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The Appendix (How to Use One in an Essay)

The Appendix (How to Use One in an Essay)

2-minute read

  • 30th March 2017

The appendices in an essay are not typically essential, but they can play an important supporting role. Not everyone knows how to use an appendix in academic writing , though, so we’ve prepared this handy guide.

What Is an Appendix?

An appendix (plural: appendices ) is a section at the end of a book or essay containing details that aren’t essential to your work, but which could provide useful context or background material.

In the main body of your essay, you should indicate when you’re referring to an appendix by citing it in parentheses. For example:

The interviews show that most people like ice cream (see Appendix C).

What Should Go in the Appendices?

Appendices can include many things depending on your topic. Common examples of information added to an appendix include:

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  • Raw data from tests
  • Technical figures, graphs or tables
  • Maps, charts or images
  • Letters or emails used in research
  • Sample questionnaires or surveys
  • Full interview transcripts

What these have in common is that you might need to refer to them in an essay without going into too much detail. For example, you might summarise the results of a test in the ‘Results’ section of a dissertation, then include the full data in appendices to ensure clarity.

How to Format Appendices

Exactly how to format appendices can vary between universities, so you should always check your style guide. Generally, though, appendices should:

  • Appear at the end of your document, often after the reference list
  • Be divided into sections depending on topic (e.g. separate sections for questionnaire results and interview transcripts)
  • Have each appendix section start on a new page
  • Be labelled with a letter or number, along with a title clarifying content (Appendix A: Instrument Diagrams, Appendix B: Test Results, etc.)
  • Appear in the table of contents at the beginning of your document

How not to format appendices: as a large pile of unsorted paper on your desk. (Photo: Phil Whitehouse/flickr)

Are Appendices Included in the Word Count?

Appendices are not usually included in the word count for an essay. Consequently, you can focus on key information in your work and place extra data in an appendix without worrying about the word count.

However, you should always check your style guide on this. And remember that if you rely on something in your main essay, it needs to be included there: you can’t just shuffle it into the appendices to reduce the word count !

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Easy Guide on How to Write an Appendix

university essay appendix

Understanding What Is an Appendix

Many students ask, 'What is an appendix in writing?'. Essentially, an appendix is a compilation of the references cited in an academic paper, prevalent in academic journals, which can be found in any academic publication, including books. Professors frequently require their students to include an appendix in their work.

Incorporating an appendix in your written piece can aid readers in comprehending the information presented. It is important to note that different professors may have varying guidelines on how to write an appendix. To learn more about how to write an appendix for a research paper according to APA, Chicago, and MLA styles, check out the following paragraphs prepared by our PRO nursing essay writing service !

Meanwhile, note that an appendix comprises all the information utilized in a paper, including references and statistics from several authors and sources (the number varies according to the type of academic paper). The purpose of the appendix is to prevent vague or irrelevant information and improve the reader's understanding of the paper.

The Purpose of an Appendix

To understand what an appendix tries to accomplish and how to write an appendix example, after all, we must first answer the key question, 'What is the purpose of an appendix?'. In short, an appendix is crucial for further explaining complex information that may be difficult to fully convey within the main text of an essay. It is intended to offer readers additional information about the topic addressed in the paper.

The material presented in an appendix has the potential to bolster the argument and sway the reader's opinion. Nonetheless, you should try to incorporate supporting material and examples toward the end of the paper to avoid disrupting the flow of the main text. Furthermore, the likelihood of including an appendix increases as a paper becomes more advanced. The use of an appendix is especially prevalent in the academic writing of a research document and journal-style scientific paper, in which extra information is usually needed to support a main point of view.

How to Structure an Appendix

While there are variations between formats, each one follows a basic structure. Thus, understanding the general structure is an essential first step in learning about this topic. No matter if you're tasked with 'how to write an appendix MLA or APA style?' - remember that both adhere to this structure, despite their differences:

How to Structure an Appendix

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Every Appendix Should Contain:

  • A clear title: The title of the appendix should be concise and descriptive, clearly indicating what information is contained within it. For example, 'Appendix A: Data Tables for Study Results or 'Appendix B: Images of Experimental Setup.'
  • A list of contents: Including a table of contents in the appendix can be helpful for readers to navigate the information provided. For example:

Table of Contents:

A. Data Tables for Study Results

B. Images of Experimental Setup

C. Survey Questions and Responses

D. Sample Interview Transcripts

  • Page numbers: The appendix should be a separate page, independently numbered from the main body of the paper, and specified uniformly (e.g., 'Appendix A,' 'Appendix B,' etc.). For example:

Page 1 of 5

  • Relevant information: The appendix should contain all the relevant information supporting the main arguments of the document, including tables of data, raw statistical data, charts, or other documents. For example:

Figure 1: Experimental Results

[insert graph or chart here]

  • Proper formatting: The appendix should be formatted in accordance with the specific requirements of the chosen citation style (e.g., APA, MLA, Chicago). For example:

Appendix B: Survey Questions and Responses

[insert survey questions and responses here, formatted following APA style guidelines]

  • Clear labeling: Each element should have a clear appendix label so readers can easily understand its relevance to the paper. For example:

Table 1: Demographic Characteristics of Survey Respondents

  • Concise explanation: It is important to provide short detailed descriptions of each element in the Appendix so that readers can understand its importance. For example:

Appendix C: Sample Interview Transcripts

Transcripts of the three interviews with the study participants shall be included for reference. These interviews provide further insights into the experiences of participants and their views on the subject addressed in this document.

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General Appendix Format

To ensure proper formatting, it is important to understand the basics of how to structure an appendix. Although it may seem overwhelming, the basic format is relatively easy to comprehend and serves as a foundation for understanding the APA and MLA formats. Additionally, mastering the basic format can be helpful when writing an appendix for a book or dissertation.

General Appendix Format

  • Heading “Appendix #” . Contains a number or letter, that could be 1 or A.
  • Reference List.
  • Index Table followed a list of appendices.
  • Page Number.

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How to Write an Appendix in Different Styles

There are two distinct styles for creating an appendix, and it's important to familiarize yourself with both since a professor may request one or the other. Our expert writers have compiled guidelines and rules for both formats - the Appendix APA format and the Appendix MLA format. Although they share some similarities, they also have unique features and regulations that must be strictly followed.

Appendix APA

Many professors require students to write an appendix in a paper of this format. To master how to write an appendix APA format and get the structure correct, it's a good idea to follow these guidelines and rules:

The guidelines for Appendix APA:

  • The appendix begins with the heading 'Appendix' followed by ABC.
  • It should also be written on top of the appendix title.
  • Every appendix follows the order of the stated information in the paper.
  • Include the appendix after the reference list.
  • Include page numbers for each appendix.
  • Appendices are to have their own page, regardless of the size.
  • Include Footnotes.

The general rules for Appendix APA are to be followed when writing. This is what professors look for when a paper is required when apprentices are to be written in this format. Learn the general rules to master how to write an appendix APA style and get you onto the right path to success. You may find it useful to memorize this information or keep a note of it.

Rules for APA:

  • All appendices should include their own point.
  • Include a title for each appendix.
  • For multiple appendices, use ABC for tilting them.
  • For reference within the body, include (see appendix a) after the text.
  • The title should be centered.
  • All appendices are to have their own page, regardless of the size.
  • Paragraph One should be written without indents.
  • The rest of the paragraphs should have the intended formatting.
  • Include double spacing.

Whether you're tackling how to write an interview paper in APA appendix or any other type of academic work, the following example can serve as a valuable blueprint to guide you through the process.

Appendix Chicago Style

Writing an appendix Chicago style is rather similar to APA. Though, there are some minor differences. Take a look at these guidelines for this form of an appendix.

Guidelines for an Appendix Chicago Style

  • More than one appendix is described as appendices.
  • The font required for the appendix Chicago style is Times New Roman.
  • The text size should be 12 points.
  • The page numbers should be displayed on the top right of each page.
  • The page numbers should also be labeled as 'Page 1,2,3'.
  • Avoid including a page number on the front cover.
  • The bibliography should be the final new page. It should not share a page with any other content.
  • It is possible to include footnotes in the bibliography.

To better comprehend how to write an appendix in Chicago style, glance through the example below:

Appendix MLA Format

The guidelines and regulations for creating an appendix in MLA format are largely similar to those in APA format. However, there are some differences between the two, the most notable being that the MLA appendix is placed before the reference list.

The guidelines for MLA Format:

  • The appendix is included before the list of references.

It may be useful to follow the example of an appendix to better understand how to write an appendix in MLA style. Doing so can increase the chances of getting a grasp of the MLA rules to fulfill the requirements of your professor on your academic paper.

Rules for MLA

  • The title is to be centered.
  • The list should be double-spaced.
  • The first line should include each reference in the left margin. Every subsequent line is to be formatted so it's invented. This can be referred to as 'hanging indent' to make things easier.
  • The reference list must be in alphabetical order. This can be done with the first letter of the title of the reference. Though, this is usually done if the writer is unknown. If the writer is known, you can also use the first letter of the surname.
  • If you include the name of the known writer, use this order. SURNAME, FIRST NAME, YEAR.
  • Italic fonts are required for the titles of complete writings, internet sites, books, and recordings.
  • It is important not to use an italic font on reference titles that only refer to the part of a source. This includes poetry, short papers, tabloids, sections of a PDF, and scholarly entries.

