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Qualitative research design (JARS–Qual)

JARS–Qual, developed in 2018, mark the first time APA Style has included qualitative standards. They outline what should be reported in qualitative research manuscripts to make the review process easier.

The seventh edition of the Publication Manual also includes content on qualitative studies, including standards for journal article reporting, considerations for sharing qualitative data, and a description of case studies as a type of qualitative article.

JARS–Qual include guidance for manuscripts that report

  • Primary qualitative research
  • Qualitative meta-analyses
  • Qualitative Design Reporting Standards (JARS-Qual) (PDF, 141KB) Information recommended for inclusion in manuscripts that report primary qualitative research
  • Qualitative Meta-Analysis Reporting Standards (PDF, 119KB) Information recommended for inclusion in manuscripts that report qualitative meta-analyses

For more information on how these standards were created, read Journal Article Reporting Standards for Qualitative Primary, Qualitative Meta-Analytic, and Mixed Methods Research in Psychology .

  • Quantitative design standards
  • Mixed methods standards
  • Race, Ethnicity, and Culture standards

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Jars resources

  • History of APA’s journal article reporting standards
  • APA Style JARS supplemental glossary
  • Supplemental resource on the ethic of transparency in JARS
  • Frequently asked questions
  • JARS-Quant Decision Flowchart (PDF, 98KB)
  • JARS-Quant Participant Flowchart (PDF, 98KB)

Jars articles

  • Jars –Quant article
  • Jars –Qual / Mixed article
  • Jars – rec executive summary

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Standards for Reporting Qualitative Research

A synthesis of recommendations.

O’Brien, Bridget C. PhD; Harris, Ilene B. PhD; Beckman, Thomas J. MD; Reed, Darcy A. MD, MPH; Cook, David A. MD, MHPE

Dr. O’Brien is assistant professor, Department of Medicine and Office of Research and Development in Medical Education, University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine, San Francisco, California.

Dr. Harris is professor and head, Department of Medical Education, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois.

Dr. Beckman is professor of medicine and medical education, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota.

Dr. Reed is associate professor of medicine and medical education, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota.

Dr. Cook is associate director, Mayo Clinic Online Learning, research chair, Mayo Multidisciplinary Simulation Center, and professor of medicine and medical education, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota.

Funding/Support: This study was funded in part by a research review grant from the Society for Directors of Research in Medical Education.

Other disclosures: None reported.

Ethical approval: Reported as not applicable.

Disclaimer: The funding agency had no role in the study design, analysis, interpretation, writing of the manuscript, or decision to submit the manuscript for publication.

Supplemental digital content for this article is available at .

Correspondence should be addressed to Dr. O’Brien, Office of Research and Development in Medical Education, UCSF School of Medicine, Box 3202, 1855 Folsom St., Suite 200, San Francisco, CA 94143-3202; e-mail: [email protected] .


Standards for reporting exist for many types of quantitative research, but currently none exist for the broad spectrum of qualitative research. The purpose of the present study was to formulate and define standards for reporting qualitative research while preserving the requisite flexibility to accommodate various paradigms, approaches, and methods.


The authors identified guidelines, reporting standards, and critical appraisal criteria for qualitative research by searching PubMed, Web of Science, and Google through July 2013; reviewing the reference lists of retrieved sources; and contacting experts. Specifically, two authors reviewed a sample of sources to generate an initial set of items that were potentially important in reporting qualitative research. Through an iterative process of reviewing sources, modifying the set of items, and coding all sources for items, the authors prepared a near-final list of items and descriptions and sent this list to five external reviewers for feedback. The final items and descriptions included in the reporting standards reflect this feedback.


The Standards for Reporting Qualitative Research (SRQR) consists of 21 items. The authors define and explain key elements of each item and provide examples from recently published articles to illustrate ways in which the standards can be met.


The SRQR aims to improve the transparency of all aspects of qualitative research by providing clear standards for reporting qualitative research. These standards will assist authors during manuscript preparation, editors and reviewers in evaluating a manuscript for potential publication, and readers when critically appraising, applying, and synthesizing study findings.

Qualitative research contributes to the literature in many disciplines by describing, interpreting, and generating theories about social interactions and individual experiences as they occur in natural, rather than experimental, situations. 1–3 Some recent examples include studies of professional dilemmas, 4 medical students’ early experiences of workplace learning, 5 patients’ experiences of disease and interventions, 6–8 and patients’ perspectives about incident disclosures. 9 The purpose of qualitative research is to understand the perspectives/experiences of individuals or groups and the contexts in which these perspectives or experiences are situated. 1 , 2 , 10

Qualitative research is increasingly common and valued in the medical and medical education literature. 1 , 10–13 However, the quality of such research can be difficult to evaluate because of incomplete reporting of key elements. 14 , 15 Quality is multifaceted and includes consideration of the importance of the research question, the rigor of the research methods, the appropriateness and salience of the inferences, and the clarity and completeness of reporting. 16 , 17 Although there is much debate about standards for methodological rigor in qualitative research, 13 , 14 , 18–20 there is widespread agreement about the need for clear and complete reporting. 14 , 21 , 22 Optimal reporting would enable editors, reviewers, other researchers, and practitioners to critically appraise qualitative studies and apply and synthesize the results. One important step in improving the quality of reporting is to formulate and define clear reporting standards.

Authors have proposed guidelines for the quality of qualitative research, including those in the fields of medical education, 23–25 clinical and health services research, 26–28 and general education research. 29 , 30 Yet in nearly all cases, the authors do not describe how the guidelines were created, and often fail to distinguish reporting quality from the other facets of quality (e.g., the research question or methods). Several authors suggest standards for reporting qualitative research, 15 , 20 , 29–33 but their articles focus on a subset of qualitative data collection methods (e.g., interviews), fail to explain how the authors developed the reporting criteria, narrowly construe qualitative research (e.g., thematic analysis) in ways that may exclude other approaches, and/or lack specific examples to help others see how the standards might be achieved. Thus, there remains a compelling need for defensible and broadly applicable standards for reporting qualitative research.

We designed and carried out the present study to formulate and define standards for reporting qualitative research through a rigorous synthesis of published articles and expert recommendations.

We formulated standards for reporting qualitative research by using a rigorous and systematic approach in which we reviewed previously proposed recommendations by experts in qualitative methods. Our research team consisted of two PhD researchers and one physician with formal training and experience in qualitative methods, and two physicians with experience, but no formal training, in qualitative methods.

We first identified previously proposed recommendations by searching PubMed, Web of Science, and Google using combinations of terms such as “qualitative methods,” “qualitative research,” “qualitative guidelines,” “qualitative standards,” and “critical appraisal” and by reviewing the reference lists of retrieved sources, reviewing the Equator Network, 22 and contacting experts. We conducted our first search in January 2007 and our last search in July 2013. Most recommendations were published in peer-reviewed journals, but some were available only on the Internet, and one was an interim draft from a national organization. We report the full set of the 40 sources reviewed in Supplemental Digital Appendix 1, found at .

Two of us (B.O., I.H.) reviewed an initial sample of sources to generate a comprehensive list of items that were potentially important in reporting qualitative research (Draft A). All of us then worked in pairs to review all sources and code the presence or absence of each item in a given source. From Draft A, we then distilled a shorter list (Draft B) by identifying core concepts and combining related items, taking into account the number of times each item appeared in these sources. We then compared the items in Draft B with material in the original sources to check for missing concepts, modify accordingly, and add explanatory definitions to create a prefinal list of items (Draft C).

We circulated Draft C to five experienced qualitative researchers (see the acknowledgments) for review. We asked them to note any omitted or redundant items and to suggest improvements to the wording to enhance clarity and relevance across a broad spectrum of qualitative inquiry. In response to their reviews, we consolidated some items and made minor revisions to the wording of labels and definitions to create the final set of reporting standards—the Standards for Reporting Qualitative Research (SRQR)—summarized in Table 1 .


To explicate how the final set of standards reflect the material in the original sources, two of us (B.O., D.A.C.) selected by consensus the 25 most complete sources of recommendations and identified which standards reflected the concepts found in each original source (see Table 2 ).


The SRQR is a list of 21 items that we consider essential for complete, transparent reporting of qualitative research (see Table 1 ). As explained above, we developed these items through a rigorous synthesis of prior recommendations and concepts from published sources (see Table 2 ; see also Supplemental Digital Appendix 1, found at ) and expert review. These 21 items provide a framework and recommendations for reporting qualitative studies. Given the wide range of qualitative approaches and methodologies, we attempted to select items with broad relevance.

The SRQR includes the article’s title and abstract (items 1 and 2); problem formulation and research question (items 3 and 4); research design and methods of data collection and analysis (items 5 through 15); results, interpretation, discussion, and integration (items 16 through 19); and other information (items 20 and 21). Supplemental Digital Appendix 2, found at , contains a detailed explanation of each item, along with examples from recently published qualitative studies. Below, we briefly describe the standards, with a particular focus on those unique to qualitative research.

