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Chief Learning Officer – CLO Media

Chief Learning Officer - CLO Media

Chief Learning Officer is a multimedia publication focused on the importance, benefits and advancements of a properly trained workforce.

Committee work as intentional professional development and learning

committee assignment training

Committee work as a vehicle to deliver and achieve professional development can be transformative for individual employees, the CLO and the organization.

by Paul Nardone , Christina Sax

April 22, 2021.

Committees, working groups, teams, task forces — these are all staples of organizational planning and productivity to tackle everything from daily operations, to implementing new initiatives, to long-term strategy.

We often tell others, and ourselves, that service in these groups can be a professional development and learning opportunity. But what does this mean? Are we kidding ourselves hoping that learning and development will happen? As a matter of fact, there is real opportunity for tangible professional development through committee work, but how do we ensure it really occurs? It takes intentionality and commitment.

The organization, committee and individuals must intentionally broaden the organizational scope and mindset to build professional development into their purpose. All three must be committed to this approach and sustain the inclusion of professional development in committee work over long periods of time, allowing, perhaps, for a slower group-work progress than would otherwise be the case.

The framework for meaningful professional development through committee work requires four key design components: First, the goals and activities of the committee must be intentionally structured to include professional development opportunities for its members. Second, the group leader’s mindset and role should support opportunities interwoven throughout the group’s primary work functions. Third, individual group members’ mindset and strategies must be attuned to be able to capitalize on learning opportunities. Fourth, the chief learning officer must act as a champion for a new and nontraditional purpose of committees — one that permeates and champions an organization’s culture and success.

When we think about professional development, we naturally jump to formal and structured activities — training, workshops, webinars, courses, conferences and the like. These are our bread-and-butter ways to engage in professional development and, for CLOs, to provide professional development to their audiences. But in thinking about committee work as a professional development activity, it is worth taking a moment to consider what else constitutes a professional development experience in the context of its overarching purpose and goal.

There are several ways to describe and define professional development and growth. For the purposes of this article, at its core, professional development is the learning of a discrete set of new knowledge, skills, techniques, perspectives or behaviors. When these are synthesized and integrated with what one already knows and applied in new contexts, professional growth occurs. Development affords employees the ability to move forward incrementally, while growth can lead to expansive shifts, both individually and for the organization. With this mindset, professional development is freed from the bounds of formal structured activities and can be achieved and brought to life in new, nontraditional and organic ways. Among these are activities that employees are already engaged in every day as part of their jobs and through which both work and professional development can be achieved.

Despite their potential for significant individual professional development and resulting positive organizational impact, committee assignments and work are often saddled with negative perceptions, born out of past experiences, before they even get off the ground. While the underlying reasons vary, a common perception is that committee work is inefficient, unproductive or a waste of time. Some find committee work uninteresting, irrelevant and of little use to them personally or professionally.

These perceptions and mindsets are significant barriers to actualizing professional development through committee work and cannot be ignored. They block openness to the possibilities and engagement in the personal opportunities that committee work provides. Perceptions and experiences can be transformed positively through three re-framings.

As a committee member, approach the committee — and its accompanying assignments and work — through the lens of learning.

Instead of thinking about the tasks, think about what you can learn by being part of the group. Instead of perceiving the committees as more work, think about them as an opportunity for growth.

There are some simple ways to build this mindset.

First, individuals should be encouraged to reflect on a set of sequenced exploratory questions designed to identify the unique and personalized learning and growth that can occur through their committee assignment:

  • What is the overarching purpose and goal of the group?
  • What topic areas will the group consider?
  • How can these apply to my current or aspirational roles?
  • What don’t I know about these areas?
  • What do I need or want to learn about these areas?
  • Years from now, what do I want to be able to describe as a significant impact of the committee on my growth?

Second, individuals should take knowledge and skills self-assessments. What are the things they already do well, and what are the areas in which development is needed? Sometimes this is knowledge about other areas of the organization, or sometimes it’s concrete skills such as data analysis, report writing or giving presentations. Identifying the intersections of the committee’s work with individual development needs and strengths can lead to powerful synergies for the individual and the committee. For development needs, individuals can intentionally step forward into those as part of the committee’s work. That might include some self-study to engage in the group’s work, serving on a subgroup focused on the particular area of need or volunteering to fill a gap for the committee even though one doesn’t yet have that expertise.

Third — generally and not necessarily in relation to the committee’s work — individuals can identify the areas in which they can grow that transcend their current role. It might be soft skills, such as teamwork, collaboration, listening, patience, leadership or followership. Reflecting on past experiences can also lead to opportunities for growth. For example, what have been common professional pain points in one’s role or career? These answers and individual commitment can lead one to seek out such opportunities for refining their skills and break through ongoing personal professional challenges.

As a committee chair, approach the committee through the lens of a coach.

The committee chair plays a key role in making committee service double as a professional development experience for its members. The chair creates an environment that welcomes learning, weaves development opportunities into the standard work of the group, and balances and sustains both group productivity and individual growth of group members. There are some simple strategies chairs can use to achieve these outcomes and successfully juggle this extra work for themselves and what could become competing three priorities.

First, in developing the formal charge for the committee, state individual professional development as a goal. This simple act, rather than an off-hand comment that being on the committee can be a professional development experience, communicates intentionality and commitment.

Second, adopt committee practices that open pathways to opportunity. Encourage more junior members of the organization to fill gaps and take the lead on some key tasks, and back them up with support, flexibility and patience with their progress. More senior members of the group can also be tapped for this mentoring mindset. Mid- and junior-level employees could be selected to serve as subcommittee chairs, follow new project ideas as they arise or provide report-outs to senior management on behalf of the committee. Senior level employees can take on a supporting role, rather than the other way around.

Third, embed professional development opportunities within the committee’s primary work purpose while not impeding the work of the committee. To achieve this, the activities must be aligned, simple, accessible and voluntary for committee members. Random, onerous or required add-ons for the committee members can reinforce the negative stereotypes of committee work that serve as a barrier to engagement and development.