Before we conclude, let's dive deeper into the world of appendix writing by exploring an example of how to write an appendix MLA style.

Let's wrap this up! It's safe to say that following the APA, Chicago, and MLA formats is crucial when crafting an appendix. As we've seen, starting with an APA appendix example can help ease you in mastering how to write an appendix of paper. Once you have a handle on the precise formats and guidelines, creating an appendix becomes a piece of cake. Also, memorizing the format can help you whip up accurate appendices for any type of paper, whether an essay or a dissertation. Trust us, mastering this topic is a must if you want to excel in knowing how to write an appendix in a report or any other academic work.

Moreover, if you ever find yourself in need of additional academic assistance, be sure to check out our resources on how to write an article review . Or, better yet, why not let us handle your most challenging tasks with ease by simply sending us a ' write my paper request? We are here to support you every step of the way.

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What Is An Appendix In Writing?

What is the purpose of an appendix, how to format an appendix.

Daniel Parker

Daniel Parker

is a seasoned educational writer focusing on scholarship guidance, research papers, and various forms of academic essays including reflective and narrative essays. His expertise also extends to detailed case studies. A scholar with a background in English Literature and Education, Daniel’s work on EssayPro blog aims to support students in achieving academic excellence and securing scholarships. His hobbies include reading classic literature and participating in academic forums.

university essay appendix

is an expert in nursing and healthcare, with a strong background in history, law, and literature. Holding advanced degrees in nursing and public health, his analytical approach and comprehensive knowledge help students navigate complex topics. On EssayPro blog, Adam provides insightful articles on everything from historical analysis to the intricacies of healthcare policies. In his downtime, he enjoys historical documentaries and volunteering at local clinics.

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An appendix contains supplementary material that is not an essential part of the text itself but which may be helpful in providing a more comprehensive understanding of the research problem. An appendix may also contain information that is too cumbersome to be included in the body of the paper. A separate appendix should be used for each distinct topic or set of data and always have a title descriptive of its contents [e.g., Appendix 1: Interview Protocol].

Tables, Appendices, Footnotes and Endnotes. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University.

Importance of...

Appendices are always supplementary to the research paper. As such, your study must be able to stand alone without the appendices, and the paper must contain all information including tables, diagrams, and results necessary to understand the research problem. The key point to remember when including an appendix or appendices is that the information is non-essential to understanding the research problem being investigated. In other words, if it were removed, the reader would still be able to  comprehend the significance, validity , and implications of your research even if that additional data was missing.

It is appropriate to include appendices for the following reasons:

  • Including this material in the body of the paper that would render it poorly structured or interrupt the narrative flow;
  • Information is too lengthy and detailed to be easily summarized in the body of the paper;
  • Inclusion of helpful, supporting, or useful material would otherwise distract the reader from the main content of the paper;
  • Provides relevant information or data that is more easily understood or analyzed in a self-contained section of the paper;
  • Can be used when there are constraints placed on the length of your paper; and,
  • Provides a place to further demonstrate your understanding of the research problem by giving additional details about a new or innovative method, technical details, or design protocols.

Appendices. Academic Skills Office, University of New England; Chapter 12, "Use of Appendices." In Guide to Effective Grant Writing: How to Write a Successful NIH Grant . Otto O. Yang. (New York: Kluwer Academic, 2005), pp. 55-57; Tables, Appendices, Footnotes and Endnotes. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University.

Structure and Writing Style

I.  General Points to Consider

When considering whether to include content in an appendix, keep in mind the following:

  • It is usually good practice to include your raw data in an appendix, laying it out in a clear format so the reader can re-check your results. Another option if you have a large amount of raw data is to consider placing it online [e.g., on a Google drive] and note that this is the appendix to your research paper.
  • Any tables and figures included in the appendix should be numbered as a separate sequence from the main paper . Remember that appendices contain non-essential information that, if removed, would not diminish a reader's ability to understand the research problem being investigated. This is why non-textual elements should not carry over the sequential numbering of non-textual elements in the body of your paper.
  • If you have more than three appendices, consider listing them on a separate page in the table of contents . This will help the reader know what information is included in the appendices. Note that some works list appendices in the table of contents before the first chapter while other styles list the appendices after the conclusion but before your references. Consult with your professor to confirm if there is a preferred approach.
  • The appendix can be a good place to put maps, photographs, diagrams, and other images , if you feel that it will help the reader to understand the content of your paper, while keeping in mind the study should be understood without them.
  • An appendix should be streamlined and not loaded with a lot information . If you have a very long and complex appendix, it is a good idea to break it down into separate appendices, allowing the reader to find relevant information quickly as the information is covered in the body of the paper.

II.  Content

Never include an appendix that isn’t referred to in the text . All appendices should be summarized in your paper where it is relevant to the content. Appendices should also be arranged sequentially by the order they were first referenced in the text [i.e., Appendix 1 should not refer to text on page eight of your paper and Appendix 2 relate to text on page six].

There are few rules regarding what type of material can be included in an appendix, but here are some common examples:

  • Correspondence -- if your research included collaborations with others or outreach to others, then correspondence in the form of letters, memorandums, or copies of emails from those you interacted with could be included.
  • Interview Transcripts -- in qualitative research, interviewing respondents is often used to gather information. The full transcript from an interview is important so the reader can read the entire dialog between researcher and respondent. The interview protocol [list of questions] should also be included.
  • Non-textual elements -- as noted above, if there are a lot of non-textual items, such as, figures, tables, maps, charts, photographs, drawings, or graphs, think about highlighting examples in the text of the paper but include the remainder in an appendix.
  • Questionnaires or surveys -- this is a common form of data gathering. Always include the survey instrument or questionnaires in an appendix so the reader understands not only the questions asked but the sequence in which they were asked. Include all variations of the instruments as well if different items were sent to different groups [e.g., those given to teachers and those given to administrators] .
  • Raw statistical data – this can include any numerical data that is too lengthy to include in charts or tables in its entirety within the text. This is important because the entire source of data should be included even if you are referring to only certain parts of a chart or table in the text of your paper.
  • Research instruments -- if you used a camera, or a recorder, or some other device to gather information and it is important for the reader to understand how, when, and/or where that device was used.
  • Sample calculations – this can include quantitative research formulas or detailed descriptions of how calculations were used to determine relationships and significance.

NOTE:   Appendices should not be a dumping ground for information. Do not include vague or irrelevant information in an appendix; this additional information will not help the reader’s overall understanding and interpretation of your research and may only distract the reader from understanding the significance of your overall study.

ANOTHER NOTE:   Appendices are intended to provide supplementary information that you have gathered or created; it is not intended to replicate or provide a copy of the work of others. For example, if you need to contrast the techniques of analysis used by other authors with your own method of analysis, summarize that information, and cite to the original work. In this case, a citation to the original work is sufficient enough to lead the reader to where you got the information. You do not need to provide a copy of this in an appendix.

III.  Format

Here are some general guideline on how to format appendices . If needed, consult the writing style guide [e.g., APA, MLS, Chicago] your professor wants you to use for more detail or choose the style you are most familiar with:

  • Appendices may precede or follow your list of references.
  • Each appendix begins on a new page.
  • The order they are presented is dictated by the order they are mentioned in the text of your research paper.
  • The heading should be "Appendix," followed by a letter or number [e.g., "Appendix A" or "Appendix 1"], centered and written in bold type.
  • If there is a table of contents, the appendices must be listed.
  • Depending on the type of information, the content can be presented in landscape format rather than regular portrait format.
  • The page number(s) of the appendix/appendices will continue on with the numbering from the last page of the text.

Appendices. The Structure, Format, Content, and Style of a Journal-Style Scientific Paper. Department of Biology. Bates College;  Appendices. Academic Skills Office, University of New England; Appendices. Writing Center, Walden University; Chapter 12, "Use of Appendices." In Guide to Effective Grant Writing: How to Write a Successful NIH Grant . Otto O. Yang. (New York: Kluwer Academic, 2005), pp. 55-57 ; Tables, Appendices, Footnotes and Endnotes. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Lunsford, Andrea A. and Robert Connors. The St. Martin's Handbook . New York: St. Martin's Press, 1989; What To Know About The Purpose And Format Of A Research Paper Appendix. LoyolaCollegeCulion.com.

Writing Tip

Consider Putting Your Appendices Online

Appendices are useful because they provide the reader with information that supports your study without breaking up the narrative or distracting from the main purpose of your paper. If you have a lot of raw data or information that is difficult to present in textual form, consider uploading it to an online site. This prevents your paper from having a large and unwieldy set of appendices and it supports a growing movement within academe to make data more freely available for re-analysis. If you do create an online portal to your data, note it prominently in your paper with the correct URL and access procedures if it is a secured site, or if needed, with clear directions on how to contact the author to obtain access.

Piwowar, Heather A., Roger S. Day, and Douglas B. Fridsma. “Sharing Detailed Research Data Is Associated with Increased Citation Rate.” PloS ONE (March 21, 2007); Wicherts, Jelte M., Marjan Bakker, and Dylan Molenaar. “Willingness to Share Research Data Is Related to the Strength of the Evidence and the Quality of Reporting of Statistical Results.” PLoS ONE (November 2, 2011).