Titles, abstracts, and introductory material. Reporting standards for titles, abstracts, and introductory material (problem formulation, research question) in qualitative research are very similar to those for quantitative research, except that the results reported in the abstract are narrative rather than numerical, and authors rarely present a specific hypothesis. 29 , 30

Research design and methods. Reporting on research design and methods of data collection and analysis highlights several distinctive features of qualitative research. Many of the criteria we reviewed focus not only on identifying and describing all aspects of the methods (e.g., approach, researcher characteristics and role, sampling strategy, context, data collection and analysis) but also on justifying each choice. 13 , 14 This ensures that authors make their assumptions and decisions transparent to readers. This standard is less commonly expected in quantitative research, perhaps because most quantitative researchers share positivist assumptions and generally agree about standards for rigor of various study designs and sampling techniques. 14 Just as quantitative reporting standards encourage authors to describe how they implemented methods such as randomization and measurement validity, several qualitative reporting criteria recommend that authors describe how they implemented a presumably familiar technique in their study rather than simply mentioning the technique. 10 , 14 , 32 For example, authors often state that data collection occurred until saturation, with no mention of how they defined and recognized saturation. Similarly, authors often mention an “iterative process,” with minimal description of the nature of the iterations. The SRQR emphasizes the importance of explaining and elaborating on these important processes. Nearly all of the original sources recommended describing the characteristics and role of the researcher (i.e., reflexivity). Members of the research team often form relationships with participants, and analytic processes are highly interpretive in most qualitative research. Therefore, reviewers and readers must understand how these relationships and the researchers’ perspectives and assumptions influenced data collection and interpretation. 15 , 23 , 26 , 34

Results. Reporting of qualitative research results should identify the main analytic findings. Often, these findings involve interpretation and contextualization, which represent a departure from the tradition in quantitative studies of objectively reporting results. The presentation of results often varies with the specific qualitative approach and methodology; thus, rigid rules for reporting qualitative findings are inappropriate. However, authors should provide evidence (e.g., examples, quotes, or text excerpts) to substantiate the main analytic findings. 20 , 29

Discussion. The discussion of qualitative results will generally include connections to existing literature and/or theoretical or conceptual frameworks, the scope and boundaries of the results (transferability), and study limitations. 10–12 , 28 In some qualitative traditions, the results and discussion may not have distinct boundaries; we recommend that authors include the substance of each item regardless of the section in which it appears.

The purpose of the SRQR is to improve the quality of reporting of qualitative research studies. We hope that these 21 recommended reporting standards will assist authors during manuscript preparation, editors and reviewers in evaluating a manuscript for potential publication, and readers when critically appraising, applying, and synthesizing study findings. As with other reporting guidelines, 35–37 we anticipate that the SRQR will evolve as it is applied and evaluated in practice. We welcome suggestions for refinement.

Qualitative studies explore “how?” and “why?” questions related to social or human problems or phenomena. 10 , 38 Purposes of qualitative studies include understanding meaning from participants’ perspectives (How do they interpret or make sense of an event, situation, or action?); understanding the nature and influence of the context surrounding events or actions; generating theories about new or poorly understood events, situations, or actions; and understanding the processes that led to a desired (or undesired) outcome. 38 Many different approaches (e.g., ethnography, phenomenology, discourse analysis, case study, grounded theory) and methodologies (e.g., interviews, focus groups, observation, analysis of documents) may be used in qualitative research, each with its own assumptions and traditions. 1 , 2 A strength of many qualitative approaches and methodologies is the opportunity for flexibility and adaptability throughout the data collection and analysis process. We endeavored to maintain that flexibility by intentionally defining items to avoid favoring one approach or method over others. As such, we trust that the SRQR will support all approaches and methods of qualitative research by making reports more explicit and transparent, while still allowing investigators the flexibility to use the study design and reporting format most appropriate to their study. It may be helpful, in the future, to develop approach-specific extensions of the SRQR, as has been done for guidelines in quantitative research (e.g., the CONSORT extensions). 37

Limitations, strengths, and boundaries

We deliberately avoided recommendations that define methodological rigor, and therefore it would be inappropriate to use the SRQR to judge the quality of research methods and findings. Many of the original sources from which we derived the SRQR were intended as criteria for methodological rigor or critical appraisal rather than reporting; for these, we inferred the information that would be needed to evaluate the criterion. Occasionally, we found conflicting recommendations in the literature (e.g., recommending specific techniques such as multiple coders or member checking to demonstrate trustworthiness); we resolved these conflicting recommendations through selection of the most frequent recommendations and by consensus among ourselves.

Some qualitative researchers have described the limitations of checklists as a means to improve methodological rigor. 13 We nonetheless believe that a checklist for reporting standards will help to enhance the transparency of qualitative research studies and thereby advance the field. 29 , 39

Strengths of this work include the grounding in previously published criteria, the diversity of experience and perspectives among us, and critical review by experts in three countries.

Implications and application

Similar to other reporting guidelines, 35–37 the SRQR may be viewed as a starting point for defining reporting standards in qualitative research. Although our personal experience lies in health professions education, the SRQR is based on sources originating in diverse health care and non-health-care fields. We intentionally crafted the SRQR to include various paradigms, approaches, and methodologies used in qualitative research. The elaborations offered in Supplemental Digital Appendix 2 (see ) should provide sufficient description and examples to enable both novice and experienced researchers to use these standards. Thus, the SRQR should apply broadly across disciplines, methodologies, topics, study participants, and users.

The SRQR items reflect information essential for inclusion in a qualitative research report, but should not be viewed as prescribing a rigid format or standardized content. Individual study needs, author preferences, and journal requirements may necessitate a different sequence or organization than that shown in Table 1 . Journal word restrictions may prevent a full exposition of each item, and the relative importance of a given item will vary by study. Thus, although all 21 standards would ideally be reflected in any given report, authors should prioritize attention to those items that are most relevant to the given study, findings, context, and readership.

Application of the SRQR need not be limited to the writing phase of a given study. These standards can assist researchers in planning qualitative studies and in the careful documentation of processes and decisions made throughout the study. By considering these recommendations early on, researchers may be more likely to identify the paradigm and approach most appropriate to their research, consider and use strategies for ensuring trustworthiness, and keep track of procedures and decisions.

Journal editors can facilitate the review process by providing the SRQR to reviewers and applying its standards, thus establishing more explicit expectations for qualitative studies. Although the recommendations do not address or advocate specific approaches, methods, or quality standards, they do help reviewers identify information that is missing from manuscripts.

As authors and editors apply the SRQR, readers will have more complete information about a given study, thus facilitating judgments about the trustworthiness, relevance, and transferability of findings to their own context and/or to related literature. Complete reporting will also facilitate meaningful synthesis of qualitative results across studies. 40 We anticipate that such transparency will, over time, help to identify previously unappreciated gaps in the rigor and relevance of research findings. Investigators, editors, and educators can then work to remedy these deficiencies and, thereby, enhance the overall quality of qualitative research.

Acknowledgments: The authors thank Margaret Bearman, PhD, Calvin Chou, MD, PhD, Karen Hauer, MD, Ayelet Kuper, MD, DPhil, Arianne Teherani, PhD, and participants in the UCSF weekly educational scholarship works-in-progress group (ESCape) for critically reviewing the Standards for Reporting Qualitative Research.

References Cited Only in Table 2

Supplemental digital content.

  • ACADMED_89_9_2014_05_22_OBRIEN_1301196_SDC1.pdf; [PDF] (385 KB)
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Research Design Review

A discussion of qualitative & quantitative research design, qualitative research in apa style.

APA Publication Manual

Even if you are not a devotee of the APA referencing style, qualitative researchers will benefit from reviewing the considerations found in the manual. For instance, the APA reporting standards stipulate five main areas for the Method section of a qualitative research article: 1) overview of the research design; 2) research participants and/or other data sources; 3) participant recruitment; 4) data collection; and 5) data analysis. It is noteworthy that in the Method area pertaining to research participants, APA recommends that the author go beyond discussing the number and demographic or cultural characteristics of the study participants to include “personal history factors” (e.g., trauma exposure, family history) “that are relevant to the specific contexts and topics of their research” (p. 100). With their emphasis on specific contexts, APA cites Morse (2008) and her discussion on the importance of reporting relevant details of the participants, which may or may not include demographic information — “Some demographic information may be pertinent: If it is, keep it; if not, do not report it” (p. 300). Morse goes on to remind researchers that “in qualitative inquiry, the description of the context is often as important as the description of the participants” (p. 300).

In addition to these characteristics, the APA style also states that, in the spirit of transparency, authors of a qualitative research article should discuss the researcher-participant relationship. Specifically, the manual asks authors to “describe the relationships and interactions between researchers and participants that are relevant to the research process and any impact on the research process (e.g., any relationships prior to the study, any ethical considerations relevant to prior relationships)” (p. 100).

These and other discussions on reporting standards — e.g., pertaining to the participant recruitment process and sampling, data collection strategy, and data analysis, along with a discussion of methodological integrity — are useful reading to not only the researcher who hopes to publish their work but also to qualitative researchers who are looking for a condensed version of qualitative research design considerations.

It has been a long time coming but hats off to APA for acknowledging qualitative methods and for giving careful thought to the unique attributes associated with qualitative designs in adapting their style standards.

American Psychological Association. (2020). The publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). Washington, DC.

Morse, J. M. (2008). “What’s your favorite color?” Reporting irrelevant demographics in qualitative research. Qualitative Health Research , 18 (3), 299–300.

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Navigating the qualitative manuscript writing process: some tips for authors and reviewers

Chris roberts.

1 Education Office, Sydney Medical School, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW Australia

Koshila Kumar

2 Prideaux Centre for Research in Health Professions Education, College of Medicine and Public Health, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia Australia

Gabrielle Finn

3 Division of Medical Education, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, The University of Manchester, M13 9NT, Manchester, UK

Qualitative research explores the ‘black box’ of how phenomena are constituted. Such research can provide rich and diverse insights about social practices and individual experiences across the continuum of undergraduate, postgraduate and continuing education, sectors and contexts. Qualitative research can yield unique data that can complement the numbers generated in quantitative research, [ 1 ] by answering “how” and “why” research questions. As you will notice in this paper, qualitative research is underpinned by specific philosophical assumptions, quality criteria and has a lexicon or a language specific to it.

