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Literary fiction

Paper names.

by Susie Luo

Singed by New York’s melting pot, an immigrant family continues to fight movingly for a piece of the American Dream.

Good to know

Multiple viewpoints

Family drama

Nonlinear timeline


Why I love it

Caroline leavitt, author, with or without you.

What I love most about reading is the way a book can immerse me into an unknown experience so completely different from my own that when I finish the story, I’m totally changed, now seeing and understanding the world in a new way. Case in point is Susie Luo’s dazzlingly written debut novel, Paper Names .

Tony, a Chinese immigrant engineer, comes to the United States for a better life for his family, but cannot find work as an engineer and so much to his chagrin enlists—as a serviceperson at a luxury building. Tammy, his first-generation American daughter, bears the burden of Tony’s fierce expectations for her as she works to excel academically and professionally. Meanwhile there’s Oliver, a white wealthy attorney who lives in the building where Tony works and who refuses to believe he is anything like his corrupt parents, even as he hides a dark secret of his own.

As these lives intersect, spanning decades and continents, Luo’s propulsive novel explores critical questions about contemporary America like: What’s the cost of trying to achieve the American Dream, especially while burdened with generational trauma? This debut is so assured, so moving and stunningly written, that readers might feel it was written by a seasoned literary master—a description surely in Luo’s future. You will not want to miss this one!

An unexpected act of violence brings together a Chinese-American family and a wealthy white lawyer in this propulsive and sweeping story of family, identity and the American experience—for fans of Jean Kwok, Mary Beth Keane and Naima Coster.

Set in New York and China over three decades, Paper Names explores what it means to be American from three different perspectives. There’s Tony, a Chinese-born engineer turned Manhattan doorman, who immigrated to the United States to give his family a better life. His daughter, Tammy, who we meet at age nine and follow through adulthood, grapples with the expectations of a first generation American and her own personal desires. Finally, there’s Oliver, a handsome white lawyer with a dark family secret and who lives in the building where Tony works. A violent attack causes their lives to intertwine in ways that will change them forever.

Taut, panoramic and powerful, debut novelist Susie Luo’s Paper Names is an unforgettable story about the long shadows of our parents, the ripple effect of our decisions and the ways in which our love transcends difference.

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Different Types of Paper and Their Uses

Paper is a versatile product that is created most often from wood pulp, usually derived from softwood coniferous trees such as pine. Coniferous trees are fast-growing trees that are characterized as having cones and needles as opposed to deciduous trees which have leaves that are shed during the autumn and winter seasons.

Paper is created from wood pulp that is typically created using a mechanical pulping process that grinds wood logs mixed with water or using a chemical pulping process to remove lignin. Once the raw pulping is completed, the fiber is cleaned and injected onto a flat wire section where the fiber begins the process of spreading out and forming into a wide sheet. The sheet then passes through a series of presses and dryers to extract excess water content, and then onto a calendaring operation to smooth out the paper. Before being wound into reels or cut into standard sheets, any desired coatings, pigments, and binding agents are applied. Occasionally paper will go through the process more than once as it's created, used, shredded , recycled, and remade. 

In the sections below, this article will summarize 33 of the common types of paper and describe their uses or applications.

Types of Paper

There are many types of paper used in the world today. Besides the use of paper for printing and publishing, the product is used to protect and package other goods, to record transactions or events, to provide decoration, and to act as carrier or substrate for other materials, to name some its uses.

Here are the common types of paper in use, which shows the versatility of paper as a product:

Acid-free paper

Archival paper, artist’s paper, blotting paper, box covering and lining paper, business card & business form paper.

  • Calculator & cash register paper

Chart paper

Copy & copier paper, drinking cup paper, envelope paper, examination table paper, filter paper, greeting card paper, kraft paper, litmus paper, loose leaf filler paper, manilla paper, newsprint paper, parchment paper, photographic paper, printing paper, post-consumer recycled paper, tobacco paper, toilet paper, typewriter paper, waxed paper, wrapping paper.

Acid-free paper is created using a alkaline production process that removes the lignin from the wood pulp and treats the pulp solution with a mild base such as calcium bicarbonate, to produce a pH that is above 7. Acid-free paper is designed to be used in cases where it is important to preserve the documents over long time periods without aging, yellowing, or deteriorating.

Like acid-free paper, archival paper is also used for maintaining the quality of documents over time. In addition to being acid free, much archival paper is made using 100% cotton instead of wood pulp to help preserve the

Artist’s paper is used in creating artistic drawings, sketches, and paintings. The thickness of artist’s paper will vary, depending on the inks being applied and desired use, one example being thin tracing paper , used to transfer a design or image by copying the details onto the tracing paper which sits over the master image.

Blotting paper is a paper variety that has high absorbency and can be used to remove excess liquids from objects or surfaces. This can include the absorption of excess ink, the removal of excess liquid from a microscope slide prior to being viewed, or even the removal of excess oil from a person’s skin.

Book paper is, as the name suggests, used for the printing and publication of books, such as the Bible .

Box covering & lining paper is used to add an inner or outer paper layer to cardboard boxes for a decorative or protective purpose. You can find out more in our guide on cardboard and cardboard box types .

These paper types are used in the creation of business cards , greeting cards , or in the printing of business forms . Card stock tends to be a thicker, more rigid paper that has a high-quality feel to it.

Calculator and cash register paper

Calculator paper is used to record the results of calculations from adding machines and calculators, enabling those results to be printed and saved. Similarly, cash register paper is used to print receipts of point-of-sale transactions to document the date of sale, items purchased, prices, tax paid, and form of payment.

Chart paper  also referred to as recording chart paper , is used in chart recorders that monitor a variety of conditions including electrical power, temperature and weather conditions, earthquake activity, or medical conditions such as cardiac output (electrocardiography) or brain activity (electroencephalography). It also finds application in monitoring activity and conditions in cleanrooms .

Copy & copier paper is used for printers, photocopiers, fax machines , and other general-purpose office and home uses. There are specialized types of these papers as well that are designed to be better suited for printing using either inkjet or laser printer technologies.

Drinking cup paper is used to create single-use, disposable paper cups that hold water or other liquids. They use wax or similar coating to reduce the tendency for the absorption of liquids by the paper.

Envelope paper is used to create different styles of envelopes for the storing and mailing of documents or other objects. The finished form of envelopes may call for the addition of adhesives for closing the envelope, or other clasps or mechanisms to secure the contents inside the envelope.

Examination table paper is commonly used in doctor’s offices and medical facilities to provide a clean surface barrier that helps protect patients from the transmission of germs. The paper is contained on a roller and can be extended as needed to recover an examination table after a previous patient has left and a new one enters the examination room.

Filter paper is used as a barrier that can separate substances from a stream of liquid or gas, such as water or air. Common filter paper applications include their use in air filters around the home or in automobiles, fuel filters and oil filters in vehicles, coffee filters to keep coffee grinds out of drip coffee, or tea bag paper that acts as a barrier to contain tea leaves during the process of brewing tea.

Food paper is used to wrap food as a matter of protection and containment. Common examples of this variety include butcher’s wrapping paper to contain meats, deli paper that is used to wrap sandwiches and cold cuts, candy wrapping paper that acts as a packaging layer for candy, fish paper used to wrap fish or seafood, and fruit wrapping paper that covers and protects apples, pears, and other fruit during shipment and display.

Greeting card paper is a medium weight cardstock paper that is used to create greeting cards or all types for holidays, birthdays, bereavement, graduations, and anniversaries. Cardstock is thicker than paper that is used for printing but is thinner than cardboard.

Kraft paper is created from the wood pulp of softwoods using what has been called the kraft process, which results in a stronger form of paper exhibiting high tear resistance and high elasticity. These properties make kraft paper ideally suited for the creation of packaging material paper to protect cartons during shipment, as well as bag & sack paper , used to create shopping bags and grocery store sacks.

Litmus paper is a form of filter paper that is used to create litmus strips, which are used to measure the pH of a liquid to determine its relative acidity or alkalinity. The litmus paper is infused with a litmus mixture of a series of color dyes which produce a specific color change depending on the pH of the solution into which the paper is dipped. Litmus paper is designed to exhibit relatively high absorbency to facilitate this application.

Loose leaf filler paper is familiar to students everywhere as a common paper with printed lines and pre-punched holes in the left margin designed to be used for note-taking and for preparing classroom and homework assignments. This paper stock is designed to be placed into multi-ring binders which allow for the removal and insertion of the loose leaf paper as desired.

Manilla paper is a paper variety that is created from semi-bleached wood fibers and was used to create file folders, envelopes, and manilla board. Most of the brown envelopes that receive the name manilla envelopes are, in fact, more likely created from less expensive recycled fibers. True manilla paper is used for more specialized applications such as in tea bags or as a filter paper.

Newsprint paper is an inexpensive, non-durable paper stock created from ground wood pulp that is used for the printing of newspapers, as well as some magazines. It is around the cheapest bulk paper product which is produced that can hold up to the printing process. The paper stock is available in several grades, the higher of which allows for the creation of more glossy printed items such as advertising or high-quality color images. By its nature, newsprint paper is not especially durable and will yellow and degrade, but these limitations are not troublesome given the short useful life of the end product. Estimates are that around 80% of newsprint paper is used for daily newspaper printing, and a large percentage (70%) of that material is recaptured from the waste stream and recycled.

Parchment paper is a thin paper used in baking and cooking which has been coated with silicone, the presence of which renders the paper with both non-stick properties and a higher flashpoint. These properties enable it to be used to line a baking sheet and be safely used in a hot oven without risk of a fire. It should not be confused with wax paper which uses paraffin wax as a coating.

Photographic paper , or photo paper, is traditionally a paper stock that has been infused or coating with light-sensitive chemicals, enabling it to accept a projected image from a photographic negative and render a black and white or color image on the paper. It is still used for the development of images from film photography. With the advent of wide-scale use of digital cameras and digital image storage, photographic paper in the sense of digital images is closer to printing paper given that the image transfer process is not relying on the need for the presence of chemicals to capture the varying light intensity onto the paper.