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Research Paper Appendix | Example & Templates

Published on August 4, 2022 by Tegan George and Kirsten Dingemanse. Revised on July 18, 2023.

An appendix is a supplementary document that facilitates your reader’s understanding of your research but is not essential to your core argument. Appendices are a useful tool for providing additional information or clarification in a research paper , dissertation , or thesis without making your final product too long.

Appendices help you provide more background information and nuance about your thesis or dissertation topic without disrupting your text with too many tables and figures or other distracting elements.

We’ve prepared some examples and templates for you, for inclusions such as research protocols, survey questions, and interview transcripts. All are worthy additions to an appendix. You can download these in the format of your choice below.

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Location of appendices

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Table of contents

What is an appendix in a research paper, what to include in an appendix, how to format an appendix, how to refer to an appendix, where to put your appendices, other components to consider, appendix checklist, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about appendices.

In the main body of your research paper, it’s important to provide clear and concise information that supports your argument and conclusions . However, after doing all that research, you’ll often find that you have a lot of other interesting information that you want to share with your reader.

While including it all in the body would make your paper too long and unwieldy, this is exactly what an appendix is for.

As a rule of thumb, any detailed information that is not immediately needed to make your point can go in an appendix. This helps to keep your main text focused but still allows you to include the information you want to include somewhere in your paper.

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university essay appendix

An appendix can be used for different types of information, such as:

  • Supplementary results : Research findings  are often presented in different ways, but they don’t all need to go in your paper. The results most relevant to your research question should always appear in the main text, while less significant results (such as detailed descriptions of your sample or supplemental analyses that do not help answer your main question), can be put in an appendix.
  • Statistical analyses : If you conducted statistical tests using software like Stata or R, you may also want to include the outputs of your analysis in an appendix.
  • Further information on surveys or interviews : Written materials or transcripts related to things such as surveys and interviews can also be placed in an appendix.

You can opt to have one long appendix, but separating components (like interview transcripts, supplementary results, or surveys ) into different appendices makes the information simpler to navigate.

Here are a few tips to keep in mind:

  • Always start each appendix on a new page.
  • Assign it both a number (or letter) and a clear title, such as “Appendix A. Interview transcripts.” This makes it easier for your reader to find the appendix, as well as for you to refer back to it in your main text.
  • Number and title the individual elements within each appendix (e.g., “Transcripts”) to make it clear what you are referring to. Restart the numbering in each appendix at 1.

It is important that you refer to each of your appendices at least once in the main body of your paper. This can be done by mentioning the appendix and its number or letter, either in parentheses or within the main part of a sentence. It’s also possible to refer to a particular component of an appendix.

Appendix B presents the correspondence exchanged with the fitness boutique. Example 2. Referring to an appendix component These results (see Appendix 2, Table 1) show that …

It is common to capitalize “Appendix” when referring to a specific appendix, but it is not mandatory. The key is just to make sure that you are consistent throughout your entire paper, similarly to consistency in  capitalizing headings and titles in academic writing .

However, note that lowercase should always be used if you are referring to appendices in general. For instance, “The appendices to this paper include additional information about both the survey and the interviews .”

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The simplest option is to add your appendices after the main body of your text, after you finish citing your sources in the citation style of your choice. If this is what you choose to do, simply continue with the next page number. Another option is to put the appendices in a separate document that is delivered with your dissertation.

Location of appendices

Remember that any appendices should be listed in your paper’s table of contents .

There are a few other supplementary components related to appendices that you may want to consider. These include:

  • List of abbreviations : If you use a lot of abbreviations or field-specific symbols in your dissertation, it can be helpful to create a list of abbreviations .
  • Glossary : If you utilize many specialized or technical terms, it can also be helpful to create a glossary .
  • Tables, figures and other graphics : You may find you have too many tables, figures, and other graphics (such as charts and illustrations) to include in the main body of your dissertation. If this is the case, consider adding a figure and table list .

Checklist: Appendix

All appendices contain information that is relevant, but not essential, to the main text.

Each appendix starts on a new page.

I have given each appendix a number and clear title.

I have assigned any specific sub-components (e.g., tables and figures) their own numbers and titles.

My appendices are easy to follow and clearly formatted.

I have referred to each appendix at least once in the main text.

Your appendices look great! Use the other checklists to further improve your thesis.

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Yes, if relevant you can and should include APA in-text citations in your appendices . Use author-date citations as you do in the main text.

Any sources cited in your appendices should appear in your reference list . Do not create a separate reference list for your appendices.

An appendix contains information that supplements the reader’s understanding of your research but is not essential to it. For example:

  • Interview transcripts
  • Questionnaires
  • Detailed descriptions of equipment

Something is only worth including as an appendix if you refer to information from it at some point in the text (e.g. quoting from an interview transcript). If you don’t, it should probably be removed.

When you include more than one appendix in an APA Style paper , they should be labeled “Appendix A,” “Appendix B,” and so on.

When you only include a single appendix, it is simply called “Appendix” and referred to as such in the main text.

Appendices in an APA Style paper appear right at the end, after the reference list and after your tables and figures if you’ve also included these at the end.

You may have seen both “appendices” or “appendixes” as pluralizations of “ appendix .” Either spelling can be used, but “appendices” is more common (including in APA Style ). Consistency is key here: make sure you use the same spelling throughout your paper.

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university essay appendix

How to Write an Appendix for your Essay

(Last updated: 13 October 2023)

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An appendix is an essential part of any academic essay, serving as a repository for supplementary material that supports your arguments but may be too detailed or tangential to include in the main body of the text.

Whether you're looking to append data sets, charts, images, or additional information that may not fit neatly within your essay, creating an effective appendix is crucial for presenting a comprehensive and well-rounded argument. In this blog post, we'll guide you through the process of writing an appendix for your essay.

What to Include in an Appendix:

The contents of an appendix can vary, but typically it includes any material that expands on or supports the information presented in your essay. This can include:

- Raw data and statistical analyses - Graphs, charts, and tables - Images, photographs, or diagrams - Transcripts of interviews or surveys - Additional sources or references - Supplementary literature reviews

The key is to ensure that the material included in the appendix is relevant to your essay and serves to enhance your reader's understanding of your arguments.

How to Format an Appendix:

When it comes to formatting an appendix, there are a few key guidelines to follow:

- Appendices should be placed at the end of your essay, after the references or bibliography. - Each appendix should be labelled with a letter (e.g., Appendix A, Appendix B) and have a descriptive title. - If you have more than one appendix, make sure to label each one accordingly and include a table of contents at the beginning of your appendices section. - Each appendix should begin on a new page. - Reference the appendix within the main body of your essay when necessary. For example, you can write "See Appendix A for the full survey results."

Including Citations:

If you include information from other sources in your appendix, you must properly cite these sources. Follow the same citation style (e.g., APA, MLA, Chicago) that you used in the main body of your essay.

Mastering Your Essay Writing

An appendix can be a valuable addition to your essay, providing supplementary material that enhances your reader's understanding of your arguments. By following the guidelines outlined above, you can ensure that your appendix is formatted correctly and includes relevant and useful information.

Struggling with your essay writing? Our team of experienced academics is here to provide you with the support you need. Get in touch today to learn more about how we can help you achieve academic success.

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Other APA Guidelines: Appendices

APA 7 addresses appendices and supplemental materials in Section 2.14 and on page 41:

  • The appendices follow the reference list.
  • They are lettered "Appendix A," "Appendix B," "Appendix C," and so forth. If you have only one appendix, however, simply label it Appendix.
  • Put figures and tables in separate appendices. The appendix title serves as the title for a table if it is the only table in the appendix.
  • If you decide that certain figures and tables should appear in the same appendix, number them A1, A2, A3, and so forth, according to the appendix in which they appear.
  • The materials in the appendix must not extend beyond the margins of the rest of the paper: Reduce the appendix materials as needed.

As a general guide, appendices are appropriate for any material that, if presented in the main body of the document, would unnecessarily interrupt the flow of the writing. Note that it is unlikely that you will use appendices in Walden course papers. For doctoral capstone studies, you might include some appendices with supplementary information.

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Citations - APA: Formatting - Essay, Reference List, Appendix, & Sample Paper

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If you are adding an appendix to your paper there are a few rules to follow that comply with APA guidelines:

  • The Appendix appears  after  the References list
  • If you have more than one appendix you would name the first appendix Appendix A, the second Appendix B, etc.
  • The appendices should appear in the order that the information is mentioned in your essay
  • Each appendix begins on a new page
  • APA Sample Paper - with Appendix (Purdue OWL example)

Quick Rules for an APA Reference List

Your research paper ends with a list of all the sources cited in the text of the paper. Here are nine quick rules for this Reference list.