A simple search of BMC Medical Education suggests that there are over 800 papers that employ qualitative methods either on their own or as part of a mixed methods study to evaluate various phenomena. This represents a considerable investment in time and effort for both researchers and reviewers. This paper is aimed at maximising this investment by helping early career researchers (ECRs) and reviewers new to the qualitative research field become familiar with quality criteria in qualitative research and how these can be applied in the qualitative manuscript writing process. Fortunately, there are numerous guidelines for both authors and for reviewers of qualitative research, including practical “how to” checklists [ 2 , 3 ]. These checklists can be valuable tools to confirm the essential elements of a qualitative study for early career researchers (ECRs). Our advice in this article is not intended to replace such “how to” guidance. Rather, the suggestions we make are intended to help ECRs increase their likelihood of getting published and reviewers to make informed decisions about the quality of qualitative research being submitted for publication in BMC Medical Education. Our advice is themed around long-established criteria for the quality of qualitative research developed by Lincoln and Guba [ 4 ]. (see Table  1 ) Each quality criterion outlined in Table ​ Table1 1 is further expanded in Table  2 in the form of several practical steps pertinent to the process of writing up qualitative research.

Five key criteria for the quality of qualitative research (adapted from Lincoln and Guba, 1995)

- relates to how congruent the findings are with reality and how believable and trustworthy the research is (i.e. is the research plausible?)

– relates to whether others can easily determine if the findings can be applied to other settings (i.e. is the research relevant to other situations and contexts?)

– relates to whether the study methods and procedures have been documented in a way that they can be adequately scrutinised and replicated and there is coherence between different parts of the research (i.e. is the process consistent and aligned?)

- relates to whether the researchers have been open, explicit and clear about the methods and procedures, including changes to planned methods, and their own biases and preconceptions (i.e. is the process visible?)

although not solely applicable to qualitative research, this relates to whether the research is appropriately situated in contemporary debate and discussion (i.e. is the research timely?)

Practical steps in preparing qualitative research manuscripts

• Problematise the topic by engaging with the existing literature and asking critical questions about what is not known about the phenomenon, process, or concept being studied

• Articulate the significance by ensuring a research question is clearly stated and is aligned to a theoretical or empirical gap in the literature

• Communicate clearly how a study has been informed by multiple perspectives (e.g. participants, methods, data sets, researchers, and/or theories)

• Ensure integrity by checking resonance with participants, and reporting any subsequent changes in data interpretation

• Ensure there is a coherence and logic to all parts of the narrative being presented

• Outline the contributions of the research to the empirical or theoretical literature or for practice

• Describe the study setting and outline how it provides an appropriate context for investigating the phenomenon, process, or concept being studied

• Describe the sources of data and the specific characteristics of these sources relevant to the phenomenon, process, or concept being studied

• Identify implications/recommendations of the research and how the research might inform other settings or populations or future work

• Communicate the research using language that is meaningful for the intended audience

• Ensure the research question/s follows logically from the literature

• Outline how the choice of methods has enabled access to the phenomenon, process, or concept being studied

• Describe the theoretical lens through which the findings will be interpreted

• Report how the process of engaging with the literature or gathering or analysing data may have helped to fine tune the research question and the process of inquiry

• Label core findings (i.e. themes) in a way that align back to the research question and are meaningful

• Ensure participant quotes are used judiciously to evidence and support the findings

• Review congruence by checking alignment between all sections of a manuscript and particularly between the findings and the discussion and implication points, to avoid overstatement of findings

• Review coherence of the storyline by removing unnecessary literature and side topics

• Utilise the correct qualitative research lexicon

• Provide a transparent and comprehensive description of the research process that reflects key decisions or adaptations made in the process

• Outline if any unexpected issues were encountered in the research process and how the researcher/s managed this

• Ensure the implications/recommendations are well-grounded in the data

• Provide a detailed description of the data collection and analysis processes including how these were informed by multiple researchers and theory (if applicable)

• Practice reflexivity by including a statement about researcher/s background, position within the research, and relationship to the research phenomenon, context or participants

• Provide a balanced view by outlining the strengths and sources of uncertainty in a study so that a reader/reviewer can make an informed judgement

• Provide a compelling reason for why the research matters, and identify 2–3 take home messages that succinctly convey the value-add of a study

• Communicate about the other contexts in which the research likely matters

As a general starting point, the early career writer is advised to consult previously published qualitative papers in the journal to identify the genre (style) and relative emphasis of different components of the research paper. Patton [ 5 ] advises researchers to “FOCUS! FOCUS! FOCUS!” in deciding which components to include in the paper, highlighting the need to exclude side topics that add little to the narrative and reduce the cognitive load for readers and reviewers alike. Authors are also advised to do significant re-writing, rephrasing, re-ordering of initial drafts, to remove faulty grammar, and addresses stylistic and structural problems [ 6 ]. They should be mindful of “the golden thread,” that is their central argument that holds together the literature review, the theoretical and conceptual framework, the research questions, methodology, the analysis and organisation of the data and the conclusions. Getting a draft reviewed by someone outside of the research/writing team is one practical strategy to ensure the manuscript is well presented and relates to the plausibility element.

The introduction of a qualitative paper can be seen as beginning a conversation. Lingard advises that in this conversation, authors need to persuade the reader and reviewer of the strength, originality and contributions of their work [ 7 ]. In constructing a persuasive rationale, ECRs need to clearly distinguish between the qualitative research phenomenon (i.e. the broad research issue or concept under investigation) and the research context (i.e. the local setting or situation) [ 5 ]. The introduction section needs to culminate in a qualitative research question/s. It is important that ECRs are aware that qualitative research questions need to be fine-tuned from their original state to reflect gaps in the literature review, the researcher/s’ philosophical stance, the theory used, or unexpected findings [ 8 ]. This links to the elements of plausibility and consistency outlined in Table ​ Table1 1 .

Also, in the introduction of a qualitative paper, ECRs need to explain the multiple “lenses” through which they have considered complex social phenomena; including the underpinning research paradigm and theory. A research paradigm reveals the researcher/s’ values and assumptions about research and relates to axiology (what do you value?), ontology (what is out there to know?) epistemology (what and how can you know it?), and methodology (how do you go about acquiring that knowledge?) [ 9 ] ECRs are advised to explicitly state their research paradigm and its underpinning assumptions. For example, Ommering et al., state “We established our research within an interpretivist paradigm, emphasizing the subjective nature in understanding human experiences and creation of reality.” [ 10 ] Theory refers to a set of concepts or a conceptual framework that helps the writer to move beyond description to ‘explaining, predicting, or prescribing responses, events, situations, conditions, or relationships.’ [ 11 ] Theory can provide comprehensive understandings at multiple levels, including: the macro or grand level of how societies work, the mid-range level of how organisations operate; and the micro level of how people interact [ 12 ]. Qualitative studies can involve theory application or theory development [ 5 ]. ECRs are advised to briefly summarise their theoretical lens and identify what it means to consider the research phenomenon, process, or concept being studied with that specific lens. For example, Kumar and Greenhill explain how the lens of workplace affordances enabled their paper to draw “attention to the contextual, personal and interactional factors that impact on how clinical educators integrate their educational knowledge and skills into the practice setting, and undertake their educational role.” [ 13 ] Ensuring that the elements of theory and research paradigm are explicit and aligned, enhances plausibility, consistency and transparency of qualitative research. The use of theory can also add to the currency of research by enabling a new lens to be cast on a research phenomenon, process, or concept and reveal something previously unknown or surprising.

Moving to the methods, methodology is a general approach to studying a research topic and establishes how one will go about studying any phenomenon. In contrast, methods are specific research techniques and in qualitative research, data collection methods might include observation or interviewing, or photo elicitation methods, while data analysis methods may include content analysis, narrative analysis, or discourse analysis to mention a few [ 8 ]. ECRs will need to ensure the philosophical assumptions, methodology and methods follow from the introduction of a manuscript and the research question/s, [ 3 ] and this enhances the consistency and transparency elements. Moreover, triangulation or the combining of multiple observers, theories, methods, and data sources, is vital to overcome the limitation of singular methods, lone analysts, and single-perspective theories or models [ 8 ]. ECRs should report on not only what was triangulated but also how it was performed, thereby enhancing the elements of plausibility and consistency. For example, Touchie et al., describe using three researchers, three different focus groups, and representation of three different participant cohorts to ensure triangulation [ 14 ]. When it comes to the analysis of qualitative data, ECRs may claim they have used a specific methodological approach (e.g. interpretative phenomenological approach or a grounded theory approach) whereas the analytical steps are more congruent with a more generalist approach, such as thematic analysis [ 15 ]. ECRs are advised that such methodological approaches are founded on a number of philosophical considerations which need to inform the framing and conduct of a study, not just the analysis process. Alignment between the methodology and the methods informs the consistency, transparency and plausibility elements.

Comprehensively describing the research context in a way that is understandable to an international audience helps to illuminate the specific ‘laboratory’ for the research, and how the processes applied or insights generated in this ‘laboratory’ can be adapted or translated to other contexts. This addresses the relevancy element. To further enhance plausibility and relevance, ECRs should situate their work clearly on the evaluation–research continuum. Although not a strictly qualitative research consideration, evaluation focuses mostly on understanding how specific local practices may have resulted in specific outcomes for learners. While evaluation is vital for quality assurance and improvement, research has a broader and strategic focus and rates more highly against the currency and relevancy criteria. ECRs are more likely to undertake evaluation studies aimed at demonstrating the impact and outcomes of an educational intervention in their local setting, consistent with level one of Kirkpatrick’s criteria [ 16 ]. For example, Palmer and colleagues explain that they aimed to “develop and evaluate a continuing medical education (CME) course aimed at improving healthcare provider knowledge” [ 17 ]. To be competitive for publication, evaluation studies need to (measure and) report on at least level two and above of Kirkpatrick’s criteria. Learning how to problematise and frame the investigation of a problem arising from practice as research, provides ECRs with an opportunity to adopt a more critical and scholarly stance.

