153 Domestic Violence Topics & Essay Examples

A domestic violence essay can deal with society, gender, family, and youth. To help you decide which aspect to research, our team provided this list of 153 topics .

📑 Aspects to Cover in a Domestic Violence Essay

🏆 best domestic violence titles & essay examples, ⭐ interesting domestic violence topics for an essay, 🎓 good research topics about domestic violence, ❓ research questions on domestic violence.

Domestic violence is a significant problem and one of the acute topics of today’s society. It affects people of all genders and sexualities.

Domestic violence involves many types of abuse, including sexual and emotional one. Essays on domestic violence can enhance students’ awareness of the issue and its causes. Our tips will be useful for those wanting to write outstanding domestic violence essays.

Start with choosing a topic for your paper. Here are some examples of domestic violence essay titles:

  • Causes of domestic violence and the ways to eliminate them
  • The consequences of domestic violence
  • The importance of public domestic violence speech
  • Ways to reduce domestic violence
  • The prevalence of domestic violence in the United States (or other countries)
  • The link between domestic violence and mental health problems among children

Now that you have selected one of the titles for your essay, you can start working on the paper. We have prepared some tips on the aspects you should cover in your work:

  • Start with researching the issue you have selected. Analyze its causes, consequences, and effects. Remember that you should include some of the findings in the paper using in-text citations.
  • Develop a domestic violence essay outline. The structure of your paper will depend on the problem you have selected. In general, there should be an introductory and a concluding paragraph, as well as three (or more) body paragraphs. Hint: Keep in mind the purpose of your essay while developing its structure.
  • Present your domestic violence essay thesis clearly. The last sentence of your introductory paragraph should be the thesis statement. Here are some examples of a thesis statement:

Domestic violence has a crucial impact on children’s mental health. / Domestic violence affects women more than men.

  • Present a definition of domestic violence. What actions does the term involve? Include several possible perspectives on domestic violence.
  • Discuss the victims of domestic violence and the impact it has on them too. Provide statistical data, if possible.
  • Help your audience to understand the issue better by discussing the consequences of domestic violence, even if it is not the primary purpose of your paper. The essay should show why it is necessary to eliminate this problem.
  • You can include some relevant quotes on domestic violence to make your arguments more persuasive. Remember to use citations from relevant sources only. Such sources include peer-reviewed articles and scholarly publications. If you are not sure whether you can use a piece of literature, consult your professor to avoid possible mistakes.
  • Support your claims with evidence. Ask your professor in advance about the sources you can use in your paper. Avoid utilizing Wikipedia, as this website is not reliable.
  • Stick to a formal language. Although you may want to criticize domestic violence, do not use offensive terms. Your paper should look professional.
  • Pay attention to the type of paper you should write. If it is an argumentative essay, discuss opposing views on domestic violence and prove that they are unreliable.
  • Remember that you should include a domestic violence essay conclusion in your paper too. This section of the paper should present your main ideas and findings. Remember not to present any new information or citations in the concluding paragraph.

There are some free samples we have prepared for you, too. Check them out!