Ask committee members what they want to learn through service on the committee, and match tasks and activities that are part of the committee’s standard work to everyone’s individual development list. Select a quick reading assignment — a book or set of articles — that provides a unifying theme for the group and directly relates to both the group’s primary work and individuals’ professional development. For example, overarching topics that hit the mark for all three categories might include positive leadership, innovation culture, creative problem-solving, intercultural communication or data visualization, to name a few.

The chair can select relevant passages of the reading to frame each committee meeting or activity and thus overtly tie it to the work at hand. Be mindful of roadblocks to the group’s progress and its ability to work optimally in knowledge, skills and behaviors.

Fill those gaps by working with the CLO or bringing in others from elsewhere in the organization to help support both individuals’ professional development and the work of the group. Conduct brief polling throughout the committee’s tenure to assess the type and extent of learning to further support a culture of learning.

As the CLO, approach committees through the lens of champion.

The CLO plays a pivotal role in transforming committees into places where professional development can flourish and sets the tone for organizational collaboration with senior leadership. Committees should be actively discussed as professional development activities, included in the list of professional development opportunities offered by the organization and counted as professional development in annual performance reviews and development plans.

The CLO also is key to providing an infrastructure that supports the committee chair and individual committee members. For the committee chair, the CLO provides an orientation to the philosophy of training in professional development skills assessment, design, and facilitation and coaching; consults on strategies to incorporate professional development into the committee’s work; and checks in with the chair regularly to provide support and feedback.

The CLO — and the learning function as a whole — can provide resources and approaches that individual committee members can use to structure, note and document their professional development within the committee environment. Such tools include:

  • Self-assessments and discovery questions to develop a learning mindset when first joining a committee and to assess development and growth at the end of committee service.
  • Career journals and training in how to use them effectively to inventory activities, learning and accomplishments, and to reflect on growth and future directions.
  • Study and discussion groups for individuals from different committees to extend their organic learning into more structured and in-depth professional development.

Committee work as a vehicle to deliver and achieve professional development can be transformative for individual employees, the CLO and the organization. Supporting this work effectively and efficiently requires intentionality and commitment on the part of all.

As a first step in this direction, take a moment to personally consider this nontraditional role of committees. Reflect on your previous committee work. What were the professional development moments available to you? What were the moments of true development, and what were the missed moments when development could have occurred? What would you have done differently now that you have reframed committees in your mind?

Christina Sax

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Section 7.2: Different Methods of On-the-job Training

Manmeet Brar; Sonia Bolina; and Shazia Kazani

The following sections will discuss the different methods of on-the-job training and how they can be applied in the workplace. They include helpful hints and multiple-choice and reflective questions that will assist you with learning the material in this chapter.

Peer Teaching

Peer teaching occurs when students or colleagues teach one another. Peer teaching is a method in which one person educates another person on any material the first person has mastered, but the second person is new to. This learning method is beneficial as it promotes active learning. It allows those teaching to reinforce their own learning, and it promotes greater comfort while peer teachers and students interact with each other (Briggs, 2017).

Leveraging Technology

With the rapid advancements in technology, many organizations leverage technology to support job training. Implementing these programs helps cut costs, provides mobile learning opportunities, and reduces the carbon footprint. Some examples of how organizations have been leveraging technology in the workplace in terms of on-the-job training are web-conferencing (Skype, Zoom, Big Blue Button), using social networks, learning modules, blogs, vlogs, podcasts, media-sharing, and mobile learning (U.S. Office of Personnel Management, 2020).


Stewardship involves promoting the well-being of employees at a given organization. It requires the careful and responsible management of something entrusted to one’s care. There are four principles of providing stewardship.

  • The principle of ownership
  • The principle of responsibility
  • The principle of accountability
  • The principle of reward (Eldon’s Porch, 2016).

Four Principles of Workplace Stewardship


Coaching involves the development of one-on-one relationships between employees and managers. This training method provides guidance and feedback on how the coachee is performing their given task. The manager provides support and offers suggestions for improvement. Coaching helps instill the skills needed by giving employees the opportunity to apply them at work. This process is valuable because it is tailored to each individual’s needs, and it helps establish a strong workplace culture and an environment of trust and continuous improvement.

Job Rotation

Job rotation involves the movement of trainees from one job to another. This is very important, as it allows the trainees to gain knowledge and experience in each job assignment. This gives them an opportunity to understand the challenges of other jobs and gain a sense of respect for their coworkers. This encourages professional development and gives employees a break from always doing the same job.

Apprenticeship Training

Apprenticeship training is a more formalized method of training. It combines education learned in the classroom with supervised on-the-job work. Most apprenticeship programs take up to 3-4 years until they are considered complete in that trade or profession. People who work in crafts, trades and technical areas are the ones who are most likely to have to complete an apprenticeship program. This is important not only for the employee but for the organization as well because it builds a skilled workforce, improves job satisfaction and allows organizations to save money as they do not have to spend as much on training their employees.

Committee Assignments

Committee assignments are when a group of trainees are asked to solve an organizational problem. The trainees work together and offer solutions to the problem. This is important, as it helps the trainees develop the teamwork skills needed to achieve a common organizational goal.

Special Project Assignments

Trainees are assigned a project related to their jobs. This could involve one or multiple trainees working together on a project that relates to their functional area. They analyze the problem and submit recommendations based on their analysis and what they have experienced. Special project assignments help in identifying organizational problems from a different perspective. When trainees work together, they obtain knowledge and learn how to work with others who have a viewpoint different from their own (Naorem, 2019).

Example: Someone may be interested in event planning, and so they are given the opportunity to work as part of a special events team. This is work they may not otherwise do but are interested in.

Mentoring is similar to coaching in that they both support growth establish confidence in relationships and provide constant guidance to the trainees. Coaching is a short-term process, whereas mentoring is a long-term process based on mutual trust and respect (Published: Feb 19, 2016).

A mentor is usually someone other than a supervisor or manager, who has but a high level of knowledge or expertise. They invest their time, and effort in the person over a period of time. Based on mutual consent, the mentor and mentee focus on career or professional development. The mentor and mentee relationship can be established through the organization if they are paired up, and it can could continue for nine months to a year depending on the type of mentorship (Naorem, 2019).