  • Start a new page for your Reference list. Centre the title, References, at the top of the page.
  • Double-space the list.
  • Start the first line of each reference at the left margin; indent each subsequent line five spaces (a hanging indent).
  • Put your list in alphabetical order. Alphabetize the list by the first word in the reference. In most cases, the first word will be the author’s last name. Where the author is unknown, alphabetize by the first word in the title, ignoring the words a, an, the.
  • For each author, give the last name followed by a comma and the first (and middle, if listed) initials followed by periods.
  • Italicize the titles of works: books, audiovisual material, internet documents and newspapers, and the title and volume number of journals and magazines.
  • Do not italicize titles of parts of works, such as: articles from newspapers, magazines, or journals / essays, poems, short stories or chapter titles from a book / chapters or sections of an Internet document.
  • In titles of non-periodicals (books, videotapes, websites, reports, poems, essays, chapters, etc), capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, and all proper nouns (names of people, places, organizations, nationalities).
  • If more than one place of publication is listed give the publisher's home office. If the home office is not given or known then choose the first location listed.
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How to Write an Appendix

Last Updated: October 4, 2023

This article was co-authored by Stephanie Wong Ken, MFA . Stephanie Wong Ken is a writer based in Canada. Stephanie's writing has appeared in Joyland, Catapult, Pithead Chapel, Cosmonaut's Avenue, and other publications. She holds an MFA in Fiction and Creative Writing from Portland State University. This article has been viewed 1,726,102 times.

Like the appendix in a human body, an appendix contains information that is supplementary and not strictly necessary to the main body of the writing. An appendix may include a reference section for the reader, a summary of the raw data or extra details on the method behind the work. You may be required to write an appendix for school or you may decide to write an appendix for a personal project you are working on. You should start by collecting content for the appendix and by formatting the appendix properly. You should then polish the appendix so it is accessible, useful, and engaging for your reader.

Collecting Content for the Appendix

Step 1 Include raw data.

  • Raw data may include sample calculations that you refer to in the body of the paper as well as specialized data that expands on data or information you discuss in the paper. Raw statistical data can also be included in the appendix.
  • You may also include contributory facts from other sources that will help to support your findings in the paper. Make sure you properly cite any information you are pulling from other sources.

Step 2 Put in supporting...

  • You may include graphs or charts you have created yourself or graphs or charts from another source. Make sure you properly cite any visuals that are not your own in the appendix.

Step 3 Note your research instruments in the appendix.

  • For example, you may note in the appendix: “All interviews and surveys were conducted in person in a private setting and were recorded with a tape recorder.”

Step 4 Add in interview...

  • You should also include any correspondences you had with subjects in your research, such as copies of emails, letters, or notes written to or from your research subjects.

Formatting the Appendix

Step 1 Title the appendix.

  • If you have more than one appendix, order them by letter or number and be consistent about the ordering. For example, if you are using letters, make sure the appendices are titled “Appendix A,” “Appendix B,” etc. If you are using numbers, make sure the appendices are titled “Appendix 1,” “Appendix 2,” etc.
  • If you have more than one appendix, make sure each appendix begins on a new page. This will ensure the reader is not confused as to where one appendix ends and another begins.

Step 2 Order the content in the appendix.

  • For example, if raw data is mentioned in the first line of your paper, place that raw data first in your appendix. Or if you mention interview questions at the very end of your paper, make sure the interview questions appear as the last point in your appendix.

Step 3 Place the appendix after your reference list.

  • You should also make sure you list the appendix in your table of contents for the paper, if you have one. You can list it based on title, for example, “Appendix”, or “Appendix A” if you have more than one appendix.

Step 4 Add page numbers.

  • For example, if the text ends on page 17, continue numbering from page 17 when you put in the page numbers for the appendix.

Polishing the Appendix

Step 1 Revise the appendix for clarity and cohesion.

  • You may find it helpful to have someone else read through the appendix, such as a peer or a mentor. Ask them if they feel all the included information is relevant to the paper and remove any information they deem unnecessary.

Step 2 Check for spelling or grammar errors.

  • Read through the appendix backwards so you can make sure there are no spelling errors. You want the appendix to appear as professional as possible.

Step 3 Refer to the appendix in the text of the paper.

  • For example, you may note an appendix in the text with: “My research produced the same results in both cases (see Appendix for raw data)” or “I feel my research was conclusive (see Appendix A for interview notes).”

Sample Appendices

university essay appendix

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  • ↑ http://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/appendices
  • ↑ https://askus.library.wwu.edu/faq/116707

About This Article

Stephanie Wong Ken, MFA

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The content of this article is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, examination, diagnosis, or treatment. You should always contact your doctor or other qualified healthcare professional before starting, changing, or stopping any kind of health treatment.

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To write an appendix, start by writing “Appendix” at the top of the document, using the same font you used for your chapter headings. Then, order the contents, such as graphs, surveys, or interview transcripts, based on the order in which they appear in your paper. Next, number the pages so they follow sequentially, coming after your paper and your reference list or list of sources. Finally, make sure to check for spelling and grammar errors, so everything will look polished and professional. For more tips from our English co-author, including how to refer to the appendix in your paper, keep reading! Did this summary help you? Yes No

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Footnotes & Appendices 

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APA style offers writers footnotes and appendices as spaces where additional, relevant information might be shared within a document; this resource offers a quick overview of format and content concerns for these segments of a document. Should additional clarification be necessary, it is always recommended that writers reach out to the individual overseeing their work (i.e., instructor, editor, etc.). For your convenience, a student sample paper is included below; please note the document is filled with  Lorem Ipsum  placeholder text and references to footnotes and appendices are highighlighted. Additional marginal notes also further explain specific portions of the example. 

Footnotes 

Footnotes are supplementary details printed at the bottom of the page pertaining to a paper’s content or copyright information. This supporting text can be utilized in any type of APA paper to support the body paragraphs.

Content-Based Footnotes

Utilizing footnotes to provide supplementary detail can enrich the body text and reinforce the main argument of the paper. Footnotes may also direct readers to an alternate source for more detail on a topic. Though content footnotes can be useful in providing additional context, it is detrimental to include tangential or convoluted information. Footnotes should detail a focused subject; lengthier sections of text are better suited for the body paragraphs.

Acknowledging Copyright

When citing long quotations, images, tables, data, or commercially published questionnaires in-text, it is important to credit the copyright information in a footnote. Functioning much like an in-text citation, a footnote copyright attribution provides credit to the original source and must also be included in a reference list. A copyright citation is needed for both direct reprinting as well as adaptations of content, and these may require express permission from the copyright owner.

Formatting Footnotes

Each footnote and its corresponding in-text callout should be formatted in numerical order of appearance utilizing superscript. As demonstrated in the example below, the superscripted numerals should follow all punctuation with the exception of dashes and parentheses.

For example: 

Footnote callouts should not be placed in headings and do not require a space between the callout and superscripted number. When reintroducing a footnote that has previously been called out, refrain from replicating the callout or footnote itself; rather, format such reference as “see Footnote 4”, for example. Footnotes should be placed at the bottom of the page on which the corresponding callout is referenced. Alternatively, a footnotes page could be created to follow the reference page. When formatting footnotes in the latter manner, center and bold the label “Footnotes” then record each footnote as a double-spaced and indented paragraph. Place the corresponding superscripted number in front of each footnote and separate the numeral from the following text with a single space.

Formatting Copyright Information

To provide credit for images, tables, or figures pulled from an outside source, include the accreditation statement at the end of the note for the visual. Copyright acknowledgements for long quotations or questionnaires should simply be placed in a footnote at the bottom of the page.

When formatting a copyright accreditation, utilize the following format:

  • Establish if the content was reprinted or adapted by using language such as “from” for directly copied material or “adapted from” for material that has been modified
  • Include the content’s title, author, year of publication, and source
  • Cite the copyright holder and year of copyright or indicate that the source is public domain or licensed under Creative Commons
  • If express permission was required to reprint the material, include a statement indicating that permission was acquired

Appendices 

When introducing supplementary content that may not fit within the body of a paper, an appendix can be included to help readers better understand the material without distracting from the text itself. Primarily used to introduce research materials, specific details of a study, or participant demographics, appendices are generally concise and only incorporate relevant content. Much like with footnotes, appendices may require an acknowledgement of copyright and, if data is cited, an adherence to the privacy policies that protect participant identities.

Formatting Appendices

An appendix should be created on its own individual page labelled “Appendix” and followed by a title on the next line that describes the subject of the appendix. These headings should be centered and bolded at the top of the page and written in title case. If there are multiple appendices, each should be labelled with a capital letter and referenced in-text by its specific title (for example, “see Appendix B”). All appendices should follow references, footnotes, and any tables or figures included at the end of the document.

Text Appendices 

Appendices should be formatted in traditional paragraph style and may incorporate text, figures, tables, equations, or footnotes. In an appendix, all figures, tables, and other visuals should be labelled with the letter of the corresponding appendix followed by a number indicating the order in which each appears. For example, a table labelled “Table B1” would be the first table in Appendix B. If there is only one appendix in the document, the visuals should still be labelled with the letter A and a number to differentiate them from those contained in the paper itself (for example, “Figure A3” is the third figure in the singular appendix, which is not labelled with a letter in the heading). 

Table or Figure Appendices 

When an appendix solely contains a table or figure, the title of the figure or table should be substituted with the title of the appendix. For example, if Appendix B only includes a figure, the figure should be labelled “Appendix B” rather than “Figure B1”, as it would be named if there were multiple figures included.