  • Domestic Violence and Conflict Theory in Society The Conflict Theory explains remarkable events in history and the changing patterns of race and gender relations and also emphasizes the struggles to explain the impact of technological development on society and the changes to […]
  • Domestic Violence: Qualitative & Quantitative Research This research seeks to determine the impacts of domestic violence orders in reducing the escalating cases of family brutality in most households. N1: There is a significant relationship between domestic violence orders and the occurrence […]
  • Domestic Violence against Women Domestic violence against women refers to “any act of gender-based violence that results in or is likely to result in physical, sexual, and mental harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts as […]
  • Supporting Female Victims of Domestic Violence and Abuse: NGO Establishment The presence of such a model continues to transform lives and make it easier for more women to support and provide basic education to their children.
  • Social Marketing Campaign on Domestic Violence In this marketing campaign strategy the focus would be centered on violence against women, as a form of domestic violence that is currently experience in many countries across the globe.
  • Guilty until Proven Otherwise: Domestic Violence Cases The presumption of the guilt of a man in domestic violence cases is further proven by the decision of the court in which the man is required to post a bond despite the fact that […]
  • Campaign against Domestic Violence: Program Plan In addition, men who used to witness aggressive behavior at home or in the family as children, or learned about it from stories, are two times more disposed to practice violence against their partners than […]
  • Intersectionality in Domestic Violence Another way an organization that serves racial minorities may address the unique needs of domestic violence victims is to offer additional educational and consultancy activities for women of color.
  • Victimology and Domestic Violence In this situation there are many victims; Anne is a victim of domestic violence and the children are also victims of the same as well as the tragic death of their father.
  • Affordable, Effective Legal Assistance for Victims of Domestic Violence Legal assistance significantly increases the chances for domestic abuse victims to obtain restraining orders, divorce, and custody of their children. Helping victims of domestic violence with inexpensive legal aid is a critical step in assisting […]
  • Domestic Violence: Far-Right Conspiracy Theory in Australia’s Culture Wars The phenomenon of violence is directly related to the violation of human rights and requires legal punishment for the perpetrators and support for the victims.
  • Domestic Violence and Black Women’s Experiences Overall, the story’s exploration of the reality of life for an African American married woman in a patriarchal society, and the challenges faced by black women, is relevant to the broader reality of domestic violence […]
  • Domestic Violence: Criminal Justice In addition, the usage of illegal substances such as bhang, cocaine, and other drugs contributes to the increasing DV in society.
  • Witnessed Domestic Violence and Juvenile Detention Research The primary purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between witnessed domestic violence and juvenile detention. Research has pointed to a relationship between witnessed violence and juvenile delinquency, and this study holds that […]
  • Domestic Violence Against Women in Melbourne Thus, it is possible to introduce the hypothesis that unemployment and related financial struggles determined by pandemic restrictions lead to increased rates of domestic violence against women in Melbourne.
  • Domestic Violence Ethical Dilemmas in Criminal Justice Various ethical issues such as the code of silence, the mental status of the offender, and limited evidence play a vital role in challenging the discretion of police officers in arresting the DV perpetrators.
  • Healthcare Testing of a Domestic Violence Victim Accordingly, the negative aspects of this exam include difficulties in identifying and predicting the further outcome of events and the course of side effects.
  • Domestic Violence, Child Abuse, or Elder Abuse In every health facility, a nurse who notices the signs of abuse and domestic violence must report them to the relevant authorities.
  • Educational Services for Children in Domestic Violence Shelters In order to meet the objectives of the research, Chanmugam et al.needed to reach out to the representatives of emergency domestic violence shelters located in the state of Texas well-aware of the shelters’ and schools’ […]
  • The Domestic Violence Arrest Laws According to the National Institute of Justice, mandatory arrest laws are the most prevalent in US states, indicating a widespread agreement on their effectiveness.
  • Environmental Scan for Hart City Domestic Violence Resource Center In particular, it identifies the target population, outlines the key resources, and provides an overview of data sources for assessing key factors and trends that may affect the Resource Center in the future.
  • Domestic Violence Investigation Procedure If they claim guilty, the case is proceeded to the hearing to estimate the sentencing based on the defendant’s criminal record and the scope of assault. The issue of domestic abuse in households is terrifyingly […]
  • Educational Group Session on Domestic Violence This will be the first counseling activity where the counselor assists the women to appreciate the concepts of domestic violence and the ways of identifying the various kinds of violence.
  • What Causes Domestic Violence? Domestic abuse, which is also known as domestic violence, is a dominance of one family member over another or the other. As a result, the probability of them becoming abusers later in life is considerably […]
  • Domestic Violence and COVID-19: Literature Review The “stay safe, stay at home” mantra used by the governments and public health organizations was the opposite of safety for the victims of domestic violence.
  • The Impact of COVID-19 on Domestic Violence in the US Anurudran et al.argue that the new measures taken to fight COVID-19 infections heightened the risk of domestic abuse. The pandemic paradox: The consequences of COVID 19 on domestic violence.
  • Rachel Louise Snyder’s Research on Domestic Violence Language and framing play a significant role in manipulating people’s understanding of domestic violence and the nature of the problem. However, it is challenging to gather precise data on the affected people and keep track […]
  • Domestic Violence Restraining Orders: Renewals and Legal Recourse Since upon the expiry of a restraining order, a victim can file a renewal petition the current task is to determine whether the original DVRO of our client has expired, the burden of obtaining a […]
  • Annotated Bibliography on Domestic Violence Against Women They evaluate 134 studies from various countries that provide enough evidence of the prevalence of domestic violence against women and the adverse effects the vice has had for a decade.
  • Alcoholism, Domestic Violence and Drug Abuse Kaur and Ajinkya researched to investigate the “psychological impact of adult alcoholism on spouses and children”. The work of Kaur and Ajinkya, reveals a link between chronic alcoholism and emotional problems on the spouse and […]
  • Domestic Violence Counselling Program Evaluation The evaluation will be based upon the mission of the program and the objectives it states for the participants. The counselors arrange treatment for both sides of the conflict: the victims and offenders, and special […]
  • Sociological Imagination: Domestic Violence and Suicide Risk Hence, considering these facts, it is necessary to put the notion of suicide risk in perspective when related to the issue of domestic violence.
  • The Roles of Domestic Violence Advocates Domestic conflict advocates assist victims in getting the help needed to cope and move forward. Moreover, these advocates help the survivors in communicating to employers, family members, and lawyers.
  • Ambivalence on Part of the Police in Response to Domestic Violence The police have been accused of ambivalence by their dismissive attitudes and through sexism and empathy towards perpetrators of violence against women.
  • Domestic Violence: The Impact of Law Enforcement Home Visits As the study concludes, despite the increase in general awareness concerning domestic violence cases, it is still a significant threat to the victims and their children.
  • Domestic Violence: How Is It Adressed? At this stage, when the family members of the battered women do this to them, it becomes the responsibility of the people to do something about this.
  • Domestic Violence Factors Among Police Officers The objective of this research is to establish the level of domestic violence among police officers and relative the behavior to stress, divorce, police subculture, and child mistreatment.
  • “The Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment” by Sherman and Berk The experiment conducted by the authors throws light on the three stages of the research circle. This is one of the arguments that can be advanced.
  • Domestic Violence and Drug-Related Offenders in Australia The article is very informative since outlines a couple of the reasons behind the rampant increase in cases of negligence and lack of concern, especially from the government.
  • An Investigation on Domestic Violence This particular experiment aimed to evaluate the nature of relationship and the magnitude of domestic violence meted on either of the partners.
  • Educational Program on Domestic Violence The reason why I have chosen this as the topic for my educational program is that victims of domestic violence often feel that they do not have any rights and hence are compelled to live […]
  • Family and Domestic Violence: Enhancing Protective Factors Current partner Previous partner Percentage of children When children are exposed to violence, they encounter numerous difficulties in their various levels of development.
  • Domestic Violence in Women’s Experiences Worldwide Despite the fact the author of the article discusses a controversial problem of domestic violence against women based on the data from recent researches and focusing on such causes for violence as the problematic economic […]
  • Parenting in Battered Women: The Effects of Domestic Violence In this study, ‘Parenting in Battered Women: The Effects of Domestic Violence on Women and their Children,’ Alytia A. It is commendable that at this stage in stating the problem the journalists seek to conclude […]
  • Domestic Violence Types and Causes This is acknowledged by the law in most countries of the world as one of the most brutal symbols of inequality.
  • Alcohol and Domestic Violence in Day-To-Day Social Life My paper will have a comprehensive literature review that will seek to analyze the above topic in order to assist the reader understand the alcohol contributions in the domestic and social violence in our society.
  • Power and Control: Domestic Violence in America The abusive spouse wants to feel powerful and in control of the family so he, usually the abusive spouse is the man, beats his wife and children to assert his superiority.
  • Domestic or Intimate Partner Violence Intervention Purpose of the study: The safety promoting behavior of the abused women is to be increased using a telephone intervention. They were allocated to either of the groups by virtue of the week of enrolment […]
  • Substance Abuse and Domestic Violence: Comprehensive Discussion Substance abuse refers to the misuse of a drug or any other chemical resulting in its dependence, leading to harmful mental and physical effects to the individual and the wellbeing of the society.
  • Environmental Trends and Conditions: Domestic Violence in the Workplace Despite the fact that on average the literacy rate and the rate of civilization in the world have been increasing in the past few decades, the statistics for domestic violence have been increasing on an […]
  • Domestic Violence in the Organizations Despite the fact that on average the literacy rate and the rate of civilization in the world has been increasing in the past few decades, the statistics for domestic violence have been increasing on an […]
  • Domestic Violence and Honor Killing Analysis Justice and gender equality are important aspects of the totality of mankind that measure social and economic development in the world. The cultural justification is to maintain the dignity and seniority framework of the family.
  • Facts About Domestic Violence All aspects of the society – which starts from the smallest unit, that is the family, to the church and even to the government sectors are all keen on finding solutions on how to eliminate, […]
  • Domestic Violence in Marriage and Family While there are enormous reports of intimate partner homicides, murders, rapes, and assaults, it is important to note that victims of all this violence find it very difficult to explain the matter and incidents to […]
  • Domestic Violence and Repeat Victimisation Theory Domestic violence is a crime which often happens because of a bad relationship between a man and woman and usually continues to be repeated until one of the parties leaves the relationship; hence victims of […]
  • One-Group Posttest-Only Design in the Context of Domestic Violence Problem This application must unveil the risks and their solutions by researching the variables and the threats to the validity of the research.
  • Help-Seeking Amongst Women Survivors of Domestic Violence First, the article explains the necessity of the research conduction, which includes the relevance of the abuse problem and the drawbacks of solving and studying it.
  • Domestic Violence as a Social Issue It is one of the main factors which stimulate the study’s conduction, and among the rest, one can also mention the number of unexplored violence questions yet to be answered.
  • Reflections on Domestic Violence in the Case of Dr. Mile Crawford Nevertheless, the only way out of this situation is to escape and seek help from the legal system. From a personal standpoint, to help her would be the right thing to do.
  • Gender Studies: Combating Domestic Violence The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed description of domestic violence, as well as the development of an action plan that can help in this situation.
  • Addressing Domestic Violence in the US: A Scientific Approach The implementation of sound research can help in addressing the problem and decreasing the incidence of domestic violence, which will contribute to the development of American society.
  • Domestic Violence Funding and Impact on Society The number of domestic violence cases in the US, both reported and unreported, is significant. The recent decision of Trump’s administration to reduce the expenses for domestic violence victims from $480,000,000 to $40,000,000 in the […]
  • Millennium Development Goals and Domestic Violence: A Bilateral Link As a result, a review of the potential of MDGs for resolving the issue needs to analyze the contribution of the goals to the resolution of the instances, consequences, and causes of DV.
  • Domestic Violence and Bullying in Schools It also states the major variables related to bullying in schools. They will confirm that social-economic status, gender, and race can contribute to bullying in schools.
  • Domestic Violence Within the US Military In most of the recorded domestic violence cases, females are mostly the victims of the dispute while the males are the aggressors of the violence.
  • Reporting Decisions in Child Maltreatment: A Mixed Methodology Approach The present research aims to address both the general population and social workers to examine the overall attitudes to the reporting of child maltreatment.
  • Domestic Violence in Australia: Budget Allocation and Victim Support On the other hand, the allocation of financial resources with the focus on awareness campaigns has also led to a lack of financial support for centres that provide the frontline services to victims of domestic […]
  • Domestic and Family Violence: Case Studies and Impacts This paper highlights some of the recent cases of the violence, the forms of abuse involved, and their overall impacts on the victims.
  • Family and Domestic Violence Legislation in the US In fact, this law is a landmark pointing to the recognition of the concept of domestic violence at the legal level and acknowledging that it is a key problem of the society.
  • Break the Silence: Domestic Violence Case The campaign in question aimed to instruct victims of domestic violence on how to cope with the problem and where to address to get assistance.
  • Domestic Violence and Social Interventions In conclusion, social learning theory supports the idea that children have a high likelihood of learning and simulating domestic violence through experiences at home.
  • Legal Recourse for Victims of Child Abuse and Domestic Violence Victims of child abuse and domestic violence have the right to seek legal recourse in case of violation of their rights.
  • Domestic Violence and Child’s Brain Development The video “First Impressions: Exposure to Violence and a Child’s Developing Brain” answers some questions of the dependence of exposure to domestic violence and the development of brain structures of children. At the beginning of […]
  • Local Domestic Violence Victim Resources in Kent The focus of this paper is to document the local domestic violence victim resources found within a community in Kent County, Delaware, and also to discuss the importance of these resources to the community.
  • The Impact of Domestic Violence Laws: Social Norms and Legal Consequences I also suppose that some of these people may start lifting their voices against the law, paying particular attention to the idea that it is theoretically allowable that the law can punish people for other […]
  • Domestic Violence Abuse: Laws in Maryland The Peace and Protective Orders-Burden of Proof regulation in Maryland and the Violence against Women Act are some of the laws that have been created to deal with domestic violence.
  • Theories of Domestic Violence It is important to point out that women have received the short end of the stick in regards to domestic violence. A third reason why people commit domestic violence according to the Family Violence Theory […]
  • Domestic Violence in Australia: Policy Issue In this paper, DV in Australia will be regarded as a problem that requires policy decision-making, and the related terminology and theory will be used to gain insights into the reasons for the persistence of […]
  • Nondiscriminatory Education Against Domestic Violence The recent event that prompted the proposed advocacy is the criticism of a banner that depicts a man as the victim of abuse.
  • Domestic Violence in International Criminal Justice The United Nations organization is deeply concerned with the high level of violence experienced by women in the family, the number of women killed, and the latency of sexual violence.
  • Project Reset and the Domestic Violence Court The majority of the decisions in courts are aimed to mitigate the effects of the strict criminal justice system of the United States.
  • Same-Sex Domestic Violence Problem Domestic violence in gay or lesbian relationships is a serious matter since the rates of domestic violence in such relationships are almost equivalent to domestic violence in heterosexual relationships. There are a number of misconceptions […]
  • Domestic, Dating and Sexual Violence Dating violence is the sexual or physical violence in a relationship which includes verbal and emotional violence. The rate of sexual violence in other nations like Japan and Ethiopia, range from 15 to 71 percent.
  • Anger Management Counseling and Treatment of Domestic Violence by the Capital Area Michigan Works These aspects include: the problem that the program intends to solve, the results produced by the program, the activities of the program, and the resources that are used to achieve the overall goal.
  • Understanding Women’s Responses to Domestic Violence The author’s research orientation is a mix of interpretive, positivism and critical science – interpretive in informing social workers or practitioners on how to enhance their effectiveness as they deal with cases related to violence […]
  • Poverty and Domestic Violence It is based on this that in the next section, I have utilized my educational experience in order to create a method to address the issue of domestic violence from the perspective of a social […]
  • Teenage Dating and Domestic Violence That is why it is important to report about the violence to the police and support groups in order to be safe and start a new life.
  • National Coalition Against Domestic Violence In addition, NCADV hopes to make the public know that the symbol of the purple ribbon represents the mission of the organization, which is to bring peace to all American households.
  • Evaluation of the Partnership Against Domestic Violence According to the official mission statement of the organization, PADV is aimed at improving the overall wellbeing of families all over the world and helping those that suffer from domestic violence The organization’s primary goal […]
  • Cross-Cultural Aspects of Domestic Violence This is one of the limitations that should be taken account. This is one of the problems that should not be overlooked.
  • Domestic Violence in the Lives of Women She gives particular focus on the social and traditional aspects of the community that heavily contribute to the eruption and sustenance of violence against women in households. In the part 1 of the book, Renzetti […]
  • Financial Planning and Management for Domestic Violence Victims Acquisition of resources used in criminal justice require financial resources hence the need to manage the same so as to provide the best machines and equipments.
  • Violence against Women: Domestic, National, and Global Rape as a weapon for the enemy Majority of cultures in war zones still accept and regard rape to be a weapon of war that an enemy should be punished with.
  • Effects of Domestic Violence on Children Development In cases where children are exposed to such violence, then they become emotionally troubled: In the above, case them the dependent variable is children emotions while the independent variable is domestic violence: Emotions = f […]
  • Evaluation of Anger Management Counseling and Treatment of Domestic Violence by the Capital Area Michigan Works These aspects include: the problem that the program intends to solve, the results produced by the program, the activities of the program, and the resources that are used to achieve the overall goal.
  • Knowledge and Attitudes of Nurses Regarding Domestic Violence and Their Effect on the Identification of Battered Women In conducting this research, the authors sought the consent of the prospective participants where the purpose of the study was explained to participants and confidentiality of information to be collected was reassured.
  • Domestic Violence Dangers Mount With Economic, Seasonal Pressures These variables are believed to be able to prompt the family to explore the experiences and meanings of stress and stress management.
  • Impact of the Economic Status on Domestic Violence This article investigates the possible factors that may help in explaining the status of women who are homeless and their capacity to experience domestic violence.
  • Dominance and “Power Plays” in Relationships to Assist Clients to Leave Domestic Violence According to psychologists, the problem of domestic violence is based on the fact that one partner needs to be in control of the other.
  • Domestic Violence: Reason, Forms and Measures The main aim of this paper is to determine the reason behind the rapid increase of domestic violence, forms of domestic violence and measures that should be taken to reduce its effects.
  • Art Therapy With Women Who Have Suffered Domestic Violence One of the most significant benefits of art therapy is the fact the patients get to understand and interpret their own situations which puts them in a better position to creatively participate in own healing […]
  • Collaborative Crisis Intervention at a Domestic Violence Shelter The first visit is meant to collect the information that the professional in domestic violence deem crucial concerning the precipitating incidence and history of violence.
  • Domestic Violence Exposure in Colombian Adolescents In this topic, the authors intend to discover the extent of association of drug abuse to domestic violence exposure, violent and prosocial behavior among adolescents.
  • Domestic Violence and Its Classification Sexual abuse is the other common form of maltreatment which is on the rise and refers to any circumstance in which force is utilized to get involvement in undesired intimate action. Emotional maltreatment entails inconsistent […]
  • Effects of Domestic Violence on Children’s Social and Emotional Development In the case of wife-husband violence, always, one parent will be the offender and the other one the victim; in an ideal situation, a child needs the love of a both parents. When brought up […]
  • Domestic Violence and Social Initiatives in Solving the Problem The absence of the correct social programs at schools and the lack of desire of government and police to pay more attention to the prevention of the problem while it is not too late are […]
  • Behind Closed Doors: Domestic Violence The term “domestic violence” is used to denote the physical or emotional abuse that occurs in the homes. Therefore, it has contributed to the spread of domestic violence in the country.
  • Domestic Violence in the African American Community Previous research has suggested this due to the many causes and effects that are experienced by the members and especially the male members of the African American community.
  • Domestic Violence: Predicting and Solutions There are several factors which predict the state of domestic violence in the future and this will help in preventing domestic violence.
  • Domestic Violence: Signs of Abuse and Abusive Relationships The unprecedented rejuvenation of such a vile act, prompted the formation of factions within society, that are sensitive to the plight of women, and fight for the cognizance of their rights in society.
  • Domestic Violence against South Asian Women Again, this strategy is premised on the idea that domestic violence can be explained by the financial dependence of women in these communities.
  • The Effects of Domestic Violence According to statistics and research provided in the handout, women are at a higher risk of being victims of domestic violence.
  • Effect of Domestic Violence on Children This is done with the aim of ensuring that the child is disciplined and is meant as a legitimate punishment. Most of our children have been neglected and this has contributed to the increase in […]
  • Domestic Violence and Elderly Abuse- A Policy Statement Though this figure has been changing with the change in the method of survey that was conducted and the nature of samples that were taken during the research process, it is widely accepted fact that […]
  • Domestic Violence as a Social and Public Health Problem The article, authored by Lisa Simpson Strange, discusses the extent of domestic violence especially in women and the dangers it exposes the victims to, insisting that severe actions should be taken against those who commit […]
  • Community and Domestic Violence: Elder Abuse In addition, the fact the elderly people cannot defend themselves because of the physical frailty that they encounter, they will experience most of the elderly abuse.
  • Community and Domestic Violence; Gang Violence Solitude, peer pressure, need to belong, esteem, and the excitement of the odds of arrest entice adolescents to join these youth gangs.
  • Fighting Domestic Violence in Pocatello, Idaho Having realized the need to involve the family unit in dealing with this vice, Walmart has organized a sensitization program that will involve the education of whole family to increase awareness on the issue. The […]
  • What Is the Purpose of Studying Domestic Violence?
  • What Does Theory Explain Domestic Violence?
  • What Is the Difference Between IPV and Domestic Violence?
  • What Age Group Does Domestic Violence Affect Most?
  • When Domestic Violence Becomes the Norm?
  • How Are Domestic Violence Problems Solved in American and Other Cultures?
  • What Are the 3 Phases in the Domestic Violence Cycle?
  • How Can Domestic Violence Be Explained?
  • How Many Deaths Are Caused by Domestic Violence?
  • When Was Domestic Violence First Defined?
  • How Is a Domestic Violence Prevention?
  • How Race, Class, and Gender Influences Domestic Violence?
  • Why Do Victims of Abuse Sometimes Stay Silent?
  • How Does Domestic Violence Affect the Brain?
  • Is Mental Illness Often Associated With Domestic Violence?
  • How Does Domestic Violence Affect a Person Emotionally?
  • How Does Domestic Violence Affect Children’s Cognitive Development?
  • Why Should Employers Pay Attention to Domestic Violence?
  • What Are the Causes of Domestic Violence?
  • What Country Has the Highest Rate of Domestic Violence?
  • How Does Domestic Violence Affect the Lives of Its Victims?
  • What Are the Possible Causes and Signs of Domestic Violence?
  • How Does Socioeconomic Status Affect Domestic Violence?
  • How Does the Australian Criminal Justice System Respond to Domestic Violence?
  • How Does Culture Affect Domestic Violence in the UK?
  • What Is the Psychology of an Abuser?
  • What Is Police Doing About Domestic Violence?
  • How Does the Government Define Domestic Violence?
  • What Profession Has the Highest Rate of Domestic Violence?
  • What Percent of Domestic Violence Is Alcohol-Related?
  • Family Relationships Research Ideas
  • Alcohol Abuse Paper Topics
  • Drug Abuse Research Topics
  • Child Welfare Essay Ideas
  • Childhood Essay Topics
  • Sexual Abuse Essay Titles
  • Divorce Research Ideas
  • Gender Stereotypes Essay Titles
  • Chicago (A-D)
  • Chicago (N-B)

