes you on a voyage. I start with an overview of statistics and why it is so important. Then, we proceed to essential statistical skills and knowledge about different types of data, and how to summarize them both graphically and numerically. Importantly, I’ll show you how to discover relationships between your variables and use probability distributions to calculate probabilities. Then we move to using inferential statistics to expand human knowledge, how it fits into the scientific method, and how to design experiments. Now, that’s an adventure in statistics!

By reading this book, you will build a solid foundation for the field of statistics and data analysis. Be confident that you understand what your data are telling you and that you can explain the results to others! After reading this book, you’ll be ready for more advanced topics. At the end of this post, you’ll find the full table of contents.

Buy it on Amazon (US site)! ! Or go to my Web Store for other locations.

## My eBook Covers the Following Critical Statistical Concepts, Methods, and Skills

In this book, learn the fundamentals of statistics, including the following:

• What is the field of statistics and why is it so vital in our data-driven society?
• Learn about various types of data and how to use them.
• Interpret graphs and summary statistics.
• Find relationships between different types of variables.
• Understand the properties of data distributions.
• Use measures of central tendency and variability.
• Interpret correlations and percentiles.
• Use probability distributions to calculate probabilities.
• Learn about the normal distribution and the binomial distributions in depth.
• Grasp the differences between descriptive and inferential statistics.
• Use data collection methodologies properly and understand sample size considerations.
• Utilize statistics in the scientific method and design experiments.
• Critique scientific experiments—whether it’s your own or another researcher’s.
• Includes example interpretations and downloadable datasets so you can try it yourself!

April 14, 2021 at 8:11 pm

Jim, Can you explain Covariance beyond the the basic definition, or positive and negative value, in that it is a measure of association between two variables, or rather how much two variables vary together? How or when would this be used when dealing with data? Thank you!

April 15, 2021 at 4:47 pm

Covariance has limited useful in the real world. While is correlation is standardizes to it’ll fall within -1 to +1, covariance is unstandardized. It’ll vary based on both the relationship between the variables and the values of the variables themselves. There is no intuitive interpretation for covariance. I don’t have a good use case from when to use it.

In short, just use correlation and don’t use covariance.

February 16, 2021 at 9:50 am

Jim, I’m interested in how you would describe the first 4 moments of distribution. I’ve googled this and the sites describe it in terms of its mathematics—rather than what it means to the data. Skewness of -4 or -2 — I know the sign means direction. But what power does the number have? Same with kurtosis.

November 21, 2020 at 3:57 pm

Hello Jim, Is this book available in PDF format? Before purchasing ebook i thought to conform. Regards

November 21, 2020 at 4:06 pm

Hi Maaz! Yes, if you buy it through my website, you’ll get it in PDF format. It is available in other formats elsewhere. For example, you can get it from Amazon in print and Kindle formats.

October 21, 2020 at 10:54 am

Hi Jim, Trust that you are doing fine!!! How do I purchase your Intro to Statistics book? What is the cost in INR (Indian Rupees)? How do I find out that?

August 20, 2020 at 7:04 am

Hello, I just discovered your site. I have a superficial knowledge of statistical tools, and use them from time to time without really understarnding what they are.

I have only read a couple of your blog posts and I think your books would be a great next step. My ultimate goal is to be able to use logistic regression with confidence.

Can you suggest the sequence I should study the books in? Should I read the “Intro…” if I plan to study the more advanced books?

Also, are the topics you cover in the blog posts, also covered in the books? Or rather are they “supplements” I should study separately?

Thank you, Antoine

August 21, 2020 at 11:34 am

Hi Antoine,

My books go into more depth than the website. There is content in the books that are not in my blog posts. The order I envision people reading them is the following: Introduction to Statistics, Hypothesis Testing, and Regression Analysis. Although, with an urgent need to learn a particular area, you can rearrange that order.

If you’re uncertain about what each book contains, I’d recommend going to My Store and downloading the free samples for each book. Each free sample has one or two chapters plus the entire table of contents. That allows you to see what each book covers. No credit card is necessary for the free samples.

August 17, 2020 at 2:37 am

Hi Jim Which of your e-book best explain r, r squared, adjusted r and p value?

Thank you Jim

August 17, 2020 at 9:00 pm

Hi Tomingan,

You’d definitely want to get my Regression ebook !

July 28, 2020 at 9:16 pm

I’ve tried Chrome and Edge browsers and can’t find a link to buy your books. Based on your articles I imagine the books are pretty good.

July 29, 2020 at 12:09 am

Thanks, I appreciate the kind words!