If an appendix does not contain text but includes numerous figures or table, the appendix should be formatted like a text appendix. The appendix would receive a name and label, and each figure or table would be given a corresponding letter and number. For example, if Appendix C contains two tables and one figure, these visuals would be labelled “Table C1”, “Table C2”, and “Figure C1” respectively.

Sample Paper    

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Research Paper Appendix | Example & Templates

Published on 15 August 2022 by Kirsten Dingemanse and Tegan George. Revised on 25 October 2022.

An appendix is a supplementary document that facilitates your reader’s understanding of your research but is not essential to your core argument. Appendices are a useful tool for providing additional information or clarification in a research paper , dissertation , or thesis without making your final product too long.

Appendices help you provide more background information and nuance about your topic without disrupting your text with too many tables and figures or other distracting elements.

We’ve prepared some examples and templates for you, for inclusions such as research protocols, survey questions, and interview transcripts. All are worthy additions to an appendix. You can download these in the format of your choice below.

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Table of contents

What is an appendix in a research paper, what to include in an appendix, how to format an appendix, how to refer to an appendix, where to put your appendices, other components to consider, appendix checklist.

In the main body of your research paper, it’s important to provide clear and concise information that supports your argument and conclusions . However, after doing all that research, you’ll often find that you have a lot of other interesting information that you want to share with your reader.

While including it all in the body would make your paper too long and unwieldy, this is exactly what an appendix is for.

As a rule of thumb, any detailed information that is not immediately needed to make your point can go in an appendix. This helps to keep your main text focused but still allows you to include the information you want to include somewhere in your paper.

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An appendix can be used for different types of information, such as:

  • Supplementary results : Research findings  are often presented in different ways, but they don’t all need to go in your paper. The results most relevant to your research question should always appear in the main text, while less significant results (such as detailed descriptions of your sample or supplemental analyses that do not help answer your main question), can be put in an appendix.
  • Statistical analyses : If you conducted statistical tests using software like Stata or R, you may also want to include the outputs of your analysis in an appendix.
  • Further information on surveys or interviews : Written materials or transcripts related to things such as surveys and interviews can also be placed in an appendix.

You can opt to have one long appendix, but separating components (like interview transcripts, supplementary results, or surveys) into different appendices makes the information simpler to navigate.

Here are a few tips to keep in mind:

  • Always start each appendix on a new page.
  • Assign it both a number (or letter) and a clear title, such as ‘Appendix A. Interview transcripts’. This makes it easier for your reader to find the appendix, as well as for you to refer back to it in your main text.
  • Number and title the individual elements within each appendix (e.g., ‘Transcripts’) to make it clear what you are referring to. Restart the numbering in each appendix at 1.

It is important that you refer to each of your appendices at least once in the main body of your paper. This can be done by mentioning the appendix and its number or letter, either in parentheses or within the main part of a sentence. It is also possible to refer to a particular component of an appendix.

Appendix B presents the correspondence exchanged with the fitness boutique. Example 2. Referring to an appendix component These results (see Appendix 2, Table 1) show that …

It is common to capitalise ‘Appendix’ when referring to a specific appendix, but it is not mandatory. The key is just to make sure that you are consistent throughout your entire paper, similarly to consistency in capitalising headings and titles in academic writing.

However, note that lowercase should always be used if you are referring to appendices in general. For instance, ‘The appendices to this paper include additional information about both the survey and the interviews.’

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The simplest option is to add your appendices after the main body of your text, after you finish citing your sources in the citation style of your choice . If this is what you choose to do, simply continue with the next page number. Another option is to put the appendices in a separate document that is delivered with your dissertation.

Location of appendices

Remember that any appendices should be listed in your paper’s table of contents .

There are a few other supplementary components related to appendices that you may want to consider. These include:

  • List of abbreviations : If you use a lot of abbreviations or field-specific symbols in your dissertation, it can be helpful to create a list of abbreviations .
  • Glossary : If you utilise many specialised or technical terms, it can also be helpful to create a glossary .
  • Tables, figures and other graphics : You may find you have too many tables, figures, and other graphics (such as charts and illustrations) to include in the main body of your dissertation. If this is the case, consider adding a figure and table list .

Checklist: Appendix

All appendices contain information that is relevant, but not essential, to the main text.

Each appendix starts on a new page.

I have given each appendix a number and clear title.

I have assigned any specific sub-components (e.g., tables and figures) their own numbers and titles.

My appendices are easy to follow and clearly formatted.

I have referred to each appendix at least once in the main text.

Your appendices look great! Use the other checklists to further improve your thesis.

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the ‘Cite this Scribbr article’ button to automatically add the citation to our free Reference Generator.

Dingemanse, K. & George, T. (2022, October 25). Research Paper Appendix | Example & Templates. Scribbr. Retrieved 18 June 2024, from https://www.scribbr.co.uk/thesis-dissertation/appendix/

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Dissertation Advice: How to Use the Appendix

Dissertation Advice: How to Use the Appendix

3-minute read

  • 5th June 2017

Unlike the human appendix, the appendices at the end of your dissertation are very valuable… OK, we know that research has shown that the human appendix is useful. But we needed a snappy opening line and we’ll be damned if we let scientific evidence get in our way!

university essay appendix

Anyway, our point is that you can often get extra marks on an academic paper by using the appendices effectively. In this blog post, we explain how.

What to Put in the Appendix

An appendix is where extra information goes. What you include, and how many appendices you need, will depend on what you’re writing about. Common examples include:

  • Raw test data
  • Technical figures, graphs and tables
  • Maps, charts and illustrations
  • Letters and emails
  • Sample questionnaires and surveys
  • Interview transcripts

These are all things you might want to reference in your main essay without including them in full. For example, even if you quote an interview in the results and discussion section of an essay, you would not usually include the full transcript. Instead, you would write:

Participant 4 claimed to experience ‘dizziness and nausea’ (see Appendix B).

This points the reader to the appendix if they want to see where the quote came from.

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How to Format Appendices

The correct way to format appendices will depend on your university, so make sure to check your style guide . But in general, the following rules should be followed:

  • Place appendices at the end of your document after the reference list
  • Divide appendices by topic (e.g. separate sections for test results, illustrations and transcripts)
  • Start each appendix on a new page and label it with a letter or number, along with a title clarifying content (Appendix A: Instrument Diagrams, Appendix B: Test Results, etc.)
  • List appendices in the table of contents at the beginning of your document

Doing these things will make it easier for your reader to find information in the appendices.

Appendices and the Word Count

Appendices are not usually included in the word count for your paper. This means you can cut non-essential information from the main chapters and add it to an appendix without worrying about exceeding the word limit.

But be warned! This is not an excuse to cut vital information from your work. You must included all important data in your main essay. If you put essential information in the appendices, it could count against you when your work is marked.

Some universities include appendices in the word count, though, so there are better ways to ensure that your work doesn’t end up too wordy!

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An appendix** comes at the end (after the reference list) of a report, research project, or dissertation and contains any additional information such as raw data or interview transcripts. The information in the appendices is relevant but is too long or too detailed to include in the main body of your work. 

**Note: Appendix is singular and appendices is plural. When you want to refer to one of your appendices, use appendix - for example, ‘See Appendix 1’.

Scroll down for our recommended strategies and resources. 

Ensure everything in your appendices has a purpose. This guide gives a useful overview of the structure, format, and effective use of appendices:

Appendices (University of Southern California)

Your appendices should have a clear labelling system (Appendix 1, Appendix 2, Appendix 3) and each item in an appendix should have a descriptive title saying what it is (‘Appendix 1: Flowchart of purchasing decision-making process).

You need to refer to your appendices in the body of your assignment or the reader will not know they are there. Use a short phrase such as ‘See Appendix 1’. 

If you have taken data, diagrams, or information from other sources to put in your appendices, you need to reference them as normal; include an in-text citation next to the item in your appendices and a full reference in your reference list. If you have created your own graphs or tables using data from another source you can explain this in your in-text citation: (Table author’s own, data from Jones, 2017).

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Organizing Academic Research Papers: Appendices

  • Purpose of Guide
  • Design Flaws to Avoid
  • Glossary of Research Terms
  • Narrowing a Topic Idea
  • Broadening a Topic Idea
  • Extending the Timeliness of a Topic Idea
  • Academic Writing Style
  • Choosing a Title
  • Making an Outline
  • Paragraph Development
  • Executive Summary
  • Background Information
  • The Research Problem/Question
  • Theoretical Framework
  • Citation Tracking
  • Content Alert Services
  • Evaluating Sources
  • Primary Sources
  • Secondary Sources
  • Tertiary Sources
  • What Is Scholarly vs. Popular?
  • Qualitative Methods
  • Quantitative Methods
  • Using Non-Textual Elements
  • Limitations of the Study
  • Common Grammar Mistakes
  • Avoiding Plagiarism
  • Footnotes or Endnotes?
  • Further Readings
  • Annotated Bibliography
  • Dealing with Nervousness
  • Using Visual Aids
  • Grading Someone Else's Paper
  • How to Manage Group Projects
  • Multiple Book Review Essay
  • Reviewing Collected Essays
  • About Informed Consent
  • Writing Field Notes
  • Writing a Policy Memo
  • Writing a Research Proposal
  • Acknowledgements

An appendix contains supplementary material that is not an essential part of the text itself but which may be helpful in providing a more comprehensive understanding of the research problem and/or is information which is too cumbersome to be included in the body of the paper. A separate appendix should be used for each distinct topic or set of data and always have a title descriptive of its contents .