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Domestic violence & abuse: prevention, intervention and the politics of gender

thesis of domestic violence

This thesis foregrounds data from a survivor-led, qualitative study on domestic violence and abuse (DVA) prevention and intervention, set against the backdrop of UK austerity and the increasingly prominent political endorsement of a gender-neutral conceptualisation of DVA. The study charts how DVA prevention, victimhood and perpetration discourses might be productively reworked to shift the pervasive victim-blaming narratives patterning public understandings and intervention responses to DVA and violence against women (VAW). A key feature of this work entails expanding the scope of responsibility assigned to men for reducing DVA and men’s violence towards women, including within the context of the family. Using feminist, participatory based methods, the study elaborates a triangulated analysis of data from three participant groups: (i) women victim-survivors, (ii) women DVA practitioners, and (iii) ‘engaged men’ involved in efforts to address men’s violence. With analysis critically organised through the lens of the diverse lived experiences of victim-survivors, policy and practice implications are discussed in relation to four sociological domains: women’s lived experience of DVA; mothers and the family in which DVA is a feature; DVA, welfare reform and austerity; and men’s participation in the field of DVA or VAW. Analysis substantiates the imperative of earnestly listening to victim-survivors, and of recognising their experiences as a crucial component in the design of policy and sector responses to DVA. Accounts signal how typically gendered notions of ‘authentic victimhood’ are both routinely mobilised and fundamentally challenged, as victim-survivors engage in complex resistance work even in highly constrained and unsafe environments. Analysis also reveals the various ways in which welfare austerity exacerbates the harms associated with DVA, particularly for those living more marginal lives, closing down vital routes and opportunities for help-seeking and leave-seeking. The UK government’s commitment to tackling DVA is therefore severely undermined in this context. An examination of mothers’ experience of DVA further demonstrates how they are routinely failed by dominant (statutory) responses to DVA, cementing the urgent need for culture change and greater accountability and responsibility to be allocated to fathers who perpetrate DVA. Finally, data from across all three participant groups substantiates that men do and should have a role to play in addressing men’s violence towards women, at various scales, while also foregrounding the complexities associated with this work.

Supervisors: Throsby, Karen
Keywords: domestic violence and abuse; violence against women; prevention; gender; 'frontline' intervention; mothers; fathers; child protection; social care; austerity; welfare reform
Awarding institution: University of Leeds
Academic Units:
Identification Number/EthosID: uk.bl.ethos.826658
Depositing User: Dr Jessica Wild
Date Deposited: 03 Mar 2021 10:42
Last Modified: 11 Feb 2022 10:53

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Thesis Statement for Domestic Violence

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Published: Mar 5, 2024

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thesis of domestic violence

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Violence Against Women Research Database

  • Domestic Violence

The Multicultural Community Liaison Officer (MCLO) Program is designed to combat domestic violence in the Australia.  This presentation briefly discusses the challenges and achievements of MCLO. 

http://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/ylsd/3/

This thesis is born of the question: why do women suffer domestic violence disproportionately to any other group? Why does it continue, in the same form, with the same degree of pain, without rebate? And, if the same harm occurs over and over again, consistent through generations and uniform across borders, why then has the international community not yet developed effective means to address it? This thesis attempts to find a legal answer. This is prefaced, however, by the acknowledgement that the law is only one tool in an array of mechanisms, such as health, economics, and politics, which, if properly combined, could alleviate the pain and difficulties experienced by many victims of domestic violence. The area of law to which I look is international human rights law. My initial motivation for considering public international law arose from the repetition of similar forms of domestic violence around the globe. All over the world women suffer the same type of violence at the hands of their intimate partners and they endure the same feelings of helplessness and isolation when looking to the state for protection. If such violence is universal, it seems then, so too should be the solution. I propose in this thesis that international law, if properly fashioned, can be used effectively as part of this solution. In particular, I maintain that the authoritative enunciation of a norm against domestic violence in international law can improve the way states address domestic violence. I do not propose that individual abusers should be tried by international law. My focus instead is on the extent to which states fail consistently to alleviate domestic violence. This is important because many legal systems appreciate neither the exigency of extreme forms of domestic violence, nor the extent to which women as a group are disproportionately victims of this violence. The result of this lack of appreciation is an almost universal failure to police, prevent and punish domestic violence effectively.3 Due to the socialized normalcy of domestic violence, very few cases are reported or actually prosecuted. Where prosecutions do proceed, victims will often drop their complaints either because they have reconciled with, or because they fear recrimination from, their abuser. Given the disjuncture between the reality of domestic violence and the inefficacy of many legal systems to address it, a revision of the law vis-Ă -vis domestic violence is needed. Both national and international legal systems are in need of change. This thesis proposes that the international community should adopt a clear and authoritative articulation of a legal right against extreme and systemic forms of domestic violence and a corresponding duty of states to help remedy such violence. This proposition is made on the basis that international law currently does not contain an effective articulation of this right, and that adopting effective global standards in international law for addressing such violence would help improve state enforcement of this right. Under the current state of international law, it is difficult to convince states to prioritize its resources and infrastructures to protect abused women. Articulating clear and effective global standards in international law for addressing extreme forms of domestic violence would provide an important and practical benchmark against which domestic state legislation could be evaluated and re-shaped. Formulating such global standards could place pressure on states to take basic remedial steps against such violence, such as enacting legislation that allows for restraining orders to be made at the same time as a maintenance order, or creating accessible shelters, which will accommodate the divergent needs of women, including their children.

http://odhikar.org/fairness-creams-skin-colour-based-discrimination-and-violence-against-women-time-to-stop/

Ruma (not her real name), a school teacher by profession and a mother of two, living in Dhaka, married Mainul eight years ago. Soon after, Mainul started harassing her, calling her an ‘ugly’ woman – because of her dark complexion.  Her mother-in-law and other members of her husband’s family used to verbally abuse her almost every day, saying that her skin is ‘moyla’ (dirty); and expressed their anger and frustration, and thought that Mainul had bad luck as he was not able to marry a ‘beautiful’ woman–meaning a fair-complexioned woman. Ruma tried very hard to be seen as beautiful in the eyes of her husband and in-laws and experimented to see how she could look fairer. She started buying brand name fairness creams, hoping to make her skin lighter as she started to believe that fair meant lovely, as the advertisements say. She regularly watched fairness cream advertisements on television, read about them on bill boards and newspapers and wanted to be as fair as the models in the advertisements. Unfortunately, nothing really worked or showed much of a result. Her husband and in laws demanded a huge amount of dowry repeatedly – apparently as a retaliation for her darker skin.

http://www.civicresearchinstitute.com/online/issue.php?pid=18

*The full article is available through this link. This article may be available free of charge to those with university credentials.