Printing paper or printer paper is any form of paper on which printing can be accomplished and includes copier paper, newsprint paper, book paper, magazine and catalog paper, and label paper , many of which have been discussed in this article.

As many applications of paper and many paper products involve their use for short life cycles, post-consumer recycled paper has become a significant paper product and source of raw material that filters the waste stream and saves wood, water, and energy that would be needed to process virgin wood pulp into paper. Collected paper, shredded and unshredded, from recycling programs is fed back into the paper production stream, dissolved into pulp, processed to remove inks and adhesives, and then added with fresh pulp to create the recycled paper.

Sandpaper is a product that contains particles of an abrasive material glued or adhered to paper which acts as a substrate and which is used for the polishing, smoothing, or finishing operations on wood, metal, drywall, or other surfaces. While the term sandpaper implies that the abrasive used is sand, in fact, particles of sand are not used, but rather other grit materials such as an aluminum oxide or silicon carbide.

Shoe paper is a thin paper that is used to wrap shoes while they are stored inside of cardboard boxes during storage and shipment from the factory to the retail outlet or warehouse. It serves to prevent scuffing or other damage to the shoe surfaces prior to purchasing.

Tobacco paper , also called rolling paper, is a thin specialized paper used to roll cigarettes from loose tobacco or other plants to be smoked. While traditionally created from wood pulp as with most other paper types, recent additions to the market include tobacco papers made from rice, hemp, or transparent cellulose.

Toilet paper , also known as toilet tissue , is a soft multi-ply paper product that is used for personal care in the bathroom. It is traditionally made of virgin wood pulp and is fabricated using a combination of both hardwoods and softwoods in roughly a 70% / 30% ratio.

Typewriter paper was at one time a more commonly available paper product that was used in manual typewriters before the widespread use of the personal computer and its editing capabilities reduced the demand for and use of typewriters. In its heyday, typewriter paper came in varieties that included different colors and a waxed coated paper type whose benefit was the ease with which typing errors could be erased from the page. There was also a very thin onion-skin type paper sold which had low weight and was often intended for use in airmail letters where cargo weight was a concern.

Wallpaper is a decorative covering used on walls as an alternative to paints. It is available in rolls and is adhered to wall surfaces either using a self-contained adhesive or by the application of a wallpaper paste.

Waxed paper is a paper product that has been treated on both sides with a paraffin wax which provides both moisture resistance as well as non-stick properties. Waxed paper, also referred to as wax paper, is used in the kitchen for a variety of food preparation purposes. While it is similar in some respects to parchment paper, waxed paper is less expensive but lacks the higher flash point of parchment paper, and therefore should not be used in the oven.

Wrapping paper  often referred to as gift wrap , is a decorative form of paper product that is used to wrap gifts for holiday giving, or for birthdays, anniversaries, or other festive events. It contains a decorative design that is applied using either a rotogravure or flexography printing process. The product is sold in both rolls as well as folded flat packaged sheets.

This guide summarizes some of the common types of paper and the uses for each. To explore other topics, consult our additional guides or visit the Thomas Supplier Discovery Platform to locate potential sources of supply or view details on specific products.

  • http://www.csun.edu/~pjd77408/DrD/resources/Printing/PaperMade.html
  • https://www.strathmoreartist.com/blog-reader/what-is-the-difference-between-acid-free-and-archival.html
  • https://www.thesprucecrafts.com/types-of-papers-used-for-crafting-2585113
  • http://justinsamazingworldatfennerpaper.blogspot.com/2015/08/what-is-manila-or-is-it-manilla.html
  • https://www.thespruceeats.com/what-is-parchment-paper-3959179
  • https://www.wonkeedonkeetools.co.uk/manual-sanders/what-is-sandpaper/
  • https://www.royalqueenseeds.com/blog-the-different-kinds-of-rolling-papers-explained-n1067
  • http://www.toiletpaperhistory.net/toilet-paper-made/how-is-toilet-paper-made/
  • https://www.marthastewart.com/269281/parchment-vs-wax-paper
  • https://www.reddit.com/r/typewriters/comments/2sh05m
  • http://www.madehow.com/Volume-6/Wrapping-Paper.html
  • https://www.jennerjahn.com/coreless-surface-slitter-rewinders/
  • https://imagemarkonline.com/services/direct-mail-charlotte-nc/

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Guide to paper types

Just as many materials can be used to bind books there are also many types of paper used to make book leaves. Without getting into the names for various thicknesses and modern paper types, here is a basic list of paper varieties used in antiquarian and luxury books.

This is paper that was originally made in a frame or mould. The paper paste is spread out on sieves whose bottom is tightened with wires that leave a mark on the paper, the laid. These lines are called wire lines or chain lines and are visible on the finished paper when held up to light. At the bottom of the sieve, there is also an iron drawing for the watermark. There are mechanical processes to make laid paper but most modern laid paper is handmade.

Marbled paper

This is a process where paper is lowered into a bath of gum, known as size in the printing trade, which has been swirled with a stick or comb to produce a marbled effect, similar to the process which creates marbled morocco bindings, marbled edges, and very occasionally marbled cloth bindings.

Invented circa 1755, wove paper has been the usual run-of-the-mill paper used in book-making since the start of the 19th century. It has an even and granulated texture, and is usually made on a continuous close-meshed wire belt. This process eliminates wire and chain lines, and distinguishes wove paper from laid paper.

China paper

Manufactured in China from bamboo filaments, China Paper is a little bit grey or yellow in color. This kind of paper takes ink very well and is often used for woodcuts, engravings and occasionally lithographs. The proofs are often pasted onto a more sturdy paper before being bound into books.

India paper

The term India Paper has two meanings. Either, it is a shortened form of India Proof Paper, which for all intents and purposes is the same as China Paper. It can also refer to Oxford India Paper, which is a thin, tough and opaque paper developed around 1875 by Oxford University Press as an imitation oriental paper.

Japan paper

Manufactured from mulberry trees or bamboo shoots, Japan paper is available in various thicknesses. It is yellow, silky and generally quite expensive. The paper has little sizing and therefore is very absorbent. For this reason, plates or blocks must be heavily inked before being pressed onto Japan paper but the end result is extremely desirable.

Holland paper

Holland paper often has a smooth and a rough side. It is resistant, sonorous and can be broken. Holland is a type of laid paper.

This is a modern type of paper that has been synthetically created to resemble natural vellum. Paper vellum is usually made from a kind of plasticized cotton and is considerably cheaper than the natural alternative.

books paper name

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Paper Names

by Susie Luo

Paper Names by Susie Luo

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Published May 2023 288 pages Genre: Literary Fiction Publication Information

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  • Sonia F. (Freehold, NJ) An immigrant experience We are our stories. And when it comes to an immigrant story, we all have one to tell. This compelling story had me hooked from the first sentence. Spoiler alert- I am a sucker for a good immigrant story. Set in the big Apple- New York and China , Susie Luo debut novel explains what it means to be other, what it means to be stereotyped because of how you look, what it means to fit in, what it means to be a first generation American and having to appease an old school Chinese father in America who wants to do everything in his power to make you have a better life, to make you attain that elusive American dream. Told from three perspectives with engaging rounded characters; Tony, Chinese born engineer who is now a doorman in Manhattan, his daughter Tammy who wishes he was more American and then there is Oliver, white , handsome and dark family secrets. Their lives collide and intertwine like one would not imagine and the effects are devastating. "But for all his attempts to control me, what he also did was create a person who was capable of making hard decisions of breaking the cage itself". " I had not realized until his death that he had also caged me with his dreams". Ah!! The long shadows of parents and their expectations when when is confronted with cultural bonds and duties. A compelling evocative read that you recognize yourself or someone you know on these pages. I unequivocally recommend this novel. It will stay with me forever. I wonder what Tammy is up to now. I wonder if she found a space to call home.
  • Sandra O. (Alexandria, VA) Better than Number One Paper Names is a winner of a novel! It begins slowly and builds to a full crescendo! The characters are perfectly drawn and though the story begins in New York about an immigrant family from China, it weaves back and forth though the family's lifetime. I personally felt each high and low as the characters moved through their lives. It also involves an American lawyer who helps them in many ways but has his own dark secret. The story will remain with you. Kudos to the author!
  • Judy G. Greenbrae, CA. Paper Names Paper Names is a novel that asks--in engaging, absorbing and entertaining ways--big questions. Who are we and what shapes us? Is it our family heritage, or is it the world we move through, be it familiar or new? Are we the title of our jobs? What is justice? This may make the novel sound like heavy lifting, but it is anything but. Susie Luo writes so gracefully that it is surprising to learn this is her first novel. The story is told through three points of view. Tony Zhang, once an engineer in China who sought a better life for his family, is now a doorman in New York. His daughter Tammy, whom we follow from age nine to adulthood, deals with her family's old world ways and her own new world hopes. The third story is Oliver Wright's. He's a charming lawyer with everything going for him except a dark family secret. A vicious street crime brings all three people and stories together. There are no saints or true villains in these pages, only complicated, real people trying to find their way and sometimes tripping up. I heartily recommend this book and will definitely read whatever Susie Luo decides to write next.
  • Diane S. (El Paso, TX) Beautifully Written Story "Paper Names" is a beautifully written story that focuses on three characters: Tony, an immigrant from China; his daughter, Tammy, a first-generation American; and Oliver, an American attorney, who are thrown together as a result of a random act of violence. The story is told from the three characters' perspectives and highlights various years in their lives. There is a lot going on: immigrants' struggles, family relationships, family dysfunction, coming of age, family secrets, and ultimately, what love really means. The characters' stories are so compelling that I found myself reading well into the night. Because it would generate a lively discussion, "Paper Names" would be an excellent choice for a book club.
  • Susan M. (New Holland, PA) Paper Names Paper Names is an exceptionally well written novel that held my interest throughout. The story revolves around a Chinese immigrant family who left their home and jobs in China in hopes of a better life in the US. However Tony, the father sacrifices his good job as an engineer to serve as a doorman for an upscale hotel. He is declared a hero when he saves a resident from a violent attack. The reader also follows his daughter, Tammy from the age of 9 until her graduation from Harvard and beyond. A lawyer named Oliver is another key figure in the story. The characters are well drawn and there's a surprise ending that I didn't see coming. I would recommend this book to any reader who might enjoy an interesting fictional account of what immigrants to this country experience.
  • Laurie F. (Brookline, MA) A Fabulous Debut Novel A wonderful story of a Chinese family's journey as immigrants to America. We follow Tony, Kim, and their daughter Tammy (their Americanized names of course) through the difficulties of being a professional in your home country and then having to start from scratch in America assuming you eventually reach your dreams. This novel reveals through hard work, unique relationships, and determination you can eventually get there - though there are consequences. I recommend you read this book to find out!
  • Laura D. (Newmarket, NH) Engaging Debut I loved everything about this book! It was an engaging story, revealed through the perspectives of three characters within four decades. The book's non-linear time line worked wonderfully, with each chapter adding dimension to the characters and story line, without ever being disorienting.The themes of identity, family, expectation, and loyalty provided emotional depth to the story. The ending caught me by surprise, but was a fitting one. Once you start reading, you will find excuses to keep reading the next chapter. I hope the author continues writing novels!