I’ve got all three of my ebooks listed in the right column of the website. You can also find them all in My Store menu along the top (or click the link), which includes the free sample versions (first chapter or two) along with the paid full versions.

February 16, 2020 at 7:10 pm

I have the same problems. There are no links to buy the book(s) anywhere on the blog. Your side messages “Buy My Introduction to Statistics eBook! and Buy My Regression eBook!” are just texts without any links. And there are no links in the blog posts either.

So make sure to update the links so people can throw cash at you! ^_^

February 17, 2020 at 1:14 am

Hi, I thought I had that problem sorted out. Drats! I’m out of town now but will look into it soon. Thanks for letting me know it’s still a problem. It seems to work for some but not others. Try clearing your browser cache too just in case my previous “fix” isn’t being used by your browser.

January 6, 2020 at 12:38 pm

its not working, I try in differents web browsers(Opera,Chrome, Safari, Firefox).

Can you help ?

att, Marcelo

January 6, 2020 at 2:57 pm

Hi Marcelo,

I can’t recreate that problem. Can you please describe what you’re doing. Are you clicking the button for the book in the right column of the web page or somewhere else? Where are you clicking? And, what happens? Do you get an error? Thanks! That will help me figure it out.

November 4, 2019 at 1:46 am

Just purchased your book and on a side note, I hope to understand if someone, after reading your book and gained a reasonable level of understanding on the topics it cover, how would you compare him/her to a MBA student or student who is NOT major in statistics but learned a course on stats as a graduate student in a business major? Just want to get some sense on the depth of the knowledge that could be achieved by reading the book and how much I should continue to learn if I want to be comparable to a MBA.

September 26, 2019 at 3:24 pm

If this is even half as good as your regression analysis book it will still be a gem! Can’t wait to get reading.

September 30, 2019 at 2:57 pm

Thank you so much, Leonard! I hope you enjoy it! 🙂

September 6, 2019 at 2:09 am

September 6, 2019 at 2:38 am

Hi Deb, I’m not sure which links you mean? If you’re referring to the links to buy the book, I’ve checked and they’re working. Please supply additional details. What browser are you using? What happens exactly? Thank you!

September 5, 2019 at 10:26 am

Great book!

September 2, 2019 at 11:49 pm

I’ve learned a lot from your site and this site got me interested in statistics and help me to see it’s real application in my day-to-day job… Thanks again… I got your book, looking forward to study and apply the knowledge and wisdom from it.

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1. Hypothesis Testing: An Intuitive Guide for Making Data Driven Decisions

Jim Frost has extensive experience using statistical analysis in academic research and consulting projects. He's been performing statistical analysis on-the-job for over 20 years. For 10 of those years, he was at a statistical software company helping others make the most out of their data. Jim loves sharing the joy of statistics.

2. New eBook Release! Hypothesis Testing: An Intuitive Guide

Hypothesis Testing: An Intuitive Guide. By Jim Frost 14 Comments. I'm thrilled to release my new book! Hypothesis Testing: An Intuitive Guide for Making Data Driven Decisions. In today's data-driven world, we hear about making decisions based on the data all the time. Hypothesis testing plays a crucial role in that process, whether you're ...

3. Hypothesis Testing: An Intuitive Guide for Making Data Driven Decisions

Hypothesis Testing: An Intuitive Guide for Making Data Driven Decisions - Kindle edition by Frost, Jim. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading Hypothesis Testing: An Intuitive Guide for Making Data Driven Decisions.

4. Hypothesis Testing: An Intuitive Guide for Making Data Driven Decisions

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5. Hypothesis Testing

Hypothesis testing plays a crucial role in that process, whether you're in academia, making business decisions, or in quality improvement. Without hypothesis tests, you risk drawing the wrong conclusions and making bad decisions. ... Jim Frost has extensive experience using statistical analysis in academic research and consulting projects. He's ...

6. Hypothesis Testing: An Intuitive Guide for Making Data Driven Decisions

Jim Frost has extensive experience using statistical analysis in academic research and consulting projects. He's been performing statistical analysis on-the-job for over 20 years. For 10 of those years, he was a statistical software company helping others make the most out of their data. Jim loves sharing the joy of statistics.

7. Hypothesis Testing: An Intuitive Guide for Making Data

Hypothesis testing plays a crucial role in that process, whether you're in academia, business, or data science. Without hypothesis tests, you risk making bad decisions. ... look no further. Every professor should teach like Jim frost. Alternatively, if you are currently taking a course in college and need to understand things intuitively before ...