The leading professional report devoted exclusively to innovative programs, legal developments, and current services and research in domestic violence law and prevention.

Domestic Violence Report  keeps you up-to-date on...

  • Successful programs for prevention, protection, enforcement, prosecution, aftercare and corrections
  • New legislation, court decisions, regulatory and policy developments
  • Practical intervention strategies
  • Criminal and civil litigation
  • Medical and psychological treatment of victims, abusers and their children

http://odhikar.org/are-you-a-silent-observer-of-dowry-and-related-violence/

Every year many women in Bangladesh are killed and physically abused and many commit suicide because of the the vicious dowry practice and related violence. According to the rights organisation Odhikar, at least 2,800 women were killed, 1,833 were physically abused and 204 committed suicide because of dowry-related violence between 2001 and July 2014.

By analysing the overall dowry situation, reported statistics indicate that it is only the tip of the iceberg. Majority of the victims continue to tolerate abuse, if they are not killed, all through their married life and never report it. The main reasons behind tolerating or not reporting such abuse is that they are either financially incapable of going away and protecting themselves from their abusive husbands or they are not welcome by their poverty-stricken or stigmatised parental families.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24777256

Exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) has negative consequences for children's well-being and behavior. Much of the research on parenting in the context of IPV has focused on whether and how IPV victimization may negatively shape maternal parenting, and how parenting may in turn negatively influence child behavior, resulting in a deficit model of mothering in the context of IPV. However, extant research has yet to untangle the interrelationships among the constructs and test whether the negative effects of IPV on child behavior are indeed attributable to IPV affecting mothers' parenting. The current study employed path analysis to examine the relationships among IPV, mothers' parenting practices, and their children's externalizing behaviors over three waves of data collection among a sample of 160 women with physically abusive partners. Findings indicate that women who reported higher levels of IPV also reported higher levels of behavior problems in their children at the next time point. When parenting practices were examined individually as mediators of the relationship between IPV and child behavior over time, one type of parenting was significant, such that higher IPV led to higher authoritative parenting and lower child behavior problems [corrected]. On the other hand, there was no evidence that higher levels of IPV contributed to more child behavior problems due to maternal parenting. Instead, IPV had a significant cumulative indirect effect on child behavior via the stability of both IPV and behavior over time. Implications for promoting women's and children's well-being in the context of IPV are discussed.

http://www.pearsonhighered.com/educator/product/Heavy-Hands-An-Introduct...

Heavy Hands, Fifth Edition, provides an authentic introduction to the crimes of family violence, covering offenders and offenses, impact on victims, and responses of the criminal justice system. This established text is essential reading for those considering careers in criminal justice, victim advocacy, social work, and counseling. Gosselin draws on extensive field experience and uses real-life examples to provide sharp insight into how and why abuse occurs and its effects on abuse survivors. The text’s accessible language and effective learning tools keep students engaged and motivated, while its practical, real-world focus helps students connect text material to the world around them. 

http://dhsprogram.com/publications/publication-DHSQMP-DHS-Questionnaires...

**Go to the publication " DHS6_Module_Domestic_Violence_6Aug2014_DHSQMP"

This document is part of the Demographic and Health Survey’s DHS Toolkit of methodology for the MEASURE DHS Phase III project, implemented from 2008-2013.

This publication was produced for review by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). It was prepared by MEASURE DHS/ICF International.

http://www.pulp.up.ac.za/edited-collections/strengthening-the-protection...

Strengthening the protection of sexual and reproductive health and rights in the African region through human rights uses rights-based frameworks to address some of the serious sexual and reproductive health challenges that the African region is currently facing. More importantly, the book provides insightful human rights approaches on how these challenges can be overcome. The book is the first of its kind. It is an important addition to the resources available to researchers, academics, policymakers, civil society organisations, human rights defenders, learners and other persons interested in the subject of sexual and reproductive health and rights as they apply to the African region. Human rights issues addressed by the book include: access to safe abortion and emergency obstetric care; HIV/AIDS; adolescent sexual health and rights; early marriage; and gender-based sexual violence.

Myanmar Activists Demand Law to Ban Violence Against Women

This article from The New York Times explores Myanmar's lack of infrastructure to combat violence against women and children. 

http://euromedrights.org/publication/violence-against-women-in-the-conte...

On the occasion of International Women’s Day (8th of March), the Euro Mediterranean Human Rights Network (EMHRN) published today its regional report “Violence against women in the context of political transformations and economic crisis in the Euro-Mediterranean region; trends and recommendations towards equality and justice”.

This report alerts that violence against women has dramatically increased in the Euro-Mediterranean region during the recent years,  showcasing key patterns of violence against women, through case studies from Egypt, Syria, Tunisia, Libya, France, Cyprus and Spain.

The report also underlines the alarming increase and severity of sexual violence in countries such as Libya, Syria and Egypt mounting to sexual terrorism.  In Egypt, women protestors were subjected to systematic and seemingly planned harassment and gang rapes in Tahrir Square. In Syria, women and are subjected to trafficking and sexual exploitation girls in refugee camps.

Subject : This research memorandum presents key findings from desk research conducted in January and February 2014, on the barriers to instituting appropriate VAW laws against domestic violence (DV), and to effectively implementing them in three countries in Asia (China, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka).

Background and Cross-Cutting Findings: China, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka have all ratified CEDAW; however, both China and Pakistan have not passed the Optional Protocol to CEDAW. Research found four cross-cutting barriers impeding the institutionalization of appropriate VAW laws against DV in these three countries:

1)  The predominant public discourse on DV is fragmented. As a result, an overall sense of urgency and severity of the problem is not felt among key stakeholders in all 3 countries.

2)  Other national policies regarding housing, marriage, fertility, migration, etc. undermine both the international (CEDAW) legal framework, and the national policies set up for service provision and protection across all three countries.

3)  There is an overall lack of appropriate resource allocation among all 3 countries for comprehensively implementing appropriate VAW laws against DV. A large body of evidence suggests multiple root causes for VAW-DV, and States disagree on where and how to allocate resources to VAW-DV (prevention, intervention, prosecution, and protection).

4)  Incomparable and unreliable data is the 4 th major barrier to instituting appropriate VAW laws against DV both internationally through CEDAW, and nationally within all 3 countries. Transparency of data collection methodologies is also a noted concern. 

Violence against Women (VAW) is a pervasive, global human rights violation. This research memo discusses the current state of VAW in Australia, and the Australian Governments proposed National Action Plan (NAP) addressing VAW across Australia’s diverse community. Noting that women’s rights are not fully protected by the Commonwealth and revealing the current appalling statistics around domestic and sexual violence against Australian women, the memo then provides insight on Indigenous women and VAW, followed by a deeper look at NAP. Finally, after a brief look at the recent study tour of Australia by the Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women, Australia’s commitment to addressing VAW is discussed with reference to reporting for CEDAW and UPR. The memo then considers the Special Rapporteur’s study tour in light of the election of a new federal government. It then concludes that if the state shows genuine commitment to its people, and to its obligations under human rights treaties, the onus ultimately rests on it to work with civil society to make use of the human rights mechanisms and seek to honestly and with purpose examine their human rights status and develop and adopt sustainable positive change. 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24164531

Intimate partner violence (IPV) has detrimental consequences for women's mental health. To effectively intervene, it is essential to understand the process through which IPV influences women's mental health. The current study used data from 5 waves of the Women's Employment Study, a prospective study of single mothers receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), to empirically investigate the extent to which job stability mediates the relationship between IPV and adverse mental health outcomes. The findings indicate that IPV significantly negatively affects women's job stability and mental health. Further, job stability is at least partly responsible for the damaging mental health consequences of abuse, and the effects can last up to 3 years after the IPV ends. This study demonstrates the need for interventions that effectively address barriers to employment as a means of enhancing the mental health of low-income women with abusive partners.

http://jbp.sagepub.com/content/40/6/563

Racial microaggressions are often unintentional and subtle forms of racism that manifest in interpersonal communications, behaviors, or environments. The purpose of this study was to explore the presence of racial microaggressions within domestic violence shelters and to understand how women respond to them. Using a phenomenological approach to data collection and analysis, 14 Black women from 3 different shelters were interviewed. Twelve women reported experiencing at least one racial microaggression, although few identified the experience as racist. Additional themes were also examined to understand why women did not identify their experiences of racial microaggressions as racist. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

http://www.unwomen.org/en/digital-library/publications/2010/1/ending-vio...

Can be found under the 'View Online' portion of the site

Ending violence against women is at the heart of the mandate of the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM). The international community has an unprecedented opportunity to make meaningful progress in tackling this universal human rights violation. Within this context, UNIFEM has developed its Strategy 2008-2013 to end violence against women and girls, an overview of which is presented here. 

http://www.larepublica.ec/blog/internacional/2013/02/15/bolivia-enfrenta...

La Paz, 15 feb (EFE).- Bolivia ha asumido el reto de frenar la hasta ahora reinante impunidad en los crímenes contra las mujeres con una ley que castigarå con dureza la violencia machista, tras el asesinato esta semana de una periodista a manos de su esposo policía.

http://www.echr.coe.int/sites/search_eng/pages/search.aspx#{"fulltext":["factsheet: Violence against women"],"subcategory":["factsheets"]}

Document summaries the court’s case law in relation to domestic violence, genital mutilations, rape, violence and social exclusion, violence at the hands of state authorities and violence in public places.