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How to come up with book title ideas.

Need an original book title, and fast? We got you. Here are 8 ways to come up with book title ideas. 

1. Start free writing to find keywords

Write absolutely anything that comes into your head: words, phrases, names, places, adjectives — the works. You’ll be surprised how much workable content comes out from such a strange exercise.

2. Experiment with word patterns

Obviously, we’re not advocating plagiarism, but try playing around with formats like:

“The _____ of _______”
“______ and the _____”

These will work for certain genres, though they are by no means the only patterns you can play around with. Have you noticed how many blockbuster thrillers these days feature the word “woman” or “ girl” somewhere in the title?

3. Draw inspiration from your characters 

If your central character has a quirky name or a title (like Doctor or Detective) you can definitely incorporate this into your book title. Just look at Jane Eyre, Percy Jackson, or Harry Potter, for instance — working with one or more or your characters’ names is a surefire way to get some title ideas down. Equally, you can add a little detail, like Thomas Hardy’s Jude the Obscure, to add a little color to a name and make it title-worthy.

4. Keep your setting in mind

Is your book set somewhere particularly interesting or significant? Even if your title isn’t just where the action takes place (like Middlemarch by George Eliot), it’s something to have in the back of your mind. You can include other details, like The Wizard of Oz by L. Frank Baum or Picnic at Hanging Rock by Joan Lindsay, to give your readers a sense of action and character, as well as setting (which tend to be linked).

5. Look for book title ideas in famous phrases 

Think Harper Lee’s To Kill A Mockingbird here — this is a central symbol and significant piece of dialogue in the novel. It’s enigmatic (what does it even mean? Is it a warning? An instruction?) and makes us really sit up when these words appear in the text itself. Try and think of your inspiration for writing your book or sum up your central theme in a few words, and see if these inspire anything.

6. Analyze the book titles of other books

You might be surprised at how many books refer to other works in their titles ( The Fault in Our Stars by John Green comes from Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar , and Steinbeck’s Of Mice and Men takes its inspiration from a Robert Burns poem). Going this route allows authors to use an already beautiful and poetic turn of phrase that alludes to a theme in their own book. From Ernest Hemingway’s For Whom the Bell Tolls to Philip Pullman’s His Dark Materials , so many books have used this technique that might also work for you.

7. Don’t forget the subtitle

In non-fiction publishing, there’s a trend of evocative or abstract titles, followed by a subtitle that communicates the content (and is packed with delicious keywords that the Amazon search engine can’t resist). This is also another way to get around long titles — and to add a little panache to an otherwise dry subject matter. In the United States, it’s also quite common to have “A Novel” as a subtitle (if, you know, it’s a novel). In the United Kingdom, this practice is much rarer.

8. Generate a book name through a book title generator

If you’ve gone through all of the above and are still wringing out your brain trying to come up with the golden formula — fear not! There are other ways to get the cogs whirring and inspiration brewing, such as title generators.

And speaking of cogs whirring, let us present you with the...

15 best book titles of all time

Witty, eye-catching, memorable — these famous book titles have it all. Without further ado, here are 15 best book titles you can take inspiration from.

  • I Know Why The Caged Bird Sings by Maya Angelou
  • East of Eden by John Steinbeck
  • The Sun Also Rises by Ernest Hemingway
  • Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? by Philip K. Dick
  • The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time by Mark Haddon
  • Cloudy with a Chance of Meatballs by Judi Barrett
  • Pride and Prejudice and Zombies by Seth Grahame-Smith
  • The House of Mirth by Edith Wharton
  • Are You There, Vodka? It's Me, Chelsea by Chelsea Handler
  • And Then There Were None by Agatha Christie
  • Their Eyes Were Watching God by Zora Neale Hurston
  • The Devil Wears Prada by Lauren Weisberger
  • Brave New World by Aldous Huxley
  • Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee by Dee Brown
  • The Man Who Was Thursday by G.K. Chesterton

Looking for even more story title ideas?

If you’re agonizing over your book title, you’re not alone! Some of the best book titles today emerged only after much teeth gnashing. The Sun Also Rises was once titled Fiesta ; Pride and Prejudice was once First Impressions . Then there was F. Scott Fitzgerald, who reportedly took forever to think of a good title. He ultimately discarded a dozen ( Gold-Hatted Gatsby , The High-Bouncing Lover , and Trimalchio in West Egg included) before reluctantly picking The Great Gatsby .

So it’s tough out there for a novelist, which is why we built this generator: to try and give you some inspiration. Any of the titles that you score through it are yours to use. We’d be even more delighted if you dropped us the success story at [email protected] ! If you find that you need even more of a spark beyond our generator, the Internet’s got you covered. Here are some of our other favorite generators on the web:

Fantasy Book Title Generators : Fantasy Name Generator , Serendipity: Fantasy Novel Titles

  • Sci-Fi Novel Title Generators : Book Title Creator , Story Title Generator

Romance Book Title Generators : Romance Title Generator

Crime Book Title Generators : Tara Sparling’s Crime Thriller Titles , Ruddenberg’s Generator

Mystery Novel Title Generators : The Generator .

Or if you think that generators are fun and all — but that you’d rather create your own book title? Great 👍 Kick off with this post, which is all about how to choose your book title . And once you've got the words down, make sure you capitalize your title correctly .

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Self Publishing Resources

How To Write Book Titles The Proper Way: A Complete Guide For Writers

  • February 10, 2022

Book titles within essays or papers can be tricky. There are specific rules that are given for how to include a book title in a way that sets it apart from the content of your writing given by the Modern Language Association. However, as with many other things in life, there are exceptions to the rules. This article will guide you through the rules of the writing style guides so that you can include a book’s title in your paper or essay correctly.

How to write book titles:

Style guides and book titles.

When it comes to book titles within text, there are a few different style guides that have rules you can follow, depending on your writing type. The three types that you will encounter most often are; MLA style, Chicago manual of style, and APA. A writing instructor will usually tell you what style guide you are expected to use for a particular essay or paper.

MLA Style Guide

The MLA handbook states that you should always italicize book titles when styling book titles within your text. The exception to this rule are religious texts. You would not italicize the Holy Bible or the sacred books or titles of other religions. Note the following example.

Pam had stayed most of the summer indoors, re-reading her favorite book series. She was already up to  Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone , and she didn’t regret not being more active or going outside.

In the above example, the book title is italicized. Fiction titles and nonfiction titles alike must be in italics when within the text.

Series Titles in MLA

In the above example, a book from a series was used. But what if the text had not specified which book from the series Pam was reading? Would it still need to be in italics? The answer is: in this case, yes. In other cases, sometimes.

It’s really not as confusing as it seems. When you are talking about a book series but don’t want or need to include the complete series titles for the purposes of your work, you only have to put words in italics that also appear in the book titles. So, because  Harry Potter  is part of the title of all of the books in the series, you would italicize his name every time you mention the book.

However, if you were talking about Katniss Everdeen, you would not have to do this, as the book series she is featured in doesn’t use her name in the titles of  The Hunger Games  series. The same would be true of books like the Nancy Drew books.

Quotation Marks

There are instances in which titles should be placed inside of quotation marks within a paper or essay. This is done when you cite the titles of poems , a chapter title, short stories, articles, or blogs.

How To Write Book Titles

So, for example, if you were to write a paper that featured a poem from a book, you would put the book title in italics and the poems cited in quotation marks.

An example of an enduring love poem is “Annabel Lee” from  The Complete Tales and Poems of Edgar Allan Poe. 

Chapter Title

Another time that quotation marks should be used is when using the title of a chapter. If you are citing a specific chapter of a book, you would enclose the title of the chapter in quotation marks, and the title of the book should be in italics.

The desperation and sadness of a man on death row can be seen in the “Wild Wind Blowing” chapter of Norman Mailer’s  The Executioner’s Song. 

Short Stories

Short stories are another case. Much like the title of a chapter or poem, in which the title is placed in quotation marks, while the title of the book or collection it is found in is italics. The same can be said for sections, stories, or chapters cited within a literary journal.

Stepping away from his norm of horror and gore, Stephen King writes of trust, love, and regret in his story “The Last Rung on the Ladder,” which can be found in his short story collection  Night Shift. 

Punctuation Marks

If you are citing a story or title that includes question marks, you need to make sure to italicize the question mark when citing. Keep all punctuation, such as a question mark, comma, ellipses, colon, or exclamation mark, as it is in the original individual books.

If you want a funny and irreverent read, you’ve got to try  Are You There, Vodka? It’s Me, Chelsea.  Chelsea Handler has done a phenomenal job of being vulgar, relatable, and explaining life from her viewpoint in this hilarious and memorable book.

The Digital Age: Are Book Titles Underlined Anymore?