The mentor helps the organization by supporting their trainee to ensure they are working to the expected standards. Organizational values and processes are taught to the trainee through the mentor as developing the trainee is their objective (Naorem, 2019).

The trainee and mentee have constant access to support, friendship, information, learning, and coaching (Naorem, 2019).

Selective Readings

Selective readings are geared towards executives who are provided with reading tools to further develop their understanding and boost their knowledge in their functional area. The reading tools can vary from books, to journals, or articles (Naorem, 2019).

eLearning is a cost-effective method organizations can implement that does not require the presence of an instructor. Employees can be trained remotely, and access to trainers can be made readily available through social networks and eLearning platforms. Techniques for delivering content can include audio and video recordings, presentations, quizzes, surveys, games, discussion groups and much more.

Trainees have the advantage of logging into the eLearning courses at their convenience, and they are not required to be at a specific physical location. Courses can provide the trainee with hands-on training, as they go through various scenarios on how to conduct a transaction as if they were in real time (Dutta, 2021).

Example: A bank teller can take an online course on how to complete a deposit transaction for a customer. They will be given the details as if there was someone in front of them, and they will go through the steps as they would in real time.

Organizations can develop customized courses to equip their employees with the skills necessary for their position. Ongoing training through e-Learning channels allows employees to stay current with the knowledge and skills they require throughout their duration of employment.

People Learning and Development Copyright © by Manmeet Brar; Sonia Bolina; and Shazia Kazani is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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  • Methods of Training

Every organization wants its employees to work with complete efficiency. But is it so easy? No, is the right answer. It is because of the fact that the changes in the environment are taking so rapidly that working with the same set of skills is almost impossible.

It creates the concept of enhancing the skills and expertise of the workers. In other words, the changing environment creates the demand for changing and developing skills in the workers or training them.

In this article, we will look at the various Training Methods under 2 major heads viz, On the Job Training and Off the Job Training.

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1. on-the-job training methods, (a) job rotation.

There are various jobs in all organizations. Each job or work requires a different set of skills in the workforce. In order to develop the workforce in all the sectors and zones of the organization, this method is used.

In this method, a worker gets an opportunity to work on different posts with a different set of responsibilities without any increase in the pay scale. Hence, it is also known as ‘lateral movements’.

Training Methods

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(b) Job Instructions

There are various steps to accomplish a  particular task. In this method of training, a worker is guided by a supervisor or a trainer who tells him/her about the exact steps for the accomplishment of the work. Moreover, new works are being taught to the workers by the supervisor.

Learn more about Training and Development here in detail

(c) Coaching

There is a need for both theoretical as well as practical development of the worker in any organization. In order to do so, most of the organizations opt for this method of training.

In this method, the company provides the worker with a coach who trains him. Also, the trainer provides him regular feedbacks.

(d) Committee assignments

Under this method of training, the organization organizes a meeting or seminar of workers where they get a real life problem of the organization.

The organization asks them to take it as an assignment and try to solve it with their wits. Hence, it leads to the generation of teamwork, leadership qualities, etc. among all the workers in the organization.

2. Off-the-Job Training Methods

(a) vestibule training method.

Vestibule Training Method is a very famous means of training the employees especially the manual workers. If the company starts to train the workers in the factory or the workplace itself then there are chances of mishappening with the machinery of the factory.

In this method, similar tools and machinery are arranged outside the organization. Hence, this allows the workers to enhance their skills by working with the same tools and machinery.

(b) Case Study Method

Generally, case study deals with an issue which a business confronts and provides an opportunity for workers to come out with a solution.

This provides them the opportunity to analyze the case and come out with effective solutions. This method can enhance the critical and creative thinking of an employee.

(c) Incident Method

Under this method, firstly the organization prepares a list of series of real incidents. Then they ask the employees to state their reaction to the incident or the situation.

Later, everyone sits and decide a common solution to the incident on the basis of the individual as well as group decisions.

(d) Conferences

Whenever several people meet to discuss any particular topic or subject, that is known as a ‘Conference’. Each worker analyzes and discusses various problems related to the topic. Moreover, this method enables each worker to express their respective viewpoints.

Solved Question on Training Methods

Question: Explain the Off-the-Job Training method of ‘Simulation’.

Answer: Simulation is an Off-the-Job training method in which the organization provides an imaginary situation to the workers. They have to act on those situations which will show their respective viewpoints on various sets of situation. For Example, the role of a Sales Manager solving the sales issues or creating a new sales strategy etc.

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Top 8 On The Job training Methods

  • August 23, 2022
  • Rabhya Sharma
  • Employee Engagement , Performance

Placing your bets on internal training and development will always win over paid campaigns and advertisements. In today’s competitive market, a significant proportion of revenue is generated from well-trained and motivated employees.

The growth and development of an entity rely on the employees’ abilities to acquire skills and positive behaviors and retention of knowledge along with other elements.

There’s an infinite pool of potential experts around the world. The only thing hindering them from being discovered is a lack of proper training.

Appropriate training and opportunities will use their new skills and help reshape how we think about inspiring the future workforce.

On the job training goes by the principle of ‘learning by doing,’ implying that the workers learn the job while performing it within the work environment. This type of training environment is beneficial for both the employees as well as the employers.

What is on the job training?

Often called ‘near the job training’ or ‘hands-on training,’ it involves the creation of a simulated work environment, and the emphasis is put on both learning and production.

While practicing this method, employees get accustomed to the skills and knowledge that are required of them. They assist them in how to perform in an actual work environment and conditions that can arise.

The bright side here is that the organizations don’t have to spend any extra penny on classroom setups or a simulated environment for imparting training to the workers.

It’s considered a practical type of training where many employees are instructed and trained for the same job.

When on the job training is in action, a team member (trainee) works alongside a more experienced colleague (trainer), so they can harness new skills and expertise within the official space.

A traditional form of career development that people have been practicing for centuries. Observing someone more experienced and knowledgeable polish their own skills and knowledge. To this day, it’s a method used widely as the results are most effective and efficient and suit every type of workplace.

On-the-Job Training Methods

1) job rotations.