Importance of...

Your research paper must be complete without the appendices, and it must contain all information including tables, diagrams, and results necessary to address the research problem. The key point to remember when you are writing an appendix is that the information is non-essential; if it were removed, the paper would still be understandable.

It is appropriate to include appendices...

  • When the incorporation of material in the body of the work would make it poorly structured or it would be too long and detailed and
  • To ensure inclusion of helpful, supporting, or essential material that would otherwise clutter or break up the narrative flow of the paper, or it would be distracting to the reader.

Structure and Writing Style

I.  General Points to Consider

When considering whether to include content in an appendix, keep in mind the following points:

  • It is usually good practice to include your raw data in an appendix, laying it out in a clear format so the reader can re-check your results. Another option if you have a large amount of raw data is to consider placing it online and note this as the appendix to your research paper.
  • Any tables and figures included in the appendix should be numbered as a separate sequence from the main paper . Remember that appendices contain non-essential information that, if removed, would not diminish a reader's understanding of the overall research problem being investigated. This is why non-textual elements should not carry over the sequential numbering of elements in the paper.
  • If you have more than three appendices, consider listing them on a separate page at the beginning of your paper . This will help the reader know before reading the paper what information is included in the appendices [always list the appendix or appendices in a table of contents].
  • The appendix can be a good place to put maps, photographs, diagrams, and other non-textual elements , if you feel that it will help the reader to understand the content of your paper, but remembering that the paper should be understandable without them.
  • An appendix should be streamlined and not loaded with a lot information . If you have a very long and complex appendix, it is a good idea to break it down into separate appendices, allowing the reader to find relevant information quickly.

II.  Contents

Appendices may include some of the following, all of which should be referred to or summarized in the text of your paper:

  • Supporting evidence [e.g. raw data]
  • Contributory facts or specialized data [raw data appear in the appendix, but with summarized data appearing in the body of the text].
  • Sample calculations
  • Technical figures, graphs, tables, statistics
  • Detailed description of research instruments
  • Maps, charts, photographs, drawings
  • Letters, emails, and other copies of correspondance
  • Questionnaire/survey instruments, with the results appearing in the text
  • Complete transcripts of interviews
  • Complete field notes from observations
  • Specification or data sheets

NOTE:   Do not include vague or irrelevant information in an appendix; this additional information will not help the reader’s overall understanding and interpretation of your research and may only succeed in distracting the reader from understanding your research study.

III.  Format

Here are some general guideline on how to format appendices, but consult the writing style guide [e.g., APA] your professor wants you to use for the class, if needed:

  • Appendices may precede or follow your list of references.
  • Each appendix begins on a new page.
  • The order they are presented is dictated by the order they are mentioned in the text of your research paper.
  • The heading should be "Appendix," followed by a letter or number [e.g., "Appendix A" or "Appendix 1"], centered and written in bold.
  • Appendices must be listed in the table of contents [if used].
  • The page number(s) of the appendix/appendices will continue on with the numbering from the last page of the text.

Appendices . The Structure, Format, Content, and Style of a Journal-Style Scientific Paper. Department of Biology. Bates College; Tables, Appendices, Footnotes and Endnotes . The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Lunsford, Andrea A. and Robert Connors. The St. Martin's Handbook. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1989.

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Writing an Essay Appendix

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Disclaimer: This is an example of a student written . Click here for sample essays written by our professional writers. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UKEssays.ae.

Definitions

Introduction.

  • supporting evidence
  • contributory facts
  • specialised data [ raw data appear in the appendix, summarised data appear in the body of the text .]
  • technical figures, tables or descriptions
  • detailed description of research instruments
  • questionnaires [ questionnaire results appear in the body of the text ]

How to format an appendix

Cite this work.

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing style below:

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  • Skill Guides
  • Subject Guides

MLA Citation Guide (MLA 9th Edition): Formatting Appendices and Works Cited List

  • Understanding Core Elements
  • Formatting Appendices and Works Cited List
  • Writing an Annotated Bibliography
  • Academic Honesty and Citation
  • In-Text Citation
  • Charts, Graphs, Images, and Tables
  • Class Notes and Presentations
  • Encyclopedias and Dictionaries
  • Generative AI
  • In Digital Assignments
  • Interviews and Emails
  • Journal and Magazine Articles
  • Newspaper Articles
  • Social Media
  • Special Collections
  • Videos and DVDs
  • When Information Is Missing
  • Citation Software

There are a few rules to follow that comply with MLA guidelines if you are adding an appendix to your paper :

  • The appendix appears before the works-cited list.
  • If you have more than one appendix, name the first appendix Appendix A, the second Appendix B, etc.
  • Each appendix begins on a new page.
  • The appendices should appear in the order that the information is mentioned in your essay.

Guidelines for Works Cited List

Every source cited in the text of your paper should be listed at the end of your paper. Title this list Works Cited. Here are eight rules for your work-cited list:

  • Start a new page for the list (e.g., if your paper is 4 pages long, start your works-cited list on page 5).
  • Center the title, Works Cited, at the top of the page. Do not bold or underline the title.
  • Double-space the list.
  • Start the first line of each citation at the left margin; indent each subsequent line five spaces (also known as a "hanging indent").
  • Alphabetize the list by the first word in the citation. In most cases, the first word will be the author’s last name. Where the author is unknown, alphabetize by the first word in the title, ignoring the words a, an, the.
  • For each author, give the last name followed by a comma and the first name followed by a period.
  • Italicize the titles of full works: books, audiovisual material, websites.
  • Do not italicize titles of parts of works, such as: articles from newspapers, magazines, or journals / essays, poems, short stories or chapter titles from a book / chapters or sections of an Internet document. Instead, use quotation marks.

Sample Works Cited List

This sample paper includes an assignment with a works-cited list in MLA format.

  • MLA Sample Paper (Purdue OWL example)
  • << Previous: Understanding Core Elements
  • Next: Writing an Annotated Bibliography >>

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Student Handbooks

Appendix 5: A practical guide to writing essays

university-of-manchester-6070

Writing an essay is a big task that will be easier to manage if you break it down into five main tasks as shown below:

An essay-writing Model in 5 steps

  • Analyse the question

What is the topic?

What are the key verbs?

Question the question—brainstorm and probe

What information do you need?

How are you going to find information?

Find the information

Make notes and/or mind maps.

  • Plan and sort

Arrange information in a logical structure

Plan sections and paragraphs

Introduction and conclusion

  • Edit (and proofread)

For sense and logical flow

For grammar and spelling.

For length.

My Learning Essentials offers a number of online resources and workshops that will help you to understand the importance of referencing your sources, use appropriate language and style in your writing, write and proofread your essays. For more information visit the writing skills My Learning Essentials pages: http://www.library.manchester.ac.uk/services-and-support/students/support-for-your-studies/my-learning-essentials/

Many students write great essays — but not on the topic they were asked about. First, look at the main idea or topic in the question. What are you going to be writing about? Next, look at the verb in the question — the action word. This verb, or action word, is asking you to do something with the topic.

Here are some common verbs or action words and explanations:

Analyse Take to pieces and determine what makes up the various parts. This involves examining something minutely and critically.
Compare Liken one thing to another, and discuss the degree of likeness or unlikeness.
Contrast Set things in opposition so as to show the difference between them.
Criticise Weigh up all aspects by careful examination, and deliver an opinion upon them.
Define Give the exact meaning.
Describe Set out the features, qualities or properties of what is asked, in detail.
Discuss Consider or examine by argument, investigate for and against.
Enumerate Specify the items by numbering the points.
Evaluate Interpret, analyse (take apart the whole), then synthesise (put together) the significant points and make a judgement upon them.
Examine Inquire into, investigate by considering critically, thereby weighing and sifting information/opinions.
Explain Make plain, clear; unfold and illustrate the meaning of.
Illustrate Make clear, explain by means of description, examples, diagrams and figures.
Interpret Explain the meaning of – which generally involves translating information from one form to another (for example, putting a graph into words), thereby showing a complete understanding of it.
Justify Prove or show to be just or right; to show grounds for.
List Number the items or ideas down the page.
Outline Give the main general features, facts or principles.
Prove Demonstrate by argument or reasoning, test.
Relate Tell, recount; establish relation between.
Resolve Separate into its component parts (analyse) and explain.
Review Go back over and look carefully and critically.
State Set out the facts with explicitness and formality.
Summarise Give a concise account of the main points.

Once you have analysed the question, start thinking about what you need to find out. It’s better and more efficient to have a clear focus for your research than to go straight to the library and look through lots of books that may not be relevant.

Start by asking yourself, ‘What do I need to find out?’ Put your ideas down on paper. A mind map is a good way to do this. Useful questions to start focusing your research are: What? Why? When? How? Where? Who?

  • Refer to the advice given in Writing and Referencing Skills for methods to search for information.

First, scan through your source . Find out if there’s any relevant information in what you are reading. If you’re reading a book, look at the contents page, any headings, and the index. Stick a Post-It note on useful pages.