MLA style used to dictate that a book title should either be in italics or underlined. However, that is no longer the case. As computers started to take over as the major tool used in writing, it became unpopular to underline book titles. Therefore, this rule was dropped from the style guides.

However, it should be mentioned that when handwriting an essay or research paper, many instructors prefer that you underline book titles, as it’s relatively difficult to handwrite italics. If you are in a writing course or a class that is heavy on handwritten work, be sure to ask your instructor or teacher which method they prefer for citing a book title.

How To Write Book Titles

How to Come Up with Book Title Ideas

Now that quotation marks, italics, and style guides have been discussed, let’s move on to how you can come up with your own book title. If you’d like a title for your book that sounds interesting and will get a reader’s attention, you may find this article helpful.

Coming up with a good title for your book is a challenging yet essential marketing decision . The right title can make your target audience choose your new book off of the shelf instead of another writer’s work. Your book cover and your book title are quite possibly the most important marketing decisions you will make.

How to Choose a Good Book Title

Certain criteria should be met if you want to have a good book title , and there are specific steps involved in getting there. You may have assumed up until now that titles of books were just spur of the moment decisions made by authors or publishers, but a lot of work goes into writing good titles.

Grab the Reader’s Attention

As a general rule, you want your reader to remember your title and to sound interesting, even without the reader having seen the cover. There are several ways to do this. You can be a little dark with your title, be controversial, provoke the reader, or even be funny.

There are many examples of such works that use memorable and attention-seeking titles. The following are some different titles that are effective and would most likely provoke a reader to grab them from a shelf for closer inspection.

  • Burn After Writing (Sharon Jones)
  • Love in the Time of Cholera (Gabriel Garcia Marquez)
  • Is Everyone Hanging Out Without Me? (Mindy Kaling)
  • Are You There, Vodka? It’s Me, Chelsea (Chelsea Handler)
  • The Devil Wears Prada (Lauren Weisberger)
  • Chicken Soup for the Soul (various authors)
  • God Bless You, Dr. Kevorkian (Kurt Vonnegut)

Shorter Titles

If your full title for your book is long, you may end up boring a reader or creating a situation where a reader tries to remember the title of your book, but it’s too long and ends up getting it confused with another book. Although you should always do your best to make sure that there aren’t books by other authors that share a title or have a title similar to your book (more on that in a minute), you don’t want a person to get confused and get the wrong book instead.

Research Your Title Ideas

It’s a good idea to take the titles you have considered for your book and make a list. Then, do your homework. You can use tools like Google Adwords to test out your title to see if there are others like it, or you can simply use any search engine and plug your title ideas into the search bar and see what similar or exact titles of the same words pop up.

Readers are generally busy people. They don’t have the time or the energy to ensure that writers get a title right. They’ll look for the book they are interested in, and if it proves to be too difficult, or if there are other books written that have the same title, they’ll move on to something else.

A writer really has to make sure that they have a title that isn’t going to be ignored, is interesting, isn’t too long, and isn’t too similar to other works.

The same goes for titles of short works within a larger body of work. Short works, like poems or stories, need to have unique titles as well when included in a larger body of work, such as a collection. If stories are similar in nature, be sure to title them differently so that readers will be able to tell them apart, as well.

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Italics and Underlining: Titles of Works


There was a time when we didn’t have extensive formatting options for typed documents. Today, writers use underlining, italics, bold text, and quotation marks to emphasize certain words. The words that often get emphasized are names of ships or planes, words used as themselves, foreign words, and titles of books, movies, songs, and other titled works.

Are book titles italicized?

Yes, book titles are italicized. Longer works like books, movies, and music albums use italics in their titles, but shorter works like articles, poems, and songs use quotation marks. Different style guides have different standards for italics and quotation marks, so you’ll need to learn which to use.

Here’s a tip: Want to make sure your writing shines? Grammarly can check your spelling and save you from grammar and punctuation mistakes. It even proofreads your text, so your work is polished wherever you write.

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Shorter works

Longer works.

Titles of full works like books or newspapers should be italicized.

Titles of short works like poems, articles, short stories, or chapters should be put in quotation marks.

Titles of books that form a larger body of work may be put in quotation marks if the name of the book series is italicized.

How to emphasize book titles

The way you format titles isn’t really governed by grammar rules. It’s a matter of style. If you want to, you can emphasize whatever you want, however you want—but that could make your writing nearly unreadable. Consistency is also very important for emphasis, which is why businesses, institutions, and publications look to style guides.

Book titles are usually put in the same category as other big, standalone, or complete bodies of work like newspapers, symphonies, or publications. Style guides that prescribe the use of italics, such as  The Chicago Manual of Style  or the  AMA Manual of Style , say that titles of such works should be put into italics when appearing in text.

Some writers still use underlining if italicizing is not an option, but generally it’s considered outdated. You should also note that these guidelines apply to titles that appear in a text and are surrounded by other words. Titles at the top of the page or on the front cover don’t require italics or underlining. Their separation from the rest of the text is already enough to get the reader’s attention. You don’t have to italicize the title of your thesis, for example, when it appears on the cover.

How to emphasize titles of smaller pieces of work

Let’s say you want to write the title of an article or book chapter. Should you italicize it? For shorter pieces of work or works that don’t stand alone but are part of a greater whole, you should use quotation marks for titles . See the examples below:

Punctuating titles

Punctuating titles can cause trouble for some writers, but the rule is actually quite simple: If the punctuation is part of the title, include it in the italics or quotation marks. If it’s not part of the title, make sure it’s outside the italics or quotation marks.

In the first sentence, the title itself is a question, so the question mark is italicized as part of the title. In the second sentence, however, the title is not a question; rather, the sentence as a whole is a question. Therefore, the question mark is not italicized.

Exceptions for emphasizing titles

The rules for emphasizing titles may seem straightforward, but there are exceptions. What happens if you have more than one title, for instance? If you have, say, a collection of novels in one book (let’s take, for example, all three  Lord of the Rings  books in one handy paperback), the title of the collection would be italicized or underlined, and the titles of the three books would then be put in quotation marks.

Note that if the title contains ending punctuation marks, those should be included within the quotation marks. If a punctuation mark is used in the sentence containing a title, periods and commas should go inside the ending quotation mark, while question marks and exclamation points should go outside the ending quotation mark.

If you have two titles in one sentence (for example, a book title and a chapter title), the title of the larger work should be italicized, and the smaller work should be in quotation marks. See the example below:

You would also do this with episodes from TV shows:

Up for some exercise? See if you can emphasize the titles in the following sentences:

I read The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe over the summer.

Have you read Humble Origins to Classic Footwear, Espadrilles Endure on the Newsweek website?

Is Paradise Lost a poem?

The final part of Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, was my favorite.

You only get so much information about Harry from reading A Boy Who Lived.

A Boy Who Lived is the first chapter of the book Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone.

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How to Write a Book Name in an Essay

Last Updated: January 27, 2023 References

This article was co-authored by wikiHow staff writer, Danielle Blinka, MA, MPA . Danielle Blinka is a Writer, Editor, Podcaster, Improv Performer, and Artist currently living in Houston, TX. She also has experience teaching English and writing to others. Danielle holds a Bachelor of Arts in English, Bachelor of Arts in Political Science, Master of Arts in English with a concentration in writing, and Master of Public Administration from Lamar University. This article has been viewed 54,866 times. Learn more...

When you’re writing an essay that includes a book title, it can be confusing to write the title correctly. However, it’s really easy once you know the rules. How you write the title will vary a little bit depending on the style your instructor assigns and if you are typing or handwriting the essay. Luckily, it's easy to follow the rules for writing a book name in an essay.

Writing Help

books paper name

Typing an Essay in MLA or Chicago Style Format

Image titled Write a Book Name in an Essay Step 1

  • For example, you would write To Kill a Mockingbird , The Lord of the Rings , or Wuthering Heights .

Image titled Write a Book Name in an Essay Step 2

  • If you have the book name in front of you, you can just copy it down as it is printed.
  • Articles include a, an, and the.
  • Prepositions include at, in, on, of, about, since, from, for, until, during, over, above, under, underneath, below, beneath, near, by, next to, between, among, and opposite.
  • Coordinating conjunctions include the FANBOYS, which are for, and, not, but, or, yet, and

Image titled Write a Book Name in an Essay Step 3

  • For example, you would write the name of William Faulkner’s novel Absalom, Absalom! with both the comma and the exclamation point in italics.

Image titled Write a Book Name in an Essay Step 4

  • If the highlight bar goes away, try again, making sure that you don’t click anywhere on the page after you highlight the book name.

Image titled Write a Book Name in an Essay Step 5

  • Alternatively, you can press the italicize icon before you type the title.
  • If you’re using Microsoft Word to type your essay, the italicize key may appear if you hover over the highlighted book name.

Image titled Write a Book Name in an Essay Step 6

  • If the next word after your title appears italicized when you resume typing, simply highlight it and click the italicize icon to remove the formatting.

Image titled Write a Book Name in an Essay Step 7

  • For example, The Lord of the Rings trilogy is sometimes published in one volume. In this case, you could write the name of the first novel as "The Fellowship of the Ring" when citing it in an essay.

Typing an Essay in APA Format

Image titled Write a Book Name in an Essay Step 8

  • Capitalize the first letter of the words, not the entire word.
  • If the word is a two-part hyphenated word in the title, you should capitalize both words. For example, you would write Blue River: The Trial of a Mayor-Elect .
  • If there is a dash or colon in the title, you should capitalize the word after the punctuation, regardless of how long the word is. As above, you would write Blue River: The Trial of a Mayor-Elect .

Image titled Write a Book Name in an Essay Step 9

  • For example, you would write Philip K. Dick’s Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? with the question mark italicized.

Image titled Write a Book Name in an Essay Step 10

  • If the book name is not highlighted, left click and drag your cursor again, making sure that you don’t click again anywhere on the page.

Image titled Write a Book Name in an Essay Step 11

  • If you are using Microsoft Word, the italics icon may appear when you hover over the highlighted book title. It’s okay to click this key.

