What is Report Writing: Format, Examples, Types & Process

  • Table of Contents

Many professionals struggle to create effective reports due to a lack of understanding of the essential elements and organization required. This can lead to frustration and a failure to communicate key information to the intended audience.

In this blog, we’ll explore what is report writing, the types of reports, essential elements, and tips for creating effective reports to help you communicate your message and achieve your goals.

Definition of report writing? 

According to Mary Munter and Lynn Hamilton, authors of “Guide to Managerial Communication,” report writing is “the process of selecting, organizing, interpreting, and communicating information to meet a specific objective.”

What is report writing? 

Report writing refers to the process of creating a document that represents information in a clear and concise manner. Reports can be written for various purposes, such as providing updates on a project, analyzing data or presenting findings, or making recommendations.

Effective report writing requires careful planning, research, analysis, and organization of information. A well-structured report should be accurate, and objective, and contain a clear introduction, body, and conclusion. It should also be written in a professional and accessible style, with appropriate use of headings, subheadings, tables, graphs, and other visual aids.

Overall, report writing is an important skill for professionals in many fields, as it helps to communicate information and insights in a clear and concise manner.

What is a report? 

A report is a formal document that is structured and presented in an organized manner, with the aim of conveying information, analyzing data, and providing recommendations. It is often used to communicate findings and outcomes to a specific audience, such as stakeholders, or managers. Reports can vary in length and format, but they usually contain a clear introduction, body, and conclusion.

What are the features of report writing

There are several key features of effective report writing that can help ensure that the information presented is clear, concise, and useful. Some of these features include:

1/ Clarity: Reports should be written in clear and concise language, avoiding jargon or technical terms that may be confusing to the reader. 

2/ Objectivity: A report should be objective, meaning that it should be free from bias or personal opinions. This is particularly important when presenting data or analysis.

3/ Accuracy: Reports should be based on reliable sources and accurate data. Information should be verified and cross-checked to ensure that it is correct and up-to-date.

4/ Structure: A report should be structured in a logical and organized manner, with clear headings, subheadings, and sections. 

5/ Visual aids: A report may include visual aids such as charts, tables, and graphs, which can help to illustrate the key points and make the information easier to understand.

6/ Evidence: Reports should include evidence to support any claims or findings, such as statistics, quotes, or references to relevant literature.

7/ Recommendations: Many reports include recommendations or suggestions for future action based on the findings or analysis presented.

Significance of report writing

Report writing is a critical skill that can have a significant impact on individuals, and organizations. In fact, a report by the National Association of Colleges and Employers found that the ability to communicate effectively, including report writing, was the most important skill sought by employers.

  • Reports provide decision-makers with the information they need to make informed decisions.
  • Effective report writing demonstrates professionalism and attention to detail, which can help to build trust and credibility with clients.
  • Reports can inform planning processes by providing data and insights that can be used to develop strategies and allocate resources.
  • Reports often include recommendations or suggestions for future action, which can help to improve processes, procedures, or outcomes.
Further Reading: What is the significance of report writing

Types of report writing

By understanding the different types of report writing, individuals can select the appropriate format and structure to effectively communicate information and achieve their objectives. However, the kind of report used will depend on the purpose, audience, and context of the report.

1/ Informational reports: These reports provide information about a topic, such as a product, service, or process.

Further Reading : What is an information report

2/ Analytical reports: These reports present data or information in a structured and organized manner, often with charts, graphs, or tables, to help the reader understand trends, patterns, or relationships.

3/ Formal Reports: These are detailed and structured reports written for a specific audience, often with a specific objective. In comparison with informal reports , formal reports are typically longer and more complex than other types of reports. 

4/ Progress reports: These reports provide updates on a project or initiative, detailing the progress made and any challenges or obstacles encountered. 

5/ Technical reports: These reports provide technical information, such as specifications, designs, or performance data, often aimed at a technical audience.

6/ Research reports: These reports present the findings of research conducted on a particular topic or issue, often including a literature review, data analysis, and conclusions.

7/ Feasibility Report: A feasibility report assesses the likelihood of achieving success for a suggested project or initiative.

8/ Business Reports: These reports are used in a business setting to communicate information about a company’s performance, operations, or strategies. Different types of business reports include financial statements, marketing reports, and annual reports.

Structure of report writing 

The structure of a report refers to the overall organization and layout of the report, including the sections and subsections that make up the report, their order, and their relationships to each other. A report can we divided into three parts. 

Preliminary Parts:

  • Acknowledgments (Preface or Foreword)
  • List of Tables and Illustrations
  • Introduction (clear statement of research objectives, background information, hypotheses, methodology, statistical analysis, scope of study, limitations)
  • Statement of findings and recommendations (summarized findings, non-technical language)
  • Results (detailed presentation of findings with supporting data in the form of tables and charts, statistical summaries, and reductions of data, presented in a logical sequence)
  • Implications of the results (clearly stated implications that flow from the results of the study)
  • Summary (brief summary of the research problem, methodology, major findings, and major conclusions)

End Matter:

  • Appendices (technical data such as questionnaires, sample information, and mathematical derivations)
  • Bibliography of sources consulted.

This structure provides a clear and organized framework for presenting a research report, ensuring that all important information is included and presented in a logical and easy-to-follow manner.

Extra Learnings Role of a report structure in report writing  The report structure plays a crucial role in report writing as it provides a clear and organized framework for presenting information in an effective and logical manner. It ensures that the reader can easily understand the purpose and scope of the report, locate and access the relevant information.  The preliminary parts of the report, provide an overview of the report and aid navigation. The main text makes it easier for the reader to comprehend and analyze the information. And The end matter provides additional details and sources for reference. An organized report structure also helps the author to communicate their research and ideas effectively to the intended audience.

What is the report writing format? 

The format of report writing refers to the structure of a formal document that provides information on a particular topic or issue. The format typically includes several components that must be there in the report to provide specific subjects in an organized and structured format. 

8 Essential elements of report writing are: 

1/ Title page: This includes the title of the report, the author’s name, the date of submission, and other relevant information.

2/ Table of contents: The table of contents lists the report’s primary sections and subsections, together with their corresponding page numbers.

3/ Executive summary: An executive summary gives a concise summary of the report, emphasizing the significant conclusions and recommendations.

4/ Introduction: This provides background information on the topic or issue, explains the purpose and scope of the report, and outlines the methodology used.

5/ Main body: This is where the bulk of the information is presented, usually divided into several sections and sub-sections. The main body may include data, analysis, and discussion of the topic or issue.

6/ Conclusion: This Summarizes the primary discoveries of the report and offers conclusions or recommendations accordingly.

7/ References: This lists the sources cited in the report, following a particular citation style such as APA, MLA, or Chicago.

8/ Appendices: This includes any additional materials such as charts, tables, graphs, or other supporting data.

The specific format and structure of a report may vary depending on the purpose, audience, and type of report.

Report writing examples and samples


Example of Progress Report


The essential process of report writing

Report writing requires careful planning, organization, and analysis to ensure that the report effectively communicates the intended message to the audience. Here are the general steps involved in the process of report writing:

Plan and prepare:

  • Identify the purpose of the report, the target audience, and the scope of the report.
  • Collect and examine data from different sources, including research studies, surveys, or interviews.
  • Create an outline of the report, including headings and subheadings.

Write the introduction:

  • Start with a brief summary of the report and its purpose.
  • Provide background information and context for the report.
  • Explain the research methodology and approach used.

Write the main body:

  • Divide the report into logical sections, each with a clear heading.
  • Present the findings and analysis of the research in a clear and organized manner.
  • Use appropriate visual aids, such as tables, graphs, or charts to present data and information.
  • Utilize a language that is both clear and Brief, and avoid using unnecessary jargon or technical terminology.
  • Cite all sources used in the report according to a specified citation style.

Write the conclusion:

  • Summarize the main findings and conclusions of the report.
  • Restate the purpose of the report and how it was achieved.
  • Provide recommendations or suggestions for further action, if applicable.

Edit and revise:

  • Review the report for errors in grammar, spelling, and punctuation.
  • Check that all information is accurate and up-to-date.
  • Revise and improve the report as necessary.

Format and present:

  • Use a professional and appropriate format for the report.
  • Include a title page, table of contents, and list of references or citations.
  • Incorporate headings, subheadings, and bullet points to enhance the report’s readability and facilitate navigation.
  • Use appropriate fonts and sizes, and ensure that the report is well-structured and visually appealing.

Important Principles of report writing

To write an effective report, it is important to follow some basic principles. These principles ensure that your report is clear, concise, accurate, and informative. In this regard, here are some of the key principles that you should keep in mind when writing a report:

1/ Clarity: The report should be clear and easy to understand. 

2/ Completeness: The report should cover all the relevant information needed to understand the topic

3/ Conciseness: A report should be concise, presenting only the information that is relevant and necessary to the topic. 

4/ Formatting: The report should be properly formatted, with consistent fonts, spacing, and margins

5/ Relevance: The information presented in the report should be relevant to the purpose of the report.

6/ Timeliness: The report should be completed and delivered in a timely manner.

7/ Presentation: The report should be visually appealing and well-presented.

Extra Learnings Styles of report writing When it comes to the style of report writing, it’s important to use hard facts and figures, evidence, and justification. Using efficient language is crucial since lengthy reports with too many words are difficult to read. The most effective reports are easy and quick to read since the writer has comprehended the data and formulated practical recommendations. To achieve this, it’s important to write as you speak, avoid empty words, use descending order of importance, use an active voice, and keep sentences short. The goal should be to write to express and not to impress the reader.  It’s also important to get facts 100% right and to be unbiased and open. By following these tips, one can create a well-written report that is easy to understand and provides valuable insights.

Differences between a report and other forms of writing

Reports are a specific form of writing that serves a distinct purpose and have unique characteristics. Unlike other forms of writing, such as essays or fiction, reports are typically focused on presenting factual information and making recommendations based on that information. Below we have differentiated report writing with various other forms of writing.

Essay vs report writing

Project writing vs report writing, research methodology vs report writing, article writing vs report writing, content writing vs report writing, business plan vs report writing, latest topics for report writing in 2023.

The possibilities for report topics may depend on the goals and scope of the report. The key is to choose a topic that is relevant and interesting to your audience, and that you can conduct thorough research on in order to provide meaningful insights and recommendations.  

  • A market analysis for a new product or service. 
  • An evaluation of employee satisfaction in a company. 
  • A review of the state of cybersecurity in a particular industry. 
  • A study of the prevalence and consequences of workplace discrimination. 
  • Analysis of the environmental impact of a particular industry or company. 
  • An assessment of the impact of new technology or innovations on a particular industry or sector. 

Report writing skills and techniques 

Effective report writing requires a combination of skills and techniques to communicate information and recommendations in a clear, and engaging manner.

From organizing information to tailoring the report to the intended audience, there are many factors to consider when writing a report. By mastering these skills and techniques, you can ensure that your report is well-written, informative, and engaging for your audience. Some of the primary ones are: 

1/ Organization and structure: Structure your report in a logical and organized manner with headings and subheadings.

2/ Use of data and evidence: Present objective data and evidence to support your findings and recommendations.

3/ Audience awareness: Tailor your report to the needs and interests of your intended audience.

4/ Effective visuals: Use graphs, charts, or other visuals to communicate complex information in a clear and engaging way.

5/ Editing and proofreading: Carefully edit and proofread your report to ensure it is error-free and professional.

6/ Tone: Use a professional and objective tone to communicate your findings and recommendations.

7/ Time management: Manage your time effectively to ensure you have enough time to research, write, and revise your report.

Tips for effective report writing

  • Understand your audience before you start writing. 
  • Start with an outline and cover all the important points. 
  • Employ clear and concise language.
  • Utilize headings and subheadings to organize your report.
  • Incorporate evidence and examples to support your points.
  • Thoroughly edit and proofread your report before submission.
  • Follow formatting guidelines If your report has specific formatting requirements.
  • Use visuals to enhance understanding.

What is the ethical consideration involved in report writing 

Ethical considerations play a crucial role in report writing. The accuracy of the information presented in the report is of utmost importance, as it forms the basis for any conclusions or recommendations that may be made. In addition, it is essential to avoid plagiarism by giving credit to the original sources of information and ideas. 

Another crucial ethical consideration is confidentiality, particularly when the report contains sensitive or confidential information. It is important to safeguard this information and prevent its disclosure to unauthorized individuals.

Avoiding bias in report writing is also crucial, as it is essential to present information in an objective and unbiased manner. In cases where research or data collection is involved, obtaining informed consent from human subjects is a necessary ethical requirement.

By taking these ethical considerations into account, report writers can ensure that their work is fair, accurate, and respectful to all parties involved.

Common mistakes in report writing 

There are several common mistakes that students and report writers make in report writing. By avoiding these common mistakes, students as well as report writers can create effective and impactful reports that are clear, accurate, and objective.

1/ Writing in the first person: Often, students and report writers commit an error by writing in the first person and utilizing words such as “I” or “me. In reports, it is recommended to write impersonally, using the passive voice instead.

2/ Using the wrong format: Reports should use numbered headings and subheadings to structure the content, while essays should have a clear line of argument in their content.

3/ Failing to introduce the content: The introduction of the report should introduce the content of the report, not the subject for discussion. It is important to explain the scope of the report and what is to follow, rather than explaining what a certain concept is.

4/ Missing relevant sections: Students and report writers, often miss out on including relevant sections that were specified in the assignment instructions, such as a bibliography or certain types of information. This can result in poor interpretation.

5/ Poor proofreading: Finally, not spending enough time proofreading the reported work can create unwanted mistakes. Therefore, It is important to proofread and correct errors multiple times before submitting the final report to avoid any mistakes that could have been easily corrected.

By avoiding these common mistakes, students and report writers can improve the quality of their reports. 

What are some challenges of report writing and how to overcome them

Report writing can be a challenging task for many reasons. Here are some common challenges of report writing and how to overcome them:

1/ Lack of clarity on the purpose of the report: To overcome this challenge, it is important to clearly define the purpose of the report before starting. This can help to focus the content of the report and ensure that it meets the needs of the intended audience.

2/ Difficulty in organizing ideas: Reports often require a significant amount of information to be organized in a logical and coherent manner. To overcome this challenge, it can be helpful to create an outline or flowchart to organize ideas before beginning to write.

3/ Time management: Writing a report can be time-consuming, and it is important to allow sufficient time to complete the task. To overcome this challenge, it can be helpful to create a timeline or schedule for the various stages of the report-writing process.

4/ Writer’s block: Sometimes writers may experience writer’s block, making it difficult to start or continue writing the report. To overcome this challenge, it can be helpful to take a break, engage in other activities or brainstorming sessions to generate new ideas.

5/ Difficulty in citing sources: It is important to properly cite sources used in the report to avoid plagiarism and maintain credibility. To overcome this challenge, it can be helpful to use citation management tools, such as EndNote or Mendeley, to keep track of sources and ensure accurate referencing.

6/ Review and editing: Reviewing and editing a report can be a challenging task, especially when it is one’s own work. To overcome this challenge, it can be helpful to take a break before reviewing the report and seek feedback from others to gain a fresh perspective.

By being aware of these challenges and taking proactive steps to overcome them, report writers can create effective and impactful reports that meet the needs of their intended audience.

Best Software for writing reports 

Report writing software has made it easier for writers to produce professional-looking reports with ease. These software tools offer a range of features and functionalities, including data visualization, collaboration, and customization options. In this section, we will explore some of the best report-writing software available:

1/ Tableau : This tool is great for creating interactive and visually appealing reports, as it allows users to easily create charts, graphs, and other data visualizations. It also supports data blending, which means that you can combine data from multiple sources to create more comprehensive reports.

2/ Zoho reporting : This tool is designed to help users create and share professional-looking reports quickly and easily. It offers a variety of customizable templates, as well as a drag-and-drop interface that makes it easy to add data and create charts and graphs.