12 cases dealing with domestic violence refer to the violation of different articles of the European Convention of human rights, namely of the article 2 on the right to life, article 13 on the right to an effective remedy, article 8 on the right to respect for family life, prohibition of inhuman or degrading treatment and article 14 on prohibition of discrimination. Both cases relating genital mutilation against Austria and Ireland were declared inadmissible for the reasons of insufficient protection of the young Nigerian girls that should be provided by their parents. 5 cases dealing with rape reaffirmed the violation of articles 3 on the prohibition of inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, article 8 and artcile 13 mentioned above. The case of violence and social exclusion confirmed violation of the article 3 whereas the violence at the hands of state authorities brought forward violation of the article 3, artcile 14 and article 11 on freedom of assembly. The last case presented in the factsheet deals with the violence in public places giving declaring the violation of the article 3 and article 8.

http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2013001/article/11766-eng.htm

For the past three decades, Federal-Provincial-Territorial (FPT) Ministers responsible for the Status of Women have shared a common vision to end violence against women in all its forms. Violence against women inCanada is a serious, pervasive problem that crosses every social boundary and affects communities across the country. It remains a significant barrier to women's equality and has devastating impacts on the lives of women, children, families and Canadian society as a whole.

This report marks the third time that the FPT Status of Women Forum has worked with Statistics Canada to add to the body of evidence on gender-based violence. Assessing Violence Against Women: A Statistical Profile was released in 2002 and was followed by Measuring Violence Against Women: Statistical Trends 2006. The 2006 report expanded the analysis into new areas, presenting information on Aboriginal women and women living in Canada's territories. The current report maintains this important focus and also includes information on dating violence, violence against girls and violence that occurs outside of the intimate partner/family context. It also shows trends over time and provides data at national, provincial/territorial, and census metropolitan area levels. A study on the economic impacts of one form of violence against women, spousal violence, is also presented.

http://mptf.undp.org/document/search?fund=WAV00&document_areas=fund,proj...

Please enter "Consolidated Report China" into the search engine in order to find this document.

The United Nations Trust Fund in Support of Actions to Eliminate Violence against Women (UN Trust Fund to EVAW) is a leading multilateral grant-making mechanism devoted to supporting national and local efforts to end violence against women and girls. Established in 1996 by a UN General Assembly Resolution, the UN Trust Fund to EVAW is now administered by UN WOMEN. In 2008, the UN Trust Fund to EVAW began awarding grants on a competitive basis for Joint Programmes submitted by UN Country Teams. 

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SYSTEMATIC REVIEW article

The global psychological and physical effects of domestic abuse and violence on south asian women: a qualitative systematic review.

\r\nMarina Masih

  • College of Medical and Dental Sciences, Institute of Clinical Sciences School of Nursing and Midwifery University of Birmingham Edgbaston, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom

Introduction: The purpose of this review is to systematically extract and analyse global academic literature to determine the physical and psychological effects of domestic abuse and violence on South Asian women.

Design: This review employs a qualitative systematic approach and thematic analysis to synthesize the narratives of affected women found in the literature. Given that domestic violence is often concealed and downplayed by various social factors, statistical reports and prevalence data offer only a limited view of the issue due to underreporting. Therefore, qualitative literature is deemed more dependable in this subjective domain as it captures and interprets the experiences and meanings within this under-studied group.

Data sources: Embase, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, Web Of Science, MEDLINE, and ASSIA were searched.

Review methods: All included studies were critically appraised using the CASP tool for qualitative research. Thematic analysis was conducted to develop six themes. Studies excluded did not address the research question, although intersecting population issues could be valuable topics for further research.

Results: The literature indicates severe mental and physical health consequences of domestic violence and abuse, with some traits persisting long-term. The analysis underscores the significant role of resilience, suggesting that individuals can overcome traumatic social experiences without enduring lifelong labels or a deficit model.

Conclusion: The findings provide support for future interventions aimed at recognizing signs of abuse and preventing severe psychological and physical consequences, particularly among South Asian women. Further research is needed to understand the impact on children and other family members affected by the victim's abuse, which falls beyond the scope of this review.

1 Introduction & background

Domestic violence and abuse encompass a range of coercive, threatening, controlling, degrading, and violent behaviours ( 1 ). Globally, intimate partner violence affects 641 million women and is the most common form of violence against women ( 2 ). In UK law and reports, the term is broadly recognized and includes various forms of abuse.

Demographically, the highest rates of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) are recorded in South Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Oceania, with prevalence rates between 33% and 51% among women aged 15–49 years ( 2 ). This study examines the impact of domestic violence on South Asian women, particularly in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Afghanistan, the Maldives, and Sri Lanka ( 3 ). In South Asia, domestic violence remains a significant social issue, influenced by social, economic, and cultural factors that may normalize violence experiences ( 4 ). Research indicates that South Asian women are less likely to report violence due to the associated stigma, shame, fear of community isolation, and the importance placed on family reputation ( 5 , 6 ). It is important to note that statistics do not capture unreported cases, making it challenging to assess the impact of these barriers on reporting behaviours. Therefore, this qualitative review will focus on the experiences of women who have participated in research, not those who remain undisclosed. The study also recognizes the distinct experiences of South Asian migrants and immigrants, acknowledging that both groups may have different experiences.

To summarize, the preliminary search for this review identified a single systematic review by Kalokhe et al. ( 7 ), which investigated the impact of domestic violence on physical and mental health. Focusing on 137 quantitative studies from India, it highlighted the need for a more extensive global search. The current review aims to compile and scrutinize all pertinent literature that describes the physical and psychological consequences of domestic abuse on South Asian women.

2 Methodology

A qualitative systematic review of primary data was conducted to examine the physical and psychological effects of domestic violence and abuse on South Asian women. The aim was to comprehend the psychological and physical impacts through the lens of women's rich experiences. Consequently, a qualitative methodology was essential to foster understanding and provide insight into the researched situation, as the results are descriptive and interpretive ( 8 ). The review adhered to the “Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses” (PRISMA) guidelines, which enhance the transparency, completeness, and accuracy of systematic review reporting ( 9 ). This review exclusively concentrated on qualitative data, analysing women's experiences via interviews, and included pertinent mixed-method studies. In this case, quantitative data were omitted, focusing solely on the analysis of interviews detailing lived experiences.

2.2 Search methods

The key themes of the research question were identified using the PEO framework. This includes identifying the population (P), exposure (E), and outcome (O) ( 10 ). The following research question was formulated…

1) What are the psychological and physical effects (O) of domestic violence and abuse (E) on South Asian women (P)?

The same search terms were utilized across all databases, but the format was adjusted to meet each database's specific requirements. The search terms, being relevant to the question were constructed using the themes that were identified utilising the PEO framework, (as seen in Table 1 below). Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) were employed in databases like MEDLINE, supplemented by keyword searches. Truncation was used to capture multiple suffix variations of a key term ( 8 ). To prevent bias in the search results and ensure no relevant literature was overlooked, searches were conducted without any pre-set limits ( 11 ).

www.frontiersin.org

Table 1. The PEO framework and the search terms that were used to answer the question.

Beyond electronic database searches, additional strategies were employed to ensure a comprehensive literature review, following the recommendations of Cochrane ( 12 ) as well as Greenhalgh and Peacock ( 13 ). This included examining relevant journals at academic institutions and local libraries. A basic internet search with the search terms was also performed. Furthermore, the grey literature database OpenGrey ( 14 ) was explored using the keywords, but it yielded no pertinent literature, as noted by Bettany-Saltikov ( 10 ).

2.3 Screening

An online reference management website “Rayyan” was used to import the results of the screening searches. The exclusion and inclusion criteria ( Table 2 ) were established before beginning the screening process. Once the results of the searches were uploaded, the titles and abstracts of the literature were examined, selecting those that met the predetermined inclusion criteria.

www.frontiersin.org

Table 2. A table showing the criteria established to assess the relevance of the literature and to maintain the focus of the review.

2.4 Critical appraisal

The quality appraisal was based on criteria from the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) tools for qualitative, cross-sectional studies, and case-controlled studies.

2.5 Data abstraction

Data extracted from each of the studies followed guidance by Cochrane ( 15 ). This included author(s), date, and location of publication, aim(s), design and data collection, sample, data analysis, key findings, and limitations ( 15 ). This is shown in Table 3 .

www.frontiersin.org

Table 3. Table showing an analysis of the appropriate data extracted from each article.

Following the process from Braun and Clark ( 24 ), an inductive approach was undertaken to analyse the data from the literature from where six themes were developed: visible injuries, reproductive health problems, temporary disabilities, psychosomatic symptoms, isolation, and withdrawal symptom and lastly, mental health disorders and suicidal ideation.

3.2 Critical appraisal of results

All studies included were appraised for quality, finding diversity in the quality of the articles. The results of the critical appraisal are displayed in Table 4 . Out of eight studies, three explicitly stated receiving ethics committee approval or detailed the procedures to uphold ethical standards. Five studies did not mention ethical approval or participant confidentiality measures ( 17 – 20 , 22 ). However, only Chibber et al. ( 18 ), Ahmad-Stout et al. ( 19 ), and Najma and Naz ( 21 ) clearly stated that they obtained consent. The publication dates of four studies (2006, 2008, 2010, and 2011) might reflect different publication guidelines from current standards, explaining the lack of explicit ethics statements. Additionally, the publication's location could influence the process of obtaining ethical approval, with low-income countries less likely to seek such approvals for health studies, as seen with Hussain and Khan ( 17 ) in Pakistan and Chibber et al. ( 18 ) in India ( 27 ). The need for ethical works for underserved communities is important and forefront of a good study.

www.frontiersin.org

Table 4. A table showing all the studies utilised that were appraised for quality.

2.6 Data analysis

The six-step method by Braun and Clarke ( 24 ) gave the guidance for conducting a thematic analysis of the literature; this was selected due to its simplified and adapted method that helps in identifying themes within qualitative data ( 25 ). To reduce bias in the findings, an inductive technique was used to construct the themes from the literature based on the content of the data ( 24 ). This method recognised themes from the literature rather than predetermining them ( 26 ).

3.1 Summary of findings

A total of 374 results were retrieved from six online databases, with an additional two results manually added, bringing the total to 376. The breakdown of results from the databases is as follows: Embase (112), PsycINFO (12), Web of Science (75), Google Scholar (50), MEDLINE (108), and ASSIA (17). Due to the large number of results from Google Scholar, only the first 50 were considered. The software “Rayyan” facilitated the exportation of results, during which 126 duplicates were removed. Further exclusions were made based on title (59) and abstract (68). After applying the predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria, eight studies were selected for detailed review ( Figure 1 ).

www.frontiersin.org

Figure 1 PRISMA 2020 flow diagram for new systematic reviews which included searches of databases, registers and other sources.