Under the job rotation, employees are frequently juggled between different but associated jobs, with the idea of making them familiar with multiple job backgrounds.

This develops an out-of-the-box environment within the organization and keeps an energetic and unique air around the workforce. Instead of doing the same thing repeatedly, it helps create a rapport with different workers in the organization.

2) Mentoring

Mentoring is the process wherein a senior or more experienced person, i.e., the mentor, is assigned to act as a guide, advisor, counselor, etc., to the one that needs the training, i.e., the mentee.

A senior or a manager gives instructions to their immediate subordinate for them to carry out the needed function.

A one-on-one training method, where the senior guiding a person is viewed as a mentor to the subordinate and guides him in every needed situation.

3) Job Instruction

The trainer fabricates a structured training program in this process. The employee is provided with instructions on how to carry out the functions.

During the initial steps, an overview of the job alongside the expected outcomes is defined for the trainee. Throughout the process, the employees’ capabilities needed for the tasks are tested by the trainer.

Along the way, the employees perform the job as per their acquired skills, and if need be, they can ask for feedback and reviews as well.

4) Committee Assignments

In committee assignments, trainees are required to find solutions for the actual organizational problems. All the trainees have to work together as one to find and offer a solution to the said problem.

This method also generates a sense of team spirit within the employees which eventually takes the whole organization towards its goals.

5) Internship Training  

Internships are a form of on the job training wherein students or freshers are trained professionally to start or enhance their skills and expertise. The theoretical knowledge gained in classrooms is executed practically here.

Both theoretical and practical aspects are provided to the trainees in an internship environment.

6) Job Shadowing

As the term suggests, job shadowing is to become a literal shadow of a person doing the work. The trainee scrutinizes their trainer with clear focus and understands the work to be done by watching them. This helps a fresher in seeing what they are supposed to do.

Even experienced employees can practice the shadowing method as they can learn new techniques, train their soft skills, and view everything work related from a different perspective.

7) Self-instructional training

While rehearsing the self-instructional method, the person learns and enhances their skill through their own guidance with the assistance of a diverse range of resources.

It’s a self-initiated system that trainees must take up independently. The edge that on hands training has over others is that a person learns and enhances their skills at their own pace, and no trainer is interfering.

8) Apprenticeship

In apprentice training, people requiring long-term learning are usually involved, from trainees in technical fields to trade and craft fields, who need quality training to become a professional.

The fields in apprentice training need respectable skills and knowledge. Thus, the long-term training process to polish every aspect.

Apprenticeship is a healthy fuse of on the job and classroom training and is carried out under professional supervision. The time frame can range anywhere from 1 to 4 years, as the learning process continues until the apprentices become experts in their fields.

Benefits of on the job training 

On the job training is still scarce in many industries, but if practiced correctly, it can augment the productivity and effectiveness of any organization.

From cost-effective training to a motivated workforce, these practices favor the entire organization in many more aspects. Entities like Forbes also predicted that the future of workforce is through learning and development.

The prime benefits both employees and employers can reap from near job training are highlighted below to give a brief overview;

  • Accelerated way of training with authentic experience
  • Swift and smooth adaptation to a new job
  • Trainees learn to perform their tasks from the initial stage
  • Retention of quality employees
  • Assists in building a robust team spirit
  • Modest and economical way of learning and enhancing skills
  • Instantaneous elevation in productivity levels
  • Cost-effective and fruitful for the organizations
  • Enhanced progression of knowledge, skills, and expertise.
  • Flexible and dynamic learning, etc.

On the job training takes place in diverse forms – from methodical formats and formal learning curriculums to indistinct and impromptu bursts of training activity.

Discovering an appropriate training mix for organizations and their employees is pivotal. This boosts the employees’ productivity and morale and the overall company’s efficiency.

Entities like Zimyo provide their workforce with the best employee experience by implementing several practices. On the job training is one such activity in their pattern. They ensure a quality environment for their workforce through performance management software and other components.

Both the employers and the employees gain tangible benefits from on the job training. Organizations ensure that employees have practical skills and understanding to carry out their roles precisely and competently.

Besides that, it is also considered a time and cost-effective way of undertaking professional tasks. The training methods can be tailored to address any employee’s individual needs, making them feel motivated and valued.

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On-the-job training methods (Workplace training) - How it give companies a competitive edge?

On the Job Training Methods (OJT):

When an employee learns the job in actual working site in real life situation, and not simulated environment, it is called On-the-job training and also called as Workplace training . Employee learns while working. Take the instance of roadside mechanics. Small boys working there as helpers learn while helping the head mechanic. They do not learn the defect analysis and engine repairing skills in any classroom on engine models.

This type of training, also known as job instruction training, is the most commonly used method. Under this method, the individual is placed on a regular job and taught the skills necessary to perform that job. The trainee learns under the supervision and guidance of a qualified worker or instructor. On-the-job training has the advantage of giving firsthand knowledge and experience under actual working conditions. While the trainee learns how to perform a job, he is also a regular worker rendering the services for which he is paid. The problem of transfer of trainee is also minimised as the person learns on-the-job. The emphasis is placed on rendering services in the most effective manner rather than learning how to perform the job. On-the-job training methods include job rotation, coaching, job instruction or training through step-by-step and committee assignments.

On-the-job training boosts employee morale: Survey

Over 40% employers voted on-the-job training for increased productivity and 35% for enhanced employee morale in the organization in a survey concerning training and development, conducted by TJinsite, research and knowledge arm of TimesJobs.com. A considerable share of the surveyed employers also claimed to reduce attrition by using training and development methodology. 

Employees too appreciate learning and training at the workplace since it enables them to develop knowledge and skills without leaving the work. In the TJinsite survey, on-the-job training by seniors has been voted as the most preferred method of training by 71% employees. Other training methods come at distant second; with workshop and seminars preferred by 15% of surveyed employees, followed by external trainers (11%) and least preferred manual & journals (3%). 

Mostly on-the-job training for new employees is followed by induction programme which is meant for making new employees aware of organisation's culture, policies, procedures and for interaction of new employees with each other. In India at NTPC (National Thermal Power Corporation), is offering employee induction programme for its new employees and later sent to on-the-job training. Boston Consulting Group's (BCG) India office, is also giving on-the-job training with live Case study for 1 - 3 months for its new employees.