3/ Bold Reports by Syncfusion : This tool is designed specifically for creating reports in .NET applications. It offers a wide range of features, including interactive dashboards, real-time data connectivity, and customizable themes and templates.

4/  Fast Reports : This tool is a reporting solution for businesses of all sizes. It allows users to create reports quickly and easily using a drag-and-drop interface and offers a variety of templates and customization options. It also supports a wide range of data sources, including databases, spreadsheets, and web services.

Further Reading : 10+ Best Report Writing Software and Tools in 2023

What is the conclusion of report writing

The conclusion of report writing is the final section of the report that summarizes the main findings, conclusions, and recommendations. It should tie together all the different sections of the report and present a clear and concise summary of the key points. 

THE UNIVERSITY OF NEWCASTLE has given an inverted introduction framework that can use used for writing effective conclusions for reports. 


Example of conclusion in report writing:

The implication of the above diagram can be explained with the following example:  


Social media has revolutionized the marketing landscape, providing new opportunities for brands to connect with their target audience.


However, the complexities and limitations of social media mean that it is unlikely to completely replace traditional marketing methods. The role of the marketing professional remains crucial in ensuring that social media strategies align with the company’s overall goals and effectively reach the desired audience.


Automated tools cannot fully account for the nuances of human communication or provide the level of personalization that consumers crave. Therefore, the most effective marketing strategies will likely blend social media tactics with traditional marketing channels.

4. CONCLUDING STATEMENT [restating thesis]:

In conclusion, while social media presents significant opportunities for brands, the expertise of marketing professionals is still essential to creating successful campaigns that achieve desired outcomes.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1) what is report writing and example.

Ans: Report writing involves preparing a structured document that delivers information to a particular audience in a clear and systematic manner. An example of a report could be a business report analyzing the financial performance of a company and making recommendations for improvement.

Q2) What is report writing and types of reports?

Ans: The act of presenting information in an orderly and structured format is known as report writing. Reports come in different types, such as analytical reports, research reports, financial reports, progress reports, incident reports, feasibility reports, and recommendation reports.

Q3) What are the 5 steps of report writing

The five steps of report writing, are as follows:

  • Planning: This involves defining the purpose of the report, determining the audience, and conducting research to gather the necessary information.
  • Structuring: This step involves deciding on the structure of the report, such as the sections and subsections, and creating an outline.
  • Writing: This is the stage where the actual writing of the report takes place, including drafting and revising the content.
  • Reviewing: In this step, the report is reviewed for accuracy, coherence, and effectiveness, and any necessary changes are made.
  • Presenting: This final step involves presenting the report in a clear and professional manner, such as through the use of headings, visuals, and a table of contents.

Q4) What is a report in short answer? 

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What is Report Writing? Parts, Types, Structure, Process

  • Post last modified: 4 June 2023
  • Reading time: 30 mins read
  • Post category: Business Communication

What is Report Writing?

Report writing is a formal style of presenting objective facts and information. There can be various types of reports, such as academic reports, science reports, business reports, technical reports, and news reports. A report can be verbal or written. However, a written report is more formal than a verbal report.

What is Report Writing

Table of Content

  • 1 What is Report Writing?
  • 2 Report Writing Definition
  • 3 Report Writing Advantage
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Background
  • 4.3 Findings
  • 4.4 Conclusions
  • 4.5 Recommendations
  • 5.1 Informational reports
  • 5.2 Analytical reports
  • 5.3 News reports
  • 6.2 Remaining details
  • 6.3 Informational news report
  • 6.4 Analytical news report
  • 6.5 Additional details
  • 6.6 Concluding sentence
  • 7.1 Identify
  • 7.2 Research
  • 7.3 Organise
  • 8 Feasibility Reports
  • 9.1 Cover letter
  • 9.2 Executive summary
  • 9.3 Proposal
  • 9.4 Pricing information
  • 9.5 Terms and conditions

Report Writing Definition

Report writing is the process of organizing and presenting information in a clear, concise, and objective manner for a specific audience. It involves gathering data, analyzing it, and presenting it in a format that is easy to understand and relevant to the topic at hand. – The University of Wisconsin Writing Center

Report writing is the art of communicating information that has been acquired through research or investigation in a formal, structured manner. It involves synthesizing information, drawing conclusions, and making recommendations based on the findings. – The American Management Association

Report writing is the process of creating a document that provides information, analysis, and recommendations on a particular topic or issue. It requires the ability to organize and present data in a logical and meaningful way, as well as to convey complex ideas in a clear and concise manner. – The International Business Communication Standards (IBCS)

Report Writing Advantage

A written report also provides the following advantages:

  • A written report presents a formal record of a transaction, which is not possible in a verbal report.
  • A written report conveys a message without any distortion. On the other hand, a message can be easily misrepresented in a verbal report.
  • A written report is more convenient for lengthy and distant communication.
  • A written report requires a reader to think before responding to a message.
  • Facts, figures and statistical data can be better represented graphically in a written report.

However, writing a report is not as easy as drafting a formal e-mail. A report is a brief, precise document. It is written for a specific audience with some specific objective. To write a report, you need to first thoroughly understand the purpose of report writing, then research information from various sources, verify the validity of information, analyse information, and then present findings or results. These findings must be reported objectively without personal biases.

A well-written report must have an effective objective analysis. Based on the analysis, you can recommend possible courses of action for the future. However, it is up to the report reader to accept the recommendations.

Therefore, while report writing, you must pay attention to why you are writing the report and who has asked you to write the report. This will help you investigate the information appropriately.

Parts of a Report

Following are the main sections of a formal report :


Conclusions, recommendations.

This section indicates the purpose of the report, who has ordered the report, how the data is collected, and whether any recommendations are provided. In addition, the introduction section may also provide information on who has written the report and the date on which it is submitted.

This section provides the background of a problem or a situation on which the report is written. In case the report is too lengthy, then instead of introduction, an executive summary should be written.

The purpose of an executive summary is to enable top executives and managers to get a quick snapshot of a long report without reading the entire report. Therefore, the executive summary comes before introduction. Of course, then there would be no background section.

This is the longest section of a report, which is written after the investigation is over. This section presents factual information without any interpretation or suggestions.

Each finding is summarised as a conclusion in this section. In the above sample report, there are four conclusions based on the summary of each paragraph in the findings section. These conclusions are listed numerically in the same order as the corresponding findings.

The final section provides a numbered list of recommendations, which are based on the list of the conclusion. Each recommendation uses the verb should. This is because the writer is simply giving suggestions and not making a decision. Therefore, the verb should is used instead of the verb will. However, there are exceptions:

  • To give a strong recommendation: Use the verb must. For example, ‘The team managers must ensure that the break hours are not shortened.’
  • To give a weak recommendation: Use the verb could. For example, ‘Having a coffee dispenser in the facility could boost the staff morale.’

Types of Reports

Reports exist in our academics and workplaces in so many forms that we may not even be aware of them. For example, a student submits a laboratory report to communicate the methods and results of scientific experiments conducted in a lab.

Academicians and business people use research reports to view scientific studies of an issue or a problem. Policy-makers read field study reports to read about the ground situation from branch offices and manufacturing plants. Similarly, there are progress reports, technical reports, functional reports, case studies, etc.

All these reports share the attributes, principles, and format of report writing, which are described above. These reports can be organised into three groups:

Informational reports

Analytical reports, news reports.

An informational report is used to objectively present information without any analysis. Examples of informational reports include the First Information Report (FIR), annual reports, monthly financial reports, or employee attrition reports. These reports only report the facts as they are.

For example, the police write an FIR to record details about a cognisable offence, such as personal details of the complainant/informant, place, date and time of occurrence, offence, description of the accused, witnesses, and complaint.

Similarly, a company presents an annual report to its shareholders to present details of its business activities and finances of the previous financial year. An informational report presents objective facts without analysing the reasons and conditions behind the reported situation.

For example, if someone wants to study information on a field trip, then he can ask for a site visit report. Similarly, if a manager wants to view the feedback of a training programme, then he can ask for the training feedback report from the trainer. If the head of a department wants to get an update on the different projects in his department, he can ask for progress reports from different project managers.

An analytical report evaluates a problem or an issue and presents the outcomes of analysis to explain the causes of the problem, demonstrate relationships, or make recommendations.

For example, a scientific or market research report studies a problem scientifically by developing a hypothesis, gathering data, analysing data, and presenting findings and conclusions.

Similarly, a feasibility analysis report studies a problem and predicts whether the current solution or alternatives will be practical or will produce the desired outcome. Whenever you need to make a critical decision, then an analytical report is prepared. These reports help the decision-maker(s) analyse the prevailing situation.

For example, a company wants to decide where to open a branch office in a particular area. In this situation, an analytical report can evaluate the details of the property, such as infrastructure, land cost, competitive stores, etc., and then recommend the best site from the available options.

If you are working as or aspire to be a journalist, then you may need to write a press report. A press report is a newsworthy article in a newspaper, magazine or website. It is different from the press release by companies. A press release is an official statement of a company on an important subject or event. A press release generally focuses on one particular subject, such as a milestone, a launch, an anniversary, etc.

On the other hand, a press report discusses the subject in detail. A press release is a marketing tool used by companies to keep the general public and the media updated about its newsworthy occasions. It helps build a company’s visibility in the minds of its customers and community at large.

A press release is generally prepared by a company’s marketing or Public Relations (PR) team, whereas a press report is written by an independent journalist. Therefore, a press report presents more objective information than a press release, which is a company’s promotional mouthpiece. Just like informational and analytical reports, a press report requires considerable research on a subject before it is written credibly.

The author must ask the 5 Ws and 1 H – who, what, where, why, when, and how. Questions arise in the following manner:

  • What happened?
  • Where did it happen?
  • When did it happen?
  • Who was involved?
  • Why did it happen?
  • How did it happen?

After finding the answers, he must note down all the relevant facts that must be mentioned in the news report. These facts can be organised into the following three groups:

  • Vital and interesting facts
  • Not vital but interesting facts
  • Not vital, not interesting, but related facts

By organising information into the above groups, the author will be able to include all the relevant facts into the news report. The facts must be specific. If there are gaps in the story and the related information is not available, then questions can be marked against them so that these can be researched further.

Next, the author must decide the type of news report he wants to write – informational or analytical. The former will provide objective and straightforward information, whereas the latter will also provide the author’s opinion on the subject.

After determining the type of news report to write, the author must create an outline or structure of the report. The most common structure is an inverted triangle, where the most important information is at the top.

A news report must provide the information that the readers want as soon as possible. If the news report is for a newspaper, then the most important news must be above the “fold”. The “fold” is the crease in the newspaper when it is folded in half. All the engaging stories are above the fold. Similarly, on a website, the most important information is at the top of the screen before one has to scroll down.

A news report must be written according to the audience. The author should ask the 5Ws with respect to the audience reaction, such as:

  • Who is the audience?
  • Where is the audience?
  • What does the audience want to read?
  • Why do they want to read it?
  • When will they read it?

Structure of News Report

Finally, the structure of a news report is as follows:

Remaining details

Informational news report, analytical news report, additional details, concluding sentence.

The leading sentence of a news report is the most important section. It should tell what the news report is all about, why it is important, and what information the rest of the news report provides.

These provide the basic information of what happened, where it happened, when it happened, who was involved, and why it was remarkable.

In this report, the remaining details provide more information about the newsworthy item.

In this report, the remaining details also provide the opinion of the author.

These details help the reader learn more about the newsworthy item, such as additional facts about the subject, contact information, or interview quotes. These details comprise transitional elements that help build the flow of information. In an analytical report, these can also include counter-arguments and their authors.

The news report should end with a concluding sentence, which repeats the leading statement or a statement mentioning future developments.

Report Writing Process

This process will ensure that your report is accurate, clear, comprehensive and credible.

Before writing a report, identify the following parameters:

  • Issue or problem : Identify the issue or problem to analyse.
  • Audience : Identify who the audience is. Find out their background information. Determine why they would want to read the report.
  • Purpose : Determine the purpose for which the report will be used.
  • Scope and limitations : Identify the scope of the report. Determine the limitations of report writing.
  • Expectations : Determine expectations regarding the format or structure of the report. Identify the models available for report writing. Determine whether there is a style guide and/or a marketing guide.

To research the facts or information for report writing:

  • Plan : Make a draft plan on how to analyse the problem and present the objective of the report.
  • Collect data: Collect information based on the purpose of the report.
  • Analyse : Finally, analyse and evaluate the collected information.

After gathering and analysing the required information, organise it as follows:

  • Main points : Identify the main points of the report. These main points should be supported by adequate evidence.
  • Additional information : Identify the supporting information that analyses and confirms the main points. This information should be placed in appendices.
  • Logical structure : Organise the entire information into a logical structure to help the readers easily navigate to the desired part of the report.
  • Write : After deciding the logical structure of the report, fill in the elements of the report, including executive summary, main body, introduction and conclusion.
  • Revise : Finally, verify if it is appropriate for the problem, audience, and purpose.

Feasibility Reports

A feasibility report is a written document that analyses the proposed solution and examines whether it is feasible considering various types of constraints such as financial, social, environmental, social, technical, and legal that can make it impossible for a solution to be opted.

Feasibility reports assess the practicality of following a particular course of action for a project. It advises whether it will be feasible to opt for a particular course of action or will this proposal or plan work? These are written internal reports that advise on consolidating departments or to organise a wellness programme for employees or to outsource company’s accounting or social media or to move the manufacturing unit to a new location.

Some companies hire a professional consultant to write feasibility reports in order to investigate a problem. These reports help in deciding whether to proceed or reject the proposed option.

  • Overview of the Project
  • Objectives of the Project
  • The Need for the Project
  • Overview of Existing Systems and Technologies
  • Scope of the Project
  • Deliverables
  • Financial Feasibility
  • Technical Feasibility
  • Resource and Time Feasibility
  • Risk Feasibility
  • Social/Legal Feasibility
  • Considerations

Proposal Writing

A business proposal is defined as a written document from a seller that offers a particular service or product to a prospective buyer. Business proposals are important in scenarios where a buyer might consider multiple prices in a transaction.

A good business proposal considers the buyer’s requirements and puts forth the seller’s proposal in a way that favours the seller’s products and services, and persuades the buyer about the offer. A business proposal is a critical document as it determines the difference between success and failure in a venture. Business proposals can be:

  • Solicited : These are requested by clients themselves or submitted in response to an advertisement published by the client. Solicited business proposals generally have a better chance of success since they are tailored to the requirements of the person receiving the proposal.
  • Unsolicited : These are submitted to potential clients even though they did not request for one. These are non-specific proposals and have no direct connection to the client’s requirements. Sellers use them to market a product or service to a prospective customer.

Because proposals are time-consuming, it is the best to start with available templates if possible. You will save a lot of time if you start with a proposal template that matches what you need and then customise it according to your requirements.

A business proposal includes various sections which are defined as follows:

Cover letter

Executive summary, pricing information, terms and conditions.

In the other article, you studied writing cover letters for a job application. A business proposal also needs a cover letter because a good cover letter will stimulate interest in the proposal. Make sure to highlight your positives and personalise them to the client to whom you are sending the business proposal.

This is where you give the client a ‘problem statement’ to help him identify the challenges and requirements in his business. This is because in order to persuade the client to do business with you, you first need to make sure that the client realises they have those needs. Then you briefly state how you will be able to help them meet those requirements.

The proposal is the part where you offer a detailed solution to the challenges and needs of the prospective client. This is the main reason for submitting a business proposal so it should be as detailed as possible, addressing all the needs of the client.

You should explain to the client all services that you can provide. You should tailor your list of services to suit the particular client’s needs but include other services that you may provide. Also include an estimated project schedule and time frame.