The included studies were conducted across four different countries from 2006 to 2018. Although this provides a wider range of information universally, generalisability is still limited as most of the data is present from countries of a South Asian background, where the highest prevalence rates of intimate partner violence are identified ( 2 ).

A common issue across all studies was the small sample size of women interviewed. This not only limits the generalizability of the results but also heightens the risk of type I or type II errors ( 28 ). It also undermines the validity of the results, as small sample sizes are unlikely to yield reliable outcomes ( 29 ). Nonetheless, within the context of this review, a small sample size may be considered suitable as it allows qualitative researchers to engage closely with participants, facilitating in-depth data collection through interviews ( 30 ).

Snowball sampling was utilized in four studies ( 16 , 17 , 20 , 22 ), which heightens the risk of uncontrollable bias. This is because key workers or participants might recommend others who share their perspectives or experiences of abuse, potentially leading to a non-representative sample of the population ( 29 ). Additionally, purposive sampling was employed in three studies ( 16 , 18 , 21 ), which compromises study reliability and introduces significant bias, as researchers handpick participants that they deem most suitable ( 31 ).

Methodological issues were identified regarding the relationship between the researcher and participants not being considered. Interviewing female participants could have been affected using a male interviewer in the study conducted by Khan ( 16 ). This could result in the ease of disclosure of violence being affected ( 32 ). The risk of data being overlooked, or inaccurate information being reported, results in internal validity being reduced.

Only one study ( 22 ) conducted telephone interviews, which might have compromised the validity and reliability of the results due to the inability to observe the participants’ body language or facial expressions, potentially leading to data loss and distortion ( 29 ). This limitation could impair the interviewer's capacity to detect emotions such as discomfort, anger, or sorrow. Moreover, the difficulty in establishing rapport over the phone may also impact the quality of the findings ( 33 ). However, the fact that all interviews across the studies were recorded and transcribed enhanced inter-rater reliability, as it allows multiple researchers to participate in the analysis ( 34 ).

No studies were excluded because they were all deemed valuable and recognised as decent quality in helping to answer the research question.

3.3.1 Physical

3.3.1.1 visible injuries.

From the studies included in the review, one of the common themes was that women often described their experiences of physical violence as a use of force against their bodies resulting in visible outcomes. These ranged from minor to severe injuries. The discussion of visible injuries was seen in four studies ( 16 , 18 , 20 , 22 ). Visible injuries varied from minor cuts and scratches ( 30 ) to more serious injuries such as swollen or black eyes, burn marks and bruises ( 16 , 20 , 22 ).

Severe head injuries which resulted in serious long-term consequences of neurological damage were reported. For example, one participant commented: “ he banged my head against a wooden pillar of the house. He did it several times. My skull hurt badly ” [( 16 ), p.214]. Additionally, another visible long-term consequence was reported by a participant who stated her husband punched her in the face, knocking her front teeth out ( 16 ). Some injuries reported were acknowledged as not so distinct due to facial injuries not endured by the victim. For example, one participant stated “ he used to squeeze my thighs and leave marks ’’ [( 20 ), p.804]. Another participant reported that her husband hit her with a stick several times, targeting her breasts and leaving scars ( 16 ).

3.3.1.2 Reproductive health problems

A second theme that emerged from the interviews was that women suffered serious reproductive health problems resulting from domestic violence. Physical violence imposed by their partners was a dangerous experience for women during their pregnancy. The role of the mother-in-law in domestic violence is discussed in Kaur-Aujla ( 6 ), and evidence of extended family abuse is commonplace.

Miscarriages were associated with domestic violence in two studies ( 16 , 23 ). A married 20-year-old participant discussed how her mother-in-law limiting her food intake during pregnancy resulted in a miscarriage: “ I was without food for two and half days; then I ran from my in-laws' place. I just went to my sister place. After a week I felt feverish and at that time my bleeding (miscarriage) started ” [( 23 ), p.705]. Furthermore, another victim reported her husband kicking her abdomen and as a result, she experienced heavy bleeding and consequently suffered a miscarriage ( 16 ). Low infant birth weight was also identified and associated with reproductive health problems due to a victim's mother-in-law restricting her food intake ( 23 ).

Similarities were also noticed when victims reported unwanted forced pregnancies in three studies ( 16 , 17 , 20 ). One victim's husband did not like her using contraceptives and did not allow her to use any birth control methods: resulting in both her and her child suffering from chronic malnutrition ( 16 ). Hurwitz et al. ( 22 ) also documented malnutrition as a physical consequence. Hussain and Khan ( 17 ) found victims have difficulties in negotiating safe sex controlled by the husband which resulted in unwanted pregnancies, “ My husband still wants to have more children and wants to keep on having unprotected sex ” (p.474).

A widespread practice in dealing with unwanted pregnancies often led to the act of induced abortions as seen by Kallivayalil ( 16 ) and Chibber et al. ( 18 ). Evidentially, some victims had to terminate their pregnancies to contribute to the household income and continue working ( 18 ). Those that were unable to terminate their pregnancies gave birth to a stillborn baby. Even though the reason was unknown, she still blamed her husband; “ He used to do that thing (sex) during the whole period of my pregnancy. I gave birth to a stillborn baby. I am sure it is the consequence of his activity ” [( 16 ), p.216].

3.3.1.3 Temporary disabilities

Health consequences that kept victims incapacitated or out of work for a while were discussed across four studies ( Table 5 ). Demonstratable outcomes of physical violence included longer-lasting medical effects such as requiring surgery due to broken bones ( 19 ). In another study, physician associates noticed indications of IPV through observations of broken limbs and fractures in their assessments ( 18 ). Fractures were also noted from one victim from Khan ( 16 ) who reported her husband fractured her leg after attacking her with a piece of stone. Similarly, another victim disclosed her husband fractured her leg after hitting her with an iron rod. During the interview, the researcher recognised that she could not walk normally ( 16 ). However, as this statement was from the researcher and not the victim, it questions how accurate and truthful this statement was, due to the presence of only one observer. Thus, lacking in inter-rater reliability ( 34 ). Mobility issues were reported by Hurwitz et al. ( 22 ); “ That day he hurt me too bad with the beer bottle, my ankle got hurt and I was not able to walk properly … There were times when I would go to class with the limping ” (p.255). This statement supports and shows how such profound consequences are affecting everyday life for participants and the resilience that victims show in continuing their daily activities despite coping with injury.

www.frontiersin.org

Table 5. A table showing how themes have been deduced and allocated through analysis.

3.3.2 Psychological

3.3.2.1 psychosomatic symptoms.

Psychosomatic symptoms refer to physical health problems such as sleep disturbances, fatigue, respiratory problems, headaches, back pains, stomach aches, or unexplained pains. These do not have a physical cause but may have an emotional or mental cause ( 35 ).

Body aches in different forms varied between victims and in reporting mechanisms ( 18 , 20 , 22 ). Severe headaches, back aches and general body aches were frequently reported due to physical stress. Victims seamlessly associated their suffering narratives on both psychological and physical dimensions as they made meaning of their abuse experiences ( 20 ).

Difficulties in sleeping were frequently seen in the literature. In the sample, women who were no longer with their abusers explained how they are haunted by nightmares recalling the abuse and consequently fearing bedtime, “ I still have the emotional stress. I mean, I even dream about the things that occurred with him when I was there… It is such a disturbed sleep now I do not want to go to bed ” [( 22 ), p.257]. Similarly, another participant stated, “ I feel depressed, I cannot sleep ” [( 20 ), p.803]. The findings from Najma and Naz ( 21 ) demonstrate the major psychological problems faced by women after experiencing domestic violence included sleep problems, however, the article did not state the type of qualitative analysis conducted and thus no elements of interviews were included, resulting in no understanding of contextual data.

Women often recognised their physical expression of stress and directly associated the stress they were experiencing with the breakdown of their bodies. For example, heart palpitations, gastric problems and respiratory problems identified as psychosomatic symptoms were described by a participant; “ Physically when you stress out too much, especially my body, I take everything inside me, I didn't share with no one. And finally, what happened, my stomach got upset and problems…. or I have a heart palpitation or something like my hands are blue, and I have breathing problem ” [( 20 ), p.805]. This statement highlights how unexplained pains can relate to the mental well-being of the patient. Psychological distress was embodied in physical symptoms, and this is particularly important when assessing this group in medical situations.

3.3.2.2 Isolation, withdrawal, and self-neglect symptoms

Isolation and withdrawal symptoms in the context of this theme are associated with symptoms of an already existing mental health condition, such as anxiety or depression. Individuals that are experiencing withdrawal or isolation will not participate in activities, they would usually enjoy being alone or with others ( 36 ). Indicators of isolation and withdrawal may include a change in appetite, lowered self-esteem, feeling helpless, lowered energy or motivation, recurring feelings of guilt, worthlessness, and self-loathing ( 37 ).

The loss of self-confidence was identified in two studies. Ahmad-Stout et al. ( 28 ) describe how a participant sample mentioned struggling with a reduced sense of confidence which they then associated with a feeling that they had lost a part of themselves. Female speakers explained how their lost capacity to enjoy life contributed to their impaired functioning: “(After the abuse) I started to lose my self-confidence and the, because earlier I used to be very bubbly, full of energy. But then I … I just lost everything  …” [( 22 ), p.257]. This statement also implies feelings of lowered energy and motivation.

Many victims also expressed feeling hopeless, helpless, and isolated from others even including their families of origin. “ I was feeling … helpless and just like my life doesn't make sense ” [( 19 ), p.948]. Similarly, Najma and Naz ( 21 ) also found feelings of helplessness, worthlessness, and hopelessness to be emotions expressed by surviving women. Additionally, women who remained in the relationships were seen to display self-loathing behaviours; “ At first (in the abusive relationship), I questioned my own sanity and wondered if there was something wrong with me. I felt very helpless ’’ [( 22 ), p.256]. However, these behaviours may have been induced because of the abuse and the perpetrator's gradual degradation of the victim.

Appetite and eating concerns were a recurring theme in the interviews shown in three studies ( 18 , 20 , 22 ). Isolation from family members often resulted in a change in eating behaviours as one woman described how she would cook for her children but not eat with them and preferred to sit in her room alone ( 20 ). Here, women described how the stress of abuse affected their appetite; “ I lost my appetite (in the abusive relationship). I mean I was not able to eat properly. I mean because the emotional stress maybe ” [( 22 ), p.257]. Similarly, loss of appetite was also reported by Chibber et al. ( 18 ).