Image titled Write a Book Name in an Essay Step 12

Handwriting an Essay

Image titled Write a Book Name in an Essay Step 13

  • For MLA and Chicago style essays, capitalize the first word of the book name and every word other than articles, prepositions, or coordinating conjunctions. For example, write The Lord of the Rings .
  • If you’re using APA style, capitalize the first word and all words longer than 4 letters. [9] X Research source This means you would write Public Policy in Local Government .

Image titled Write a Book Name in an Essay Step 14

  • If you’re writing on lined paper, it may help to follow along the line of the paper. However, make sure your line is dark enough so that your instructor will see that you properly underlined the book name.

Image titled Write a Book Name in an Essay Step 15

  • For example, you would write Judy Blume’s Are You There, God? It’s Me, Margaret by underlining the punctuation marks as well as the words.
  • ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/mla_style/mla_formatting_and_style_guide/mla_general_format.html
  • ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/subject_specific_writing/writing_in_literature/writing_about_literature/formatting.html
  • ↑ https://www.grammarly.com/blog/underline-or-italicize-book-titles/
  • ↑ https://askus.library.wwu.edu/faq/116757
  • ↑ https://libguides.up.edu/apa/books_ebooks
  • ↑ https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/italics-quotations/italics

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Writing A Book Title In Your Essay – The Right Way

09 Mar 2022

Quick Navigation

📃APA Style Essay: Book Titles

✒️APA Style: The Name of The Author

📒MLA Style: Citing a Book Title

✏️Chicago Style: Book Title

📑Various Types of Titles

🖊️Underline or Italicize Book Titles

When you are writing an academic essay , the book title and author's name should be written in italics. However, if the book title is part of a larger work (such as a journal article), it should be underlined instead. So, you're wondering how to write a book title in an essay?

Writing an essay with a book title can be tricky, particularly because each style guide has its own formatting rules for including titles in the main text. Whether you are using MLA, APA, Chicago, or Harvard referencing styles, you will need to consider how to properly format the book title. For more complicated literature-based assignments, seeking assistance from an admission essay writing service may be wise, as they specialize in writing essays that incorporate academic sources.

In this article, we will explore how to write both titles in an essay properly so that you avoid any mistakes!

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Writing essays

APA Style: How to Write Book Titles in Essays

When writing an essay, you must follow the style guide provided by your professor. Some teachers may require you to use APA style and others MLA style. There are some rules on how to quote a book title in an essay. You should use italics and quotation marks when writing book titles in essays. For example: " The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II. "

When writing a book title in APA Style, you should be aware of these rules:

Write the book title in italics and place it after the author's name, which is presented in reverse order (last name first).

Use quotation marks around the headline of a chapter or article.

Capitalize proper names that are not common nouns (names of people, places, organizations), but do not capitalize words such as "and," "or," "to," or "and/or."

Do not capitalize prepositions that appear at the beginning of titles if they are followed by an article (e.g., "A," "An"), but do capitalize prepositions at the beginning of titles if they are not followed by articles ("Of").

The first word of the headline should be capitalized, as well as any other words after a colon or hyphen. For example, "The Elements of Style: Grammar for Everyone"  or "Theories of Personality: Critical Perspectives."

Capitalize proper names and words derived from them (e.g., the names of people, places, organizations), except proper nouns used generically (e.g., 'a bed').

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APA Style Essay: Writing The Name of The Author

You should always use the full name and surname of the author in your APA essay because this will give proper credit to the writer. If you do not mention the author's full name, people may not know who wrote what and will think you copied it from somewhere else. This will cause lots of problems for you and your reputation as well.

Make sure that all authors' names appear in the same format in each entry. For example, if one person's surname is Smith and another's is Jones, both have first names starting with "J." It may seem like they are being cited as different people when they're actually written differently from each other on separate pages in your paper.

To write an APA essay without any issues , there are certain rules that you need to follow while writing an author's name in APA essay:

  • Use only one author's name in your paper unless there are multiple authors
  • If there are multiple authors, then use both their last names followed by the initials of their first names
  • Only use initials of first names when there are three or more authors; otherwise, use full names with their last names
Example: Johnson, M.C., Carlson, M., Smith, J. N., & Hanover, L. E.

MLA Style Essay: Citing a Book Title

Now let's discuss how to mention a book in an essay. The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th edition, published by the Modern Language Association (2014), contains detailed rules about how to cite a book title in an essay.

The following guidelines will instruct you on how to refer to a book in an essay in MLA style :

  • List your sources at the end of your paper, before the works cited page or bibliography.
  • Use italics for titles of books, magazines, and newspapers, but not for articles within those publications, which should be placed in quotation marks.
  • Include all relevant book information under two categories: "title" and "author." In the former category, include the work's title and its subtitle if there is one; do this even if neither appears on your title page (see below). In the latter category, include only primary authors who have written or edited an entire book; if there are multiple contributors, you should cite them separately under each.

The general format for citing the title of the book in an essay is as follows:

Author's last name, first initial (Date). Title of Book with Subtitle if there is one. Publisher Name/Location of Publisher; Year Published

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Chicago style essay: writing the book title.

One of the most important things to remember when writing in Chicago style is how to write the title of a book in an essay. To write a good book title in an essay, you should follow these steps:

  • Write it at the beginning of your sentence.
  • Capitalize it just like any other noun or proper noun.
  • Put a comma after the title unless it's an introductory clause or phrase. For example: "The Firm," by John Grisham (not "by") and "The Catcher in the Rye," by J.D Salinger (not "and").
  • In addition to the book's name, punctuation marks should also be italicized.
For example: Harry Potter and the Half-blood Prince: Children's Edition

Writing Various Types of Titles

Now that we covered how to write a book title and author in an essay, it's time to look at some different types of titles. When you write a book title in an essay, several things must be considered. Whether it's a book, series, chapter title, editor's name, or author's name, how you write it depends on where it appears in your paper.

Here are some key rules for writing headings for novels:

  •  Use capital letters to write the title of the novel. For example,  The Secret Garden by Frances Hodgson Burnett .
  • Use italics and capital letters to write the name of the author and his/her other works mentioned in a book title—for example,  Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice (1813) .

You should use quotation marks when writing headings of short title poems, articles, and stories.

However, before deciding which format to use, it is important to understand the main idea you want to express in your essay. Additionally, you could use essay papers for sale to help you accomplish your goal of writing an essay effectively.

Stuck with finding the right title?

Get plenty of fresh and catchy topic ideas and pick the perfect one with PapersOwl Title Generator.

Should We Underline or Italicize Book Titles?

It depends on which style guide you use. The Modern Language Association and Chicago Manual of Style both suggest using italics, while the American Psychological Association suggests using quotation marks with a few exceptions.

The way you write the title of a book in an essay is different depending on the instructions you were given. For example, if you're writing an essay in APA style, use quotation marks around the book's name. If you're writing for MLA or Chicago style , however, italicize the book's name instead. If you're writing a handwritten essay instead of using a computer, capitalize and underline the book's name.

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Georgia school district is banning books, citing sexual content, after firing a teacher

Books sit on shelves in an elementary school library in suburban Atlanta on Friday, 18, 2023. Although not new, book challenges have surged in public schools since 2020, part of a broader backlash to what kids read and discuss in school. (AP Photo/Hakim Wright Sr.)

Books sit in a cart in an elementary school library in suburban Atlanta on Friday, 18, 2023. Although not new, book challenges have surged in public schools since 2020, part of a broader backlash to what kids read and discuss in school. (AP Photo/Hakim Wright Sr.)

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ATLANTA (AP) — Georgia’s second-largest school district says that it has removed two books from 20 school libraries, saying the books had “highly inappropriate, sexually explicit content.”

The announcement, sent in an electronic message to parents in some Cobb County schools on Monday, comes days after the Republican-majority school board voted 4-3 along party lines to fire a teacher for reading a book about gender identity to fifth-grade students.

Although not new, book removals have surged since 2020, part of a backlash to what kids read and discuss in public schools. Conservatives want to stop children from reading books with themes on sexuality, gender, race and religion that they find objectionable. PEN America, a group promoting freedom of expression, counted 4,000 instances of books banned nationwide from July 2021 to December 2022.

Cobb County, with 106,000 students, said Tuesday that 20 libraries had contained “Flamer” by Mike Curato or “Me and Earl and the Dying Girl” by Jesse Andrews, or both. “Flamer” is a graphic novel about a boy who is discovering he is gay and how he is treated at summer camp. “Me and Earl and the Dying Girl” contains some discussion of sex and a lot of profanity, but is mainly about two high school boys who befriend a girl dying of cancer. Both were among the most challenged books of 2022, according to a list published by the American Library Association .

Cobb County teacher Katie Rinderle walks to the stand to testify during a hearing at the Cobb County Board of Education in Marietta, Ga, Thursday, Aug. 10, 2023. Rinderle is facing termination after reading "My Shadow is Purple," a book about gender identity, to fifth graders. (Arvin Temkar/Atlanta Journal-Constitution via AP)

“Protecting our students from sexually explicit content isn’t controversial, it’s what our parents expect,” John Floresta, the district’s chief strategy and accountability officer. “Our board and superintendent are clear — any book, video, or lesson which contains sexually explicit content is entirely unacceptable and has no place in our schools.”

Jeff Hubbard, president of the Cobb County Association of Educators, said media specialists were being questioned about when they had bought the books and why. Such interviews could be a prelude to the librarians being disciplined or fired. The district didn’t respond to questions about whether officials intended to take disciplinary action.

“They’re scared to death, and one parent complaint could cost them a career,” Hubbard said.

Books sit in a cart in an elementary school library in suburban Atlanta on Friday, 18, 2023. Although not new, book challenges have surged in public schools since 2020, part of a broader backlash to what kids read and discuss in school. (AP Photo/Hakim Wright Sr.)

Nan Brown, an advocacy coordinator for the Georgia Media Library Association, said it’s important that students be able to see themselves and others in books. She questioned in particular the removal of “Flamer,” noting Georgia librarians nominated it for a statewide award.

“No book is perfect for everybody all the time,” Brown said. “But that book is really important to some children.”