Also, in the methods, ECRs may provide detail about the study context and participants but little in the way of personal reflexive statements. Unlike quantitative research which claims that knowledge is objective and seeks to remove subjective influences, qualitative research recognises that subjectivity is inherent and that the researcher is directly involved in interpreting and constructing meanings [ 8 ]. For example, Bindels and colleagues provide a clear and concise description about their own backgrounds making their ‘lens’ explicit and enabling the reader to understand the multiple perspectives that have informed their research process [ 18 ]. Therefore, a clear description of the researcher/s position and relationship to the research phenomenon, context and participants, is vital for transparency, relevance and plausibility. We three are all experienced qualitative researchers, writers, reviewers and are associate editors for BMC Medical Education. We are situated in this research landscape as consumers, architects, and arbiters and we engage in these roles in collaboration with others. This provides a useful vantage point from which to provide commentary on key elements which can cause frustration for would-be authors and reviewers of qualitative research papers [ 19 ].

In the discussion of a qualitative paper, ECRs are encouraged to make detailed comments about the contributions of their research and whether these reinforce, extend, or challenge existing understandings based on an analysis that is theoretically or socially significant [ 20 ]. As an example, Barratt et al., found important data to inform the training of medical interns in the use of personal protective equipment during the COVID 19 pandemic [ 21 ]. ECRs are also expected to address the “so what” question which relates to the the consequence of findings for policy, practice and theory. Authors will need to explicitly outline the practical, theoretical or methodological implications of the study findings in a way that is actionable, thereby enhancing relevance and plausibility. For example, Burgess et al., presented their discussion according to four themes and outlined associated implications for individuals and institutions [ 22 ]. A balanced view of the research can be presented by ensuring there is congruence between the data and the claims made and searching the data and/or literature for evidence that disconfirms the findings. ECRs will also need to put forward the sources of uncertainty (rather than limitations) in their research and argue what these may mean for the interpretations made and how the contributions to knowledge could be adopted by others in different contexts [ 23 ]. This links to the plausibility and transparency elements.

In conclusion

Qualitative research is underpinned by specific philosophical assumptions, quality criteria and a lexicon, which ECRs and reviewers need to be mindful of as they navigate the qualitative manuscript writing and reviewing processes. We hope that the guidance provided here is helpful for ECRs in preparing submissions and for reviewers in making informed decisions and providing quality feedback.

Authors’ contributions

CR and KK wrote the first draft. All three authors contributed to severally revising the manuscript. The author(s) read and approved the final manuscript.

Competing interests

The authors declare they have no competing interests.

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

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Top 10 Qualitative Research Report Templates with Samples and Examples

Top 10 Qualitative Research Report Templates with Samples and Examples

“Research is to see what everybody else has seen, and to think what nobody else has thought, ” said Hungarian biochemist and Nobel laureate Albert Szent-Gyorgyi, who discovered Vitamin C. This fabulous statement on research as a human endeavor reminds us that execution matters, of course, but the solid pillar of research that backs it is invaluable as well.

Here’s an example to illustrate this in action.

Have you ever wondered what makes Oprah Winfrey a successful businesswoman? It's her research abilities. Oprah might not have been as successful as a news anchor and television show host if she hadn't done her exploratory research on key topics and public figures. Additionally, without the research and development that went into the internet, there was no way that you could be reading this post right now. Research is an essential tool for understanding the intricacies of many topics and advancing knowledge.

Businesses in the modern world are, increasingly, based on research. Within research too, the qualitative world of non-numerical observations, data, and impactful insights is what business owners are most interested in. This is not to say that numbers or empirical research is not important. It is, of course, one of the founding blocks of business.

In this blog, however, we focus on qualitative research PPT Templates that help you move forward and get on the profitable highway and take the best decisions for your business.

These presentation templates are 100% customizable, and editable. Use these to leave a lasting impact on your audience and get recall for your business value offering.

Top 10 Qualitative Research Report Templates

The goal of qualitative research methods is to monitor market trends and attitudes through surveys, analyses, historical research, and open-ended interviews. It helps interpret and comprehend human behavior using data. With the use of qualitative market research services, you may get access to the appropriate data that could help you make decisions.

After finishing the research portion of your assignment effectively, you'll need a captivating way to present your findings to your audience. Here, SlideTeam's qualitative research report templates come in handy. Our top ten qualitative research templates will help you effectively communicate your message. Let’s start a tour of this universe.

Template 1 : Qualitative Research Proposal Template PowerPoint Presentation Slides

For the reader to understand your research proposal, you must have well-structured PPT slides. Don't worry, SlideTeam has you covered. Our pre-made research proposal template presentation slides have no learning curve. This implies that any user may rapidly create a powerful professional research proposal presentation using our PPT slides. Download these PowerPoint slides in a way that will convince your reviewers to accept your strategy.

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Template 2 : Qualitative Research Powerpoint PPT Template Bundles

You may have observed that some brands have taken the place of generic words for comparable products in our language.  Even though we are aware that Band-Aid is a brand, we always ask for Band-Aid whenever we require a plastic bandage. The power of branding is quite astounding. This is the benefit that our next PPT template bundles will provide for your business. Potential customers will find it simpler to recognize your brand and correctly associate it with a certain good or service because of our platform-independent PowerPoint Slides. Download now!

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Template 3 : Qualitative Research Interviewing Presentation Deck

Do you find it hard to handle challenging conversations at work? Then, you may conduct effective interviews employing this PowerPoint presentation. Our presentation on qualitative research interviews aimed to "give voice" to the subjects. It provides details on interviews, information, research, participant, and study methodologies. Download this PowerPoint Presentation if you need to introduce yourself effectively during a quick visual communication.

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Template 4 : Thematic Analysis Qualitative Research PPT PowerPoint Presentation Outline Rules CPB

Thematic analysis is a technique used in qualitative research to arrive at  hidden patterns and other inferences based on a theme. Any research can employ our Thematic analysis qualitative research PPT. By using all the features of this adaptable PPT, you may convey information well. By including the proper icons and symbols, this presentation can be improved as an instructional tool and opened on any platform. Download now!

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Template 5 : Comparative Analysis of Qualitative Research Methods

Conducting a successful comparison analysis is essential if you or your company wants to make sure that your decision-making process is efficient. With the help of our comparative analysis of qualitative research techniques, you can make choices that work for both your company and your clients. Focus Group Interviews, Cognitive Mapping, Critical Incident Technique, Verbal Protocol, Data Collection, Data Analysis, Research Scope, and Objective are covered in this extensive series of slides. Download today to carry out efficient business operations.

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Template 6 : Five-Type of Qualitative Research Designs

Your business can achieve significant results with the help of our five  qualitative research design types. Given that it incorporates layers of case studies, phenomenology, historical studies, and action research, it qualifies as a full-fledged presentation. Download this presentation template to perform an objective, open-ended technique and to carefully consider probable sources of errors.

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Template 7 : Key Phases for the Qualitative Research Process

Any attempt at qualitative research, no matter how small, must follow the prescribed procedures. The key stages of the qualitative research method are combined in this pre-made PPT template. This set of slides covers data analysis, research approach, research design, research aim, issue description, research questions, philosophical assumptions, data collecting, and result interpretation. Get it now.

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Template 8 : Thematic Analysis of Qualitative Research Data

Thematic analysis is performed on the raw data that is acquired through focus groups, interviews, surveys, etc. We go over each and every critical step in our slides on thematic analysis of qualitative research data, including how to uncover codes, identify themes in the data, finalize topics, explore each theme, and analyze documents. This completely editable PowerPoint presentation is available for instant download.

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Template 9 : Swot Analysis of Qualitative Research Approach

Use this PowerPoint set to determine the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats facing your company. Each slide comes with a unique tool that may be utilized to strengthen your areas of weakness, grasp opportunities, and lessen risks. This template can be used to collect statistics, add your own information, and then begin considering how you might get better.

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Template 10 : Qualitative Research through Graph Showing Revenue Growth

A picture truly is worth a thousand words even when it comes to summarizing your research's findings. Researchers encounter an unavoidable issue when presenting qualitative study data; to address this challenge, Slide Team has created a user-responsive Graph Showing Revenue Growth template. This slideshow graph could help you make informed decisions and encourage your company's growth.

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Template 11 : Qualitative Research Data Collection Approaches and Implications

Like blood moving through the circulatory system, data moves through an organization. Businesses cannot run without data. The first step in making better decisions is gathering data. This presentation template includes all the elements necessary to create a successful business plan, from data collection to analysis of the best method to comprehend concepts, opinions, or experiences. Get it now.

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Template 12 : Qualitative Research Analysis of Comments with Magnify Glass

The first step in performing a qualitative analysis of your data is gathering all the comments and feedback you want to look at. Our templates help you document those comments. These slides are fully editable and contain a visual accessibility function. The organization and formatting of the sections are excellent. Download it now.

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PS For more information on qualitative and quantitative data analysis, as well as to determine which type of market research is best for your company, check out this blog.

FAQs on Qualitative Research 

Writing a qualitative research report.

A qualitative report is a summary of an experience, activity, event, or observation. The format of a qualitative report includes an abstract, introduction, background information on the issue, the researcher's role, theoretical viewpoint, methodology, ethical considerations, results, data analysis, limitations, discussion, conclusions, implications, references, and an appendix. A qualitative research report requires extensive detail and is typically divided into several sections. These start with the title, a table of contents, and an abstract; these form the beginning. Then, the meat of a qualitative report comprises an introduction, the literature review, an account of investigation, findings, discussion, and conclusions. The final section is references.

How do you Report Data in Qualitative Research?

A qualitative research report is frequently built around themes. You should be aware that it can be difficult to express qualitative findings as thoroughly as they deserve. It is customary to use direct quotes from sources like interviews to support the viewpoint. To develop a precise description or explanation of the primary theme being studied, it is also crucial to clarify concepts and connect them. There is the need to state about design, which is how were the subject choices made, leading through other steps to documenting that how the researcher verified the research’s findings/results.

What is an Example of a Report of Qualitative Data?