8. Hypothesis Testing: An Intuitive Guide for Making Data

Jim Frost. 4.55. 11 ratings2 reviews. In today's data-driven world, you hear about making decisions based on data all the time. Hypothesis testing plays a crucial role in that process, whether you're in academia, business, or data science. Without hypothesis tests, you risk making bad decisions. Chances are high you'll need to understand ...

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Buy Hypothesis Testing: An Intuitive Guide for Making Data Driven Decisions by Frost, Jim (ISBN: 9781735431154) from Amazon's Book Store. Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders.

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Hypothesis testing plays a crucial role in that process, whether you're in academia, business, or data science. Without hypothesis tests, you risk making bad decisions. ... Jim Frost has extensive experience using statistical analysis in academic research and consulting projects. He's been performing statistical analysis on-the-job for over 20 ...

11. Statistical Hypothesis Testing Overview

Statistical Hypothesis Testing Overview. By Jim Frost 59 Comments. In this blog post, I explain why you need to use statistical hypothesis testing and help you navigate the essential terminology. Hypothesis testing is a crucial procedure to perform when you want to make inferences about a population using a random sample. These inferences ...

12. Hypothesis Testing: An Intuitive Guide for Making Data Driven Decisions

Jim Frost has extensive experience using statistical analysis in academic research and consulting projects. He's been performing statistical analysis on-the-job for over 20 years. For 10 of those years, he was at a statistical software company helping others make the most out of their data. Jim loves sharing the joy of statistics.

13. Hypothesis Testing Articles

What is Hypothesis Testing? Hypothesis testing in statistics uses sample data to infer the properties of a whole population.These tests determine whether a random sample provides sufficient evidence to conclude an effect or relationship exists in the population. Researchers use them to help separate genuine population-level effects from false effects that random chance can create in samples.

14. Hypothesis Testing Ebook by Jim Frost

Hypothesis testing plays a crucial role in that process, whether you're in academia, business, or data science. Without hypothesis tests, you risk making bad decisions. Chances are high you'll need to understand these tests to analyze your data and evaluate the work of others. Build the knowledge for effective hypothesis testing!

15. Hypothesis Testing by Jim Frost (ebook)

The world produces more data than ever. Are you ready for it?In today's data-driven world, you hear about making decisions based on data all the time. Hypothesis testing plays a crucial role in that process, whether you're in academia, business, or data science. Without hypothesis tests, you risk making bad decisions.Chances are high you'll need to understand these tests to analyze your data ...

16. Hypothesis Testing: An Intuitive Guide for Making Data Driven Decisions

Jim Frost has extensive experience using statistical analysis in academic research and consulting projects. He's been performing statistical analysis on-the-job for over 20 years. For 10 of those years, he was a statistical software company helping others make the most out of their data. Jim loves sharing the joy of statistics.

Jim Frost: Publisher: Statistics By Jim Publishing: Category: Mathematics Intelligence (AI) & Semantics: Released Date: 2020-09-17: Language: ... In today's data-driven world, you hear about making decisions based on data all the time. Hypothesis testing plays a crucial role in that process, whether you're in academia, business, or data science

18. Hypothesis Testing: Uses, Steps & Example

The researchers write their hypotheses. These statements apply to the population, so they use the mu (μ) symbol for the population mean parameter.. Null Hypothesis (H 0): The population means of the test scores for the two groups are equal (μ 1 = μ 2).; Alternative Hypothesis (H A): The population means of the test scores for the two groups are unequal (μ 1 ≠ μ 2).

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Release date Sep 17, 2020. ISBN 9781735431161. JF. Author. Jim Frost has extensive experience using statistical analysis in academic research and consulting projects. He's been performing statistical analysis on-the-job for over 20 years. For 10 of those years, he was a statistical software company helping others make the most out of their data.

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Jim Frost has extensive experience using statistical analysis in academic research and consulting projects. He's been performing statistical analysis on-the-job for over 20 years. For 10 of those years, he was a statistical software company helping others make the most out of their data. Jim loves sharing the joy of statistics.

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22. New eBook Release! Introduction to Statistics: An Intuitive Guide

By Jim Frost 23 Comments. I'm thrilled to release my new book! ... Hypothesis Testing, and Regression Analysis. Although, with an urgent need to learn a particular area, you can rearrange that order. If you're uncertain about what each book contains, I'd recommend going to My Store and downloading the free samples for each book. Each free ...

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Hypothesis Testing / Jim Frost. —1st ed. i . ... Hypothesis testing is a procedure in inferential statistics. To draw re-liable conclusions from a sample, you need to appreciate the differ-