Hubbard said he fears teachers will feel compelled to censor classroom libraries after the district fired Katie Rinderle. An elementary school teacher, she got into trouble in March for reading the picture book “My Shadow Is Purple,” by Scott Stuart, after which some parents complained. Rinderle said a board policy prohibiting teaching on controversial issues was so vague that she couldn’t know what was barred.

The district didn’t respond to questions about who asked that the books be removed or if the district intends to remove additional books. In an electronic message , which Hubbard said was sent Monday to parents at all 20 schools, the district stated that “With thousands of books purchased over decades, we are making every effort to ensure our library only includes materials that are aligned to Georgia standards, supported by law and CCSD policy, and contain content that is age appropriate for our students.”

Hubbard said the book removals and Rinderele’s firing have been a “train wreck” for morale in Cobb County, which has the state’s highest-paid teachers.

Both Hubbard and Brown questioned whether Cobb County followed its own policies or a new state law laying out how book challenges should be handled.

Cobb County, in response to an open records request by The Associated Press in June, said it had no records of challenges filed under the Georgia law, in effect since Jan. 1. The AP filed a request this month seeking records of books Cobb might have removed without a challenge. The district estimated it would cost $2,822 to produce those records. Some other large Georgia school districts provided records without charge.

Brown said Cobb’s action reminded her of a decision in Forsyth County, another large suburban Atlanta district, to remove eight books in early 2022. After others pushed back, the system put all the books except for one back on shelves. The U.S. Department of Education later warned that Forsyth schools , based on discussions in board meetings, may have created a hostile environment violating federal laws against race and sex discrimination, “leading to increased fears and possibly harassment” among students.


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A comprehensive guide to everything we know so far about the 10th and final book in the 'Outlander' series by Diana Gabaldon

  • Author Diana Gabaldon has been working on her 10th and final "Outlander" book since 2021.
  • It does not have a release date, but Gabaldon has predicted it will come out between 2024 and 2026.
  • Sam Heughan has said he knows how the story will conclude — but he's been "sworn to secrecy."

After season seven of " Outlander " (which is currently on a  midseason hiatus ), there will be just one more season to wrap up the popular time-travel drama and all its loose ends.

But, fortunately for fans, Jamie ( Sam Heughan ) and Claire's ( Caitríona Balfe ) epic, logic-defying love story won't be over for good as there is still another book to look forward to from author Diana Gabaldon.

The American author, who published the first "Outlander" novel that launched the best-selling series and worldwide phenomenon over 30 years ago, has promised fans that the 10th book will most likely be the final installment and — crucially — have a happy ending for our beloved Scot and Sassenach.

Here's everything we know about the hotly-anticipated novel so far.

Diana Gabaldon said one month after the ninth book was published that she had already begun writing book 10.

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Just one month after "Go Tell The Bees That I Am Gone" was published in November 2021, Gabaldon told  Town & Country  that she had already gotten stuck into "the beginnings" of the new novel, which she has not yet named.

"I have started writing that, but I'm just poking away at it little by little, because there's so much interference from the book launch stuff going on that I can't work with my usual focus," she said at the time.

Gabaldon added: "It's just beginning to bubble, like the tar pits at La Brea, these rising bubbles and there's a lot of bones underneath."

Some six months later in May 2022, she shared on X, the platform formerly known as Twitter, that she had "barely begun Book 10."

While we don't have an official release date for the book just yet, Gabaldon has predicted it will be published sometime between 2024 and 2026.

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On her website, Gabaldon has made it quite clear that she does not know  when the 10th book will be released , writing: "Sorry, I don't know when I will finish Book Ten, much less when it will be published."

"It takes a long time to write an 800-page novel and also do all the historical and other background research that is required," she added.

Gabaldon said that as a "very rough guess" she predicts it could land on shelves "about three to five years" after "Bees," which gives us a wide window of any time between 2024 and 2026.

That will certainly be good news to fans who experienced a seven-year wait between the publication of the eighth novel, "Written in My Own Heart's Blood," which came out in 2014, and "Bees."

Gabaldon has put the lengthy gap wait between those two novels down to the fact that writing the latest novel coincided with her role as a consultant on the television adaptation.

In an interview with  TV Insider this year, she joked that finishing the 10th novel as soon as possible is in her best interest too. "The bottom line is, I'm 71. I don't know how long I'll last. I want to be sure of finishing," she said. 

Not much is known about what will happen but Gabaldon has said it will conclude in 1800 and "will have a happy ending."

books paper name

Gabaldon has shared that the story will end on the cusp of the 19th century meaning that, if Jamie and Claire survive until the end,  they will be 79 and 83 , respectively.

"I think the Outlander books will end in 1800. If this tells you anything, more power to you," she wrote  in the FAQ section of her website .

She added that "the last book will have a happy ending, though I confidently expect it to leave the readers in floods of tears, anyway."

Fans can read some of the novel already, as Gabaldon has shared excerpts on her website.

books paper name

Since February 2022, Gabaldon has been sharing excerpts of her work in progress with her readers on both her official website and Facebook page.

To not spoil the book's plot, many of the excerpts concern the characters' daily lives, though some have revealed upcoming  plot  developments , albeit they don't give much away about the larger direction of the story.

You can find a link to all of them on  Gabaldon's website .

The final installment will finally answer questions about Jamie's ghost that fans have been wondering for years.

books paper name

It's the question that every fan has been asking since the very first book, and first episode of the Starz adaptation: how and why was Jamie's ghost watching Claire in 1945 before she took her life-changing tumble through the standing stones?

"The ghost is Jamie — but as for how it fits into the story, All Will Be Explained — in the last book," Gabaldon wrote in the FAQ section of her website .

Speaking on the official " Outlander Podcast " in 2014, Gabaldon revealed the age of Jamie's ghost in the scene. "He's about 25," she said, which only sparks more questions about what is going on in the scene, given that Jamie definitively does not die at 25 years old.

Interestingly, that is the age when he fights in — and survives — the Battle of Culloden, so his near-death experience in the aftermath of the fighting could explain it. 

Readers won't know for certain until the final book is published, but Gabaldon has shared  another intriguing detail about the ghost , telling a fan on X (formerly known as Twitter) who asked about it: "Ghosts don't exist in a place where time has meaning."

The book's conclusion will likely be different from how the television adaptation wraps up.

books paper name

Gabaldon was originally confident that what happened to "Game of Thrones" author George R.R. Martin would not happen to her, telling  The Guardian  that she "will certainly finish the 10th book before they finish the show."

But that was before the decision was made to wrap the show with its eighth season, which will adapt the events of the ninth book. As a result, audiences can expect the show to feature a different ending to that of the book.

However, given Gabaldon's involvement in the adaptation, there's a possibility she could allow the series to use the ending she had planned out ahead of the publication of the 10th novel.

Sam Heughan has said he knows how the story will wrap up — but he's been "sworn to secrecy."

books paper name

Heughan, who has played the dashing 18th-century highlander in the television adaptation since it began in 2014, revealed to Esquire UK  last year that Gabaldon has filled him in on "how the whole thing's going to end."

"She emailed me the last few pages of what will be the last book very early on, I think in the first few weeks of shooting and no one else has seen that I think, apart from one other exec producer," he said. "Even Caitríona's not seen it and I'm sworn to secrecy."

Balfe confirmed that she was not clued in on the story's ending in an interview with Digital Spy  the same year, but said she is "quite happy to let the mystery live, and just find out when I need to find out."

The 10th book may conclude Jamie and Claire's story, but it won't be Gabaldon's final foray into the "Outlander" universe.

books paper name

The author has confirmed that she is working on several other stories connected to Jamie and Claire's, including a prequel novel about Jamie's parents, Brian and Ellen Fraser, whose epic forbidden love story could give Jamie and Claire a run for their money.

Speaking at the 2022 Edinburgh International Book Festival, Gabaldon told the audience  that as well as romance, "the story is woven in with the Jacobite Risings – there will be a lot of clan politics and other interesting things," per The Scotsman.

For those who are interested, she has  shared   several   excerpts  of the untitled book with her Facebook audience.

Gabaldon also plans to dedicate a book to the mysterious Master Raymond, the time traveler whom Jamie and Claire meet during their time in France, and whom Gabaldon has described as a "prehistoric time traveler" who comes from the year 400 BC or earlier.

On that novel, she told  Town & Country : "I have the beginnings of that, but I'm not working on it actively at the moment for obvious reasons. It's just there for when I get to it."

books paper name


Here’s how to watch the first Republican presidential debate.

The first debate is Wednesday night from 9 to 11 p.m. Eastern. Donald Trump has taped an interview with former Fox News host Tucker Carlson that is scheduled to air simultaneously.

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Milwaukee is playing host to the first Republican primary debate on Wednesday night.

By Maggie Astor

  • Published Aug. 22, 2023 Updated Aug. 23, 2023

The first Republican primary debate of the 2024 presidential race will be held tonight from 9 to 11 p.m. Eastern. The debate, taking place in Milwaukee, is sanctioned by the Republican National Committee and hosted by Fox News. Here are some of the ways you can watch it.

Fox News Channel will broadcast the event, with live coverage starting at 8 p.m. Eastern — an hour before the debate itself — and running past midnight.

Fox Business Network will broadcast the same coverage simultaneously.

The face-off will be streamed at FoxNews.com and on Fox Nation, which is Fox News Channel’s subscription streaming platform.

The online streaming platform Rumble will also show the debate, as an official R.N.C. partner.

Which candidates will be onstage?

As of the official qualification deadline Monday evening, eight candidates had made the stage. They are Gov. Doug Burgum of North Dakota, former Gov. Chris Christie of New Jersey, Gov. Ron DeSantis of Florida, former Gov. Nikki Haley of South Carolina, former Gov. Asa Hutchinson of Arkansas, former Vice President Mike Pence, the entrepreneur Vivek Ramaswamy and Senator Tim Scott of South Carolina.

When will they start taking questions?

Immediately, according to the debate guidelines. There are no opening statements.

What about Trump?