Training & Development

Training and development

Employee Training Introduction

Need and benefit of Training

Advantages Of Training Program

Training Process

On-the-job Methods

Off-the-job Methods

Sensitivity Training  

Management Development

On the Job Methods [MD]

Off the Job Methods [MD]

Executive Development

How on-the-job training and development programmes give companies a competitive edge?

Often, the skills acquired in an educational institute differ from those required for the job. This means educational institutions should look beyond academics and offer students real-time experiences, where they are able to gain first-hand exposure of working in the real world. To some extent, such programmes can help students get a taste of the actual professional world and help them establish critical networking connections. However, it is workplace training that can enable employees to acquire new and specific skills for a certain role, increase their contribution to the business and build their self-esteem.

The skill sets required for jobs are ever-changing and it is the responsibility of companies to plug the skill gap between education and employment. Offering the right training to employees will help in strengthening their skills, enhancing their capabilities and acquiring new knowledge. The companies that invest time and money in developing and expanding the knowledge of their employees bring in more productivity and are able to position themselves better in the larger business landscape.

Here’s a look at how on-the-job training can prove to be a worthwhile investment for companies and equip employees with the right set of skills:

Helps tackle shortcomings:

While one employee maybe good at calculations and market segmentation, another may prove her excellence in ideation and churning out new strategies. Every individual will have some shortcomings and it is timely training and development programmes that can upskill employees to perform different tasks with the minimum required skill. Workplace training plays a pivotal role in bridging the skill gap and keeping employees on the cutting edge of industry developments

Increases productivity:

In a rapidly-evolving job landscape, employees need to be trained and taught about new technologies and their applications. With training and development, employees can stay up-to-date, use new technologies and give up on the old ways of performing a task. They can finish a task faster and show improved results with the right training It will also give them confidence and enable them to adopt new and better ways to achieve their goals and objectives

Boosts employees' morale:

Lack of guidance often kills the morale of employees. Training and development programmes not only improve the skills of employees but also boost their morale, thereby making them happy and leading to longer tenures. Apart from breaking the monotony in the workplace, training programmes offer employees a learning platform where they are able to master new skills and become more marketable.

Encourages creativity:

With training and upskilling: employees are able to think outside the box and widen their thinking capabilities, hone their communication skills and develop new skills that can improve a company’s competitive edge. Such programmes are the best ways to promote innovation and improve employee involvement.

Enhances company reputation and profile:

Offering the right training and development programme makes the company stand out in the recruitment sphere. Employees are likely to feel valued if they are being invested in, and they work harder to exceed expectations. However, the company should adopt stronger and successful training strategies that help them build their brand name and enable them to emerge as a sought-after firm among employees.

On-The-Job Training Methods

(a) Job Rotation:

This type of training involves the movement of the trainee from one job to another. The trainee receives job knowledge and gains experience from his supervisor or trainer in each of the different job assignments. Though this method of training is common in training managers for general management positions, trainees can also be rotated from job to job in workshop jobs. This method gives an opportunity to the trainee to understand the problems of employees on other jobs and respect them.

Job rotation method has been using in the Indian banking sector mainly by State bank group for the probationary officers for the period of approximately 2 years to finally post them as assistant bank manager. Under this method of training candidates are placed in each and every job starts from clerical job, assistant, cashier and managerial job for the purpose of knowing importance in nature of every job before handling Asst bank manager position.

Advantages of job rotation of an employee are eliminate boredom of an employee, encourage development, give employees a break from strenuous job duties, helps HR manager identify where employee work best and gives HR manager a backup plan if an employee leaves.

Disadvantages of job rotation of an employee are could be costly and time-consuming for organisation, could end up with disgruntled employees, it won't fix all your problems in the business, job rotation of an employee might not be feasible for some industries and finally your business could suffer.

(b) Coaching:

The trainee is placed under a particular supervisor who functions as a coach in training the individual. The supervisor provides feedback to the trainee on his performance and offers him some suggestions for improvement. Often the trainee shares some of the duties and responsibilities of the coach and relieves him of his burden. A limitation of this method of training is that the trainee may not have the freedom or opportunity to express his own ideas.

”Experience is simply the name we give our mistakes." - Oscar Wilde.

(c) Job Instruction:

This method is also known as training through step by step. Under this method, trainer explains the trainee the way of doing the jobs, job knowledge and skills and allows him to do the job. The trainer appraises the performance of the trainee, provides feedback information and corrects the trainee.

(d) Committee Assignments:

Under the committee assignment, group of trainees are given and asked to solve an actual organisational problem. The trainees solve the problem jointly. It develops team work.

(e) Apprenticeship:  

Apprenticeship is a formalized method of training curriculum program that combines classroom education with on-the-job work under close supervision. The training curriculum is planned in advance and conducted in careful steps from day to day. Most trade apprenticeship programs have a duration of three to four years before an apprentice is considered completely accomplished in that trade or profession. This method is appropriate for training in crafts, trades and technical areas, especially when proficiency in a job is the result of a relatively long training or apprenticeship period, e.g., job of a craftsman, a machinist, a printer, a tool maker, a pattern designer, a mechanic, etc.

Internship is one of the on-the-job training methods. Individuals entering industry in skilled trades like machinist, electrician and laboratory technician are provided with thorough instruction though theoretical and practical aspects. For example, TISCO, TELCO and BHEL select the candidates from polytechnics, engineering colleges and management institutions and provide apprenticeship training. Apprenticeship training programmes are jointly sponsored by colleges, universities and industrial organisations to provide the opportunity to the students to gain real-life experience as well as employment. Exhibit presents the benefits of apprenticeship training.

Most of the Universities and Colleges encourage students for internship as part of the curriculum as it is beneficial to all concerned.

Advantages of On-the-Job Training:

It is directly in the context of job

It is often informal

It is most effective because it is learning by experience

It is least expensive

Trainees are highly motivated

It is free from artificial classroom situations

Disadvantages of On-the-Job Training:

Trainer may not be experienced enough to train or he may not be so inclined.