Qualitative data are categorical by nature. Reports that use qualitative data make it easier to present complex information. The semi-structured interview is one of the best illustrations of a qualitative data collection technique that provides open-ended responses from informants while allowing researchers to ask questions based on a set of predetermined themes. Since they enable both inductive and deductive evaluative reasoning, these are crucial tools for qualitative research.

How do you write an Introduction for a Qualitative Report?

A qualitative report must have a strong introduction. In this section, the researcher emphasizes the aims and objectives of the methodical study. It also addresses the problem that the systematic study aims to solve. In this section, it's imperative to state whether the research's goals were met. The researcher goes into further depth about the research problem in the introduction part and discusses the need for a methodical enquiry. The researcher must define any technical words or phrases used.

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Qualitative Research Resources: Presenting Qualitative Research

Created by health science librarians.

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  • What is Qualitative Research?
  • Qualitative Research Basics
  • Special Topics
  • Training Opportunities: UNC & Beyond
  • Help at UNC
  • Qualitative Software for Coding/Analysis
  • Software for Audio, Video, Online Surveys
  • Finding Qualitative Studies
  • Assessing Qualitative Research
  • Writing Up Your Research
  • Integrating Qualitative Research into Systematic Reviews
  • Publishing Qualitative Research

Presenting Qualitative Research, with a focus on posters

  • Qualitative & Libraries: a few gems
  • Data Repositories

Example posters

  • The Meaning of Work for People with MS: a Qualitative Study A good example with quotes
  • Fostering Empathy through Design Thinking Among Fourth Graders in Trinidad and Tobago Includes quotes, photos, diagrams, and other artifacts from qualitative study
  • Examining the Use and Perception of Harm of JUULs by College Students: A Qualitative Study Another interesting example to consider
  • NLM Informationist Supplement Grant: Daring to Dive into Documentation to Determine Impact An example from the Carolina Digital Repository discussed in a class more... less... Allegri, F., Hayes, B., & Renner, B. (2017). NLM Informationist Supplement Grant: Daring to Dive into Documentation to Determine Impact.
  • Qualitative Posters in F1000 Research Archive (filtered on "qualitative" in title) Sample qualitative posters
  • Qualitative Posters in F1000 Research Archive (filtered on "qualitative" in keywords) Sample qualitative posters

Michelle A. Krieger Blog (example, posts follow an APA convention poster experience with qualitative posters):

  • Qualitative Data and Research Posters I
  • Qualitative Data and Research Posters II

"Oldies but goodies":

  • How to Visualize Qualitative Data: Ann K. Emery, September 25, 2014 Data Visualization / Chart Choosing, Color-Coding by Category, Diagrams, Icons, Photographs, Qualitative, Text, Timelines, Word Clouds more... less... Getting a little older, and a commercial site, but with some good ideas to get you think.
  • Russell, C. K., Gregory, D. M., & Gates, M. F. (1996). Aesthetics and Substance in Qualitative Research Posters. Qualitative Health Research, 6(4), 542–552. Older article with much good information. Poster materials section less applicable.Link is for UNC-Chapel Hill affiliated users.

Additional resources

  • CDC Coffee Break: Considerations for Presenting Qualitative Data (Mark D. Rivera, March 13, 2018) PDF download of slide presentation. Display formats section begins on slide 10.
  • Print Book (Davis Library): Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., & Saldaña, J. (2014). Qualitative data analysis: A methods sourcebook, 3rd edition From Paul Mihas, Assistant Director of Education and Qualitative Research at the Odum Institute for Research in Social Science at UNC: Qualitative Data Analysis: A Methods Sourcebook (4th ed.) by Miles, Huberman, and Saldana has a section on Displaying the Data (and a chapter on Designing Matrix, Network, and Graphic Displays) that can help students consider numerous options for visually synthesizing data and findings. Many of the suggestions can be applied to designing posters (April 15, 2021).
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  • What Is Qualitative Research? | Methods & Examples

What Is Qualitative Research? | Methods & Examples

Published on June 19, 2020 by Pritha Bhandari . Revised on June 22, 2023.

Qualitative research involves collecting and analyzing non-numerical data (e.g., text, video, or audio) to understand concepts, opinions, or experiences. It can be used to gather in-depth insights into a problem or generate new ideas for research.

Qualitative research is the opposite of quantitative research , which involves collecting and analyzing numerical data for statistical analysis.

Qualitative research is commonly used in the humanities and social sciences, in subjects such as anthropology, sociology, education, health sciences, history, etc.

  • How does social media shape body image in teenagers?
  • How do children and adults interpret healthy eating in the UK?
  • What factors influence employee retention in a large organization?
  • How is anxiety experienced around the world?
  • How can teachers integrate social issues into science curriculums?

Table of contents

Approaches to qualitative research, qualitative research methods, qualitative data analysis, advantages of qualitative research, disadvantages of qualitative research, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about qualitative research.

Qualitative research is used to understand how people experience the world. While there are many approaches to qualitative research, they tend to be flexible and focus on retaining rich meaning when interpreting data.

Common approaches include grounded theory, ethnography , action research , phenomenological research, and narrative research. They share some similarities, but emphasize different aims and perspectives.

Qualitative research approaches
Approach What does it involve?
Grounded theory Researchers collect rich data on a topic of interest and develop theories .
Researchers immerse themselves in groups or organizations to understand their cultures.
Action research Researchers and participants collaboratively link theory to practice to drive social change.
Phenomenological research Researchers investigate a phenomenon or event by describing and interpreting participants’ lived experiences.
Narrative research Researchers examine how stories are told to understand how participants perceive and make sense of their experiences.

Note that qualitative research is at risk for certain research biases including the Hawthorne effect , observer bias , recall bias , and social desirability bias . While not always totally avoidable, awareness of potential biases as you collect and analyze your data can prevent them from impacting your work too much.

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Each of the research approaches involve using one or more data collection methods . These are some of the most common qualitative methods:

  • Observations: recording what you have seen, heard, or encountered in detailed field notes.
  • Interviews:  personally asking people questions in one-on-one conversations.
  • Focus groups: asking questions and generating discussion among a group of people.
  • Surveys : distributing questionnaires with open-ended questions.
  • Secondary research: collecting existing data in the form of texts, images, audio or video recordings, etc.
  • You take field notes with observations and reflect on your own experiences of the company culture.
  • You distribute open-ended surveys to employees across all the company’s offices by email to find out if the culture varies across locations.
  • You conduct in-depth interviews with employees in your office to learn about their experiences and perspectives in greater detail.

Qualitative researchers often consider themselves “instruments” in research because all observations, interpretations and analyses are filtered through their own personal lens.

For this reason, when writing up your methodology for qualitative research, it’s important to reflect on your approach and to thoroughly explain the choices you made in collecting and analyzing the data.

Qualitative data can take the form of texts, photos, videos and audio. For example, you might be working with interview transcripts, survey responses, fieldnotes, or recordings from natural settings.

Most types of qualitative data analysis share the same five steps:

  • Prepare and organize your data. This may mean transcribing interviews or typing up fieldnotes.
  • Review and explore your data. Examine the data for patterns or repeated ideas that emerge.
  • Develop a data coding system. Based on your initial ideas, establish a set of codes that you can apply to categorize your data.
  • Assign codes to the data. For example, in qualitative survey analysis, this may mean going through each participant’s responses and tagging them with codes in a spreadsheet. As you go through your data, you can create new codes to add to your system if necessary.
  • Identify recurring themes. Link codes together into cohesive, overarching themes.

There are several specific approaches to analyzing qualitative data. Although these methods share similar processes, they emphasize different concepts.

Qualitative data analysis
Approach When to use Example
To describe and categorize common words, phrases, and ideas in qualitative data. A market researcher could perform content analysis to find out what kind of language is used in descriptions of therapeutic apps.
To identify and interpret patterns and themes in qualitative data. A psychologist could apply thematic analysis to travel blogs to explore how tourism shapes self-identity.
To examine the content, structure, and design of texts. A media researcher could use textual analysis to understand how news coverage of celebrities has changed in the past decade.
To study communication and how language is used to achieve effects in specific contexts. A political scientist could use discourse analysis to study how politicians generate trust in election campaigns.

Qualitative research often tries to preserve the voice and perspective of participants and can be adjusted as new research questions arise. Qualitative research is good for:

  • Flexibility

The data collection and analysis process can be adapted as new ideas or patterns emerge. They are not rigidly decided beforehand.

  • Natural settings

Data collection occurs in real-world contexts or in naturalistic ways.

  • Meaningful insights

Detailed descriptions of people’s experiences, feelings and perceptions can be used in designing, testing or improving systems or products.

  • Generation of new ideas

Open-ended responses mean that researchers can uncover novel problems or opportunities that they wouldn’t have thought of otherwise.

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Researchers must consider practical and theoretical limitations in analyzing and interpreting their data. Qualitative research suffers from:

  • Unreliability

The real-world setting often makes qualitative research unreliable because of uncontrolled factors that affect the data.

  • Subjectivity

Due to the researcher’s primary role in analyzing and interpreting data, qualitative research cannot be replicated . The researcher decides what is important and what is irrelevant in data analysis, so interpretations of the same data can vary greatly.

  • Limited generalizability

Small samples are often used to gather detailed data about specific contexts. Despite rigorous analysis procedures, it is difficult to draw generalizable conclusions because the data may be biased and unrepresentative of the wider population .

  • Labor-intensive

Although software can be used to manage and record large amounts of text, data analysis often has to be checked or performed manually.

If you want to know more about statistics , methodology , or research bias , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

  • Chi square goodness of fit test
  • Degrees of freedom
  • Null hypothesis
  • Discourse analysis
  • Control groups
  • Mixed methods research
  • Non-probability sampling
  • Quantitative research
  • Inclusion and exclusion criteria

Research bias

  • Rosenthal effect
  • Implicit bias
  • Cognitive bias
  • Selection bias
  • Negativity bias
  • Status quo bias

Quantitative research deals with numbers and statistics, while qualitative research deals with words and meanings.