Donald J. Trump, the clear front-runner for the nomination, plans to skip the debate . He has, instead, recorded an interview with the former Fox News host Tucker Carlson . They plan to post the interview on X, the platform formerly known as Twitter, concurrently with the debate, according to a person with knowledge of the planning.

Mr. Trump’s decision to record an interview with Mr. Carlson to be released while his rivals share a stage was a slap in the face to both the R.N.C., whose leadership tried hard to persuade him to participate in the debate, and to Fox News, which is hosting the debate and fired Mr. Carlson earlier this year.

Who is moderating the debate?

The debate will be moderated by two Fox News hosts, Bret Baier and Martha MacCallum. Mr. Baier has previously moderated Republican debates in 2015 and 2016, and he and Ms. MacCallum led a town-hall event with Mr. Trump in 2020.

What issues are the candidates likely to focus on?

The candidates will undoubtedly be asked about Mr. Trump and the four criminal indictments against him. Other topics of discussion could include inflation, immigration and border security, foreign-policy issues like the situations in Ukraine and China, and abortion. Here is where the candidates stand on those issues and more.

Let us know here what you hope the moderators will ask .

Maggie Haberman contributed reporting.

Maggie Astor is a reporter covering live news and U.S. politics. She has also reported on climate, the coronavirus and disinformation. More about Maggie Astor

The Run-Up to the 2024 Election

The First G.O.P. Debate

Florida Gov. Ron DeSantis’s performance can be interpreted as akin to a front-runner’s — in the race for second place behind Donald Trump, writes Nate Cohn .

Vivek Ramaswamy, the 38-year-old entrepreneur  and first-time candidate, broke through with big swings and a smile .

At the debate, Senator Tim Scott of South Carolina often faded into the background . “He was one that I wanted to hear more from,” one voter said.

The debate performances of former Gov. Nikki Haley of South Carolina and former Vice President Mike Pence were standouts to many Republican donors .

Donald Trump

The G.O.P. front-runner’s decision to sit out the debate and instead do a pretaped interview  with the former Fox News host Tucker Carlson was a tactical one.

Trump has berated President Biden for his son’s overseas deal making, despite plenty of overseas deal making by the Trump family .

President Biden

With the appointment of a special counsel to investigate Hunter Biden, what had been a relatively contained political scandal could now go on for months .

Vice President Kamala Harris has taken on a forceful new role in the 2024 campaign , sparring with DeSantis and defending abortion rights in Iowa.

MASS TRANSIT ALERT: MARC Brunswick, Penn and Camden Line trains experiencing delays due to systemic communication issues


No more Confederate names for Army installations in Virginia after Fort Walker redesignation

Kyle Cooper | [email protected]

August 26, 2023, 2:28 PM

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Fort Lee will become Fort Gregg-Adams, named for two soldiers, and Fort Pickett will be renamed Fort Barfoot in honor of Army Tech Sgt. Van T. Barfoot, who received the Medal of Honor for his actions with the 45th Infantry Division in Italy in 1944.

Get breaking news and daily headlines delivered to your email inbox by signing up here .

© 2023 WTOP. All Rights Reserved. This website is not intended for users located within the European Economic Area.

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Weekend and fill-in anchor Kyle Cooper has been with WTOP since 1992. Over those 25 years, Kyle has worked as a street reporter, editor and anchor. Prior to WTOP, Kyle worked at several radio stations in Indiana and at the Indianapolis Star Newspaper.

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Trinidad and Tobago Newsday

New chapter for Paper Based bookstore

Joan Dayal outside the former home of Paper Based Bookstore at Hotel Normandie, St Ann's.  - AYANNA KINSALE

When it came to selling books, Joan Dayal thought outside the box. Paper Based, her bookstore – named by the late architect Roger Turton – evolved much like a good novel, with unexpected plot twists.

The Paper Based story began in 1987, when the newly renovated Hotel Normandie in St Ann’s added shops, and Fred Chin Lee, the hotel’s owner, offered space to Dayal.

She said, “Why not?” and opened a shop that catered to hotel guests with toiletries, local newspapers, postcards, greeting cards, wrapping paper and snacks like plantain chips and chocolate bars.

Gradually, a bookstore took shape, as her love for books – especially Caribbean literature – grew. Paper Based became the champion of Caribbean literature and an oasis for book lovers.

But this year, on August 16, Dayal and the staff of Paper Based wrapped up business in the Normandie. The Festival Events of TT (FETT) has bought the bookshop, which will now be in the Writers Centre on Alcazar Street, St Clair, where the literary NGO the Bocas Lit Fest is based.

Dayal has mixed feelings about the end of this era.

“For over 36 years, Paper Based has been my life and my passion. It’s like giving up my child,” she said.

In the early days, Dayal got books on consignment. Heinemann, a London-based publisher with a Caribbean division, had an agent here who helped Dayal stock its books. Book wholesaler Ken Jaikaransingh represented Longman in Trinidad.

Dayal relied on their guidance.

“I wasn’t familiar with literature. My parents moved here from China, and we didn’t have books at home.

"But I became interested in books – especially books from Trinidad.

"Then I noticed there were people who published their little books. (The late Jerry Besson’s) Paria Publishing started up, and I carried their books. The Folklore of Trinidad book was always popular.

"Then I started ordering books – mostly prize-winning books like the Booker Prize and Nobel Prize for literature.”

books paper name

Dayal remembered one occasion in the early days when the Oilfields Workers' Trade Union (OWTU) was having a sale on its books.

“I went to get a whole lot of them. The Trinidad Express did books, and I carried them, along with (economist) Lloyd Best’s publications and (the late UWI professor) Dr Gordon Rohlehr’s books on calypso and Trinidad society."

More UWI lecturers sought out Dayal to stock their books. The bookshop took shape.

“I felt I had to do something to promote the books, so I had little readings outside of the shop.”

Since then, dozens of Trinidadian writers have given readings and launched their books there. Among them, artist Jackie Hinkson brought his sister from Tobago to read one of his books, and writer Lawrence Scott came calling.

“Lawrence came to the shop and said seeing so many Caribbean writers represented in the store was so good. I had his book Witch Broom and helped launch his novel Aelred’s Sin...

“A lot of people didn’t know so many people were writing in the Caribbean. Having the books in Paper Based gave new writers confidence. I tried to give them a platform.”

Then Dayal took music CDs and DVDs from Sanch Electronics, and also included locally made cards in the shop.

Along the way came the combination of tea and readings.

“The first one, we had tea served at tables while authors read. That was a distraction, so we had the reading first, then the tea."

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The more-or-less monthly Tea and Readings series brought joy because, Dayal said, “I love to listen to eloquent people. I don’t have the command of English language that I would like. When I was younger I was drawn to people who spoke well.”

Readings will still happen at the Hotel Normandie.

Poet Shivanee Ramlochan joined the Paper Based team, and gave the bookstore a strong socia media presence that featured her book reviews and new books.

There were unforeseen challenges at times – especially how to order books and get them to TT expeditiously.

“There are a lot of publishers who don’t have the rights to sell in the Caribbean. Sourcing books can be very difficult. Shipping can be expensive,” said Dayal.

But exciting developments always seemed to offset the challenges. In 2011 the NGC Bocas Lit Fest, founded by Marina Salandy-Brown, began.

books paper name

“Now we were becoming familiar with even more writers,” said Dayal.

She ordered books featured in the Bocas Lit Fest and sold them at the National Library, where the annual literary festival is held.

In 2017 Dayal received the Bocas Henry Swanzy Award for Distinguished Service to Caribbean Letters. This lifetime achievement award recognises service to Caribbean literature by editors, publishers, critics, broadcasters and others. Dayal was the first bookseller to receive it.

In 2020, Dayal and Paper Based kept bibliophiles stocked up with books during the pandemic, and social media helped nonreaders to discover books available during lockdown.

“Through TT Post we did a lot of posting by Track Pak to all corners of Trinidad. We had many requests for African women writers and Caribbean literature. Many people turned to books during the pandemic,” said Dayal.

Other unexpected surprises included the demand for this year's Hungry Ghosts by Kevin Jared Hosein, which surpassed all Dayal’s expectations.

“There’s been an upsurge in book clubs – including online ones – that have boosted book sales,” she added.

She's also seen a growing demand for nonfiction.

“Many memoirs are coming out, more historical fiction, biographies and history. Since Bocas came along, there’s a lot more interest in poetry – good poetry; but poetry doesn’t sell very well.”

Children’s book sales are growing, though she feels it’s still more difficult to get boys to read.

Looking back, Dayal says, “I hope more people will read and be aware of Caribbean books – our own stories that we can share. I think I have helped young authors coming up. I always appreciated good writers.”

She sees a strong future for Caribbean literature.

“Right now it looks good. There are a lot of good Caribbean writers, who are becoming internationally acclaimed. For the time being, I think there will be continued interest.”

But she wonders what will become of our history.

“Many of our history books are out of print. A lot of people who wrote history are dying: Brinsley Samaroo, Gordon Rohlehr, Jerry Besson."

Yet: "There’s an increased interest in history. People are trying to collect old, out-of-print history books. Customers come all the time looking for them.

"We need history written in innovative new ways also.”

She would also like to see more nonfiction about culture, dance and music.

As Paper Based settles into its new home, Dayal said she doesn’t have any plans, though she will be working on the transition team until the end of the year.

“I would like to keep busy. I need to work. I won’t be able to survive if I can’t do something.

"I worked all the time when I had the bookstore. I did my own accounts.

"I was a member of the Rotary Club and we did a lot with literacy in schools. I used to read to children."

Now, she says, she might try an entirely new venture.

Bianca Peake will be in charge of Paper Based in its new home.

“We are making the Writers Centre into a literary hub, expanding on what Joan has built,” said Peake. “Joan has built an institution. We are incorporating this into a thriving centre where people can come and read and take writing workshops. It will be a meeting point. There’s a place for people to sit, and there will be a cafe. There is parking available at the centre, in a parking lot and on the street,”

Paper Based will continue to mainly stock Caribbean books.