Signs of psychological distress among women were noted as being uneasy, withdrawn, fearful or unhappy ( 18 ). Whereas Najma and Naz ( 21 ) highlighted key psychological issues faced by the survivors were anhedonia, poor self-concept, and low self-esteem, all of which were deemed appropriate to be categorised in this theme.

3.3.2.3 Mental health disorders and suicidal ideation

A range of mental health disorders stated by victims were commonly reported through the interviews. Examples of reported diagnoses seen throughout the literature included depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be with or without suicidal ideation or attempts. Three studies investigated PTSD because of domestic abuse and violence ( 20 – 22 ). Women described mental health concerns once they had left the relationship, “ I have PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder) …  I've been losing some of my memory and I cannot pay attention to anything …” [( 22 ), p.256]. Women in this sample had episodes of PTSD and found it challenging to fulfil their roles as mothers ( 20 ). The findings from Najma and Naz ( 21 ) also found PTSD to be a significant psychological problem faced by survivor women. However, again, the pathologisation of women in these circumstances must be acknowledged and rather, trauma informed responses are key. In that, there are women who have been great mothers to their children despite incurring abuse, battling with mental health, and these successes are less emphasised in medical works due to the “disease model”, Syme and Hagen ( 38 ).

The diagnosis of depression was stated in four studies. IPV was significantly associated with mental health resulting in impacting the general health of individuals, “ My doctor says I am in depression. It does affect my health ” [( 22 ), p.256]. Depression was stated by Ahmad-Stout et al. ( 19 ) and Najma and Naz ( 21 ) through suicidal attempts and thoughts. One woman also discussed how her depression because of her abortion caused her to neglect her family, “ I feel depressed, I cannot sleep, and I was negligent of the second child ” [( 20 ), p.803].

Three studies showed how women often discussed suicide attempts as they thought death appeared to be a better option than life; “ one time I went to the river to commit suicide ” [( 22 ), p.256]. Another participant described, “ I had a knife in my bathroom to slit myself ” ( 19 ). Ideas of taking their own life remained in women's thoughts, “ Often, I think so many people are dying every day so why not me ?” [( 16 ), p.216].

4 Discussion

This qualitative systematic review sought to gather and analyse relevant studies on the impact of domestic abuse and violence against South Asian women ( 39 ). Although the quality of research varied, consistent themes emerged across the studies. These included visible injuries, reproductive health issues, temporary disabilities, psychosomatic symptoms, isolation, withdrawal symptoms, and mental health disorders with suicidal ideation. Nevertheless, Kaur-Aujla et al. ( 6 ) recommend exercising caution when applying mental health labels and pathologizing women who are coping with challenging life situations.

Upon reviewing the methodologies of the studies examined, it was found that the studies relied on interviews to gather data. The validity of these studies has been challenged due to the reliance on self-reported data, which subjects the qualitative findings to recall bias and an increase in social desirability bias ( 40 ). There is a possibility that participants may have responded in a manner they believed the researcher desired, thus not providing an accurate representation of their true opinions and thoughts. However, social desirability is more likely to lead to the underreporting rather than overreporting of domestic violence ( 41 ). It is advisable for researchers to incorporate a social desirability scale in the development of their interviews to reduce the tendency of socially desirable responses, thereby controlling for social desirability bias in data analysis ( 42 ). Furthermore, as previously indicated in the introduction, evidence suggests that women from South Asian backgrounds are less inclined to report violence due to the associated stigma and shame, as well as the importance placed on family reputation ( 6 , 43 ). This reluctance to disclose may also contribute to the questioned validity, as nondisclosure can lead to a lack of belief or validation, causing additional trauma and re-traumatization.

This review confirms that psychological repercussions of domestic abuse, such as mental health problems and psychosomatic symptoms, are important health consequences. However, cultural conflict in South Asian women is frequently blamed for the emergence of these effects ( 6 , 44 ). The validity of reporting somatisation symptoms, as observed in interviews with South Asian women, is debated since somatisation is a prevalent concept among non-Western populations ( 45 ). Kirmayer and Young ( 46 ) suggest that enhanced psychological insight could lead to fewer reported somatic symptoms. Women in these interviews frequently associated their psychological distress with physical ailments. Burr ( 47 ) recommends that such interpretations be examined to address both symptom sets thoroughly. It is posited that a lack of mental health literacy exists in South Asian communities, prompting the need for medical practitioners to screen all women for domestic violence and abuse. Nonetheless, the analysis of various studies indicates that psychological symptoms, particularly depression and anxiety, were consistently reported.

Ali et al. ( 48 ) observed that depression in married women was linked to marital rape, domestic abuse by in-laws, early marriage, and lack of autonomy in marriage decisions. Marital rape, as noted in this review, is associated with reproductive health issues. In South Asian countries like Bangladesh, Maldives, India, and Sri Lanka, there are no laws criminalizing marital rape ( 49 ), indicating that women are unable to report their husbands for such acts due to the absence of legal provisions. This relates to the earlier point that intimate partner violence is the most common form of violence against women, with South Asian women experiencing the highest rates of such violence. The systematic review's primary findings corroborate these observations.

It was found that physical health concerns stem both directly from injury and indirectly from the stress of domestic violence. Chronic problems included backache, headache, and other body pain such as gastrointestinal problems. Women stated these issues started during the abuse in the relationship and continued even when they were no longer with their partner. Other researchers support this finding that physical health problems persist long-term, even after the abuse has ended ( 33 , 50 , 51 ). Even though these physical injuries reported were common amongst all studies, it relates to the notion as discussed above, whether these symptoms such as headaches were a result of somatisation. Questions asked to participants should be discussed in advance, so physical and psychological symptoms are addressed comprehensively.

The findings from this review have demonstrated substantial severe consequences on women's health. Sadly, society has contributed to escalating the incident rates of domestic violence through old traditions and norms and propaganda. These findings are in line with Grose and Grabe ( 52 ) findings, which showed that adopting a nonserious attitude toward domestic violence allowed society to enhance its severity. This connects to the introduction's discussion of the persistence of domestic violence and how societal and cultural factors can normalise violent experiences ( 4 ). Thus, re-iterating the idea that this nonserious attitude toward domestic violence within the South Asian community, viewing domestic violence as normal in a key factor in the continuation of the issue.

Factors such as poverty and autonomy among women have been seen to provoke the occurrence rate of domestic violence. One study found that the failure to fulfil the basic needs of a man towards his family creates tension and stress which is released through acts of violence against his family ( 53 ). These findings are also consistent with findings from Purvin ( 54 ), and Keenan et al. ( 55 ) who found that women in low-income families or marriages, who experienced domestic violence continuously stayed in that abusive relationships, just because of their dependency on their husbands in terms of money. Sarkar ( 56 ) discovered that a husband's final say on household autonomy was a risk factor. A wife's autonomy in managing her earnings and having joint autonomy in household decision-making were protective factors. Therefore, among the males who had grown up with parental abuse, perceptions of relationship rights and autonomy in this study suggested a belief system that enabled the justification for “beating” their wives ( 56 ). As mentioned in the introduction, economic factors were found to be a partial result of domestic violence being a persistent issue and thus as a result leads to South Asian women finding it difficult to leave their marriage in situ ations, albeit this is not a heterogenous group and more specific intergroup work in needed.

Suicidal ideation and attempts were identified as a common recurring theme throughout the literature. It was identified that married South Asian women were specifically more at risk of suicide attempts due to isolation from others, gender stereotyping, cultural conflict, and poor self-esteem. Consequently, a clear and positive correlation between domestic abuse and mental health can be identified ( 57 ). However, as congruent as the evidence is, the pathologisation of women because of Western diagnostic criteria is fraught with frustration ( 6 ). Therefore further research is required to explore the sociocultural needs of this homogenous group given the global geopolitical diaspora.

5 Strengths and limitations

This review's strength lies in its comprehensive search, which utilized various databases, extensive internet searches, and hand-searching of reference lists, thus identifying a broad spectrum of literature. A limitation of this review is the possibility of bias introduced during the initial stages by a novice researcher, although this was later checked by a more experienced researcher. To reduce bias, strategies like using an inductive approach for developing themes, instead of a pre-established one, were employed. Additionally, the language proficiency of the author led to the exclusion of non-English papers due to limited resources and lack of translations. This resulted in the omission of potentially relevant articles for South Asian women in languages such as Punjabi, Hindi, and Bengali.

This review is exclusively cantered on qualitative data. This approach is necessary because quantitative measures might not accurately capture the experiences of victims, although they can help researchers identify actions that contribute to understanding the various forms of violence ( 58 ). Quantitative methods for investigating domestic violence often present challenges and lack depth, as they are tied to contextual factors like cultural beliefs and practices ( 59 ).

6 Conclusion

This review was conducted to examine the psychological and physical impacts of domestic abuse and violence on South Asian women. It involved a systematic search, critical appraisal, and thematic analysis of studies relevant to the objective. The study is both crucial and timely, as domestic violence has been recognized as a rising global issue, particularly after the COVID-19 pandemic, which saw an increase in cases during lockdown periods.

In summary, six themes emerged: visible injuries, reproductive health issues, temporary disabilities, psychosomatic symptoms, isolation, and withdrawal symptoms, and finally, mental health disorders and suicidal thoughts. These themes contribute to understanding the experiences of these women, which can guide future interventions aimed at recognizing abuse and, hopefully, preventing its severe consequences.

Data availability statement

The original contributions presented in the study are included in the article/Supplementary Material, further inquiries can be directed to the corresponding author.

Author contributions

MM: Writing – original draft. CW: Project administration, Writing – review & editing. HK-A: Investigation, Writing – review & editing.

The author(s) declare that no financial support was received for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

Acknowledgment

University of Birmingham, School of Nursing and Midwifery.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Publisher's note

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

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Keywords: mental health, sikh, South Asian, physical injury, physical health and mental illness

Citation: Masih M, Wagstaff C and Kaur-Aujla H (2024) The global psychological and physical effects of domestic abuse and violence on South Asian women: a qualitative systematic review. Front. Glob. Womens Health 5 :1365883. doi: 10.3389/fgwh.2024.1365883

Received: 5 January 2024; Accepted: 6 June 2024; Published: 9 July 2024.