It is not systematically organized

Poorly conducted programs may create safety hazards.

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Getting involved.

The Challenge of Committee Participation A committee can be one of the most productive tools that an association has to work with.  Whether one is chairing a committee or is a committee member, her or she faces the challenge of getting involved in the work the committee was formed to accomplish. A committee member's contribution and participation on the committee will determine its success or failure.  If committee members participate, get involved, and encourage others on the committee to do so, the committee will be successful.  Enthusiasm is contagious. The findings of a committee have a direct impact on the decisions made by the officers and the board of directors of the association.  The energy a committee member puts into your work on the committee has a direct influence on the direction your association takes.

Functions of a Committee The primary function of a committee is to contribute to the efficient operation of an organization.  In most cases, a committee is concerned with the communication of information and with assisting the leadership in the decision-making process by providing needed information.

. . . the basic purpose of a committee . . . [is] to determine through its collective wisdom, which is usually superior to that of any one member, the best solutions to a problem.

  Committee Members

  • Should be appointed because they are knowledgeable about or interested in the committee's area of activity.
  • Should know who the committee chairman is.
  • Should know what the specific responsibilities of committee are.
  • Should know what the association's practices, policies, and procedures are.
  • Should know what the responsibilities of the association staff to the committee are.
  • Should know what the past performance of the committee has been.
  • Should know what the reporting procedure to the board of directors is.
  • Should establish only realistic attainable goals.
  • Should give recognition to the committee chairman and other members of the committee.
  • Should get involved and participate.

  Committee Participation

Committee members are asked to:

  • Study the meeting agenda carefully before coming to the committee meeting and ask for clarification if any items are unclear.  Review the supporting material.
  • Stick to the agenda during the meeting.  Bring up new business only at the appropriate time.
  • Determine in advance how and what they will contribute to the committee meeting.
  • Keep replies short and to the point.  Seek information, do not deliver an oration.
  • Speak in a voice everyone can hear. Wait until one has the attention of all the committee members before speaking.  The Committee Chair should insure you the floor.
  • Repeat remarks if you think they weren't heard.
  • Sum up remarks of a lengthy discussion.  Someone may have forgotten your objective before you've finished.
  • Don't hesitate to comment, criticize constructively, or disagree.  Know your subject and ask for support from members who believe as you do.
  • Make your comments at the proper time, if you disagree with the speaker.
  • Ask for the floor rather than joining in aimless group discussion if you have a comment.  If what you have to say is a genuine contribution and really does make a difference, don't let it get lost in confused conversation.
  • Ask dissenters to summarize their convictions in a direct statement.  This permits a more thorough examination of an idea that could be highly constructive when completely understood.
  • Not hurriedly pass motions as they usually don't receive the consideration they deserve.  Better to table them until the next meeting, when they can be discussed in detail, than to pass a motion you might regret later.

                Effective committees don't just happen.  They are a combination of the right individuals, a mission, good leadership, [and] good staff work.


Even with capable members on a committee, a firm goal to achieve, and the support of the Association staff, a committee without strong leadership will be handicapped.  The most consistent help for a Committee Chair will come from the Association staff.  To a great extent, a Chair's ability to work with the Association ED and staff will determine his or her success as head of the committee and leader in the Association.

The Association ED and President will assist with the selection of committee members, setting objectives, and reviewing the work and communications of the committee.  By keeping the Association ED and staff informed and familiar with the committee's activities and progress, they will be able to advise you on problems and procedures and can point out possible pitfalls.

The success a Committee Chair achieves will largely depend on his or her ability to preside and guide the committee to a definite goal.  The following guidelines should assist Committee Chairs with running productive meetings:

  • Always start the meeting on time and work with a definite agenda that has been sent to committee members in advance.   Committee members should receive all the information relating to an issue, both pro and con.
  • Periodically review the committee's charge relative to the objectives of the Association.
  • Speak clearly.  If you can't be heard, you can't exercise control.  Make sure that each individual taking the floor talks clearly and audibly.  Sum up what the speaker has said, entertain discussion, and obtain a decision.  (Request a microphone for committee meetings, if necessary.)
  • Make sure adequate minutes are kept of each meeting and that they are distributed to all committee members, Association ED and staff liaison.
  • Guide, mediate, probe and stimulate discussions.  Let others thrash out ideas; committees are not formed to validate the thinking of the chair or staff.  The committee belongs to the Association, not to the Chair.
  • Encourage a clash of ideas, but not of personalities.  Good decisions are made when committees examine all sides of an issue, but don't let members personalize the debate.  Emotional discussion of an idea is good, but an emotional reaction to a person is bad.  When emotions are high, return the floor to a neutral person, seek a factual answer, or take a break.
  • Keep discussions on track; periodically restate the issue and the goal of the discussion.
  • Monitor participation; control talkative members and draw out silent members.  Deal with dysfunctional behaviors.  Don't let a person who is blocking constructive discussion ruin the committee meeting.
  • Use well-placed questions, seek points of information and clarification, and periodically summarize to keep the discussion focused.
  • Keep the group focused on the central question and moving toward a decision.  Call on the least senior members first to express their views; discussions tend to "close down" after senior members express strong views.
  • Seek consensus, but unanimity is not required.  Sometimes an idea is compromised by trying to get every last person to completely agree.
  • Close the meeting by noting achievements. Check at the end of the meeting to see if members feel that all relevant subjects have been adequately covered.  (S ee Committee Effectiveness Survey )

How a Committee Meeting is Structured

Following is the generally accepted sequence, or order of business, that is observed for a meeting:

  • Call the meeting to order on time .
  • Review the minutes of the previous meeting
  • Discuss and resolve agenda items as they are listed
  • New Business
  • Adjourn the meeting on time.

An agenda needs to be developed and sent to all members of the committee prior to the meeting.  It should include all topics to be discussed at the meeting and should also include the date, location, starting time, scheduled breaks, and anticipated adjourning time.  Any supporting or background material to further explain or detail the items on the agenda should also be included.