Quantitative methods allow you to systematically measure variables and test hypotheses . Qualitative methods allow you to explore concepts and experiences in more detail.

There are five common approaches to qualitative research :

  • Grounded theory involves collecting data in order to develop new theories.
  • Ethnography involves immersing yourself in a group or organization to understand its culture.
  • Narrative research involves interpreting stories to understand how people make sense of their experiences and perceptions.
  • Phenomenological research involves investigating phenomena through people’s lived experiences.
  • Action research links theory and practice in several cycles to drive innovative changes.

Data collection is the systematic process by which observations or measurements are gathered in research. It is used in many different contexts by academics, governments, businesses, and other organizations.

There are various approaches to qualitative data analysis , but they all share five steps in common:

  • Prepare and organize your data.
  • Review and explore your data.
  • Develop a data coding system.
  • Assign codes to the data.
  • Identify recurring themes.

The specifics of each step depend on the focus of the analysis. Some common approaches include textual analysis , thematic analysis , and discourse analysis .

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qualitative research report format

  • > Qualitative Research for the Information Professional
  • > Writing qualitative research reports

qualitative research report format

Book contents

  • Frontmatter
  • Tables, figures and research scenarios
  • About the authors
  • Preface to the second edition
  • 1 The nature of qualitative research
  • 2 Evaluating qualitative research
  • 3 Qualitative research design in information organizations
  • 4 Case studies in information organizations
  • 5 Laying the foundations for fieldwork
  • 6 Beginning fieldwork
  • 7 Observation
  • 8 Interviewing
  • 9 Group discussion techniques
  • 10 Historical investigation
  • 11 Recording fieldwork data
  • 12 Analysing qualitative data from information organizations
  • 13 Writing qualitative research reports
  • 14 Human resources in knowledge management: a case study
  • Select bibliography

13 - Writing qualitative research reports

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  08 June 2018


• How does one go about writing up a qualitative research report?

• Is there a particular structure or style that should be followed?

• What are some of the ways in which a mass of data can be organized into the ‘findings’ of a study?

• Who are the readers of qualitative research?

• Why should research studies be published?

Finally, your data have been collected, sorted and resorted, studied, analysed and re-analysed. Now you are at the final activity of the final stage – writing it all up. You are either at the top of the pyramid (see Chapter 3, Figure 3.3, p. 38) or on the final step in the recursive cycle (Chapter 3, Figure 3.2, p. 37). But remember that nothing is final and that you will constantly refer back to earlier stages and steps during the report-writing exercise.

You should regard everything we have to say in this chapter as advisory rather than prescriptive, for every writing exercise has its own purpose and context and therefore unique stylistic requirements, organizational conventions and reader expectations. A dissertation, for example, will have quite rigid conventions for presentation and style, and these must be followed exactly. Journal articles and reports for funding bodies, on the other hand, may allow rather more leeway in presentation, but there will still be certain expectations for you to meet. It is best to begin, therefore, by having an absolutely clear understanding of what is required of you in a specific writing exercise. Then, to the extent possible, consider following the appropriate suggestions in this chapter.

The writing process

When preparing to write up the results of your qualitative investigation, remember that it helps to begin with a disciplined approach to the writing enterprise. For those new to this activity, Glesne offers a number of suggestions suitable for qualitative researchers.

Basic considerations

To begin with, develop a detailed schedule and firm deadlines for your writing. Work backwards from when the completed product is due, and fit each chapter or section into a realistic time frame. Remember that there will be holidays and other unavoidable delays in your writing schedule. If you are relying on participants or referees for feedback, bear in mind that they will have other commitments.

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  • Writing qualitative research reports
  • G. E. Gorman , Peter Clayton
  • Book: Qualitative Research for the Information Professional
  • Online publication: 08 June 2018
  • Chapter DOI:

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Qualitative Research Report

Report generator.

qualitative research report format

When you talk about qualitative research, you are talking about a method of collecting necessary information that has nothing to do with numbers. It deals with concepts and meaning rather than statistics and points. If you are planning on making a qualitative research paper , the final step for that is producing a report that summarizes all your gathered data and results in one document. To help you in writing that report, we have prepared stress-free ways to achieve a comprehensive qualitative research report. Here are 10+ useful qualitative research report templates you can check out to make your life a little bit easier.

9+ Qualitative Research Report Templates

1. business research report template.

Business Research Report Template

  • Google Docs

Size: A4 & US Letter Sizes

When running a business, you need to know what your consumers want. Before you can offer your products and services, you need to be sure that it’s quality is tested. Once you are sure that what you offer can appeal to your target customers, only then can you start to launch it and begin your business forecasting. For this, you will need to conduct qualitative research. To help you in conducting your research, you can use the Business Research Report Template  shown above. It may not seem it fits for a qualitative research report, but since it’s super easy to edit, you can change key data while still keeping your content high-quality.

2. Management Report Template

Management Report Template

Every once in a while, you will need to report your team’s productivity, how well they are working, what problems they are facing, and if the corporate training was effective. The data in this report can help you make decisions for the team in the future. By looking into your production rate, profit, and loss, you can evaluate your team. This can be part of your qualitative research. To help you create an organized report, you can try out this Management Report Template . It uses high-quality content that can be understood by anyone. Use this template for your research report now!

3. Market Research Report Template

Market Research Report Template

Market research is done to collect information about the wants, needs, and preferences of your target. Its end goal is to give you an understanding of what your consumers are partial to, how you can fit your products to suit their needs, and how you can make the perfect product proposal . This kind of qualitative research helps you keep up with the changes of taste in your desired market. For an easy data collection and presentation, have a go at this Market Research Report Template . you can use it for your marketing plan summary , edit some of the pre-made and high-quality content. 

4. Performance Report Template

Performance Report Template

Did qualitative research say your project isn’t performing well? Are you unsure of how to resolve any issues in system gaps without the needed data? The way your projects perform can be reflected in your products’ and services’ quality. If a project doesn’t run smoothly, you will need to figure out what the problems are. To help you analyze your project performance, you might need to get your hands on this Performance Report Template . This template is 100% editable, so you don’t have to create a report for your research from scratch. Download this template now!

5. Report Outline Template

Report Outline Template

If you are planning on submitting your qualitative research report, you have to make sure its contents are organized. You have to make sure that all the necessary information can be found in your report. Especially with qualitative research, you need to make sure all the data collected is present. Just like a  project proposal , you need to make sure that the structure of your final report is seamless and well-made. For your convenience, you can try this Report Outline Template . It’s customizable, so you can be sure it’s premade content can fit with your research or case study. Check this template out now!

6. Annual Report Cover Page Template

Annual Report Cover Page Template

Size: A4 & US Sizes

You can never be sure of your customer’s interest. What they prefer today may not be their cup of tea tomorrow. The market is always changing, so you need to keep up with what’s trending. You have to make sure that the product you are bringing in are relevant to the current landscape. That is why you must always have qualitative research. When submitting your qualitative research report, you have to make sure it has the right format. To start, you will need this Annual Report Cover Page Template . You can use it for your constant qualitative research and research proposals .

7. Board Meeting Report Template

Board Meeting Report Template

  • Editable PDF

During board meetings, the agenda talked about are always of import. From employee performance to quality policies , no topic is irrelevant and inessential. That is why someone should always jot down notes and minutes of the meeting. You never know, the data and language used in the meeting can be used for a company’s further improvement. If a company were to conduct qualitative research, data gathering from board meetings could be used as part of the research methodology. For a neat board meeting report that you can insert in your research into, take a peek at this free Board Meeting Report Template . 

8. Project Management Report Template

Project Management Report Template

Are you collecting project report sheet samples for your research? Do you need data in a standardized writing format? Are you making a thematic analysis based on how a project is being handled? When collecting information, you need to be sure you understand what you are looking in to. What’s the point of reading so much if none of it makes any sense? To make sure that the sample reports you are reading are understandable, you can use this Project Management Report Template . This template will make your life hassle-free. It’s easily editable, conveniently printable, and downloadable. All that with no charge! 

9. Safety Report Template

Safety Report Template

The safety of an establishment solidifies its quality. If the structure is uninhabitable, this could make it seem like it has questionable quality and had improper spending of a construction budget. A building must always be checked on. There must always be documents to support its safety. That is why you should constantly submit safety reports. These reports inform you if there are components that need fixing and maintaining. If you plan on making a safety report, you can use this Safety Report Template . This template helps you construct your report in an organized manner. It’s professionally made and high-quality. Grab your copy now for free!

10. Qualitative Research Paper

Qualitative Research Paper

Size: 1.6 MB

Do you need an idea of what is qualitative research? Are you unsure what to write in the report you plan on submitting? Qualitative research studies definitions and meaning and other factors that do not involve numbers. If you want to create a qualitative research report that is professional and high-quality, you can make use of these samples. These examples include the proper format and content needed in a qualitative researcher. You can use this as a guide for school or for real-world applications. A complete report is a surefire way of displaying successful research. 


Text prompt

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Generate a report on the impact of technology in the classroom on student learning outcomes

Prepare a report analyzing the trends in student participation in sports and arts programs over the last five years at your school.

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Writing a qualitative research report


  • 1 School of Nursing and Midwifery Studies, University of Wales College of Medicine, Heath Park, Cardiff, UK. [email protected]
  • PMID: 15046851
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nedt.2003.11.005

A research project in nursing or nursing education is probably only complete once the findings have been published. This paper offers a format for writing a qualitative research report for publication. It suggests, at least, the following sections: introduction, aims of the study, review of the literature, sample, data collection methods, data analysis methods, findings, discussion, conclusion, abstract. Each of these sections is addressed along with many written-out examples. In some sections, alternative approaches are suggested. The aim of the paper is to help the neophyte researcher to structure his or her report and for the experienced researcher to reflect on his or her current practice. References to other source material on qualitative research are given.

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Presenting your qualitative analysis findings: tables to include in chapter 4.