Most buyers consider the price of services before offering a contract. Thus, getting accurate pricing information is crucial. However, two points must be kept in mind. One it is important to be exact with the pricing and the second is to never negotiate below what you think the project is worth.

For smaller projects, a ‘fee summary’ will do the job. But a ‘fee schedule’ is needed for bigger projects, where payments need to be broken down to specific milestones.

It is in your interest to get legal counsel to review the proposal as this will cover your business against claims.

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Some academic assignments ask for a ‘report’, rather than an essay, and students are often confused about what that really means.

Likewise, in business, confronted with a request for a ‘report’ to a senior manager, many people struggle to know what to write.

Confusion often arises about the writing style, what to include, the language to use, the length of the document and other factors.

This page aims to disentangle some of these elements, and provide you with some advice designed to help you to write a good report.

What is a Report?

In academia there is some overlap between reports and essays, and the two words are sometimes used interchangeably, but reports are more likely to be needed for business, scientific and technical subjects, and in the workplace.

Whereas an essay presents arguments and reasoning, a report concentrates on facts.

Essentially, a report is a short, sharp, concise document which is written for a particular purpose and audience. It generally sets outs and analyses a situation or problem, often making recommendations for future action. It is a factual paper, and needs to be clear and well-structured.

Requirements for the precise form and content of a report will vary between organisation and departments and in study between courses, from tutor to tutor, as well as between subjects, so it’s worth finding out if there are any specific guidelines before you start.

Reports may contain some or all of the following elements:

  • A description of a sequence of events or a situation;
  • Some interpretation of the significance of these events or situation, whether solely your own analysis or informed by the views of others, always carefully referenced of course (see our page on Academic Referencing for more information);
  • An evaluation of the facts or the results of your research;
  • Discussion of the likely outcomes of future courses of action;
  • Your recommendations as to a course of action; and
  • Conclusions.

Not all of these elements will be essential in every report.

If you’re writing a report in the workplace, check whether there are any standard guidelines or structure that you need to use.

For example, in the UK many government departments have outline structures for reports to ministers that must be followed exactly.

Sections and Numbering

A report is designed to lead people through the information in a structured way, but also to enable them to find the information that they want quickly and easily.

Reports usually, therefore, have numbered sections and subsections, and a clear and full contents page listing each heading. It follows that page numbering is important.

Modern word processors have features to add tables of contents (ToC) and page numbers as well as styled headings; you should take advantage of these as they update automatically as you edit your report, moving, adding or deleting sections.

Report Writing

Getting started: prior preparation and planning.

The structure of a report is very important to lead the reader through your thinking to a course of action and/or decision. It’s worth taking a bit of time to plan it out beforehand.

Step 1: Know your brief

You will usually receive a clear brief for a report, including what you are studying and for whom the report should be prepared.

First of all, consider your brief very carefully and make sure that you are clear who the report is for (if you're a student then not just your tutor, but who it is supposed to be written for), and why you are writing it, as well as what you want the reader to do at the end of reading: make a decision or agree a recommendation, perhaps.

Step 2: Keep your brief in mind at all times

During your planning and writing, make sure that you keep your brief in mind: who are you writing for, and why are you writing?

All your thinking needs to be focused on that, which may require you to be ruthless in your reading and thinking. Anything irrelevant should be discarded.

As you read and research, try to organise your work into sections by theme, a bit like writing a Literature Review .

Make sure that you keep track of your references, especially for academic work. Although referencing is perhaps less important in the workplace, it’s also important that you can substantiate any assertions that you make so it’s helpful to keep track of your sources of information.

The Structure of a Report

Like the precise content, requirements for structure vary, so do check what’s set out in any guidance.

However, as a rough guide, you should plan to include at the very least an executive summary, introduction, the main body of your report, and a section containing your conclusions and any recommendations.

Executive Summary

The executive summary or abstract , for a scientific report, is a brief summary of the contents. It’s worth writing this last, when you know the key points to draw out. It should be no more than half a page to a page in length.

Remember the executive summary is designed to give busy 'executives' a quick summary of the contents of the report.


The introduction sets out what you plan to say and provides a brief summary of the problem under discussion. It should also touch briefly on your conclusions.

Report Main Body

The main body of the report should be carefully structured in a way that leads the reader through the issue.

You should split it into sections using numbered sub-headings relating to themes or areas for consideration. For each theme, you should aim to set out clearly and concisely the main issue under discussion and any areas of difficulty or disagreement. It may also include experimental results. All the information that you present should be related back to the brief and the precise subject under discussion.

If it’s not relevant, leave it out.

Conclusions and Recommendations

The conclusion sets out what inferences you draw from the information, including any experimental results. It may include recommendations, or these may be included in a separate section.

Recommendations suggest how you think the situation could be improved, and should be specific, achievable and measurable. If your recommendations have financial implications, you should set these out clearly, with estimated costs if possible.

A Word on Writing Style

When writing a report, your aim should be to be absolutely clear. Above all, it should be easy to read and understand, even to someone with little knowledge of the subject area.

You should therefore aim for crisp, precise text, using plain English, and shorter words rather than longer, with short sentences.

You should also avoid jargon. If you have to use specialist language, you should explain each word as you use it. If you find that you’ve had to explain more than about five words, you’re probably using too much jargon, and need to replace some of it with simpler words.

Consider your audience. If the report is designed to be written for a particular person, check whether you should be writing it to ‘you’ or perhaps in the third person to a job role: ‘The Chief Executive may like to consider…’, or ‘The minister is recommended to agree…’, for example.

A Final Warning

As with any academic assignment or formal piece of writing, your work will benefit from being read over again and edited ruthlessly for sense and style.

Pay particular attention to whether all the information that you have included is relevant. Also remember to check tenses, which person you have written in, grammar and spelling. It’s also worth one last check against any requirements on structure.

For an academic assignment, make sure that you have referenced fully and correctly. As always, check that you have not inadvertently or deliberately plagiarised or copied anything without acknowledging it.

Finally, ask yourself:

“Does my report fulfil its purpose?”

Only if the answer is a resounding ‘yes’ should you send it off to its intended recipient.

Continue to: How to Write a Business Case Planning an Essay

See also: Business Writing Tips Study Skills Writing a Dissertation or Thesis

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A Guide To The Top 14 Types Of Reports With Examples Of When To Use Them

Types of reports blog post by datapine

Table of Contents

1) What Is The Report Definition?

2) Top 14 Types Of Reports

3) What Does A Report Look Like?

Businesses have been producing reports since, forever. No matter what role or industry you work in, chances are that you have been faced with the task of generating a tedious report to show your progress or performance.

While reporting has been a common practice for many decades, the business world keeps evolving and, with more competitive industries, the need to generate fast and accurate reports becomes critical. This presents a problem for many modern organizations today as building reports can take from hours to days. In fact, a survey about management reports performed by Deloitte says that 50% of managers are unsatisfied with the speed of delivery and the quality of the reports they receive. 

With this issue in mind, several BI tools have been developed to assist businesses in the generation of interactive reports with just a few clicks, enhancing the way companies make critical decisions and service insights from their most valuable data.

But, with so many types of reports used on a daily basis, how can you know when to use them effectively? How can you push yourself ahead of the pack with the power of information? Here, we’re going to explore the 14 most common types of reports in business and provide some examples of when to use them to your brand-boosting advantage. In addition, we will see how online dashboards have overthrown the static nature of classic reports and given way to a much faster, more interactive way of working with data.

Let’s get started with a brief report definition.

What Is The Report Definition?

A modern reporting example created with a dashboard tool

A report is a document that presents relevant business information in an organized and understandable format. Each report is aimed at a specific audience and business purpose and it summarizes the performance of different activities based on goals and objectives.  

That said, there are various types of reports that can be used for different purposes, rather you want to track the progress of your strategies or stay compliant with financial laws, there is a different report for each task. To help you identify when to use them we will cover the top 14 most common report formats used for businesses today. 

What Are The Different Types Of Reports?

Top 14 types of reports overview graphic

1. Informational Reports 

The first in our list of reporting types is informational reports. As their name suggests, this report type aims to give factual insights about a specific topic. This can include performance reports, expense reports, and justification reports, among others. A differentiating characteristic of these reports is their objectivity, they are only meant to inform but not propose solutions or hypotheses. Common informational reports examples are for performance tracking such as annual, monthly, or weekly reports . 

2. Analytical Reports 

This report type contains a mix of useful information to facilitate the decision-making process through a mix of qualitative and quantitative insights as well as real-time and historical data. Unlike informational reports that purely inform users about a topic, this report type also aims to provide recommendations about the next steps and help with problem-solving. With this information in hand, businesses can build strategies based on analytical evidence and not simple intuition. With the use of the right BI reporting tool businesses can generate various types of analytical reports that include accurate forecasts via predictive analytics technologies. Let's look at it with an analytical report example.

Analytical report example of a sales pipeline dashboard

**click to enlarge**

The example above is the perfect representation of how analytical reports can boost a business’s performance. By getting detailed information such as sales opportunities, a probability rate, as well as an accurate pipeline value forecast based on historical data, sales teams can prepare their strategies in advance, tackle any inefficiencies, and make informed decisions for increased efficiency. 

3. Operational Reports 

These reports track every pertinent detail of the company's operational tasks, such as its production processes. They are typically short-term reports as they aim to paint a picture of the present. Businesses use this type of report to spot any issues and define their solutions, or to identify improvement opportunities to optimize their operational efficiency. Operational reports are commonly used in manufacturing, logistics, and retail as they help keep track of inventory, production, and costs, among others. 

4. Product Reports

As its name suggests, this report type is used to monitor several aspects related to product performance and development. Businesses often use them to track which of their products or subscriptions are selling the most within a given time period, calculate inventories, or see what kind of product the client values the most. Another common use case of these reports is to research the implementation of new products or develop existing ones. Let’s see it more in detail with a visual example. 

Type of report examples: a report on product innovation, useful for product development and pricing decisions

The image above is a product report that shows valuable insights regarding usage intention, purchase intention, willingness to pay, and more. In this case, the report is based on the answers from a survey that aimed to understand how the target customer would receive a new product. Getting this level of insights through this report type is very useful for businesses as it allows them to make smart investments when it comes to new products as well as set realistic pricing based on their client’s willingness to pay. 

5. Industry Reports 

Next in our list of the most common types of reports we have industry-specific reports. Typically, these reports provide an overview of a particular industry, market, or sector with definitions, key trends, leading companies, and industry size, among others. They are particularly useful for businesses that want to enter a specific industry and want to learn how competitive it is or for companies who are looking to set performance benchmarks based on average industry values. 

6. Department Reports

These reports are specific to each department or business function. They serve as a communication tool between managers and team members that need to stay connected and work together for common goals. Rather is the sales department, customer service, logistics, or finances, this specific report type help track and optimize performance on a deeper level. Let’s look at it with an example of a team performance report. 

A department report type example of a customer support team performance

The image above is a department report created with an online data analysis tool and it is tracking the performance of a support team. This insightful report displays relevant metrics such as the top-performing agents, net promoter score, and first contact resolution rate, among others. Having this information in hand not only helps each member of the team to keep track of their individual performance but also allows managers to understand who needs more training and who is performing at their best. 

7. Progress Reports

From the brunch of informational reports, progress reports provide critical information about the status of a project. These reports can be produced on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis by employees or managers to track performance and fine-tune tasks for the better development of the project. Progress reports are often used as visual materials to support meetings and discussions. A good example is a KPI scorecard . 

8. Internal Reports

A type of report that encompasses many others on this list, internal reports refer to any type of report that is used internally in a company. They convey information between team members and departments to keep communication flowing regarding goals and business objectives. 

An internal report example: hospital management dashboard

As mentioned above, internal reports serve as useful communication tools to keep every relevant person in the organization informed and engaged. This healthcare report aims to do just that. By providing insights into the performance of different departments and areas of a hospital such as in and outpatients, average waiting times, treatment costs, and more, healthcare managers can allocate resources and plan the schedule accurately as well as monitor any changes or issues in real-time. 

9. External Reports

Although most of the reports types listed here are used for internal purposes, not all reporting is meant to be used behind closed doors. External reports are created with the aim of sharing information with external stakeholders such as clients or investors for budget or progress accountability as well as to governmental bodies to stay compliant with the law requirements.

External report type example of a client report for an IT project

The image above is the perfect example of an external client report from an IT project. This insightful report provides a visual overview of every relevant aspect regarding the development of the project. From deadlines, budget usage, completion stage, and task breakdown, clients can be fully informed and involved in the project. 

10. Vertical & Lateral Reports 

Next, in our rundown of types of reports, we have vertical and lateral reports. This reporting type refers to the direction in which a report travels. A vertical report is meant to go upward or downward the hierarchy, for example, a management report. While a lateral report assists in organization and communication between groups that are at the same level of the hierarchy, such as the financial and marketing departments.

11. Research Reports

Without a doubt, one of the most vital reporting types for any modern business is centered on research. Being able to collect, collate, and drill down into insights based on key pockets of your customer base or industry will give you the tools to drive innovation while meeting your audience’s needs head-on.

Types of reports: research report for customer demographics

The image above is a market research analytics report example for customer demographics. It serves up a balanced blend of metrics that will empower you to boost engagement as well as retention rates. Here, you can drill down into your audience’s behaviors, interests, gender, educational levels, and tech adoption life cycles with a simple glance.

What’s particularly striking about this dashboard is the fact that you can explore key trends in brand innovation with ease, gaining a working insight into how your audience perceives your business. This invaluable type of report will help you get under the skin of your consumers, driving growth and loyalty in the process.

12. Strategic Reports

Strategy is a vital component of every business, big or small. Strategic analytics tools are perhaps the broadest and most universal of all the different types of business report imaginable.

These particular tools exist to help you understand, meet, and exceed your most pressing company goals consistently by serving up top-level metrics on a variety of initiatives or functions.

By working with strategic-style tools, you will:

  • Improve internal motivation and engagement
  • Refine your plans and strategies for the best possible return on investment (ROI)
  • Enhance internal communication and optimize the way your various departments run
  • Create more room for innovation and creative thinking

13. Project Reports

Projects are key to keeping a business moving in the right direction while keeping innovation and evolution at the forefront of every plan, communication, or campaign. But without the right management tools, a potentially groundbreaking project can turn into a resource-sapping disaster.

A project management report serves as a summary of a particular project's status and its various components. It's a visual tool that you can share with partners, colleagues, clients, and stakeholders to showcase your project's progress at multiple stages. Let’s look at our example and dig a little deeper.

Project controlling dashboard as an example of a project report type

To ensure consistent success across the board, the kinds of reports you need to work with are based on project management. 

Our example is a project management dashboard equipped with a melting pot of metrics designed to improve the decision-making process while keeping every facet of your company’s most important initiatives under control. Here, you can spot pivotal trends based on costs, task statuses, margins, costs, and overall project revenue. With this cohesive visual information at your fingertips, not only can you ensure the smooth end-to-end running of any key project, but you can drive increased operational efficiency as you move through every significant milestone.

14. Statutory Reports

It may not seem exciting or glamorous, but keeping your business's statutory affairs in order is vital to your ongoing commercial health and success.

When it comes to submitting such vital financial and non-financial information to official bodies, one small error can result in serious repercussions. As such, working with statutory types of report formats is a water-tight way of keeping track of your affairs and records while significantly reducing the risk of human error.

Armed with interactive insights and dynamic visuals, you will keep your records clean and compliant while gaining the ability to nip any potential errors or issues in the bud.

What Does A Report Look Like?

Now that we’ve covered the most relevant types of reports, we will answer the question: what does a report look like? 

As mentioned at the beginning of this insightful guide, static reporting is a thing of the past. With the rise of modern technologies like self service BI tools , the use of interactive reports in the shape of business dashboards has become more and more popular among companies.