“I’m excited,” said Peake. “It’s the end of an era, but there’s also room for growth. What better home could Paper Based have now than the Writers Centre?”

Paper Based will be open in its new location Monday-Saturday from 10 am-5 pm.

Denyse Plummer has died

Blood flows on trail of missing $m cocaine shipment, state to compensate ex-cameraman for assault, man killed in ste madeleine, trini finalist in mr gay great britain competition, kamla mourns gafoor, anthony, health minister: cut down on doubles, fast foods, "new chapter for paper based bookstore", more in this section, mayaro students get computer coding training, a house for prof ramchand, sydney’s designs a showcase of creativity, michael anthony: the people’s writer.

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Btk’s journal links the serial killer to a 16-year-old who went missing decades ago, authorities say.

Lauren del Valle

Editor’s Note: This article contains graphic descriptions of violence that some readers may find disturbing.

Decades-old personal writings from Dennis Rader, the self-proclaimed BTK serial killer, have led local Oklahoma law enforcement to believe he is the “prime suspect” in a missing persons case from 1976.

Rader has been linked to the missing persons case of 16-year-old Cynthia Dawn Kinney , who was last seen at a local laundromat in June of that year in Pawhuska, Oklahoma, about two hours from where Rader lived and owned land in Kansas, according to Osage County Undersheriff Gary Upton.

The prolific killer, who pleaded guilty in 2005 to 10 murders committed in the Wichita area from 1974 to 1991, is serving 10 life sentences in prison .

Since January, Osage County Sheriff’s Office investigators have poured over Rader’s written works, which were first found when he was arrested in 2005, looking for links to local unsolved crimes, according to Upton.

Investigators recently obtained the materials from Wichita police, including recovered journals and an unpublished book manuscript, to review for their cold case and unsolved crimes investigations.

Rader, who is known to have labeled his criminal endeavors as projects, referenced a project titled “Bad Wash Day” in a 1976 journal entry recently made public by the sheriff’s office.

“Laundry Mat were a good place to watch victims and dream,” Rader wrote in the entry. “The Brunette was the target.”

In the journal entry, Rader also connects the “Bad Wash Day” project to a chapter in his unpublished manuscript, which is understood to be a description of all projects, or murders, the killer viewed as “successful,” Upton told CNN.

Rader also handwrote “out of town until things cool down” on the same journal page.

Investigators believe the killer was likely away from his home in Park City, Kansas, during the time frame in 1976, Upton said.

Authorities search BTK serial killer’s former property

BTK writings and other investigative tips led police to search Rader’s former residence primarily in connection with a probe into Cynthia’s disappearance.

Authorities also are checking whether Rader is connected to “other missing persons cases and unsolved murders in the Kansas and Missouri areas,” the Osage County Sheriff’s Office in Oklahoma said in a news release Wednesday.

An attorney for Rader, Rob Ridenour, told CNN Wednesday he had no comment.

During their search of the property, investigators uncovered “trophies” from at least one woman in a “hiding hole,” according to Upton.

Investigators also found chains apparently used for bondage, along with C-clips that can shorten chains or be used to secure a person’s legs or feet, Upton said. They also found items they don’t currently want to describe publicly, he added.

Authorities have previously said Rader took and kept victims’ personal effects , including jewelry and clothing. Details about whether investigators believe they know the identity or identities of whoever owned the items found weren’t immediately available.

Convicted serial killer Dennis Rader, known as the BTK strangler walks into the El Dorado Correctional Facility with two Sedgwick County sheriff's officers on Friday, Aug. 19, 2005 in El Dorado, Kansas.

Authorities search BTK serial killer's former property in connection with 1976 missing person case and other unsolved cases

In April, authorities also unearthed what they described as a pantyhose ligature.

Rader, now 78, is incarcerated at the El Dorado Correctional Facility in Kansas.

When he admitted to the killings, the dedicated churchgoer and married father of two described in court how he chose and stalked his victims before killing them. In more than one case, the killer said he took Polaroid photos of his victims.

As Rader went uncaught for decades, he mailed cryptic letters to the media and investigators – a practice that ultimately lead to his capture. Rader was arrested in 2005 after police traced a floppy disk he mailed to a local TV station to a computer at his church. Investigators then determined that Rader’s DNA matched the killer’s.

Rader’s daughter, Kerri Rawson, has been offering “volunteer assistance” to investigators in the Kinney case and a probe into an unsolved killing in Missouri and was aware of the search on her former childhood home.

“I will continue to partner closely and heartily support all (law enforcement) agencies and offer my volunteer assistance,” Rawson said. “Let’s keep working together to solve these cases for these families. They deserve all that we can give them. We can join together to put our mark on modern inter-agency cooperation and modern forensics.”

CNN’s Alaa Elassar, Joe Sutton and Jason Hanna contributed to this report.

Where did the height and weight on Trump’s booking record come from?

The president’s height was listed at 6-foot-3 and his weight at 215. but based on some of his co-defendants, the numbers may not be accurate..

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Former president Donald Trump surrendered at the Fulton County jail in Atlanta on Thursday amid speculation that the world would finally learn how tall he is and how much he weighs.

Trump’s booking record declared the former president’s height to be 6-foot-3 and his weight 215 pounds — nearly 30 pounds lighter than his disclosed weight at the time of his last official White House physical.

But based on the booking records for his co-defendants that have already emerged this week, the numbers may not be reliable — and it’s unclear where they came from.

A sprawling indictment unsealed on Aug. 14 charged Trump and 18 co-defendants with participating in a vast criminal enterprise to illegally reverse his defeat in the 2020 presidential election in Georgia. Since that day, others charged in the case have been negotiating bond deals and trickling into Atlanta to surrender for a mug shot , fingerprinting and processing at the county jail.

And while the booking records of those co-defendants list each person’s height, weight, race and hair and eye color, it’s clear that many of the statistics were wrong. What’s not clear is where officials with the Fulton County Sheriff’s Office got them.

Trump Georgia indictment live updates

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David Shafer, for instance, the former state GOP chairman who was charged in connection with his role organizing the meeting of an alternate slate of presidential electors, is listed on his booking record as standing 5-foot-5, weighing 150 pounds with black hair and blue eyes. Public appearances show Shafer to be taller and more heavyset than that, and with gray hair and brown eyes.

Another alternate elector charged in the case, Cathy Latham, is listed with blonde or strawberry blonde hair. Latham’s hair is gray.

Jeffrey Clark was listed as standing 5-foot-3. But two former Justice Department colleagues who requested anonymity to discuss a sensitive topic said they recall him being of average male height.

Trump’s hair color was described as “blond or strawberry” and his eye color was listed as blue.

In the case of former Trump personal attorney Rudy Giuliani, who surrendered on Wednesday , jail records initially listed him at 5-foot-9 and 180 pounds. But later the same day the numbers had changed without explanation to 5-foot-11 and 230 pounds. An individual who accompanied Giuliani to his booking, who spoke on the condition of anonymity to discuss a sensitive subject, said they did not recall anyone asking the former New York mayor for his height or weight, nor do they recall him being asked to step on a scale.

In addition, the mug shots released so far do not include a yardstick on the wall behind each defendant that would show how tall they stand, as is common in some jurisdictions.

One individual familiar with the booking of a co-defendant in the case said the person’s fingerprints and irises were scanned electronically. But the individual said the sheriff’s staff did not ask for the defendant’s height or weight, nor was the person asked to step on a scale. Those numbers did appear on that person’s booking record, but they didn’t match the person’s profile, or their driver’s license, and the individual has no idea where they came from.

The Fulton County Sheriff’s Office did not respond to a request for comment on the source of the numbers. Bill Hallsworth, the director of jail and court services for the Georgia Sheriffs’ Association, said each county processes defendants differently and he is not familiar with Fulton’s practices. Some counties take the information from driver’s licenses, which can be outdated, he said.

“I know in some of the larger jails, the person doing the data entry is not even looking at the individual,” he said. “They’re getting the info off of something else and entering it into the computer.”

A Trump spokesperson did not immediately respond to a request for comment.

Part of the interest in Trump’s weight and height stems from his own sensitivity about both statistics. He said in 2016 that he was 6-foot-3 and 236 pounds, which the medical community considers overweight; if he were 6-foot-2, as listed on his New York driver’s license , he would be considered obese. At the time, Trump acknowledged that he needed to lose 15 to 20 pounds.

In January 2018, a White House physician claimed he was 6-foot-3 and 239 pounds, a number that many online commentators noted put his body mass index at 29.9 — just below the 30.0 threshold for medical obesity.

At the time, numerous comparisons with other people suggested the numbers were not accurate, though most of the contrasts were with athletes with more muscle than Trump.

Perhaps because of those contrasts, anticipation for the release of the statistics has been mounting since the indictment landed.

The Lincoln Project, an anti-Trump Republican political committee, launched a contest last week offering a free mug to anyone who accurately guessed Trump’s weight. BetOnline, an online wagering site, published odds on whether Trump’s weight is over or under 278 pounds.

“There is no way that Trump is not over three bills,” BetOnline writer Adam Greene offered . “None. This is the easiest money you will ever make on a wager and I would literally bet my house on it.”

Jacqueline Alemany and Ben Brasch contributed to this report.

More on the Trump Georgia indictment

The latest: Trump surrendered Thursday at the Fulton County Jail in Georgia on charges that he illegally conspired to overturn his 2020 election loss . Authorities released his booking record — including his height and weight — and mug shot .

The charges: Trump was charged with 13 counts, including violating the state’s racketeering act . Read the full text of the Georgia indictment . Here’s a breakdown of the charges against Trump and a list of everyone else who was charged in the Georgia case . Trump now faces 91 total charges in four criminal cases .

The case: Fulton County District Attorney Fani T. Willis (D) has been investigating whether Trump and his associates broke the law when they sought to overturn Trump’s 2020 election loss in Georgia . Here’s what happens next in the Georgia case .

Can Trump still run for president? While it has never been attempted by a candidate from a major party before, Trump is allowed to run for president while under indictment — or even if he is convicted of a crime.


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