The earliest stages of developing a doctoral dissertation—most specifically the topic development  and literature review  stages—require that you immerse yourself in a ton of existing research related to your potential topic. If you have begun writing your dissertation proposal, you have undoubtedly reviewed countless results and findings sections of studies in order to help gain an understanding of what is currently known about your topic. 

qualitative research report format

In this process, we’re guessing that you observed a distinct pattern: Results sections are full of tables. Indeed, the results chapter for your own dissertation will need to be similarly packed with tables. So, if you’re preparing to write up the results of your statistical analysis or qualitative analysis, it will probably help to review your APA editing  manual to brush up on your table formatting skills. But, aside from formatting, how should you develop the tables in your results chapter?

In quantitative studies, tables are a handy way of presenting the variety of statistical analysis results in a form that readers can easily process. You’ve probably noticed that quantitative studies present descriptive results like mean, mode, range, standard deviation, etc., as well the inferential results that indicate whether significant relationships or differences were found through the statistical analysis . These are pretty standard tables that you probably learned about in your pre-dissertation statistics courses.

But, what if you are conducting qualitative analysis? What tables are appropriate for this type of study? This is a question we hear often from our dissertation assistance  clients, and with good reason. University guidelines for results chapters often contain vague instructions that guide you to include “appropriate tables” without specifying what exactly those are. To help clarify on this point, we asked our qualitative analysis experts to share their recommendations for tables to include in your Chapter 4.

Demographics Tables

As with studies using quantitative methods , presenting an overview of your sample demographics is useful in studies that use qualitative research methods. The standard demographics table in a quantitative study provides aggregate information for what are often large samples. In other words, such tables present totals and percentages for demographic categories within the sample that are relevant to the study (e.g., age, gender, job title). 

qualitative research report format

If conducting qualitative research  for your dissertation, however, you will use a smaller sample and obtain richer data from each participant than in quantitative studies. To enhance thick description—a dimension of trustworthiness—it will help to present sample demographics in a table that includes information on each participant. Remember that ethical standards of research require that all participant information be deidentified, so use participant identification numbers or pseudonyms for each participant, and do not present any personal information that would allow others to identify the participant (Blignault & Ritchie, 2009). Table 1 provides participant demographics for a hypothetical qualitative research study exploring the perspectives of persons who were formerly homeless regarding their experiences of transitioning into stable housing and obtaining employment.

Participant Demographics

Participant ID  Gender Age Current Living Situation
P1 Female 34 Alone
P2 Male 27 With Family
P3 Male 44 Alone
P4 Female 46 With Roommates
P5 Female 25 With Family
P6 Male 30 With Roommates
P7 Male 38 With Roommates
P8 Male 51 Alone

Tables to Illustrate Initial Codes

Most of our dissertation consulting clients who are conducting qualitative research choose a form of thematic analysis . Qualitative analysis to identify themes in the data typically involves a progression from (a) identifying surface-level codes to (b) developing themes by combining codes based on shared similarities. As this process is inherently subjective, it is important that readers be able to evaluate the correspondence between the data and your findings (Anfara et al., 2002). This supports confirmability, another dimension of trustworthiness .

A great way to illustrate the trustworthiness of your qualitative analysis is to create a table that displays quotes from the data that exemplify each of your initial codes. Providing a sample quote for each of your codes can help the reader to assess whether your coding was faithful to the meanings in the data, and it can also help to create clarity about each code’s meaning and bring the voices of your participants into your work (Blignault & Ritchie, 2009).

qualitative research report format

Table 2 is an example of how you might present information regarding initial codes. Depending on your preference or your dissertation committee’s preference, you might also present percentages of the sample that expressed each code. Another common piece of information to include is which actual participants expressed each code. Note that if your qualitative analysis yields a high volume of codes, it may be appropriate to present the table as an appendix.

Initial Codes

Initial code of participants contributing ( =8) of transcript excerpts assigned Sample quote
Daily routine of going to work enhanced sense of identity 7 12 “It’s just that good feeling of getting up every day like everyone else and going to work, of having that pattern that’s responsible. It makes you feel good about yourself again.” (P3)
Experienced discrimination due to previous homelessness  2 3 “At my last job, I told a couple other people on my shift I used to be homeless, and then, just like that, I get put into a worse job with less pay. The boss made some excuse why they did that, but they didn’t want me handling the money is why. They put me in a lower level job two days after I talk to people about being homeless in my past. That’s no coincidence if you ask me.” (P6) 
Friends offered shared housing 3 3 “My friend from way back had a spare room after her kid moved out. She let me stay there until I got back on my feet.” (P4)
Mental health services essential in getting into housing 5 7 “Getting my addiction treated was key. That was a must. My family wasn’t gonna let me stay around their place without it. So that was a big help for getting back into a place.” (P2)

Tables to Present the Groups of Codes That Form Each Theme

As noted previously, most of our dissertation assistance clients use a thematic analysis approach, which involves multiple phases of qualitative analysis  that eventually result in themes that answer the dissertation’s research questions. After initial coding is completed, the analysis process involves (a) examining what different codes have in common and then (b) grouping similar codes together in ways that are meaningful given your research questions. In other words, the common threads that you identify across multiple codes become the theme that holds them all together—and that theme answers one of your research questions.

As with initial coding, grouping codes together into themes involves your own subjective interpretations, even when aided by qualitative analysis software such as NVivo  or MAXQDA. In fact, our dissertation assistance clients are often surprised to learn that qualitative analysis software does not complete the analysis in the same ways that statistical analysis software such as SPSS does. While statistical analysis software completes the computations for you, qualitative analysis software does not have such analysis capabilities. Software such as NVivo provides a set of organizational tools that make the qualitative analysis far more convenient, but the analysis itself is still a very human process (Burnard et al., 2008).

qualitative research report format

Because of the subjective nature of qualitative analysis, it is important to show the underlying logic behind your thematic analysis in tables—such tables help readers to assess the trustworthiness of your analysis. Table 3 provides an example of how to present the codes that were grouped together to create themes, and you can modify the specifics of the table based on your preferences or your dissertation committee’s requirements. For example, this type of table might be presented to illustrate the codes associated with themes that answer each research question. 

Grouping of Initial Codes to Form Themes


Initial codes grouped to form theme

of participants contributing ( =8) of transcript excerpts assigned
     Assistance from friends, family, or strangers was instrumental in getting back into stable housing 6 10
            Family member assisted them to get into housing
            Friends offered shared housing
            Stranger offered shared housing
     Obtaining professional support was essential for overcoming the cascading effects of poverty and homelessness 7 19
            Financial benefits made obtaining housing possible
            Mental health services essential in getting into housing
            Social services helped navigate housing process
     Stigma and concerns about discrimination caused them to feel uncomfortable socializing with coworkers 6 9
            Experienced discrimination due to previous homelessness 
            Feared negative judgment if others learned of their pasts
     Routine productivity and sense of making a contribution helped to restore self-concept and positive social identity 8 21
            Daily routine of going to work enhanced sense of identity
            Feels good to contribute to society/organization 
            Seeing products of their efforts was rewarding

Tables to Illustrate the Themes That Answer Each Research Question

Creating alignment throughout your dissertation is an important objective, and to maintain alignment in your results chapter, the themes you present must clearly answer your research questions. Conducting qualitative analysis is an in-depth process of immersion in the data, and many of our dissertation consulting  clients have shared that it’s easy to lose your direction during the process. So, it is important to stay focused on your research questions during the qualitative analysis and also to show the reader exactly which themes—and subthemes, as applicable—answered each of the research questions.

qualitative research report format

Below, Table 4 provides an example of how to display the thematic findings of your study in table form. Depending on your dissertation committee’s preference or your own, you might present all research questions and all themes and subthemes in a single table. Or, you might provide separate tables to introduce the themes for each research question as you progress through your presentation of the findings in the chapter.

Emergent Themes and Research Questions

Research question


Themes that address question


RQ1. How do adults who have previously experienced homelessness describe their transitions to stable housing?




Theme 1: Assistance from friends, family, or strangers was instrumental in getting back into stable housing

Theme 2: Obtaining professional support was essential for overcoming the cascading effects of poverty and homelessness


RQ2. How do adults who have previously experienced homelessness describe returning to paid employment?



Theme 3: Self-perceived stigma caused them to feel uncomfortable socializing with coworkers

Theme 4: Routine productivity and sense of making a contribution helped to restore self-concept and positive social identity

Bonus Tip! Figures to Spice Up Your Results

Although dissertation committees most often wish to see tables such as the above in qualitative results chapters, some also like to see figures that illustrate the data. Qualitative software packages such as NVivo offer many options for visualizing your data, such as mind maps, concept maps, charts, and cluster diagrams. A common choice for this type of figure among our dissertation assistance clients is a tree diagram, which shows the connections between specified words and the words or phrases that participants shared most often in the same context. Another common choice of figure is the word cloud, as depicted in Figure 1. The word cloud simply reflects frequencies of words in the data, which may provide an indication of the importance of related concepts for the participants.

qualitative research report format

As you move forward with your qualitative analysis and development of your results chapter, we hope that this brief overview of useful tables and figures helps you to decide on an ideal presentation to showcase the trustworthiness your findings. Completing a rigorous qualitative analysis for your dissertation requires many hours of careful interpretation of your data, and your end product should be a rich and detailed results presentation that you can be proud of. Reach out if we can help  in any way, as our dissertation coaches would be thrilled to assist as you move through this exciting stage of your dissertation journey!

Anfara Jr., V. A., Brown, K. M., & Mangione, T. L. (2002). Qualitative analysis on stage: Making the research process more public.  Educational Researcher ,  31 (7), 28-38.

Blignault, I., & Ritchie, J. (2009). Revealing the wood and the trees: Reporting qualitative research.  Health Promotion Journal of Australia ,  20 (2), 140-145.