Unlike static reports that take time to be generated and are difficult to understand, modern reporting tools are intuitive. Their visual nature makes them easy to understand for any type of user, and they provide businesses with a central view of their most important performance indicators for an improved decision-making process. Here we will cover 15 useful dashboard examples from different industries and functions to put the value of dashboard reporting into perspective. 

1. Financial Report

Visual reporting example for finances tracking metrics such as current working capital, cash conversion cycle, and vendor payment error rate

Keeping finances in check is critical for success. This financial report offers an overview of the most important financial metrics that a company needs to monitor its economic activities and answer vital questions to ensure healthy finances. 

With insights about liquidity, invoicing, budgeting, and general financial stability, managers can extract long and short-term conclusions to reduce inefficiencies, make accurate forecasts about future performance, and keep the overall financial efficiency of the business flowing. For instance, getting a detailed calculation of the business working capital can allow you to understand how liquid is your company. If it's higher than expected it means you have the potential to invest and grow. Definitely, one of the most valuable types of finance reports.

2. Marketing Report 

A marketing report example for campaign tracking generated with a modern dashboard tool

Our next example is a marketing report that ensures a healthy return on investment from your marketing efforts. This type of report offers a detailed overview of campaign performance over the last 12 weeks. Having access to this information enables you to maximize the value of your promotional actions keeping your audience engaged by providing a targeted experience. 

For instance, you can implement different campaign formats as a test and then compare which one is most successful for your business. This is possible thanks to the monitoring of important marketing metrics such as the click-through rate (CTR), cost per click (CPC), cost per acquisition (CPA), and more. 

The visual nature of this report makes it easy to understand important insights at a glance. For example, the four gauge charts at the top show the total spending from all campaigns and how much of the total budget of each campaign has been used. In just seconds you can see if you are on target to meet your marketing budgets for every single campaign. 

3. Sales Report

A sales report template focused on high-level metrics such as revenue, profits, costs, incremental sales, accumulated revenue, up/cross-sell rates, etc.

An intuitive sales dashboard like the one above is the perfect analytical tool to monitor and optimize sales performance. Armed with powerful high-level metrics, this report type is especially interesting for managers, executives, and sales VPs as it provides relevant information to ensure strategic and operational success. 

The value of this sales report lies in the fact that it offers a complete and comprehensive overview of relevant insights needed to make smart sales decisions. For instance, at the top of an analysis tool, you get important metrics such as the number of sales, revenue, profit, and costs, all compared to a set target and to the previous time period. The use of historical data is fundamental when building successful sales strategies as they provide a picture of what could happen in the future. Being able to filter the key metrics all in one screen is a key benefit of modern reporting. 

4. HR Report 

Employee performance depicted with a modern human resources report

Our next example of a report is about human resources analytics . The HR department needs to track a lot of data such as employee performance and effectiveness. But overall they need to ensure that employees are happy and working in a healthy environment since an unhappy workforce can significantly damage a company. This is all possible with the help of this intuitive dashboard. 

Providing a comprehensive mix of metrics, this employee-centric report drills down into every major element needed to ensure successful workforce management. For example, the top portion of the dashboard covers absenteeism in 3 different ways: yearly average, absenteeism rate with a target of 3.8%, and absenteeism over the last 5 years. Tracking absenteeism rates in detail is helpful as it can tell you if your employees are skipping days of work. If the rate is over the expected target, then you need to dig deeper into the reasons and find sustainable solutions. 

On the other hand, the second part of the dashboard covers the overall labor effectiveness (OLE). This can be tracked based on specific criteria that HR predefined and it helps them understand if workers are achieving their targets or if they need extra training or help. 

5. Management Report

A example of a report type for investors relationships with metrics such as the working capital ratio, share price, share on assets, return on equity, among others

Managers need to monitor big amounts of information to ensure that the business is running smoothly. One of them being investor relationships. This management dashboard focuses on high-level metrics that shareholders need to look at before investing such as the return on assets, return on equity, debt-equity ratio, and share price, among others. 

By getting an overview of these important metrics, investors can easily extract the needed information to make an informed decision regarding an investment in your company. For instance, the return on assets measures how efficiently are the company's assets being used to generate profit. With this information, investors can understand how effectively your company deploys available resources in comparison to others in the market. Another great indicator is the share price, the higher the increase in your share price the more money your shareholders are making from their investment. 

6. IT Report 

IT report tracking the occurrence of technical issues to improve system operational performance

Just like all the other departments and sections covered in this list, the IT department is one that can especially benefit from these types of reports. With so many technical issues to solve, the need for a visual tool to help IT specialists stay on track with all their workload becomes critical. 

As seen in the image above, this IT dashboard offers detailed information about different system indicators. For starters, we get a visual overview of the status of each server, followed by a detailed graph displaying the uptime & downtime of each week. This is complemented by the most common downtown issues and some ticket management information. Getting this level of insight helps your IT staff to know what is happening and when it is happening and find proper solutions to avoid these issues from repeating themselves. Keeping constant track of these metrics will ensure robust system performance. 

7. Procurement Report

This procurement report example provides an overview of the most essential metrics of the procurement department

This next example of a report was built with intuitive procurement analytics software and it gives a general view of various metrics that the procurement department needs to work with on a regular basis. 

With the possibility to filter, drill down, and interact with the data, this intuitive procurement dashboard offers key information to ensure a healthy relationship with suppliers. With metrics such as compliance rate, the number of suppliers, or the purchase order cycle time, the procurement team can classify the different suppliers, define the relationship each of them has with the company, and optimize processes to ensure the company stays profitable.

8. Customer Service Report

Call center reporting type presented with the revenue value, costs per support, average time to solve an issue,  and overall satisfaction

Following our list of examples of reports is one from the support area. Armed with powerful customer service KPIs , this dashboard is a useful tool to monitor performance, spot trends, identify strengths and weaknesses, and improve the overall effectiveness of the customer support department. 

Covering aspects such as revenue and costs from customer support as well as customer satisfaction, this complete analysis tool is the perfect tool for managers that need to keep an eye on every little detail from a performance and operational perspective. For example, by monitoring your customer service costs and comparing them to the revenue you can understand if you are investing the right amount into your support processes. This can be directly related to your agent’s average time to solve issues, the longer it takes to solve a support ticket the more money it will cost and the less revenue it will bring. If you see that your agents are taking too long to solve an issue you can think of some training instances to help them reduce this number. 

9. Market Research Report 

A type of report for market research displaying the results of a survey about brand perception

This list of report types examples would not be complete without a market research report . Market research agencies deal with a big amount of information coming from surveys and other research sources. Taking all this into account, the need for reports that can be filtered for deeper interaction becomes more necessary for this industry than any other. 

The image above is a brand analytics dashboard that displays the results of a survey about how a brand is perceived by the public. This savvy tool contains different chart types that make it easy to visually understand the information. For instance, the map chart with the different colors lets you quickly understand in which regions each age range is located. The charts can be filtered further to see the detailed answers from each group for a deeper analysis. 

10. Social Media Report 

Social media report example displaying performance metrics for Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and YouTube

Last but not least, we have a social media report .  This scorecard format dashboard monitors the performance of 4 main social media channels: Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and YouTube and it serves as a perfect visual overview to track the performance of different social media efforts and achievements. 

Tracking relevant metrics such as followers, impressions, clicks, engagement rates, and conversions, this report type serves as a perfect progress report to show to managers or clients that need to see the status of their social channels. Each metric is shown in its actual value and compared to a set target. The colors green and red from the fourth column let you quickly understand if a metric is over or under its expected target. 

If you feel inspired by this list then we recommend you to take a look at our dashboard examples library where you will find over 80+ templates from different industries, functions, and platforms for extra inspiration! 

11. Logistics Report

Logistics are the cornerstone of an operationally fluent and progressive business. If you deal with large quantities of goods and tangible items, in particular, maintaining a solid logistical strategy is vital to ensuring you maintain your brand reputation while keeping things flowing in the right direction.

An logistics report focused on the warehouse performance in the logistics industry.

A prime example of the types of data reporting tool designed to improve logistical management, our warehouse KPI dashboard is equipped with metrics required to maintain strategic movement while eliminating any unnecessary costs or redundant processes. Here, you can dig into your shipping success rates across regions while accessing warehouse costs and perfect order rates in real time. If you spot any potential inefficiencies, you can track them here and take the correct course of action to refine your strategy. This is an essential tool for any business with a busy or scaling warehouse.

12. Manufacturing Report

Next in our essential types of business reports examples, we’re looking at tools made to improve your business’s various manufacturing processes.

Manufacturing Production report displaying main manufacturing KPIs to keep the pulse of your factory.

Our clean and concise production tool is a sight to behold and serves up key manufacturing KPIs that improve the decision-making process when it comes to costs, volume, and machinery.

Here, you can hone in on historical patterns and trends while connecting with priceless real-time insights that will not only help you make the right calls concerning your manufacturing process at the moment but will also help you formulate predictive strategies that will ultimately save money, boost productivity, and result in top-quality products across the board.

13. Retail Report

As a retailer with so many channels to consider and so many important choices to make, working with the right metrics and visuals is absolutely essential. Fortunately, we live in an age where there are different types of reporting designed for this very reason.

Types of reports examples: retail sales and order report

Our sales and order example, generated with retail analytics software , is a dream come true for retailers as it offers the visual insights needed to understand your product range in greater detail while keeping a firm grip on your order volumes, perfect order rates, and reasons for returns.

By gaining access to this invaluable access in one visually presentable space will allow you to track increases or decreases in orders over a set timeframe (and understand whether you’re doing the right things to drive engagement) while plowing your promotional resources into the products that are likely to offer the best returns.

Plus, by gaining an accurate overview of why people are returning your products, you can omit problem items or processes from your retail strategy, improving your brand reputation as well as revenue in the process.

14. Digital Media Report

The content and communications you publish are critical to your ongoing success, regardless of your sector, niche, or specialty. Without putting out communications that speak directly to the right segments of your audience at the right times in their journey, your brand will swiftly fade into the background.

Content quality control dashboard as a digital media report example

To ensure your brand remains inspiring, engaging, and thought-leading across channels, working with media types of a business report is essential. You have to ensure your communications cut through the noise and scream ‘quality’ from start to finish—no ifs, no buts, no exceptions.

Our content quality control tool is designed with a logical hierarchy that will tell you if your content sparks readership if the language you’re using is inclusive and conversational, and how much engagement-specific communications earn. You can also check your most engaged articles with a quick glance to understand what your users value most. Armed with this information, you can keep creating content that your audience loves and ultimately drives true value to the business.

15. Energy Report

In the age of sustainability and in the face of international fuel hikes, managing the energy your business uses effectively is paramount. Here there is little room for excess or error and as such, working with the right metrics is the only way to ensure successful energy regulation.

Energy management dashboard as an example of a type of report for the energy industry

If your company has a big HQ or multiple sites that require power, our energy management analytics tool will help you take the stress out of managing your resources. One of the most striking features of this dashboard is the fact that it empowers you to compare your company’s energy usage against those from other sectors and set an accurate benchmark.

Here, you can also get a digestible breakdown of your various production costs in terms of energy consumption as well as the main sources you use to keep your organization running. Regularly consulting these metrics will not only help you save colossal chunks of your budget, but it will also give you the intelligence to become more sustainable as an organization. This, in turn, is good for the planet as well as your brand reputation. A real win-win-win.

Types Of Reporting For Every Business & Purpose 

As we’ve seen throughout our journey, there are different report formats that are used by businesses for diverse purposes in their everyday activities. Whether you’re talking about types of reports in research, types of reports in management, or anything in between, these dynamic tools will get you where you need to be (and beyond).

In this post, we covered the top 14 most common ones and explored key examples of how different report types are changing the way businesses are leveraging their most critical insights for internal efficiency and ultimately, external success.

With modern tools and solutions, reporting doesn’t have to be a tedious task. Anyone in your organization can rely on data for their decision-making process without the need for technical skills. Rather you want to keep your team connected or show progress to investors or clients. There is a report type for the job. To keep your mind fresh, here are the top 14 types of data reports covered in this post: 

  • Informational reports 
  • Analytical reports 
  • Operational reports  
  • Product reports 
  • Industry reports 
  • Department reports 
  • Progress reports 
  • Internal reports 
  • External reports 
  • Vertical and lateral reports 
  • Strategic reports
  • Research reports
  • Project reports
  • Statutory reports

Now, over to you. Are you ready? If you want to start building your own types of reports and get ahead of the pack today, then you should try our BI reporting software for 14-days for free ! 

what is report writing and its types

Report Writing And Its Significance In Your Career

You reach the office at around 9.00 AM, switch on your system, and start working. It’s a usual workday for…

Report Writing And Its Significance In Your Career

You reach the office at around 9.00 AM, switch on your system, and start working. It’s a usual workday for you until your manager comes to your desk and asks you to create a sales report. That’s the first time you’ve got such a task, and find yourself struggling with basic questions such as, “What’s a report?” and “How do I write one?”

What Is Report Writing?

Elements of report writing, importance of report writing.

You must have heard the term ‘report writing’ before.

According to the commonly known definition of report writing, a report is a formal document that elaborates on a topic using facts, charts, and graphs to support its arguments and findings.

Any report—whether it’s about a business event or one that describes the processes of various departments in a company—is meant for a particular type of audience.

But why do you think your manager wants you to create a report?

One simple answer is: an elaborate report prepared with evaluated facts helps solve complex problems. When managers come across certain business situations, they ask for comprehensive and well-thought-out reports that can help them design business plans.

Once you have an idea about what a report is, the next step is to understand how you can write one.

There are different types of reports, and each has a specific structure, usually known as ‘elements of the report’.

While we tell you what the elements of report writing are, if you want detailed guidance, you can go for Harappa Education’s Writing Proficiently course that talks about the popular PREP (Point of starting, Reason, Evidence, and Point of ending) model of report writing.

Every report starts with a title page and a table of contents, after which come the main sections–the executive summary, introduction, discussion, and conclusion.

Executive Summary:

Do you remember summary writing for English class during school days? You were asked to read a story or passage and write a summary, including the important takeaways. ( ambien )

That’s exactly what you are expected to do in a report’s executive summary section. This section presents a brief overview of the report’s contents. You should present the key points of the report in this section.

But why is it important to write an executive summary at the start of the report?

Firstly, the summary will help readers better understand the purpose, key points, and evidence you are going to present in the report. Secondly, readers who are in a hurry can read the summary for a preview of the report.

Here are some specifics that will help you write a clear and concise summary:

Include the purpose of your report and emphasize conclusions or recommendations.

Include only the essential or most significant information to support your theories and conclusions.

Follow the same sequence of information that you have used in the report.

Keep the summary length to 10-15% of the complete report.

Try not to introduce any new information or point in summary that you haven’t covered in the report.

The summary should communicate the message clearly and independently.


The introduction section should:

Briefly describe the background and context of the research you have done.

Describe the change, problem, or issue related to the topic.

Define the relevant objectives and purpose of the report

Give hints about the overall answer to the problem covered in the report.

Comment on the limitations and any assumptions you have made to get to the conclusion.


This section serves two purposes:

It justifies the recommendations.

It explains the conclusions.

While you are writing the discussion section, make sure you do the following:

Present your analysis logically.

If needed, divide the information under appropriate headings to improving readability and ease of understanding.

Explain your points and back up your claims with strong and evaluated evidence.

Connect your theory with real-life scenarios


The last key element of report writing is the conclusion section. Present the conclusion as follows:

  • The primary conclusion should come first.

Identify and interpret the major problems related to the case your report is based on.

Relate to the objectives that you have mentioned in the introduction.

Keep the conclusion brief and specific.

Before you start writing a report, it’s important to understand the significance of the report. It’s also crucial to research independently instead of relying on data and trends available on the internet, besides structuring the report properly. Here’s why:

Decision-Making Tool

Organizations require a considerable amount of data and information on specific topics, scenarios, and situations. Managers and decision-makers often use business reports and research papers as information sources to make important business decisions and reach solutions.