Next, read for detail . Read the text to get the information you want. Start by skimming your eyes over the page to pick our relevant headings, summaries, words. If it’s useful, make notes.

  Making notes

There are two rules when you are making notes:

  • Note your source so that you can find it again and write your references at the end of the essay if you use that information. Use Endnote (see the section on Referencing), or note down the following:
  • page reference
  • date of publication
  • publisher’s name (book)
  • place where it was published (book or journal)
  • the journal number, volume and date (journal)
  • Make brief notes rather than copy text , but if you feel an extract is very valuable put it in quotation marks so that when you write your essay, you’ll know that you have to put it in your own words. Failing to rewrite the text in your own words would be plagiarism.
  • For more information on plagiarism, refer to the Second Level Handbook and the My Learning Essentials Plagiarism Resource http://libassets.manchester.ac.uk/mle/avoiding-plagiarism/.

Everyone will make notes differently as it suits them. However, the aim of making notes when you are researching an essay is to use them when you write the essay. It is therefore important that you can:

  • Read your notes
  • Find their source
  • Determine what the topics and main points are on each note (highlight the main ideas, key points or headings).
  • Compose your notes so you can move bits of information around later when you have to sort your notes into an essay.

For example:

  • Write/type in chunks (one topic for one chunk) with a space between them so you can cut your notes up later, or
  • write the main topics or questions you want to answer on separate pieces of paper before you start making notes. As you find relevant information, write it on the appropriate page. (This takes longer as you have to write the source down a number of times, but it does mean you have ordered your notes into headings.)

Sort information into essay plans

You’ve got lots of information now: how do you put it all together to make an essay that makes sense? As there are many ways to sort out a huge heap of clothes (type of clothes, colour, size, fabric…), there are many ways of sorting information. Whichever method you use, you are looking for ways to arrange the information into groups and to order the groups into a logical sequence . You need to play around with your notes until you find a pattern that seems right and will answer the question.

  • Find the main points in your notes, put them on a separate page – a mind map is a good way to do this – and see if your main points form any patterns or groups.
  • Is there a logical order? Does one thing have to come after another? Do points relate to one another somehow? Think about how you could link the points.
  • Using the information above, draw your essay plan. You could draw a picture, a mind map, a flow chart or whatever you want. Or you could build a structure by using bits of card that you can move around.
  • Select and put the relevant notes into the appropriate group so you are ready to start writing your first draft.

The essay has four main parts:

  • introduction
  • references.

People usually write the introduction and conclusion after they have written the main body of the essay, so we have put them in that order.

For more information on essay writing visit the My Learning Essentials web pages:

https://www.escholar.manchester.ac.uk/learning-objects/mle/packages/writing/

  Main Body

Structure . The main body should have a clear structure. Depending on the length of the essay, you may have just a series of paragraphs, or sections with headings, or possibly even subsections. In the latter case, make sure that the hierarchy of headings is obvious so that the reader doesn’t get lost.

Flow . The main body of the essay answers the question and flows logically from one key point to another (each point needs to be backed up by evidence [experiments, research, texts, interviews, etc …] that must be referenced). You should normally write one main idea per paragraph and the main ideas in your essay should be linked or ‘signposted’. Signposts show readers where they are going, so they don’t get lost. This lets the reader know how you are going to tackle the idea, or how one idea is linked with the one before it or after it.

Some signpost words and phrases are:

  • ‘These changes . . . “
  • ‘Such developments
  • ‘This
  • ‘In the first few paragraphs . . . “
  • ‘I will look in turn at. . . ‘
  • ‘However, . . . “
  • ‘Similarly’
  • ‘But’.

Figures: purpose . You should try to include tables, diagrams, and perhaps photographs in your essay. Tables are valuable for summarising information, and are most likely to impress if they show the results of relevant experimental data. Diagrams enable the reader to visualise things, replacing the need for lengthy descriptions. Photographs must be selected with care, to show something meaningful. Nobody will be impressed by a picture of a giraffe – we all know what one looks like, so the picture would be mere decoration. But a detailed picture of a giraffe’s markings might be useful if it illustrates a key point.

Figures: labelling, legends and acknowledgment . Whenever you use a table, diagram or image in your essay you must:

  • cite the source
  • make sure that the legend and explanation are adapted to your purpose.

Untitled

Checklist for the main body of text

  • Does your text have a clear structure?
  • Does the text follow a logical sequence so that the argument flows?
  • Does your text have both breadth and depth – i.e. general coverage of the major issues with in-depth treatment of particularly important points?
  • Does your text include some illustrative experimental results?
  • Have you chosen the diagrams or photographs carefully to provide information and understanding, or are the illustrations merely decorative?
  • Are your figures acknowledged properly? Did you label them and include legend and explanation?

    Introduction

The introduction comes at the start of the essay and sets the scene for the reader. It usually defines clearly the subject you will address (e.g. the adaptations of organisms to cold environments), how you will address this subject (e.g. by using examples drawn principally from the Arctic zone) and what you will show or argue (e.g. that all types of organism, from microbes through to mammals, have specific adaptations that fit them for life in cold environments). The length of an introduction depends on the length of your essay, but is usually between 50 to 200 words

Remember that reading the introduction constitutes the first impression on your reader (i.e. your assessor!). Therefore, it should be the last section that you revise at the editing stage, making sure that it leads the reader clearly into the details of the subject you have covered and that it is completely free of typos and spelling mistakes.

  Check-list for the Introduction

  • Does your introduction start logically by telling the reader what the essay is about – for example, the various adaptations to habitat in the bear family?
  • Does your introduction outline how you will address this topic – for example, by an overview of the habitats of bears, followed by in-depth treatment of some specific adaptations?
  • Is it free of typos and spelling mistakes?

Conclusion  

An essay needs a conclusion. Like the introduction, this need not be long: 50 to 200 words long, depending on the length of the essay. It should draw the information together and, ideally, place it in a broader context by personalising the findings, stating an opinion or supporting a further direction which may follow on from the topic. The conclusion should not introduce facts in addition to those in the main body.

Check-list for the Conclusion

  • Does your conclusion sum up what was said in the main body?
  • If the title of the essay was a question, did you give a clear answer in the conclusion?
  • Does your conclusion state your personal opinion on the topic or its future development or further work that needs to be done? Does it show that you are thinking further?

  References

In all scientific writing you are expected to cite your main sources of information. Scientific journals have their own preferred (usually obligatory) method of doing this. The piece of text below shows how you can cite work in an essay, dissertation or thesis. Then you supply an alphabetical list of references at the end of the essay. The Harvard style of referencing adopted at the University of Manchester will be covered in the Writing and Referencing Skills unit in Semester 3. For more information refer to the Referencing Guide from the University Library ( http://subjects.library.manchester.ac.uk/referencing/referencing-harvard ).

Citations in the text

Jones and Smith (1999) showed that the ribosomal RNA of fungi differs from that of slime moulds. This challenged the previous assumption that slime moulds are part of the fungal kingdom (Toby and Dean, 1987). However, according to Bloggs et al . (1999) the slime moulds can still be accommodated in the fungal kingdom for convenience. Slime moulds are considered part of the Eucarya domain by Todar (2012).

Reference list at the end of the essay:

List the references in alphabetical order and if you have several publications written by the same author(s) in the same year, add a letter (a,b,c…) after the year to distinguish between them. Bloggs, A.E., Biggles, N.H. and Bow, R.T. (1999). The Slime Moulds . 2 nd edn. London and New York: Academic Press.

Todar K. (2012) Overview Of Bacteriology. Available at: http://textbookofbacteriology.net, [Accessed 15 November 2013].

Jones, B.B. and Smith, J.O.E. (1999). Ribosomal RNA of slime moulds, Journal of Ribosomal RNA 12, 33-38.

Toby F.S. and Dean P.L. (1987). Slime moulds are part of the fungal kingdom, in Edwards A.E. and Kane Y. (eds.) The Fungal Kingdom. Luton: Osbert Publishing Co., pp. 154-180 .

Endnote : This is an electronic system for storing and retrieving references that you will learn about in the Writing and Referencing Skills (WRS) unit. It is very powerful and simple to use, but you must always check that the output is consistent with the instructions given in this section.

Visit the My Learning Essentials online resource for a guide to using EndNote: https://www.escholar.manchester.ac.uk/learning-objects/mle/endnote-guide/

(we recommend EndNote online if you wish to use your own computer).

Note that journals have their own house style so there will be minor differences between them, particularly in their use of punctuation, but all reference lists for the same journal will be in the same format.

First Draft

When you write your first draft, keep two things in mind:

  • Length: you may lose marks if your essay is too long. Ensure therefore that your essay is within the page limit that has been set.
  • Expression: don’t worry about such matters as punctuation, spelling or grammar at this stage. You can get this right at the editing stage. If you put too much time into getting these things right at the drafting stage, you will have less time to spend on thinking about the content, and you will be less willing to change it when you edit for sense and flow at the editing stage.

  Writing style

The style of your essay should fit the task or the questions asked and be targeted to your reader. Just as you are careful to use the correct tone of voice and language in different situations so you must take care with your writing. Generally writing should be:

  • Make sure that you write exactly what you mean in a simple way.
  • Write briefly and keep to the point. Use short sentences. Make sure that the meaning of your sentences is obvious.
  • Check that you would feel comfortable reading your essay if you were actually the reader.
  • Make sure that you have included everything of importance. Take care to explain or define any abbreviations or specialised jargon in full before using a shortened version later. Do not use slang, colloquialisms or cliches in formal written work.