  Committee Chair responsibilities

  • With Association staff liaison, the Committee Chair develops a work plan that will allow the committee to effectively and efficiently discharge its responsibilities for the year.  He or she plans agendas for committee meetings to accomplish the committee's goals.
  • The Committee Chair and staff liaison are responsible for keeping leadership and appropriate staff fully informed of committee activities.  A written, quarterly report of goals and achievements should be provided to the Board of Directors.
  • The Committee Chair works with Association staff to ensure that the work of the committee is carried out between meetings.  He or she maintains records and relevant information on committee work to interact knowledgeably with committee members and Association staff.
  • The Committee Chair reports to the committee on decisions of the Board of Directors or other Association committees that may affect the committee's work or activities.
  • The Committee Chair, where appropriate, guides the committee in proposing products and services that will further the goals and objectives of the association.
  • The Committee Chair evaluates the committee's efforts and communicates accomplishments to the committee and Association leadership.
  • In addition to the general committee charge, which outlines the committee's scope of activity, the Association ED or President may charge the committee with specific work.  The committee Chair and staff liaison are responsible for keeping the work of the committee focused on the charge and aligned with the association's strategic plan.  At the conclusion of each year, the chair and staff liaison are expected to make recommendations to the ED and President regarding future work of the committee.
  • Committees may not commit to expenditure of funds and may not express opinions or represent positions in the name of the Association, unless specifically authorized by the BOD.  In proposing a program or activity that may involve expenditure of funds, committees must submit a program description and budget to the ED for inclusion in the Association budget and approval by the BOD.
  • The committee Chair and staff liaison are responsible for keeping committee members fully informed, with timely reports of all committee meetings and committee work.

Qualities of the Effective Committee Chair

Communication skills

  • Demonstrates ability to communicate with committee members, staff, and other groups.
  • Demonstrates willingness to listen (communication is not solely talking).


  • Demonstrates active participation and interest in the association.
  • Has knowledge of the subject in which the committee is involved.
  • Thinks in terms of association goals.
  • Commands attention and inspires others.
  • Demonstrates ability to create a positive work atmosphere.
  • Controls without dominating.
  • Understands how the committee fits into the larger work of the association.

Administrative skills

  • Demonstrates willingness to take the initiative.
  • Demonstrates ability and willingness to carry out responsibilities.
  • Supports orderly procedures for conducting work.
  • Understands the role of the staff.

Parliamentary Procedure

Committees are not required to operate using parliamentary procedure; however, the objectives and principles of parliamentary procedure should be employed. The objectives of parliamentary procedure include expediting business, maintaining order, ensuring justice and equity for all, and accomplishing the objectives for which the group is organized. The principles of parliamentary procedure include courtesy and justice to all, rule of the majority while respecting the rights of the minority, partiality to none, protection of the absentee, and taking one item of business at a time.


Staff liaisons serve as an informed resource person to the Chair and members of the committee.  He or she assists the Chair in facilitating committee discussions and activities which address the committee's charge.  The staff liaison works with the Chair to ensure that all committee work is consistent with the Association's goals and objectives.

The Role of the Staff Liaison

  • Provide thorough orientation for each new committee chair, and assist the chair in providing orientation for new and continuing committee members each year.
  • Work with the Chair to develop a plan of work that will allow the committee to effectively and efficiently discharge its responsibilities for the year.
  • Work with the Chair to develop agendas and conduct effective meetings of the committee.
  • Provides administrative support, including but not limited to, planning and on-site execution of all committee meetings.
  • Drafts reports of committee meetings for review and approval by the committee Chair for distribution to the BOD.
  • Work with the committee Chair, other committee members, and Association staff to ensure that the work of the committee is carried forth between committee meetings.
  • Facilitate communication of committee activities, including requests for action and/or proposed policies, to the ED and BOD.
  • Report to the committee on decisions of the BOD, ED, or other association committees which impact the committee's activities.
  • Where appropriate, assist the committee in proposing products and services that will further the goals and objectives of the Association.
  • Be a valuable resource to the committee, not simply a recording secretary.  Note that too large a staff role reduces the value of the committee and reduces the motivation of volunteers.  Too small a staff role often results in the committee's drifting aimlessly and operating ineffectively.
  • Be thoroughly familiar with all aspects of the committee's work, including the scope of work, subjects under discussion, and Association policies related to the committee's work.
  • Answer questions, offer suggestions and raise questions.

  Orientation of the Chair by the Staff Liaison

  • Determine the committee's work.  Review the committee's charge and goals for the year and link them to the Association's strategic plans.  Review committee projects and programs as well as assignments of individual committee members.  Develop with the chair a program of work for the year.  Identify the level of staff assistance needed.
  • Clarify governance issues, if applicable..  Review and clarify the bounds of the committee's activity and authority.  Review the association's bylaws and relevant association policies, practices and procedures that affect the committee. 
  • Note where the work of other committees may overlap with or affect the committee.
  • Clarify the Chairperson's role and duties, and emphasize the importance of this position.
  • Clarify the role of staff liaison in relation to the chair.
  • Determine the process to be used during the year for handling the committee's work.
  • Provide the following background information:  a committee roster (and perhaps the previous year's); minutes of previous committee meetings; background on recent committee activities and accomplishments; and a list of the board of directors, key staff, and other people with whom the chair is likely to interact.
  • Include the name of the committee, date, time, and place of the meeting.  Note the chairperson's name, members present and absent, and other key people in attendance.
  • Note all formal motions and passage of defeat.
  • Note all decisions reached, including motions passed and follow-up actions to be taken, with deadlines for implementation.
  • Include a brief summary of discussions.  Do not attribute comments to members, except possibly where formal motions are introduced (attribution for motions is not required).
  • Provide information on the time and place of the next meeting.
  • Distribute the report to all committee members, including those who did not attend, within thirty (30) days of the meeting.
  • In most instances, meeting reports do not require formal approval by the committee.  A good approach is to send the meeting's report out immediately after the meeting with a statement to contact the Chair or staff liaison if errors are noted.
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Issue Cover

Article Contents

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Committee assignments: a congressional bias
  • 3. The papers
  • 4. Conclusion
  • Conflict of interest
  • < Previous

Committee Assignments: Theories, Causes and Consequences

  • Article contents
  • Figures & tables
  • Supplementary Data

Shane Martin, Tim A Mickler, Committee Assignments: Theories, Causes and Consequences, Parliamentary Affairs , Volume 72, Issue 1, January 2019, Pages 77–98, https://doi.org/10.1093/pa/gsy015

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Conventional wisdom suggests that a strong legislature is built on a strong internal committee system, both in terms of committee powers and the willingness of members to engage in committee work. Committee assignments are the behavioural manifestation of legislative organisation. Despite this, much remains unknown about how committee assignments happen and with what causes and consequences. Our focus in this article is on providing the context for, and introducing new research on, what we call the political economy of committee assignments —which members get selected to sit on which committees, why and with what consequences.