Another reason that adds to the significance of report writing is that it is a collection of evaluated information.

Different types of activities by different departments define an organization. Think of the departments your organization has–development, sales, distribution, marketing, HR, and more. Each department follows defined processes and protocols that require many small and large activities on a daily basis.

It is impossible for the management to keep an eye on the different activities in each department.

That’s where the reports can help. With every department writing and maintaining periodic reports, keeping a tab of ongoing activities becomes easier for the management.

Professional Improvements

During the annual appraisal cycle, your manager will ask you to write reports to explain your position, level of work, and performance.

If you have ever wondered how your manager decided to promote your colleague and not you, the answer may lie in his well-presented report.

Quick Source For Problem-Solving

There’s no denying that managers require accurate information on various topics to make quick decisions. Often due to urgency, managers only rely on business reports as an authentic source of information. Almost every employee would have witnessed a situation that needed the manager’s attention urgently. Reports come in handy during such situations.

Report writing is a significant exercise in many ways for your professional life. If you are not well-versed with it already, you must start working on your report writing skills now. For more help or guidance to learn this new skill, sign up for Harappa’s Writing Proficiently course.

Make the most of your time at home and master this new skill. Work on many assignments, improve your skills, and become a pro at report writing.

Explore our Harappa Diaries section to learn more about topics related to the Communicate habit such as the Importance of Writing Skills and the Cycle of Communication .


Report Purposes & Types

Reports are key communication tools in business; they often become part of an organization’s archives so that current and future employees can see the research, information, and reasoning underlying certain issues, actions, and decisions.  Reports may be formal or informal, informative or analytical.  They may be intended to provide updates, influence action, provide information, and/or offer different perspectives important in an organization’s discussion of an issue. At some point in your career, you most likely will need to write a report related to some aspect of your work.

The following video provides a good introduction to professional reports.

Report Purposes

Reports have two main purposes:

Informative Reports

An informative report explains or instructs and presents details of events, activities, individuals, or conditions. It provides background and explanation without analysis or evaluation. For example, a progress report is a standard informative report intended to explain the completion of a project at certain key points within that project’s timeline.  You might review the project’s purpose, explain what phase the project is in at this particular point in time, identify project accomplishments to date, and/or discuss anticipated next steps within the project timeline.  You would not evaluate, analyze, or recommend, but would simply present relevant information to inform stakeholders about how the project is progressing.

what is report writing and its types

Analytical Reports

An analytical report often provides some of the same information as an informative report  along with  evaluation of that information. Analytical reports may solve problems, demonstrate relationships, or make recommendations. For example, in addition to informing, you may also have an analytical purpose in a progress report, especially if the project has not progressed as planned.  You might analyze situations that derailed the project from the intended timeline, and/or recommend ways to catch up and get the project back onto the original timeline.  Another example of an analytical report is a field report by a Center for Disease Control (CDC) employee from the site of an outbreak of the H1N1 virus, noting symptoms, disease progression, steps taken to arrest the spread of the disease, and recommendations on the quarantine of subjects.

The following video clearly introduces and illustrates the nature of an analytical report.  Note that the report sections mentioned will vary depending on your own writing context and situational analysis.

Report Types

There are two main types of report:

Informal Reports

Employees in most organizations create and use informal reports, many of which are for internal use. Some institutions have prescribed formats for certain types of informal reports (e.g., expense reports, mileage reimbursement), but allow you, as a writer, the freedom to structure other types of informal reports, such as status updates, recommendation reports, conference reports, or others.

The main characteristic of an informal report is that it tends to be relatively short, with fewer sections than a formal report. Overall, informal reports typically include the following structure:

  • Introduction or background – the “why” of the report
  • Information and/or analysis – your facts, findings, data, analysis, explanatory details, and/or recommendations
  • Summary – restatement of main ideas

Informal reports may be in memo, email, letter, video, powerpoint, or written report format. An informal report usually has specific topics grouped in paragraphs, and these topics tend to have simple headings. Note that while informal reports do not require headings, you may decide to use them, especially if the report is a page or two, since headings may help your reader better understand and retain your main ideas.


Look at the two brief samples to compare how you read and react to the same information in an informal report without headings and with headings. Which one is easier for you to read, understand, and find information?

Formal Reports

Formal reports may be written because of many different situations, for example, to provide information and research on the psychological effects on employees as a result of moving from offices to cubicles, to analyze the results of moving from offices to cubicles in terms of employee productivity, or to make recommendations on the financial feasibility of moving employees from offices to cubicles. The hallmark of a formal report is its length; format reports delve into a subject much more deeply than informal reports. Formal reports synthesize main ideas related to your subject, drawing from your information, analysis, and/or research, to fulfill your purpose. Formal reports are not simply compilations of large quantities of data around a topic, with no purpose or reasoned presentation.

Like informal reports, formal reports also have an overall structure of introduction, information/analysis, and summary.  But because they investigate a concept or issue deeply, formal reports usually have many sections within the body of the report, which definitely require headings and subheadings.  Formal reports also contain standard front and back matter.  You can read more fully about Report Sections in the next page of this text.

Formal reports are usually written documents, because of their quantity of information.  However, formal written reports are often presented and/or accompanied by powerpoint presentations, explanatory videos, or other professional communications that condense and introduce concepts offered in the formal report.

The following video compares and reviews informal and formal reports.

Importance of Reports in Organizations

what is report writing and its types

Report purposes and types may be combined in many different ways; reports on the same topic may be informative or analytical in different situations, just as they may be informal or formal in different situations.

For example, if a group of workers in a particular department is experimenting with working remotely a few days a week, you could potentially write:

  • an informal, informative, compliance report to your supervisor letting her know that this is occurring and providing a short description of, and question about, company policy on telecommuting
  • an informal, analytical, feasibility report to your supervisor evaluating evidence gathered through discussions with the department head and workers who are part of the experiment
  • a formal, informative, research report citing evidence that worker flexibility in work location can boost productivity
  • a formal, analytical, recommendation report to your supervisor building upon your research and proposing the need to implement this option in your department
  • any number of additional types of reports, depending on your purpose and role

It’s up to you, as a communicator, to decide on the best approach for each particular report you need to create, based on your purpose and comprehensive analysis of the communication situation.

Examples of some common reports include the following:

  • Status updates  may be internal to a company in addressing a business situation, or external in providing the status of a project to another organization. Status reports are usually to-the-point, tightly focused, brief informational reports.
  • Project reports are lengthier documents which may cover many different aspects of a project at various stages, for various stakeholders in the project. They may be informative or analytical, depending on your purpose and situation.
  • Feasibility reports analyze a situation and propose a direction to take. They are often written to explore a new idea or process, or to evaluate a current situation and make recommendations, as a way to explore a change before making major investments of time or money. For example, a feasibility report may be a first step toward doing a full business plan, since it can be developed in much less time and still provides direction for decision makers.
  • Business plans  are often informative reports about what an individual or organization plans to do over an upcoming period of time. A business plan can be informative but may be more analytical if it’s intended for potential investors. In some cases, a business plan may include a request for funds; in those cases, the writing is more persuasive and may, in fact, turn into a formal proposal.
  • Proposals analyze a problem or situation, research possible solutions, and propose a specific solution or action, as a result of the evidence presented. They often include action plans, timelines, costs, and other appropriate information.  Proposals may be informal or formal, internal to a company or external to an outside audience, depending on the situation.
  • Recommendation reports often result from a business problem that an individual or team has been asked to solve; these reports are usually analytical and internal to an organization.  Reports that deal with needs assessment are one type of recommendation report.
  • Research reports  gather and explain data; these reports are usually informative.
  • Compliance reports may be informative or analytical as they deal with how well a department, division, or the whole organization is addressing a set of standards.
  • Financial reports may be informative or analytical as they deal with use of funds in certain contexts.  Financial reports may be internal or external to the organization.
  • Trip or conference reports summarize and transmit information learned, therefore increasing the value of the trip by disseminating information through the organization. They are usually informative.
  • Meeting minutes  are informative reports that summarize concepts and topics discussed at a meeting.

From the list above, which is by no means exhaustive, you can see the pervasiveness of reports in professional situations.

No matter what type of report you create, all reports need to contain accurate information, clear writing, logical organization of information, and professional layout. These characteristics affect the report’s reliability and validity, as well as your reader’s comprehension of your information. Use simple, clear language and organization. Make key report concepts easy to grasp for the widest audience. Remember that a report may be retained for a long time and may be viewed by many readers.

Guadalupe is the manager for meats and seafoods for a rapidly-expanding grocery chain, Valuetown. Valuetown’s expansion has happened mostly by buying up individually-owned stores or small chains in the region. One of the issues Guadalupe has faced is that the display and storage units in these stores are not in great shape, and often meats can’t be displayed. Valuetown is also spending a lot on repairs. Guadalupe has done an analysis of what the old refrigeration units are costing in terms of repairs and lost revenue. Her manager told her to write a report to present to the Valuetown board requesting new units. How should she proceed?

She should write a formal report with her conclusions at the front, a summary of her analysis in the middle, and back matter that includes the raw data on costs and lost revenue as well as estimated costs to replace the units. This report should be thoroughly edited and proofread so it is both stylistically perfect and in line with the needs of her audience.

Is this a good option? Check here.

She should write an informal report that briefly summarizes what she wants to do, gives highlights of her analysis, and then leaves most of the data in the back matter. Her goal should be to get this report out as quickly as possible, even if it has a few errors.

She should ask for time to give a presentation at the next board meeting and then take questions. She’s more persuasive in person than on paper.

  • Report Purposes & Types, original information and information adapted from pages on Business, Informal, and Formal Reports from Business Communication Skills for Managers, and page 9.4 Report from Business Communication for Success; attributions below. Authored by : Susan Oaks. Project : Communications for Professionals. License : CC BY-NC: Attribution-NonCommercial
  • Business Reports. Authored by : Susan Kendall. Provided by : Lumen Learning. Located at : . Project : Business Communication Skills for Managers. License : CC BY: Attribution
  • Informal Reports. Authored by : Susan Kendall. Provided by : Lumen Learning. Located at : . Project : Business Communication Skills for Managers. License : CC BY: Attribution
  • Formal Reports. Authored by : Susan Kendall. Provided by : Lumen Learning. Located at : . Project : Business Communication Skills for Managers. License : CC BY: Attribution
  • 9.4 Report. Provided by : University of Minnesota Libraries. Located at : . License : CC BY-NC-SA: Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike
  • image of professional reading a report on a tablet. Authored by : rawpixel. Provided by : Pixabay. Located at : . License : CC0: No Rights Reserved
  • video How to write a business report. Provided by : USC: University of the Sunshine Coast. Located at : . License : Other . License Terms : YouTube video
  • video Formal Reports vs. Informal Reports. Provided by : Penn State Harrisburg . Located at : . Project : Penn State Harrisburg English 202 Online Videos. License : Other . License Terms : YouTube video
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  • Research Report: Definition, Types + [Writing Guide]


One of the reasons for carrying out research is to add to the existing body of knowledge. Therefore, when conducting research, you need to document your processes and findings in a research report. 

With a research report, it is easy to outline the findings of your systematic investigation and any gaps needing further inquiry. Knowing how to create a detailed research report will prove useful when you need to conduct research.  

What is a Research Report?

A research report is a well-crafted document that outlines the processes, data, and findings of a systematic investigation. It is an important document that serves as a first-hand account of the research process, and it is typically considered an objective and accurate source of information.

In many ways, a research report can be considered as a summary of the research process that clearly highlights findings, recommendations, and other important details. Reading a well-written research report should provide you with all the information you need about the core areas of the research process.

Features of a Research Report 

So how do you recognize a research report when you see one? Here are some of the basic features that define a research report. 

  • It is a detailed presentation of research processes and findings, and it usually includes tables and graphs. 
  • It is written in a formal language.
  • A research report is usually written in the third person.
  • It is informative and based on first-hand verifiable information.
  • It is formally structured with headings, sections, and bullet points.
  • It always includes recommendations for future actions. 

Types of Research Report 

The research report is classified based on two things; nature of research and target audience.

Nature of Research

  • Qualitative Research Report

This is the type of report written for qualitative research . It outlines the methods, processes, and findings of a qualitative method of systematic investigation. In educational research, a qualitative research report provides an opportunity for one to apply his or her knowledge and develop skills in planning and executing qualitative research projects.

A qualitative research report is usually descriptive in nature. Hence, in addition to presenting details of the research process, you must also create a descriptive narrative of the information.

  • Quantitative Research Report

A quantitative research report is a type of research report that is written for quantitative research. Quantitative research is a type of systematic investigation that pays attention to numerical or statistical values in a bid to find answers to research questions. 

In this type of research report, the researcher presents quantitative data to support the research process and findings. Unlike a qualitative research report that is mainly descriptive, a quantitative research report works with numbers; that is, it is numerical in nature. 

Target Audience

Also, a research report can be said to be technical or popular based on the target audience. If you’re dealing with a general audience, you would need to present a popular research report, and if you’re dealing with a specialized audience, you would submit a technical report. 

  • Technical Research Report

A technical research report is a detailed document that you present after carrying out industry-based research. This report is highly specialized because it provides information for a technical audience; that is, individuals with above-average knowledge in the field of study. 

In a technical research report, the researcher is expected to provide specific information about the research process, including statistical analyses and sampling methods. Also, the use of language is highly specialized and filled with jargon. 

Examples of technical research reports include legal and medical research reports. 

  • Popular Research Report

A popular research report is one for a general audience; that is, for individuals who do not necessarily have any knowledge in the field of study. A popular research report aims to make information accessible to everyone. 

It is written in very simple language, which makes it easy to understand the findings and recommendations. Examples of popular research reports are the information contained in newspapers and magazines. 

Importance of a Research Report 

  • Knowledge Transfer: As already stated above, one of the reasons for carrying out research is to contribute to the existing body of knowledge, and this is made possible with a research report. A research report serves as a means to effectively communicate the findings of a systematic investigation to all and sundry.  
  • Identification of Knowledge Gaps: With a research report, you’d be able to identify knowledge gaps for further inquiry. A research report shows what has been done while hinting at other areas needing systematic investigation. 
  • In market research, a research report would help you understand the market needs and peculiarities at a glance. 
  • A research report allows you to present information in a precise and concise manner. 
  • It is time-efficient and practical because, in a research report, you do not have to spend time detailing the findings of your research work in person. You can easily send out the report via email and have stakeholders look at it. 

Guide to Writing a Research Report

A lot of detail goes into writing a research report, and getting familiar with the different requirements would help you create the ideal research report. A research report is usually broken down into multiple sections, which allows for a concise presentation of information.

Structure and Example of a Research Report

This is the title of your systematic investigation. Your title should be concise and point to the aims, objectives, and findings of a research report. 

  • Table of Contents

This is like a compass that makes it easier for readers to navigate the research report.

An abstract is an overview that highlights all important aspects of the research including the research method, data collection process, and research findings. Think of an abstract as a summary of your research report that presents pertinent information in a concise manner. 

An abstract is always brief; typically 100-150 words and goes straight to the point. The focus of your research abstract should be the 5Ws and 1H format – What, Where, Why, When, Who and How. 

  • Introduction

Here, the researcher highlights the aims and objectives of the systematic investigation as well as the problem which the systematic investigation sets out to solve. When writing the report introduction, it is also essential to indicate whether the purposes of the research were achieved or would require more work.

In the introduction section, the researcher specifies the research problem and also outlines the significance of the systematic investigation. Also, the researcher is expected to outline any jargons and terminologies that are contained in the research.  

  • Literature Review

A literature review is a written survey of existing knowledge in the field of study. In other words, it is the section where you provide an overview and analysis of different research works that are relevant to your systematic investigation. 

It highlights existing research knowledge and areas needing further investigation, which your research has sought to fill. At this stage, you can also hint at your research hypothesis and its possible implications for the existing body of knowledge in your field of study. 

