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  1. Educational Strategies Problem-Solving Concepts and Theories

    Problem-solving knowledge is, conceptually, of two kinds. Declarative knowledge is knowing that something is the case. It is knowledge of facts, theories, events, and objects. Proce-dural knowledge is knowing how to do something. It includes motor skills, cognitive skills, and cognitive strategies. Both declarative and procedural knowledge are ...

  2. Problem Solving

    Cognitive—Problem solving occurs within the problem solver's cognitive system and can only be inferred indirectly from the problem solver's behavior (including biological changes, introspections, and actions during problem solving).. Process—Problem solving involves mental computations in which some operation is applied to a mental representation, sometimes resulting in the creation of ...

  3. (PDF) Theory of Problem Solving

    inconsistency" of the situation; the problem solving consists of the removal of the conflict and the finding. of the desired object. b) a disorder in the objective situation or in the structure of ...

  4. Theory of Problem Solving

    The problem solving is a personal and aimed process. That means that the activities done by an individual during the problem solving process are led to his/her personal aim (Mayer and Wittrock, 2006). An individual has to identify the problem first and then seek for possible solutions (Mayer and Wittrock, 2006).

  5. Problem-Solving Theory: The Task-Centred Model

    This chapter focuses on the task-centred model (Reid and Epstein 1972) as a prime example of the major influence problem-solving theory has exerted in the practice of social work.First, as background for understanding the development of the task-centred model, the chapter offers a brief account of the historical development of the problem-solving model (Perlman 1957) and describes its key ...

  6. Problem solving

    Problem solving is the process of achieving a goal by overcoming obstacles, a frequent part of most activities. Problems in need of solutions range from simple personal tasks (e.g. how to turn on an appliance) to complex issues in business and technical fields. The former is an example of simple problem solving (SPS) addressing one issue ...

  7. Problem Solving and Decision Making

    The current bibliography first outlines some general resources on the psychology of problem solving and decision making before examining each of these topics in detail. Specifically, this review covers cognitive, neuroscientific, and computational approaches to problem solving, as well as decision making models and cognitive heuristics and biases.

  8. Problem Solving

    Problem solving is the process of articulating solutions to problems. Problems have two critical attributes. First, a problem is an unknown in some context. That is, there is a situation in which there is something that is unknown (the difference between a goal state and a current state). Those situations vary from algorithmic math problems to ...

  9. PDF The Psychology of Problem Solving

    personal resourcefulness influence problem-solving performance in both formal and informal contexts. In addition, these authors present a cycli-cal model of problem solving that identifies self-regulatory processes and sources of motivation that are central to successful problem solving in a wide range of situations.

  10. Toward a Design Theory of Problem Solving

    models (Greeno, 1978) into a simplified model of the problem-solving process, including the pro-cesses of constructing a problem representation, searching for solutions, and implementing and monitoring solutions. Although descriptively useful, these problem-solving models tend to treat all problems the same in an effort to articu-late a ...

  11. PDF Problem-Solving Theory: The Task-Centred Model

    Blanca M. Ramos and Randall L. Stetson. Abstract. This chapter examines the task-centred model to illustrate the application of problem-solving theory for social work intervention. First, it provides a brief description of the problem-solving model. Its historical development and key principles and concepts are presented.

  12. Problem-Solving Models: What They Are and How To Use Them

    Most problem-solving models rely on data to inform decisions, which helps to maintain objectivity and fairness throughout the process. By using problem-solving methods to hear the opinions of everyone, you can eliminate bias when solving a problem. In addition, implementing problem-solving models can lead to more effective, thoughtful solutions.

  13. Problem-Solving Concepts and Theories

    Problem-solving should encourage learners to organize information in a logical manner [4] to allow them to apply a variety of prior learning (cognition) and new knowledge (metacognition) in the ...

  14. Problem Solving

    Abstract. This chapter follows the historical development of research on problem solving. It begins with a description of two research traditions that addressed different aspects of the problem-solving process: (1) research on problem representation (the Gestalt legacy) that examined how people understand the problem at hand, and (2) research on search in a problem space (the legacy of Newell ...

  15. What is problem solving? A review of theory, research and applications

    Structured training or therapy programmes designed to develop cognitive problem-solving skills are now widely used in criminal justice and mental health settings. Method. This paper describes the conceptual origins and theoretical models on which such programmes are based, and provides a historical overview of their development.

  16. PDF A Problem Solving Approach to Designing and Implementing a Strategy to

    Problem-Solving Approach to Strategy Design and Implementation. The problem-solving approach to designing and implementing a strategy includes eight steps (see. Figure A): 1. Identify the Problem. 2. Analyze the Problem and Diagnose Its Causes. 3. Develop a Theory of Action.

  17. The problem-solving model: A framework for integrating the science and

    In this chapter we (a) review the early development of the problem-solving model for social work practice; (b) discuss the later development of the problem solving model in terms of its extension to and further elaboration by generalist models of social work practice; (c) provide an overview of how the problem-solving model allows for the integration of the scientific and artistic elements of ...

  18. Models and Theories

    The term "problem" defines J. Linhart (1976, p. 385) as: . a) problem is an interactive relation between a subject and its surroundings, which incorporates the inner conflict that is solved by the subject by searching of transitions from initial condition to the final condition. b) the existence of a conflict causes the dynamics of an activity ...

  19. Social Problem Solving: Theory and Assessment.

    In this chapter we describe the social problem-solving model that has generated most of the research and training programs presented in the remaining chapters of this volume. We also describe the major assessment methods and instruments that have been used to measure social problem-solving ability and performance in research as well as clinical practice.

  20. Instructional Design Models and Theories: Problem-Based Learning

    The 4 Key Principles of a Problem-Based Curriculum. Through active learning. Learners can control their own learning, as well as submit and answer their own questions. Through integrated learning. Knowledge, understanding and skills go hand in hand, while classroom/book knowledge is linked to the real world, and the problem is the focus.

  21. Beyond Constructivism

    This book has two primary goals. On the level of theory development, the book clarifies the nature of an emerging "models and modeling perspective" about teaching, learning, and problem solving in mathematics and science education. On the level of emphasizing practical problems, it clarifies the nature of some of the most important elementary ...

  22. Foundations of a Models and Modeling Perspective on Mathematics

    ABSTRACT. At the end of this chapter, Appendixes A, B, and C, are three examples of problem-solving activities that we refer to as model-eliciting activities—so called because the products that students produce go beyond short answers to narrowly specified questions—which involve sharable, manipulatable, modifiable, and reusable conceptual ...

  23. Effective Problem-Solving Techniques in Business

    Problem solving is an increasingly important soft skill for those in business. The Future of Jobs Survey by the World Economic Forum drives this point home. According to this report, complex problem solving is identified as one of the top 15 skills that will be sought by employers in 2025, along with other soft skills such as analytical thinking, creativity and leadership.

  24. Mathematics

    If the perturbation theory is used, the problem of the computation of Green's function can be transformed into one of solving the Lippmann-Schwinger (L-S) equation. However, if the velocity model under consideration has large scale and strong heterogeneity, solving the L-S equation may become difficult because only numerical or ...