Burnard, P., Gill, P., Stewart, K., Treasure, E., & Chadwick, B. (2008). Analysing and presenting qualitative data.  British Dental Journal ,  204 (8), 429-432.

Qualitative Research Report

Research Title:

Consumer Behavior Trends



January 1, 2050

I. Executive Summary

This report presents the findings from a qualitative study on consumer behavior trends in the e-commerce industry. The research aimed to explore the motivations, attitudes, and behaviors of consumers in the context of online shopping and to identify emerging trends that could impact the industry over the next decade.

II. Introduction

The research was conducted by [Your Company Name] to provide valuable insights for businesses looking to understand the evolving landscape of consumer behavior. By focusing on qualitative methods, this study delves deeply into the personal experiences and perspectives of consumers.

III. Methodology

A. research design.

A series of in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted to gather rich, qualitative data from participants. The participants were selected using purposive sampling to ensure a diverse representation of demographics.

B. Data Collection

Data was collected through the following methods:

In-depth interviews with 30 participants conducted over a period of three months.

Five focus group discussions with a total of 40 participants.

Observation and field notes recorded during interactions.

C. Data Analysis

The collected data was analyzed using thematic analysis. The data was coded and categorized to identify recurring themes and patterns. Advanced qualitative data analysis software was used to assist in the organization and interpretation of the data.

IV. Findings

A. motivations for online shopping.

The analysis revealed several key motivations driving consumers to shop online:

Convenience and Accessibility

Wide Range of Products

Competitive Pricing

Personalization and Recommendations

B. Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors

Participants expressed the following attitudes and behaviors toward online shopping:

Preference for mobile shopping

Importance of reviews and ratings

Concerns about security and privacy

Influence of social media and influencers

C. Emerging Trends

Several emerging trends were identified that could shape the future of e-commerce:

Increased use of AI and machine learning for personalized experiences

Growth of sustainable and ethical shopping practices

Expansion of virtual and augmented reality shopping environments

Integration of cryptocurrency as a payment method

V. Discussion

The findings of this study provide crucial insights for e-commerce businesses seeking to adapt to the changing consumer landscape. The motivations and behaviors identified highlight the importance of providing a seamless, secure, and personalized shopping experience. Additionally, the emerging trends suggest opportunities for innovation and growth in the industry.

VI. Conclusion

This qualitative research report underscores the dynamic nature of consumer behavior in the e-commerce industry. By understanding the underlying motivations and emerging trends, businesses can better position themselves to meet the demands of their customers and achieve long-term success.

VII. Recommendations

Based on the findings, the following recommendations are proposed:

Invest in AI and machine learning technologies to enhance personalization.

Prioritize security and privacy measures to build consumer trust.

Explore sustainable and ethical business practices.

Stay ahead of technological advancements such as VR and cryptocurrency.

VIII. References

All references and sources used in this report are available upon request.

IX. Appendix

Appendix A. Interview and Focus Group Guide



What motivates you to shop online?

To identify key drivers of online shopping behavior.

Can you describe your recent online shopping experience?

To gather detailed insights into consumer experiences.

What concerns do you have when shopping online?

To understand consumer concerns and areas for improvement.

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Mass spectrometry of collagen-containing allogeneic human bone tissue material.

qualitative research report format

1. Introduction

2. materials and methods, 2.1. characteristics of sources and materials, 2.2. studying object, 2.3. sample preparation, 2.4. mass spectrometry (proteomic assay), 3. results and discussion.

  • fibril-forming collagen type I;
  • cartilaginous tissue-specific collagen type II;
  • collagen type IV, the main structural component of basal membranes;
  • collagen type IX, a hyaline cartilage component;
  • collagen type XXVII, the protein essential for cartilage calcification and cartilage-bone transformation;
  • collagen type XXVIII, cell-binding protein.

4. Conclusions

Author contributions, institutional review board statement, informed consent statement, data availability statement, acknowledgments, conflicts of interest, list of abbreviations.

AHNAKNeuroblast differentiation-associated protein
Ala-AMPAlanine-adenosine monophosphate
AREsAdenylate-uridylate-rich elements
ATPAdenosine triphosphate
BMAL1/2Brain and muscle arnt-like 1/2, or Arntl
CDKN1ACyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1A
CLOCKClock Circadian Regulator
COL1A1Collagen alpha-1(I) chain
COL1A2Collagen alpha-2(I) chain
COL27A1Collagen alpha-1(XXVII) chain
COL28A1Collagen alpha-1(XXVIII) chain
COL2A1Collagen alpha-1(II) chain
COL4A2Collagen alpha-2(IV) chain
COL9A2Collagen alpha-2(IX) chain
CRY1 (2)Cryptochrome Circadian Regulator 1 (2)
ECMExtracellular Matrix
ELAVL3ELAV Like RNA Binding Protein 3
ITGA10Integrin alpha-10
JARID2Jumonji protein
JMJD5Jumonji-C (JmjC) domain-containing protein 5
KDM8Lysine Demethylase 8
MSCsMesenchymal stem cells
NPAS2Neuronal PAS Domain Protein 2
NR1D1Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1 Group D Member 1
PER1/2/3Period Circadian Regulator 1/2/3
PRC2Polycomb repressive complex 2
RORA/B/GRelated Orphan Receptor A/B/G
SDSsodium dodecyl sulfate
SDS-PAGEsodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel
SPTBN2Spectrin beta chain non-erythrocytic 2
TTFLTranscription/translation feedback loop
UPLCultra-high performance liquid chromatography
UPLC-MSUltra-high performance liquid chromatography—mass spectrometry
VEGFVascular endothelial growth factor
ZNF267Zinc finger protein 267
ZNF394Zinc finger protein 394
ZNF585 AZinc finger protein 585 A
H1/2/3/4Histones 1/2/3/4
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Click here to enlarge figure

Ref. No.ProteinEncoding GeneFunctionsMolecular Weight, kDa
1.Collagen alpha-2(I) chainCOL1A2Participates in collagen fibril arrangement, provides a structural component of the ECM [ , , , ]129.2
2.Collagen alpha-1(I) chainCOL1A1Participates in collagen fibril arrangement, provides a structural component of the ECM [ , , ]138.9
3.Collagen alpha-1(II) chainCOL2A1Structural component of the ECM, confers tensile properties, binds metal ions, proteoglycans and platelet-derived growth factor, provides protein homodimerization activity [ , , ]141.7
4.Collagen alpha-2(IV) chainCOL4A2Structural component of basal membranes. Has both anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor activities. Inhibits endothelial cell proliferation and migration, decreases mitochondrial membrane potential and induces apoptosis [ , ]167.4
5.Collagen alpha-2(IX) chainCOL9A2Structural component of hyaline cartilage, the main structural component of basal membranes [ ]65.1
6Collagen alpha-1(XXVII) chainCOL27A1Participates in the cartilage calcification and cartilage-bone transformation [ ]186.8
7.Collagen alpha-1(XXVIII) chainCOL28A1Participates in the cell binding (a cell-binding protein) [ ]116.6
8.Integrin alpha-10ITGA10Collagen’s membrane receptor, integral transmembrane glycoprotein consisting of non-covalently bound alpha and beta chains. Participates in the cell adhesion as well as in the cell surface-mediated signaling. Differential pattern of integrin’s expression is mediated by growth and differentiation factors and may indicate participation of integrin in bone and cartilage metabolism [ , , , , , ]127.5
9.Spectrin beta chain, non-erythrocytic 2 (SPTBN2) and Neuroblast differentiation-associated protein (AHNAK)SPTBN2
Cell membrane formation. Neurogenesis (proliferation and differentiation of nervous system cells) [ , , , ].271.2
10.Cryptochrome-1CRY1Transcription repressor, the main component of circadian clock. Transcription and translation of the main clock components (CLOCK, NPAS2, BMAL1, BMAL2, PER1, PER2, PER3, CRY1, and CRY2) [ , , , , ]66.4
11.Alanine-tRNA ligase, mitochondrialAARS2Catalyst of amino acid activation (aminoacylation/tRNA charging) [ , , ]107.6
12.Jumonji proteinJARID2Regulator of histone-methyltransferase complexes. Participates in the stem cell differentiation and normal embryogenesis including heart, neural tube development and haematopoiesis [ , , , ]138.3
13.ELAV-like protein 3ELAVL3RNA-binding protein, stabilizes mRNA. Participates in the cell differentiation and nervous system development [ , ]39.5
14.Bifunctional peptidase (KDM8) and arginyl hydroxylase (JMJD5)KDM8
Cleaves peptide bonds via hydrolysis reactions [ , , ]47.2
15.Zinc finger protein 394, Zinc finger protein 267, Zinc finger protein 585 AZNF394
ZNF585 A
DNA-binding transcription factors [ , ]64.2
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Share and Cite

Ryabov, N.A.; Volova, L.T.; Alekseev, D.G.; Kovaleva, S.A.; Medvedeva, T.N.; Vlasov, M.Y. Mass Spectrometry of Collagen-Containing Allogeneic Human Bone Tissue Material. Polymers 2024 , 16 , 1895.

Ryabov NA, Volova LT, Alekseev DG, Kovaleva SA, Medvedeva TN, Vlasov MY. Mass Spectrometry of Collagen-Containing Allogeneic Human Bone Tissue Material. Polymers . 2024; 16(13):1895.

Ryabov, Nikolay A., Larisa T. Volova, Denis G. Alekseev, Svetlana A. Kovaleva, Tatyana N. Medvedeva, and Mikhail Yu. Vlasov. 2024. "Mass Spectrometry of Collagen-Containing Allogeneic Human Bone Tissue Material" Polymers 16, no. 13: 1895.

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    The current paper highlights the active development of tissue engineering in the field of the biofabrication of living tissue analogues through 3D-bioprinting technology. The implementation of the latter is impossible without important products such as bioinks and their basic components, namely, hydrogels. In this regard, tissue engineers are searching for biomaterials to produce hydrogels ...