  • An Account of Investigation

This is a detailed account of the research process, including the methodology, sample, and research subjects. Here, you are expected to provide in-depth information on the research process including the data collection and analysis procedures. 

In a quantitative research report, you’d need to provide information surveys, questionnaires and other quantitative data collection methods used in your research. In a qualitative research report, you are expected to describe the qualitative data collection methods used in your research including interviews and focus groups. 

In this section, you are expected to present the results of the systematic investigation. 

This section further explains the findings of the research, earlier outlined. Here, you are expected to present a justification for each outcome and show whether the results are in line with your hypotheses or if other research studies have come up with similar results.

  • Conclusions

This is a summary of all the information in the report. It also outlines the significance of the entire study. 

  • References and Appendices

This section contains a list of all the primary and secondary research sources. 

Tips for Writing a Research Report

  • Define the Context for the Report

As is obtainable when writing an essay, defining the context for your research report would help you create a detailed yet concise document. This is why you need to create an outline before writing so that you do not miss out on anything. 

  • Define your Audience

Writing with your audience in mind is essential as it determines the tone of the report. If you’re writing for a general audience, you would want to present the information in a simple and relatable manner. For a specialized audience, you would need to make use of technical and field-specific terms. 

  • Include Significant Findings

The idea of a research report is to present some sort of abridged version of your systematic investigation. In your report, you should exclude irrelevant information while highlighting only important data and findings. 

  • Include Illustrations

Your research report should include illustrations and other visual representations of your data. Graphs, pie charts, and relevant images lend additional credibility to your systematic investigation.

  • Choose the Right Title

A good research report title is brief, precise, and contains keywords from your research. It should provide a clear idea of your systematic investigation so that readers can grasp the entire focus of your research from the title. 

  • Proofread the Report

Before publishing the document, ensure that you give it a second look to authenticate the information. If you can, get someone else to go through the report, too, and you can also run it through proofreading and editing software. 

How to Gather Research Data for Your Report  

  • Understand the Problem

Every research aims at solving a specific problem or set of problems, and this should be at the back of your mind when writing your research report. Understanding the problem would help you to filter the information you have and include only important data in your report. 

  • Know what your report seeks to achieve

This is somewhat similar to the point above because, in some way, the aim of your research report is intertwined with the objectives of your systematic investigation. Identifying the primary purpose of writing a research report would help you to identify and present the required information accordingly. 

  • Identify your audience

Knowing your target audience plays a crucial role in data collection for a research report. If your research report is specifically for an organization, you would want to present industry-specific information or show how the research findings are relevant to the work that the company does. 

  • Create Surveys/Questionnaires

A survey is a research method that is used to gather data from a specific group of people through a set of questions. It can be either quantitative or qualitative. 

A survey is usually made up of structured questions, and it can be administered online or offline. However, an online survey is a more effective method of research data collection because it helps you save time and gather data with ease. 

You can seamlessly create an online questionnaire for your research on Formplus . With the multiple sharing options available in the builder, you would be able to administer your survey to respondents in little or no time. 

Formplus also has a report summary too l that you can use to create custom visual reports for your research.

Step-by-step guide on how to create an online questionnaire using Formplus  

  • Sign into Formplus

In the Formplus builder, you can easily create different online questionnaires for your research by dragging and dropping preferred fields into your form. To access the Formplus builder, you will need to create an account on Formplus. 

Once you do this, sign in to your account and click on Create new form to begin. 

  • Edit Form Title : Click on the field provided to input your form title, for example, “Research Questionnaire.”
  • Edit Form : Click on the edit icon to edit the form.
  • Add Fields : Drag and drop preferred form fields into your form in the Formplus builder inputs column. There are several field input options for questionnaires in the Formplus builder. 
  • Edit fields
  • Click on “Save”
  • Form Customization: With the form customization options in the form builder, you can easily change the outlook of your form and make it more unique and personalized. Formplus allows you to change your form theme, add background images, and even change the font according to your needs. 
  • Multiple Sharing Options: Formplus offers various form-sharing options, which enables you to share your questionnaire with respondents easily. You can use the direct social media sharing buttons to share your form link to your organization’s social media pages.  You can also send out your survey form as email invitations to your research subjects too. If you wish, you can share your form’s QR code or embed it on your organization’s website for easy access. 


Always remember that a research report is just as important as the actual systematic investigation because it plays a vital role in communicating research findings to everyone else. This is why you must take care to create a concise document summarizing the process of conducting any research. 

In this article, we’ve outlined essential tips to help you create a research report. When writing your report, you should always have the audience at the back of your mind, as this would set the tone for the document. 


Create Online Surveys for your Research Report on Formplus

  • ethnographic research survey
  • research report
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  • types of reports

12 Types Of Reports (And What Each Is Best For)

Marketing reports take on many forms.

In this post, we’ll look at 12+ different types of reports and their best use cases. 

If you’ve ever wondered how to use such reports in different business scenarios — whether it’s communicating results to clients or relaying information between various departments — this guide is for you.  

Marketing reports

1. Periodic reports

1.1 google analytics report, 1.2 email marketing report, 1.3 social media report, 2. analytical reports.

  • 3. Marketing dashboards

Types of internal reports

4. internal reports, 5. short reports.

  • 6. Informal reports

7. Proposal reports

8. vertical reports, 9. lateral reports, types of external reports, 10. external reports.

  • 11. Informational reports

12. Long reports

13. formal reports, marketing reports.

Here are some reports that you can use if you are a marketer or a marketing agency in particular.

digital marketing report

See this report live

Use it to: Communicate performance to clients or a group of people (e.g., stakeholders like CMO and CEO).

Periodic reports are reports issued at regular intervals . They’re often presented as project deliverables and help with decision-making (i.e., an agency sends a digital marketing report to a client every month). You can have yearly, monthly, quarterly or weekly reports for example.

Examples: Progress reports , sales reports , social media reports , Google Analytics reports , email marketing reports . 

Let’s explore how these reports look in detail .

Google Analytics (GA) is widely used by marketers who want to make sense of data and drive strategic decisions.

If you’re a frequent GA user, you’d know this: It’s overwhelming navigating the sheer amount of data. Imagine how your client must feel when you present these data in a spreadsheet!

What’s a better way to communicate your results? 

DashThis’s Google Analytics report template:

GA report template

Grab this template with your Google Analytics data!

In your GA report, drag and drop preset KPIs like goal completions and conversions, sessions and users, and landing page performances. 

Creating this visual presentation will help you to present ROI to your clients in a compelling manner .  

Emails are often used to educate, nurture, and convert subscribers to customers down the road.

Want to make sure your clients understand how their email campaigns are doing? Pull metrics from your email autoresponder, and let DashThis summarize your data in an email marketing report template .

email analytics report

Grab this template with your email marketing data!

With DashThis ’ preset KPI widgets (e.g., open rate, number of subscribers, and unsubscribe rate) shown in a sleek format, clients will be able to view results at a glanc e .

what is report writing and its types

Grab this template with your social media data!  

Social media is a beast, especially when you’re on multiple platforms. 

One great way to track results across these different social channels is to use DashThis’ social media report template and use its pre-set KPIs (e.g., impressions and reach).

Display the best-performing posts from Facebook or Instagram directly on DashThis with a few clicks . Long gone are the days of manually inserting them. 

what is report writing and its types

Creating reports is a big job. It’s the stage where clients evaluate how easy it is to work with you and decide if they should continue extending your contract. 

With DashThis , you no longer need to hop from one platform to another to attach seven different Google Analytics reports, a handful of email marketing reports , and screenshots of a viral Instagram post for each client.

Go from spending hours each week per client to less than ten minutes total! DashThis is the perfect tool to create these different types of reports . Thanks to automation, you don’t have to start from scratch every time.

Start your DashThis 15-day free trial and automate your marketing reports toda y.

what is report writing and its types

Get an analytical report like this one with your own data

Use it to : Share data and insights to evaluate business decisions.

Data never lies. 

Analytic reports are business documents that share statistics, predictions, and solutions (e.g., feasibility report ). It’s a more technical report that gives you a clear understanding of what’s happening in your organization, so that you can evaluate your action plan.

Example: An ecommerce report that shows transactions and revenue. Based on the data, marketers can identify which channels generate the highest sales and choose which to focus on.

3. Marketing d ashboards

marketing dashboard

Dashboards are a real-time type of report . Much like the dashboards of your car, it shows you where your marketing strategies are as of now.

Use it to : It’s a functional report particularly useful to track a campaign and adjust it as it goes. 

Example: A rolling dashboard that follows your ongoing Facebook ads campaign , or a weekly marketing dashboard . 

Source:  Wild Apricot

Those reports are usually shared between different teams or employees across the same organization.

Use it to: Convey information among team members and departments within the organization. 

Internal reports are circulated within the company. They usually are there to inform different teams on different topics, or the entire company for an announcement.

Example : A marketing budget report sent to the finance department for approva l.

Use it to: Announce new events or internal changes. They are usually on an organization level .

Short reports are documents with less than ten pages; they’re usually informal. They usually are internal reports since they don't convey a lot of information.

Example: A memorandum (or “memo” for short) to inform staff of an upcoming work event .  

6. Informational reports

Use it to : Provide background information from a sector of a company to another.

Informational reports transmit information from a sector of an organization to another (e.g., annual reports , financial reports, accounting reports ).

Example : A leadership meeting minutes report that details which department heads attended and what was discussed .

Use it to: Set clear expectations and explain your strategy.

P roposals are problem-solving reports that include a project overview, solution, and expected outcome. They’re often used to convert leads to paying clients.  

Example: A digital marketing proposal that showcases an agency’s proposed strategy, case studies, scientific research, and process to a prospective client .

what is report writing and its types

Source:  AppSumo

Use it to: Communicate information to management or employees a supervisor or manager oversees.

Vertical reports communicate information either upward or downward in the hierarchy.

Example: A marketing plan created by a marketing coordinator sent for approval to the head of marketing, monthly financial reports sent for approva l.  

Use it to: Transfer knowledge so all departments arrive at the same decision. 

Lateral reports coordinate knowledge transfer between different departments in an organization. 

Example: A marketing plan detailing budget information such as marketing spend and expected incoming revenue sent to the finance tea m.

what is report writing and its types

Source: 8x8

The reports are usually public, so shared across multiple different organizations, available on a website or on different medias. 

Use it to: Announce an event, product launch, or other happenings.

External reports are distributed outside the company.

Example: A press release report about a new product launch sent to a tech publication for coverag e.

11. Informal reports

Use it to : Present information for internal use. 

Informal reports are less-structured documents (i.e., uses casual language). They’re usually of short length. 

Example : An informal post-event report with summarized points created by a marketer after attending a conferenc e.

Use it to: Share in-depth information.

Long reports are documents with more than ten pages. Due to the length, they’re usually formal.

Example: A white paper about an industry’s latest trend s.

Use it to: Provide information to educate, inform, convince, or drive decisions.

Formal reports are detail- and structure-oriented. Due to the long nature, they often include many sections (e.g., table of contents , executive summary) for easier reference.

Example: A yearly market research report used as a lead magnet to attract enterprise leads. 

What types of reports will you create today?

These 12 kinds of reports overlap each other.  

For example, a three-page SEO deliverable is an analytical, short, and external report .

So remember: It’s perfectly fine if your report format looks a little different from the examples in this list.

Does creating a single report eat up hours of your time? Or are you tired of cobbling analytics from multiple channels in your longer reports ? Report writing can take way too long and that’s why apps were created to help you streamline this tedious part of your job.

With DashThis , you don’t need to hop from one platform to another to pull in different data.

dashthis report

Get a report like this one with your own data!

Our dashboarding tools automate your monthly reporting and help you create reports in the blink of an eye. 

Whether you want to create a three- page report for different clients, a marketing dashboard for a specific audience or campaign, or multi-reports for a single brand, DashThis can make it happen.


DashThis is the power behind thousands of reporting dashboards created by and delivered for agencies and digital marketers every month.  Try it out for yourself!

Get automated marketing reports in seconds with DashThis.

SEO Analytics Reporting Guide & SEO Tools [+ Templates]

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Unit 40: Report Type and Function: Formal Report

Learning objectives.

Target icon

  • understand the function of a formal report


A formal report is a document that analyzes information, determines conclusions and offers recommendations to solve problems.  Formal reports are the result of the gathering and analyzing of large amounts of data.  This data is then presented to decision makers in business, industry, and government to aid in the process of making important decisions.  Formal reports are longer (10+ pages) and are therefore also referred to as long reports .  Long reports have a more formal tone, tackle complex and challenging topics, and are almost always  analytical  in nature.  Similar to informal reports, formal reports are also organized into sections and utilize headings and subheadings to help readers access information.  The follow video provides and comprehensive overview of the long report.

Conducting Research

An informal report may be written without including any research.  However, the same cannot be said of the formal report.  Because of the scope and complexity of formal reports, there is a need for in-depth and extensive data research and analysis.  Collecting research is a critical part of writing the formal report.  The conclusions made and the recommendations that follow should be based on facts, statistics, expert knowledge and other forms information.   Thus, collecting credible, up-to-date, and reliable information is a critical part of writing a formal report. Given the easy access to research databases, the internet, and other sources of digitized information, collecting information is nearly effortless today.

Table 22.5 Types of Report Data

what is report writing and its types


Whenever research based on other people’s work is included in a report, credit must be given to that work.  This is called documentation.  Proper documentation adds credibility to the information presented in a report and protects the writer against charges of plagiarism.  Famous historians, high-level journalists, politicians, and educators have suffered grave consequences for not providing the required documentation.

To add clarity to writing and avoid charges of plagiarism, document the following:

what is report writing and its types

  • Any facts, statistics, graphs, and drawings that are not common knowledge
  • Quotations or another person’s actual spoken or written words
  • Paraphrases of another person’s spoken or written words
  • Visuals, images, and any kind of electronic media

Refer to Chapter 2 for a full overview of documentation.

what is report writing and its types

  • Select five business articles from a combination of print and online resources.  Using APA, develop a Reference list of those resources.
  • Select a professional journal for your field of study.  Select an article is at least five pages long, of interest to you, and provides information on emerging trends in your field.   Write an executive summary of the article for a busy executive who does not have time to read the entire article but who needs to stay current on what is happening in your field of expertise.

what is report writing and its types

Acadia University. (2017). You quote it, you note it . Vaughan Memorial Library . Retrieved on January 14, 2020, from

GreggLearning. (2019). Writing long reports [Video]. Youtube.  Retrieved from

Guffey, M., Loewry, D., & Griffin, E. (2019). Business communication: Process and product (6th ed.). Toronto, ON: Nelson Education. Retrieved from

Meyer, C. (2017). Communicating for results (4th ed.). Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from

Communication at Work Copyright © 2019 by Jordan Smith is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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Meaning, Definition, Types, Quality, Layout | Office - Report Writing | 11th Office Management and Secretaryship : Chapter 10 : Meeting and Report Writing

Chapter: 11th office management and secretaryship : chapter 10 : meeting and report writing, report writing.


Every organisation has a routine practice of reporting on the progress and the status of different activities for taking sound business decisions.

Reports may be written by an individual or an organized body,e.g. a Committee or Sub- committee or Board of Inquiry, at regular intervals either on usual routine or on special occasions after a special inquiry conducted by them as per the directions of their superiors.

Reports are often submitted by the managers, secretaries, accountants, chief executives and experts in certain fields are often required to submit reports on important issues like decline in sales, the suitability of some premises, the reorganisation of office, the chances of variation in profits, the desirability of setting up a new branch, etc.

Meaning of Report:

A report is a logical presentation of facts and information. It is self-explanatory statement which provides information to management for decision making and follows up actions. Report is a systematic presentation of established facts about a specific event/subject and is a summary of findings and recommendations about a particular matter/problem.