When you are editing your essay, you will need to bear in mind a number of things. The best way to do this, without forgetting something, is to edit in ‘layers’, using a check-list to make sure you have not forgotten anything.

Check-list for Style  

  • Tone – is it right for the purpose and the receiver?
  • Clarity – is it simple, clear and easy to understand?
  • Complete – have you included everything of importance?

  Check-list for Sense

  • Does your essay make sense?
  • Does it flow logically?
  • Have you got all the main points in?
  • Are there bits of information that aren’t useful and need to be chopped out?
  • Are your main ideas in paragraphs?
  • Are the paragraphs linked to one another so that the essay flows rather than jumps from one thing to another?
  • Is it about the right length?

  Check-list for Proofreading

  • Are the punctuation, grammar, spelling and format correct?
  • If you have written your essay on a word-processor, run the spell check over it.
  • Have you referenced all quotes and names correctly?
  • Is the essay written in the correct format? (one and a half line spacing, margins at least 2.5cm all around the text, minimum font size 10 point).

School Writer in Residence

The School of Biological Sciences has three ‘Writers in Residence’ who are funded by The Royal Literary Fund. They are:

Susan Barker ( [email protected] )– Thursday and Friday   

Amanda Dalton ( [email protected] )– Monday and Tuesday

Tania Hershman ( [email protected] ) – Wednesday

The writers in residence can help you with any aspect of your writing including things such as ‘‘how do I start?’ ‘how do I structure a complex essay’ ‘ why am I getting poor marks for my essay writing?’

All you need to do is to bring along a piece of your writing and they will discuss with you on a one to one basis how to resolve the problems that you are having with your piece of writing.

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IMAGES

  1. What Is an Appendix? Structure, Format & Examples

    university essay appendix

  2. ᐉ What is an Appendix? ☑️ How to Write an Appendix

    university essay appendix

  3. Appendix

    university essay appendix

  4. How to Make an Appendix in APA Style

    university essay appendix

  5. How to Write an Appendix for a Research Paper & Examples

    university essay appendix

  6. Definition Essay: Appendix sample in research paper

    university essay appendix

VIDEO

  1. Appendix Cancer 2023 Symposium: General Session Part 1

  2. Appendix

  3. Appendix Cancer 2023 Symposium: General Session Part 3

  4. Appendix A: Analysis of Algorithms II

  5. Writing for Success

  6. Stand Out With These 3 College Essay Openings

COMMENTS

  1. The Appendix (How to Use One in an Essay)

    An appendix (plural: appendices) is a section at the end of a book or essay containing details that aren't essential to your work, but which could provide useful context or background material. In the main body of your essay, you should indicate when you're referring to an appendix by citing it in parentheses. For example:

  2. How to Create an APA Style Appendix

    Appendix format example. The appendix label appears at the top of the page, bold and centered. On the next line, include a descriptive title, also bold and centered. The text is presented in general APA format: left-aligned, double-spaced, and with page numbers in the top right corner. Start a new page for each new appendix.

  3. What Is an Appendix? Structure, Format & Examples

    Essentially, an appendix is a compilation of the references cited in an academic paper, prevalent in academic journals, which can be found in any academic publication, including books. Professors frequently require their students to include an appendix in their work. Incorporating an appendix in your written piece can aid readers in ...

  4. Appendices

    The heading should be "Appendix," followed by a letter or number [e.g., "Appendix A" or "Appendix 1"], centered and written in bold type. If there is a table of contents, the appendices must be listed. Depending on the type of information, the content can be presented in landscape format rather than regular portrait format.

  5. Research Paper Appendix

    Research Paper Appendix | Example & Templates. Published on August 4, 2022 by Tegan George and Kirsten Dingemanse. Revised on July 18, 2023. An appendix is a supplementary document that facilitates your reader's understanding of your research but is not essential to your core argument. Appendices are a useful tool for providing additional information or clarification in a research paper ...

  6. How to Write an Appendix for Your Essay

    When it comes to formatting an appendix, there are a few key guidelines to follow: - Appendices should be placed at the end of your essay, after the references or bibliography. - Each appendix should be labelled with a letter (e.g., Appendix A, Appendix B) and have a descriptive title. - If you have more than one appendix, make sure to label ...

  7. PDF The Extended Essay Appendix

    essay. Unless considered essential, complete lists of raw data should not be included in the extended essay. Students should not constantly refer to material presented in an appendix as this may disrupt the continuity of the essay." Appendices are distinct possibilities for students writing extended essays in science, music, visual arts, math ...

  8. Other APA Guidelines

    Appendices. APA 7 addresses appendices and supplemental materials in Section 2.14 and on page 41: The appendices follow the reference list. They are lettered "Appendix A," "Appendix B," "Appendix C," and so forth. If you have only one appendix, however, simply label it Appendix. Put figures and tables in separate appendices.

  9. Formatting

    The appendices should appear in the order that the information is mentioned in your essay; Each appendix begins on a new page . APA Sample Paper - with Appendix (Purdue OWL example) Quick Rules for an APA Reference List. Your research paper ends with a list of all the sources cited in the text of the paper. Here are nine quick rules for this ...

  10. How to Write an Appendix: 11 Steps (with Pictures)

    4. Add page numbers. You should make sure the appendix has page numbers at the bottom right corner or the center of the page. Use the same page number formatting for the appendix that you used for the rest of the paper. Continue the numbering from the text into the appendix so it feels like part of the whole.

  11. Footnotes & Appendices

    Text Appendices. Appendices should be formatted in traditional paragraph style and may incorporate text, figures, tables, equations, or footnotes. In an appendix, all figures, tables, and other visuals should be labelled with the letter of the corresponding appendix followed by a number indicating the order in which each appears.

  12. Writing an Essay Appendix

    How to format an appendix. The heading should be APPENDIX or Appendix, followed by a letter or number: e.g. APPENDIX A, Appendix 1, centred, bold. Each appendix must begin on a new page. Appendices must be listed in the table of contents (if used). The page number (s) of the appendix / appendices will follow on from the body of the text.

  13. Do You Need an Appendix in Your College Paper?

    You will only need appendices in your paper if you have a lot of extra material that doesn't fit in the main body of the document. For instance, if you have conducted a survey, you might want to focus on certain data in the Results section of your paper. You can then pick and choose the key information, with the rest given in an appendix.

  14. Tables, Images, & Appendices

    Tables, Images, & Appendices. For some papers and reports, you may choose to add a table, graph, chart, or image within the body of the draft. Or you may choose to include an appendix at the end of your paper. These can help to provide a visual representation of data or other information that you wish to relay to your reader.

  15. Research Paper Appendix

    Research Paper Appendix | Example & Templates. Published on 15 August 2022 by Kirsten Dingemanse and Tegan George. Revised on 25 October 2022. An appendix is a supplementary document that facilitates your reader's understanding of your research but is not essential to your core argument. Appendices are a useful tool for providing additional information or clarification in a research paper ...

  16. Dissertation Advice: How to Use the Appendix

    For example, even if you quote an interview in the results and discussion section of an essay, you would not usually include the full transcript. Instead, you would write: Participant 4 claimed to experience 'dizziness and nausea' (see Appendix B). This points the reader to the appendix if they want to see where the quote came from.

  17. Formatting and layout

    Most assignments are now submitted electronically and formatted as follows: Use a clearly legible font and font size (Times New Roman is the most common font and 12 point is the most common size). Set page margins to around 1 inch/2.5cm. Use 1.5 or double line spacing. Keep the space between paragraphs consistent.

  18. Appendices

    Appendices. An appendix** comes at the end (after the reference list) of a report, research project, or dissertation and contains any additional information such as raw data or interview transcripts. The information in the appendices is relevant but is too long or too detailed to include in the main body of your work. **Note: Appendix is ...

  19. Organizing Academic Research Papers: Appendices

    Appendices may precede or follow your list of references. Each appendix begins on a new page. The order they are presented is dictated by the order they are mentioned in the text of your research paper. The heading should be "Appendix," followed by a letter or number [e.g., "Appendix A" or "Appendix 1"], centered and written in bold.

  20. Writing an Essay Appendix

    Essay Help - Using an Appendix - The appendix may be used for helpful, supporting or essential material. Essay Help - Using an Appendix - The appendix may be used for helpful, supporting or essential material. ... University / Undergraduate. Modified: 13th May 2020. Wordcount: 306 words. Author University Student. Disclaimer: This is an example ...

  21. Formatting Appendices and Works Cited List

    There are a few rules to follow that comply with MLA guidelines if you are adding an appendix to your paper : The appendix appears before the works-cited list. ... The appendices should appear in the order that the information is mentioned in your essay. ... University of Nevada, Reno 1664 N. Virginia Street, Reno 89557 (775) 784-1110.

  22. Tutorial

    Appendix 5: A practical guide to writing essays. Writing an essay is a big task that will be easier to manage if you break it down into five main tasks as shown below: An essay-writing Model in 5 steps. Analyse the question.