Reviewed by:

© 2024 Masih, Wagstaff and Kaur-Aujla. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) . The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

*Correspondence: Harjinder Kaur-Aujla, [email protected]

Disclaimer: All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

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Shodhganga : a reservoir of Indian theses @ INFLIBNET

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  • Department of Population Studies
Title: A Study in Domestic Violence against Women in India Determinants and Consequences
Researcher: Patrikar, Seema
Guide(s): 
Keywords: Social Sciences
Social Sciences General
Sociology
University: Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics
Completed Date: 2014
Abstract: Although violence at home affects the lives of millions of women worldwide, across diverse socioeconomic classes, it is yet under recognized human rights violation in the world. It can trigger a profound health problem that could sap women s energy, debilitate their physical and mental health, and erode their self-esteem. Until recently, the general view was that cases of violence against women could be appropriately addressed through the social welfare and justice systems. During the past decade, however, the combined efforts of grass-roots and international women s organizations, international experts, and governments have resulted in a profound transformation in public awareness regarding this issue. Violence against women, also known as gender-based violence, is now widely recognized as a serious human rights abuse. The official United Nations definition of gender-based violence was first presented in 1993 when the General Assembly passed the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women. Domestic Violence is a sensitive topic and the varying causes which can spark the violence within the four walls of homes need to be analysed carefully and study of the factors causing the violence may prevent a family to suffer from the menace of domestic violence. In India comprehensive household data on the prevalence and costs of domestic violence are lacking. This hidden nature of domestic violence against women remains so due to the social construction of the divide between public and private affairs, either because women are ashamed to discuss about it, or because no one has thought to ask them about it, or because it is considered as a natural part of culture. Domestic violence is to be perceived not as a law and order problem alone. Its impact has far reaching effects on the family life, health of woman, life of children etc. Studies such as these which examines the causes, its nature and manifestations and consequences would assist the general society.
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Ideas for a Thesis Statement on Domestic Violence

Good Homeland Security Thesis Ideas

Good Homeland Security Thesis Ideas

Depending on the type of paper that you are writing, your domestic violence thesis statement may answer a social services question, spell out the statistics or explain the hows and whys of a specific issue such as confidentiality or stalking. Crafting a thesis statement involves narrowing your focus and deciding on a point of view or position for the reader to follow.

Selection Process

Choosing one idea for your thesis statement requires careful consideration, evaluating the evidence and digesting the significance of the material or research on the subject. It may also depend on a specific topic that your professor requires. You're providing the reader with an introduction to your domestic violence paper and want to ensure that you clearly spell out your message and communicate why your point of view is important. For example, a general statement that simply says domestic violence happens between partners isn't clear and doesn't help the reader to understand where your paper is going. In contrast, a statement that says domestic violence affects 1.3 million people in relationships annually demonstrates a specific call for action.

Types of Injuries

Domestic violence isn't always the same. Some victims suffer emotional abuse, while others endure the physical kind. If your paper focuses on injuries incurred during spousal or relationship abuse, ideas for a possible thesis can address a particular type of injury. For example, traumatic brain injury is a possible result when one partner strikes the other in the head. If you choose this type of injury, your thesis should spell out how prevalent this is, why it is a problem and what the symptoms are. You may take an even more focused approach and design a thesis statement that includes the issue of repeat brain injury or the healing process. Other potential topics for your thesis in this area include bone breaks, bruises or weapon-inflicted wounds.

The Other Victims

The picture of the battered wife that the media depicts isn't always accurate. Not every instance of domestic violence is abuse against a woman. Women can assault men and men can also assault their males partners. A thesis statement on non-female victims of domestic violence may assert the position that prevention programs are essential for both genders or explain the problem of abuse toward males through facts and figures. If you're choosing this focus for your thesis idea, first define which population -- hetero- or homosexual men -- you are going to present in your paper. Doing so can help you to narrow the topic and present a concise statement.

Professional Issues

It's possible that your paper won't focus on the victims of violence, but instead on how the social service professional handles a client who is being abused. This type of thesis is often geared more toward a professional practice, ethics in practice or professionalism in the workplace course. You might, for example, include confidentiality as a topic and your thesis could reflect your position on why keeping client's identity safe is important. Other professional issues topics might include a statement on a specific counseling technique, an outline of legislation that social service workers must follow when it comes to client confidentiality.

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  • National Online Resource Center on Violence Against Women: Special Collection: Traumatic Brain Injury and Domestic Violence: Understanding the Intersections
  • Time: The Surprising Truth About Women and Violence
  • Pennsylvania Coalition Against Domestic Violence: Stalking

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Domestic violence against women

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Guest Essay

Iran’s Gen Z Is Still Waiting for the Revolution

An illustration of many dismembered arms and hands, some in fists and some reaching upward.

By Holly Dagres

Ms. Dagres is a nonresident senior fellow in the Atlantic Council’s Middle East program and curator of The Iranist Substack.

A young Iranian woman wore baggy jeans, a backpack slung over one shoulder and a black mask, presumably to protect her identity. Allowing her auburn hair to flow freely in contravention of the Islamic Republic’s mandatory hijab rules, she proceeded to spray-paint in Persian on a wall in the holy city of Mashhad, “Khamenei you’re next.”

Her stark warning for Iran’s Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei came in May just one day after the death of President Ebrahim Raisi in a helicopter crash. And while undeniably dangerous, the act of defiance, recorded on video in Mr. Raisi’s hometown and widely circulated on social media, isn’t out of the ordinary these days in Iran, where a generation of youth is deeply disillusioned with the status quo and wants the geriatric clerical establishment ruling Iran gone.

Young Iranians’ discontent played a critical role in the recent elections to replace Mr. Raisi, when a majority of the nation rejected the nezam — the system — and boycotted the polls. According to Iran’s official count, just 40 percent of registered voters participated in the first round of voting on June 28, the lowest turnout in the Islamic Republic’s 45-year history. That number went up in last week’s runoff to about 50 percent , though some suspect real turnout may be even lower . Elections in Iran are neither free nor fair, and videos from across the country showed empty polling stations. In the end, the so-called reformist Masoud Pezeshkian won over the hard-liner Saeed Jalili.

For millions of Iranians, there was no acceptable choice: Both candidates were approved by the Guardian Council, a 12-member vetting body, six of whom are handpicked by Mr. Khamenei. But the breadth of the boycott appears to have put the regime on the back foot. The supreme leader took longer than usual to deliver his customary message congratulating the people of Iran for voting. The fact that so many groups — dissidents , activists , bereaved families of slain protesters among them — joined in this act of civil disobedience signaled to the regime and to the world that they don’t want an Islamic republic.

The bleak turnout wasn’t unexpected. Soon after the election was announced, the hashtags #NoWayI’llVote and #ElectionCircus began circulating on X along with calls to sit out the vote. According to a survey conducted by the Group for Analyzing and Measuring Attitudes in Iran (GAMAAN) in June, of those Iranians who said they planned not to vote or were undecided, nearly 70 percent cited their “opposition to the overall system of the Islamic Republic” as their reason. Before the second round of voting on July 5, another hashtag, #TreacherousMinority , popped up criticizing those who planned to cast their ballot for Mr. Pezeshkian, who opposes the violence that has become synonymous with mandatory hijab enforcement and advocates closer ties to the West. Some equated the act of getting your index finger dipped in ink after voting with sticking a finger in protesters’ blood.

Many of those who said they planned to boycott the vote on social media belonged to Nasleh Zed, or Gen Z, a phrase that has only recently entered the Persian lexicon though about 60 percent of Iran’s nearly 90 million people are under 30 . They are largely the first in Iran to grow up with illegal satellite dishes and censored internet reached through VPNs, giving them a window onto the free world. As they came of age with the same needs and wants as youth everywhere, Gen Z Iranians watched successive presidents vow to improve their lives as things only got worse, triggering a wave of mass protests and brutal crackdowns.

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  1. 153 Domestic Violence Essay Topics & Samples

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    exposure to domestic violence in childhood was the second highest predictor for experiencing domestic violence as an adult (Kimber et al., 2018). By gaining insight into the problem, this research can educate adolescents and adults on the impacts of domestic violence and identify methods to decrease or prevent violence in future relationships.

  3. Intimate Partner Violence: Effects of Emotional Abuse in Women

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  4. The psychological aspects of domestic violence

    Domestic violence typically occurs with men abusing women but can also occur with women abusing men. It is found in all socioeconomic and ethnic groups and has no geographical bounds (Hamberger & Renzetti, 1996; Keller, 1996, pp. 125-137). Recounting findings of several studies, O'Hara (1995) argued that "domestic violence is widespread

  5. PDF Domestic Violence Against Women: A Literature Review

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  8. Domestic violence & abuse: prevention, intervention and the politics of

    This thesis foregrounds data from a survivor-led, qualitative study on domestic violence and abuse (DVA) prevention and intervention, set against the backdrop of UK austerity and the increasingly prominent political endorsement of a gender-neutral conceptualisation of DVA. The study charts how DVA prevention, victimhood and perpetration discourses might be productively reworked to shift the ...

  9. PDF Domesticating violence: rhetorics of domestic violence in American

    Domestic violence as a social problem has been 'discovered' only recently. Over the past three decades, growing social awareness of domestic violence has. been widespread throughout popular U.S. culture, including in mainstream films. A rhetorical analysis of three popular films (The Color Purple, Sleeping with the.

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    being felt at an alarmingly increasing rate, such as Brazil's domestic violence rate on the rise of 40-50%, Spain and Cyprus by 20-30%, 25% in the UK, Portland undergoing a 22% increase in arrests related to domestic violence, Jefferson County Alabama with a 27% increase in domestic violence calls during March 2020 compared to March 2019,

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  20. Domestic Violence

    This thesis proposes that the international community should adopt a clear and authoritative articulation of a legal right against extreme and systemic forms of domestic violence and a corresponding duty of states to help remedy such violence. ... Domestic Violence Report keeps you up-to-date on... Successful programs for prevention, protection ...

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    1 Introduction & background. Domestic violence and abuse encompass a range of coercive, threatening, controlling, degrading, and violent behaviours ().Globally, intimate partner violence affects 641 million women and is the most common form of violence against women ().In UK law and reports, the term is broadly recognized and includes various forms of abuse.

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  23. PDF Online Gendered Harassment and Violence-Naming the Harm and Punishing

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    A thesis statement on non-female victims of domestic violence may assert the position that prevention programs are essential for both genders or explain the problem of abuse toward males through facts and figures. If you're choosing this focus for your thesis idea, first define which population -- hetero- or homosexual men -- you are going to ...

  25. (PDF) Domestic violence against women

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  26. Police training in responding to family, domestic and sexual violence

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    Due to a lack of paid work opportunities in Bangladesh, many women migrate to Saudi Arabia for domestic work. In these paid domestic work journeys, this thesis explores how women migrant domestic workers experience, understand, and define violence. Also, examines women's struggles within patriarchal violence. I found that patriarchal structures and practices deliberately violate women's ...

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