According to Oxford English Dictionary a report is defined as “an account given on a particular matter, especially in the form of an official document, after thorough investigation or consideration by an appointed person or body”. Example “the chairman’s annual report”.

Types of Report:

Reports may be 1. Routine Reports 2. Special Reports 3.Formal Reports and 4. Informal Reports.

1. Routine Reports:

Routine reports are prepared periodically by filling the printed forms, to convey information about the progress or status of work. They are submitted at regular intervals or soon after the completion of the task. Following are routine reports.

a. Progress Report: This report gives information about the progress of a project or a task which is in the process of being completed, such as construction of a building or manufacture of products.

b. Inspection Report: It is submitted as soon as inspection is carried out. It is necessary for finding out any irregularities or changes from standard practice, in day-to-day work. Example internal audit report submitted by an internal auditor.

c. Performance Appraisal: It is meant for measuring and recording the performance of an employee. Every supervisor has to fill an assessment report for each of the subordinates annually to evaluate the performance of individual employees. It also gives feedback to the employees on their performance.

d. Periodical Report: This is prepared by departmental heads at regular intervals on the working of a section or a department to measure the efficient functioning of each department.

2. Special Reports:

Special reports are prepared when a special situation or problem arises. An individual or a committee of persons, who have knowledge and understanding in the field, is appointed to investigate and study a specific problem, collect relevant information, and make suggestions to help the management for decision making. Following are some of the special reports prepared in the organisation.

a. First information Report (F.I.R.) :This report is required when there are sudden accidents occurs like fire accident, building collapse, robbery etc. It is prepared by the person in charge on the spot, and submitted to higher authorities for their deliberation. For example report prepared by the branch manager about fire accident occurs in branch office to Regional Office or Head Office for immediate action. The report has to give all the information which is available immediately after the incident occurs such as nature of loss, extent of destruction, time of accident etc.,

b. Investigation Report: It is prepared after making a thorough inquiry on some specific situations. An investigation is made when there is a problem and the management needs to find out the causes of the problem, and also the suggestions for solving it. Example, reports on falling sales, declining deposits in a bank, many customer complaints, losses in a branch, etc.,

c. Feasibility or Survey Report: This report is prepared when an organisation intends to launch a new product in the market, introduce a new service, or make any major changes that may affect the company’s customers.

d. Project Report: This is written after the initial survey has been completed on the research project. It describes the proposal as project to be completed in future by showing the cash flow and expected results. It is used for planning and also for convincing others, especially sanctioning and funding authorities like government departments and banks.

3. Formal Reports:

A formal report is prepared in the prescribed or standard form and is presented according to the established procedure and through the proper channel. Reports submitted by officials or committees of organised bodies (e.g., Companies, Co-operative Societies, Local Bodies, etc.) are usually formal reports. It may be Statutory Report or Non-statutory Report.

a. Statutory Report: Statutory report is one which is prepared by secretary or directory or auditor under the provisions of specific law. E.g., Auditors Report, Directors Report, Inspection committee Report Etc.,

b. Non-Statutory Report: Non- statutory reports are those which are not required under the provisions of any law, but have to be prepared to help top managers for the efficient control and organisations of the business.

4. Informal Reports:

Informal reports, on the other hand, do not follow any prescribed form or procedure. It is usually takes the form of a person-to person communication and may even be set up in the letter form.

Layout Of Report:

Lay out of the report deals with arrangement and presentation of information in the report. The main purpose of report is to help the receiver to identify the facts relating to the subject under study, draw his own conclusions and take suitable action based on the conclusions and recommendations. In order to achieve its purpose the report must not only be clear, concise and logical but must also be drafted according to a recognised form and arrangement.

It is however, difficult to lay down a specific set of rules for preparation of reports. Except statutory report, the nature, length and style of a report must vary with the circumstances of the case. Following are the general arrangements of content in case of formal and special reports.

a. The Heading or Title: A report must always have a title indicating the subject of the study, the period and the location of the study. A long report has a full title page which gives the title, the name of the person who assigned the report and the name of the person or group who prepared the report, with month and year of submission. In a short report the title appears at the top of the first page, before the text of the report.

b. Table of Contents: Table of contents is a list of chapters or topics contained in the report. The serial number, title and page mark of each topic is given.

c. Body of the Report: It is a main part of the report and is made up of the following sub-section, sub-headings or sub-titles. The body is divided into the following parts:

i. Introduction: It contains the terms of reference and the subject of study. Here the writer analyses the problem chosen by him in the light of the terms of reference and the relevant circumstances.

ii. Development or Findings: In this part the writer presents the facts and data collected with reference to his study along with the outcome of his study. The data collected may include charts, graphs and statistical tables from other published reports and presented in an organised form with heading and sub-heading for better understanding of the reader.

iii. Conclusions or Recommendations: In this portion the writer draws up some definite conclusions on the basis of the facts and data presented after considering all aspects of the problem in hand. He then puts forward some strong suggestions or recommendations of his own.

iv. Appendix: It is supplementary material given at the end of the report. This may be a copy of a questionnaire used, or plans of buildings, maps or other materials which is referred to in the body of the report.

v. References and Bibliography: In case of long reports, the reporter had to conduct an extensive research for the preparation of the report. Under such studies, it is practice to add a list of references and bibliography just after the appendix to indicate the sources from which the writer has drawn his materials for the report.

vi. Index: Index comprises of contents of the report and usually added after the bibliography. It is generally found in long reports.

vii. Summary: It contains the essence of findings and recommendations of the report and usually appended to facilitate its consideration by the person or superior body to whom it is submitted.

viii) Signature: All reports should be dated and signed. If it is prepared by a committee or sub-committee and the report is common, it should be signed by the chairman. If it is prepared by an individual, it has to be signed by the reporter.

Quality of the Good Report:

A lot of reports are written daily. Some of them are intended to document the progress of some activities i.e., feasibility reports, investigation reports, some of the reports are for monitoring purposes, some are evaluation reports but it is clear that all the reports have some objective and purpose behind it. That objective and purpose can only be achieved if a report has following features or characteristics:

1.            Precise: The purpose of the report should be clearly defined. Precision of a report provides the unity to the report and makes it a valuable document for best usage.

2.            Accuracy of Facts: Information contained in a report must be based on accurate fact. Since decisions are taken on the basis of reported information, any inaccurate information or statistics will lead to wrong decision. It will cause delay in achieving the organizational goal.

what is report writing and its types

3.            Relevancy: The facts presented in a report should be relevant. Irrelevant facts make a report confusing and likely to mislead decision making.

4.            Reader-Oriented: A report is read by various stake holders. A good report is always reader oriented. Reader’s knowledge and level of understanding should be considered while writing the report. If the report is reader-friendly, it is easy to read, remember and act on it.

5.            Simple Language: A report should be written in a simple language, avoiding jargons and technical words for easy and clear understanding. The message of a good report should be self-explanatory.

6.            Conciseness: A report should be brief and not be very long. Lengthy reports affect the reader’s interest. Rather it means that a good report is one that transmits maximum information with minimum words and completes in all respects.

7.            Grammatically Accurate: A good report should be free from grammatical errors. Any faulty construction of a sentence may make its meaning different to the reader’s mind and sometimes it may become confusing or ambiguous.

8.            Unbiased: Recommendations made at the end of a report should be impartial and objective. It shall not be biased with the personal feelings of the reporter. They should come as logical conclusion for investigation and analysis.

9.            Clarity: Clarity depends on proper arrangement of facts. A good report is absolutely clear. Reporter should make its purpose clear, define its sources, state its findings and finally make necessary recommendation. Clarity of facts enhances the quality of the report.

10.       Attractive: A good report needs an attractive presentation. Structure, content, language, typing and presentation style should be well designed to make a good impression in the mind of its reader.

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20 Types of Reports and When to Use Them (Plus Templates)

If the many types of business reports make you want to scream, you’re not alone.

It can get overwhelming – from internal reports about sales activities to reports you must submit for external collaborators. 

However, the reality of modern business is that they require several business report types to achieve success. 

A  Unito report revealed that over 75% of respondents said reports provide valuable insights almost every time.

The chances are high that you’ve had to write certain types of reports, whether you realize it or not. Irrespective of your role, you’ll likely need to write reports, whether occasionally or once in a while.

And to ensure you’re writing the appropriate report for specific situations, you need to recognize the different types of reports and how to write them.

Below, you’ll discover an exhaustive list of business report types, what they do, and when you need them, plus examples and templates. 

Let’s get into it. 

Table of contents

  • What is report writing?

1. Formal report

2. informal report , 3. audit report, 4. marketing report, 5. progress or periodic report, 6. trend report, 7. analytical report, 8. evaluation report, 9. client report, 10. sales report, 11. proposal report, 12. survey report , 13. research report, 14. financial report, 15. incident report, 16. project report, 17. annual report, 18. lateral report.

  • 19. Vertical report

20. Event report

Make beautiful, engaging reports with Piktochart. Try it for free .

What is report writing? 

Do you remember those report cards you received at the end of every school session? The details of how well you perform academic and extracurricular activities during the year.

This is what reports do. 

Reports are documents detailing the results or findings from a process, project, or investigation. They can also refer to a well-detailed analysis of specific data sets or situations.

In business communications, report writing is the process of preparing formal documents that elaborate on a specific topic. Report writing often uses facts, tables,  graphs , charts, etc., to explain its findings for easy comprehension.

Since any report aims to educate and inform through scientific research, preparing the  perfect report  focusing on the target audience is crucial. Some reports also present available options and recommendations based on their findings.

20 types of reports, examples, and templates 

While businesses use numerous types of reports, these are the most common ones we’ve seen used almost daily.

Formal reports often carry objective information that is in-depth and straight to the point without personal references. These reports require careful structuring based on the organization’s style and purpose.

Formal report classification includes accounting reports, functional reports, and other lengthy reports.

employee compensation formal report template cover

Informal reports are the opposite of a formal reports. It lacks strict structuring, contains short messages, and uses casual language. Businesses intending to pass quick critical information often use informal reports. Informal reports pay more attention to fast and effective communication than formal structuring.

Again, other types of informal reports fall into this category, including digital postings, emails, memo reports, and some forms of internal reports.

informal report fashion internal report template cover for informational reports

An audit report is a formal report created by an auditor about the financial status of an organization. Audit reports are written using generally accepted auditing standards.

However, these formats may vary slightly depending on the audit’s circumstances. An example is an end-of-the-year audit report for an organization.

internal audit report template cover example of informational reports

Marketing reports give detailed information about marketing campaigns. They are used for monitoring marketing activities and informing about marketing strategies that work or require improvements.

social media report template cover

Progress reports , or periodic reports, are generated at specific intervals. Depending on the report needs, they could be daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly, and annual reports or they may even use regularly scheduled dates. 

Progress reports are used to supply progress or performance information. Other business report types could also qualify as periodic reports if they are made available at intervals. 

Examples of progress reports include analytical reports, Google analytics reports, and inventory reports.

progress report template cover for formal reports, informal reports, marketing reports and external reports

Sometimes called trend analysis reports, trend reports analyze everyday business operations and compare them to forecasts.

This report helps businesses discover recent industry trends and how they can benefit organizations. They also reveal important details about marketing campaigns and tell you the reach of your messages and their influences on marketing.

Examples include Google Analytics reports, surveys, and statistical reports.

annual trends report template cover for formal reports and external reports

Analytical reports have gained prominence in recent years due to the growing importance of business data analysis. 

The last few years have seen data analysis ingrained as part of standard business practices, and the industry expects to  reach $68 billion in annual revenue  by 2025.

Organizations leverage data-driven insights that make analytical reports one of the most common reports used. Analytical reports can suggest recommendations to improve businesses by leveraging data insights to evaluate performance.

financial analysis report template cover for formal reports and external reports

When an organization rolls out products, services, campaigns, or processes, it must evaluate the success periodically or after the program.

An evaluation report documents a product’s effectiveness if a service meets expectations or if a campaign is successful.

Evaluation reports also highlight findings and make recommendations based on the performance. It is a formal, in-depth report, sometimes including background information, definitions, results, forecasts, and recommendations.

This report can assist with the decision-making process and show transparency to stakeholders.

evaluation report template cover for performance reviews on same organization level or other evaluation

Since businesses deal with clients, they need a client report detailing their relationship with each client and their work activities. Client reports clarify projects’ progress and help the business make management decisions.

Client reports are created and delivered according to the agreed time frame. For example, it could be weekly, monthly, quarterly, etc. This makes the report a periodic report.

Meetings and discussions with clients could also accompany it to explain the content. As a result, client reporting helps a business build trust.

client report template cover for justification reports starting with an executive summary

The sales department reports a business’ sales performance to executives and the board through the sales reports. Members of the sales team could also make a sales report for other group members or the team manager.

A sales report details the performance of a business for a specified period. They can also reveal happenings on the field to inform decisions.

This type of report highlights sales volume, revenue from the sales, leads, etc. They may be used to set key performance indicators or formulate an entire business target.

Examples of sales reports include periodic reports that track sales performance for the specified period. For instance, a weekly sales report will track weekly sales, revenue, leads, etc.

sales report template for expense reports, weekly reports and more

Businesses go into partnerships and other forms of business relationships. But before this happens, they establish the specifics of the relationship through a proposal report.

Proposal reports are official documents highlighting how a business intends to help another.

Proposal reports are sent in response to a Request for Proposal or RFP. They contain specific steps the business will undertake to assist the recipient business.

Since a company usually receives business proposals from many businesses, aim for thorough and precise proposal reports.

digital marketing proposal template cover

Survey reports are documents that help a business highlight the findings from a survey. It does its best to summarize the responses of a survey and objectively present the information while using visuals like tables, graphs, charts, and infographics to make reports easy to read .

survey report template cover for problem solving reports via survey results

Research reports are documents created to communicate the findings from the research – whether business or scientific – related to the company. Experts in the field usually do it. Sometimes, a research report can uncover information requiring urgent attention.

The content in a research report includes the research process, findings, conclusions, recommendations, and limitations.

It will inform a business about essential market needs they need to attend to and how their products or service affects the public. For example, some social media platforms are looking into how they influence young people.

SDG report template cover for long reports and feasibility reports

Financial reports and budget reports are often used interchangeably, but they are not necessarily the same.

Production and finance departments are typically in charge of these reports. Financial reports are formal documents that explain a business’s financial status and performance. Examples of budget reports include weekly or monthly financial reports that detail the economic activities for the period specified.

On the other hand, budget reports are concerned with the pre-set budget conditions and how they compare with the company’s financial situation. They help businesses make proper financial decisions and can be used to compare milestones over a specific period.

corporate financial review template for long reports and feasibility reports

Although businesses put measures to prevent accidents and other undesirable incidents, they can still happen in the workplace. And when these incidents occur, additional steps may be required to avoid a reoccurrence. An incident report is an informational report that details the facts of an incident.

Incident reports may also reveal unusual occurrences, safety and health issues, security breaches, near misses, damage, etc.

It highlights the cause, exact occurrence, and ways to prevent incidents in the future. Specific industries like insurance companies and security agencies may also require them.

incident report template cover for business reports

Also known as a project health report, project reports help the organization give information about specific projects.

Businesses generally embark on projects, and making reports about each allows them to track progress and assess performance effectively.

Project reports contain the objectives, which can help ensure compliance from everyone overseeing the project. Such reports also make it easy for stakeholders to give feedback, edit, assess financial requirements, and implement necessary actions.

marketing project template cover for marketing report can also bw used for business reports

Annual reports are comprehensive longer reports that give in-depth details about a business in the preceding year. It details the financial statements and achievements for the specific year. 

They could qualify as external reports since many organizations release their annual reports to the public. In some instances, releasing annual reports may be a mandate for some businesses.

However, companies mainly  design annual reports  to review the company’s business during the year. They help stakeholders become aware of the performance and inform shareholders and others about the financial performance.

annual report template cover, less than ten pages annual budget reports and more

Vertical and lateral reports are terms used when referring to the direction of a report. Compared to other reports, lateral reports describe those that move between members at the same organizational level.

Examples of these types of reports are informational reports exchanged between team managers, short reports between members of a team, or comprehensive reports between departments.

talent management and recruitment template cover wih ten pages

19. Vertical report 

Vertical reports comprise a document prepared in a report form shared between different organizational hierarchies. It could be from a higher level to a lower level or vice versa.

Examples include business reports from employees members of an executive team or managers to their team members.

vertical reports team progress report template cover, single report for management control

Businesses organize many events, and event reports analyze each event’s success.

Event managers prepare these short reports and work by comparing event results to the set goals. It determines an event’s success and serves as a blueprint for future events.

event report template cover for formal reports, types of reports example

Make beautiful, engaging, and different types of reports with Piktochart 

Understanding the different types of reports is crucial to using them for the growth and organization of your business. 

Not only report vital, but they can also help a business identify pain points and forecast future occurrences when appropriately used.

However, this isn’t always the case because many business report types often confuse employees and owners.

The way out is to use  report-writing tools  like Piktochart. Piktochart is an all-in-one business communication tool that helps businesses create reports, presentations, infographics, and various other business designs.

Pick a template, input your data, and watch your report come alive.  Create a free Piktochart account  to get started now!

Create your own report with a few clicks.

Start with a report template designed by experts and customize it with your fonts and brand colors. Upload your own photos or choose from our free library of royalty-free images. Add charts or maps and quickly get to a professionally-looking report.

report templates

Jessica La is a writer with over six years in the SEO, AI, and content industry. In her blog , she explores all things marketing and is passionate about the unique ways businesses can improve, innovate and grow. You can reach her at [email protected]

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What Does Report Writing Mean? What Are Its Types?

When talking about the world of business, report writing and report writing types are deemed the most research-based and highly qualified form of writing that clarifies business process and its modules. It creates a more desirable understanding of the data and facts for the target audience.

For writing a best report there is crucial need to have a proper understanding about each of its element.

Report writing requires a high skill set as well as an experienced writer who has proper understanding of writing a report.

If you are planning to write your report, here is a beneficial peruse of all you need to know about report writing?

Report Writing?

Report Writing is a systematic writing process that requires skills, researches, and details. The report writing process is generally a very time-consuming process and it requires a comprehensive research.

Report writing is utilizable for explaining matters or issues informing higher authorities to assist them taking a right decision in regards to the matters or issues.

Main focus of the report writer is to make the whole-thing self explanatory to enlighten the readers about a matter or issue. Creativity doesn’t play a vital role in report writing.

Report Writing is the dominant tool of media personnel. They hand over information about any incident or topic in the form of report writing. Apart from this, it is also required in other sectors like politics, government, corporate etc.

A report is a well organized, well planned document that evaluates a subject or problem, and it may include:

  • The systematic record of ordered events
  • Simplification of the implication of events
  • Assessment of the facts of research
  • Discussion of the outcomes of a course of action
  • Conclusions

what is report writing and its types

Reports must always be:

  • Understandable
  • Well-Prepared

Every firm has its own report writing format and hence a writer can’t make use of a specific format for different reports.

When freelance writer writes a formal report, he must keep in mind that the target readers needn’t to do any unnecessary research for taking their decision or action after reading the report.

Freelancing Myths

Everything must be thoroughly detailed. For formatting your report, go through the dominant report writing types stated below.

Formal Report Writing

Formal Report Writing is much complicated and time-consuming. Generally, it demands an enormous research, references, lists, explanation, links and many other things.

These kinds of report writings are usually preferred for important matters, issues or incidents. It is generally expensive and long.

Informal Report Writing

Informal report writing is easier as compared to formal report writing. In this kind of writing, you needn’t to perform many researches.

You just need to focus on the basic things including – Introduction, Discussion & Recommendations.

This report writing has further few types, such as – Credit Report, Progress Report, Feasibility Report, Financial Report, Literary Report, Personal Evaluation and Sales Activity Report.

The purpose of mentioning the above mentioned information is to make you understand the process in an easier and better manner.

Furthermore, we mentioned the process that can help you to master the techniques of report writing.

The Best Way or Process for Report Writing

For creating an effective and impressive report, you need to follow the right process. Beneficial steps are detailed below to take on the best report writing process.

Declare the Objective:

Report Writer needs to keep a clear objective ahead in his mind, why is he creating a report. It assists him/her to stay focused on his report and produce quality outcomes.

Understand The Audience:

If you understand your audience, you can definitely be guided to a quality report. Proper understanding can also lead the writer to alter the use of language, supporting material and data incorporated that can elevate the satisfaction for the set audience.

A good understanding makes the writer to present the report that suits their preference.

Format Of Report and Types

For producing an effective report, a particular format must be followed, based on parameters like, presentation or written report; type of report – formal/informal, technical, problem-solving, annual, or financial; designing of templates if any available.

Gathering Of Facts and Data

Addition of facts, figures and data adds up the reliability to the report. These facts or figures plays a crucial role in mentioning the sources, like articles, interviews, sayings, etc.

Build the Report:

Generally, a report consists of four elements including, the executive summary (after the report is finished), introductory part (describing the structure and table of contents), body of the report (main text), and conclusion part (displaying a systematical end).


This is a crucial part as it makes the report enjoyable and accessible to read. Use proper sentences which makes sense. Consider using online grammar checking tools to avoid spelling and grammatical mistakes.

Example & Sample of Reports

Reaching this point, now it can be assumed that you have attained all the understanding about writing reports. Now, have a look at some actual examples of report writing.

For your assistance, there are many report writing samples available over the web that can help you to bring up a perfect report.

Undoubtedly, report writing is deemed as a convoluted process, but if you haven’t enough skills of writing the report then outsourcing the writing process can be the perfect option available for you.

You can concern with the hired professionals. They will offer you their report brief before submitting the final version.

They will guide you the important elements for composing good report like, format of report, presentation of the content, etc. This the sample report mentioned above, aspiring as well as established report writers can make the best out of report writing.

Final Words –

Report writing is the best perception for ending a project and documenting the enough information for the upcoming projects.

The best method represented in steps offers a systematic way to develop a report.

If you are now supposing to start report writing, or want a successful journey in report writing, then the above mentioned information might help you in fulfilling your desires.

Guest article written by:  Maninder Singh, a professional and creative content writer at Just Articlez . He is working as a freelancer past 4 years. His specialization is to write a poem, poetries and make creative taglines for brands.

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1 thought on “what does report writing mean what are its types”.

Wow, great article! Wish I’d seen this back when I was in college. Had to write some or the other report almost daily. Hopefully this information will continue to come in handy.

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What are the Essential Elements and 10 Main Components of a Report Writing 

Back to: Pedagogy of English- Unit 5

What are the Essential Elements and 10 Main Components of a Report Writing

A report refers to written material produced for a clear purpose and is directed to a particular audience. A report contains specific information and evidence which is presented, analysed, and applied to the concerned problem. Reports are always written in the order of the occurrence of the events in a sequential manner. 

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Essential Elements of Report Writing

Every report needs to have 8 elements and these are as follows: 

The title page gives a brief information about the title of the report. 

Table of contents

The table of contents includes the main heading or the subheadings of all the information presented in the report. 

Executive Summary

The executive summary includes a brief summary of the entire report and its findings. 


The introduction gives the reader an account and a general overview of the topic the report is dealing with. 

The discussion includes the main body of the report.

Conclusion includes the identification of certain issues. 


Recommnedation involves giving possible solutions for the mentioned issues. 

References include a list of all the works you have referred to. 

Components of a report writing

The various components of a report writing including the following:

The report should open with a cover giving a brief idea about the report. 

The title of the report should be presented clearly in the title page. 

Copyright Notice

A copyright notice to avoid the report from being violated must be present. 

Forwarding Letter

A forwarding letter directed to the concerned authority must be included. 

The preface should give the reader an introduction to the report. 


This should include all the people you want to extend your gratitude to for helping you compete the project. 

Table of Contents

This should contain the list of topics you will be dealing with in the report. 

List of Illustrations

If you have included any illustrations in your report, you must add their references in this space.

You must also identify problems in the project and recommend possible solutions for the same. 

Abstract and Summary

Lastly, the report must contain brief abstract as well as a brief summary of the information presented. 

These are the various elements and components that should be present in every report

Blog The Education Hub

List of schools affected by RAAC and what you need to know about the new guidance

what is report writing and its types

This article was first published on 31 August and has been updated to reflect the latest information. 

Nothing is more important than the health and safety of children and staff. This is why we’ve announced a change in our approach to managing a building material found in some school buildings and other education settings, known as Reinforced Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (RAAC).

We have been proactively monitoring all confirmed cases of RAAC closely. Recent cases have led for the Department to be concerned about education settings', including schools, colleges and maintained nursery schools, ability to carefully manage the presence of RAAC in their buildings.

As a result, we have published new guidance advising education settings to vacate areas that are known to contain RAAC, unless or until suitable mitigations are in place. We’re working hard to make sure any disruption to education is kept to a minimum.

Thanks to the hard work of education leaders and local councils, the majority of settings have already been able to put mitigations in place and open for the start of term, with 70% of settings providing face-to-face learning for all pupils this week.

It’s important to remember that currently less than 1% of settings are affected by this new guidance. Your child should attend school as normal in September, unless you hear differently. We have spoken to the education settings that are impacted and they are being contacted by a dedicated caseworker who will support them through each step of this process.

Here’s everything you need to know about RAAC, and how we’re supporting schools, colleges and nurseries across the country to manage it safely.

List of schools affected by RAAC

The list of schools and colleges where the presence of RAAC was confirmed by 30 August has been published, here, on .

As of 6 September, most settings have already been able to put mitigations in place and open for the start of term – 104 settings are providing face-to-face learning for all pupils this week. Meanwhile, 20 settings have put hybrid arrangements in place, with some pupils learning off-site, and 19 have delayed the start of term by a few days to ensure pupils can return to face-to-face learning safely on site.

Only 4 have had to move to remote learning. Nine settings have since been found not to have RAAC.

In 2022, the Department for Education sent a questionnaire to responsible bodies, asking them to provide information to help us understand the use of RAAC across the school estate and make sure the correct support is in place. We are still waiting on some responsible bodies to return their questionnaire.

The figures published today are likely to rise over time surveys are carried out and as the remaining 5% of responsible bodies return their questionnaires. Any responsible body or school that has notified the Department of suspected RAAC will be surveyed within the coming weeks and supported to put mitigations in place.

What is RAAC?

RAAC is a lightweight, ‘bubbly’ form of concrete commonly used in construction between the 1950s and mid-1990s. It is predominantly found as precast panels in roofs, commonly found in flat roofs, and occasionally in floors and walls.

It means it may be found in any school and college building that was either built or modified in this time period.

How and why has the way you deal with RAAC changed?

We have been helping schools and responsible bodies, such as local authorities and multi-academy trusts, to manage the potential risks of RAAC since 2018 by providing guidance and funding.

However, recent cases have led us to be concerned about education settings’ ability to carefully manage the presence of RAAC in their buildings, which is why we’ve updated the guidance.

This is a precautionary step, but the safety of young people and staff is always our priority.

To minimise any disruption, all education settings with confirmed RAAC will be supported by a dedicated caseworker to help them through any necessary changes.

How many schools are affected by RAAC and will all of them need to close?

There are over 22,000 schools and colleges and less than 1% are known to be affected. And no – not all schools affected by RAAC will close.

The impact of RAAC is varied – some settings may have very little RAAC present with limited disruption as a result. For example, this change in approach could lead to the temporary closure of one school space, like a single classroom. In most cases, children will be able to continue attending school as normal.

How are you supporting schools and education settings where RAAC is present?

Most education settings will be unaffected by this change in approach.

For those settings that are affected, we’re working to make sure there is minimal disruption to education and the vast majority will remain open for face-to-face learning from the start of term.

All settings known to contain RAAC will be assigned a dedicated DfE caseworker who will work with the responsible body to assess the site’s particular needs and help them put in place individual solutions.

This could include using other on-site buildings, local spaces, safety measures in the affected area and, in some cases, erecting temporary buildings.

We have also published further  guidance  for schools and colleges on identifying and managing RAAC. This will set out how the department will provide support and capital funding to schools and other settings so that face-to-face education continues safely.

How will this be funded?

The government will spend whatever it takes to keep children safe.

All schools where RAAC is confirmed will be provided with funding for all mitigation works that are capital funded, such as propping and temporary accommodation.

Where schools, colleges and maintained nursery schools need additional help with revenue costs, like transport to other locations or temporarily renting a local hall or office, we are actively engaging with every school affected to put appropriate support in place. We expect all reasonable requests will be approved.

What should schools and other education settings do if they are worried about RAAC?

If they haven’t already, responsible bodies should fill out our questionnaire on RAAC at this link .

Based on the answers given, settings with suspected RAAC will be brought forward for surveying. We hope to have all schools currently suspected as containing RAAC surveyed in a matter of weeks.

If RAAC is confirmed, we will ensure appropriate rapid action is taken. This could include providing funding to remove any immediate risks and, where necessary, arranging temporary buildings to be put in place.

What about other education settings like colleges? Are they also at risk from RAAC?

The change in guidance covers state-funded educational settings, responsible bodies for maintained nursery schools and colleges should fill out the same questionnaire as schools so they can get the support they need.

Is my child’s school closing because of RAAC and how can I find out the latest information?

Schools and other education settings will let you know directly if there is any change to the start of term.

Most schools will be unaffected, and children should attend school as normal in September, unless you hear differently.

How do I know whether my child’s school has been surveyed?

Parents unsure about whether their child’s school has undergone a RAAC survey should contact their school directly.

In the coming weeks, we will have surveyed and agreed mitigation plans with 95% of schools. To date, two thirds of schools who think they may have RAAC have been found to not have RAAC once properly surveyed.

We are still waiting for some schools to respond to our questionnaire, which may identify more schools where RAAC is present. However, we expect the total number of schools affected to be in the hundreds, not thousands, meaning over 95% of schools will be totally unaffected.

Is it safe for children to go to school?

Yes, unless advised by their school, children should be in school.

It has always been the case that if the Department is made aware of a building that poses a safety risk, we will take immediate action to ensure safety and mitigate the situation.

How are you keeping school buildings safe?

We have invested over £15 billion since 2015 to keep schools in good working order, including £1.8 billion committed for 2023-24.

We are also investing in 500 projects for new and refurbished school buildings through our  School Rebuilding Programme .

You can read more about how we’re keeping school building’s safe on the  Education Hub.

Tags: List of schools affected by RAAC , RAAC , RAAC in schools , Reinforced Autoclaved Aerated Concrete , school building safety , school buildings , School buildings conditions , What is RAAC?

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Please note that for media enquiries, journalists should call our central Newsdesk on 020 7783 8300. This media-only line operates from Monday to Friday, 8am to 7pm. Outside of these hours the number will divert to the duty media officer.

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    When talking about the world of business, report writing and report writing types are deemed the most research-based and highly qualified form of writing that clarifies business process and its modules. It creates a more desirable understanding of the data and facts for the target audience.

  21. Steps in Report Writing: Report Writing Format Explained

    Report writing is a formal style of writing elaborately on a topic. The tone of a report and report writing format is always formal. The important section to focus on is the target audience. For example - report writing about a school event, report writing about a business case, etc.

  22. What are the Essential Elements and 10 Main Components of a Report Writing

    A report refers to written material produced for a clear purpose and is directed to a particular audience. A report contains specific information and evidence which is presented, analysed, and applied to the concerned problem. Reports are always written in the order of the occurrence of the events in a sequential manner.

  23. What is Report writing? Types of Report

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