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Employee Development Training and Methods

committee assignment training

Learn about employee development training, methods and approaches.

A: Employee development training can be studied under the following heads:- 1. Off-the-Job Training 2. On-the-Job Training.

Some of the Off-the-Job Training are:- i. Seminars and Conferences ii. Simulation iii. Case Studies iv. Management Games v. Role Playing vi. In-basket vii. Sensitivity Training viii. Outdoor Training ix. Behaviour Modeling.

Some of the On-the-Job Training are:- i. Job Experiences ii. Job Enlargement iii. Job Rotation iv. Transfers v. Action Learning vi. Assistant-to Positions vii. Committee Assignment viii. Mentoring ix. Coaching x. In-House Development Centres.


B: Some of the Employee development methods and approaches are:- 1. Formal Education Programmes 2. Assessment 3. Job Experiences 4. Interpersonal Relationship.

Employee Development Training, Approaches and Methods

Employee development training – off-the-job and on-the-job training.

There are many specific off-the-job and on-the-job development activities.

1. Off-the-Job Training:

a. Seminars and Conferences:

Like classroom instructions, seminars and conferences are useful for bringing groups together for development programmes.

(i) Seminars and conferences are used to communicate ideas, policies, procedures etc. for effective management.

(ii) They are also used for raising points of debate or discussion issues, (usually with the help of a qualified leader) that have no set answers.

(iii) They are used to change attitudes of manager for better management.

(iv) They are often conducted outside the organization jointly with universities, consulting firms and management associations on topics ranging from communication to strategic planning.

(v) By participating in seminars/conferences, managers and supervisors learn to identify necessary personal and organizational changes and to become more effective in their interpersonal relationships and their work groups.

b. Simulation:

It is an artificial environment that- attempts to closely resemble an actual condition.

The advantages of simulation exercises are the opportunities to attempt to create an environment similar to real situations without high costs. However, the disadvantages are that it is difficult to duplicate the pressures and realities of actual decision making on the job. Individuals often act differently in real-life situations than they do in a simulated exercise. Commonly used simulation exercise includes case study, management game and role playing.

c. Case Studies:

Case study is particularly useful in classroom learning situations. Using documented examples, participants learn how to analyse and synthesize facts and to understand the many variables on which management decisions are based. This improves decision-making skills.

Case studies are most appropriate when:

(i) Analytic, problem-solving and critical-thinking skills are most important.

(ii) The knowledge, skills and attitude are complex and participants need time to understand them.

(iii) Active participation is needed.

(iv) The process of learning is as important as the content.

In case study method, the trainees are presented with a written description of an organizational problem, which could be real or imaginary. Individually the trainees analyze the case, diagnose the problem and present his/her findings and solutions in a discussion with other trainees.

Case study gives the trainees realistic experience in identifying and analyzing complex problems. The trainees learn that there are many ways to approach and solve complex organizational problems.

Integrated case scenarios expand the case analysis concept by creating long-term, comprehensive case situations. To create scenarios, scriptwriters (creative employees in the organization) create scripts which include themes, background stories, and detailed personal histories and role-play instructions.

Many a time case studies are mismanaged.

To improve effectiveness of case studies in employee development programmes Einsiedel (1995) suggested the following-

When using case studies:

(i) Be clear about learning objectives and list possible ways to achieve the objectives.

(ii) Decide which objectives would be best served by the case method.

(iii) Identify available cases that might work, or consider writing your own.

(iv) Set up the activity – including the case material, the room and the schedule.

(v) Follow the principles of effective group dynamics.

(vi) Provide a chance for all learners to take part and try to keep the groups small.

(vii) Stop for process checks and be ready to intervene if group dynamics get out of hand.

(viii) Allow for different learning styles.

(ix) Clarify the trainer’s role.

(x) Bridge the gap between theory and practice.

d. Management Games:

Management games make the training experiences more lively and interesting. The players are faced with the task of making a series of decisions affecting a hypothetical organization. The effects of every decision can be simulated with a computer programmed for the game. In computerized management games, trainees are split into 5 or 6 person companies, each of which has to compete with others in a simulated market place.

The groups are allowed to decide how much to spend on each functional area such as marketing, production, inventory etc. Usually 3 or 4 year periods are compressed into days, weeks or months. As in the real world each company can’t see what decisions the other firms have made, although these decisions do affect their own sales.

(i) Games are now widely used as a management development tool.

(ii) Planning of the management games are designed for general use but some have been designed for specific purposes.

(iii) Some airlines have developed games where managers working in teams compete with one another running fictitious airline companies and have to balance issues of routing, schedules, costs, profits etc.

(iv) Management games do not always require computers.

(v) The major advantage of management game is the high degree of participation it requires.

e. Role Playing:

Role playing consists of playing the roles of others assuming their attitudes and behaviour.

(i) By acting out another’s role or position, participants can improve their ability to understand and cope with others.

(ii) Role playing helps the employees learn how to counsel others by making them understand the situations from a different angle.

(iii) Role playing is common in training healthcare professionals to be empathic and sensitive to the concerns of patients.

(iv) It is increasingly used in training managers to handle employee issues relating to absenteeism, performance appraisal and conflict situations.

The major drawback in role playing is that participants hesitate to try role playing.

To make role playing effective the following suggestions are given by Snell and Bohlander (2007):

1. Ensure that members of the group are comfortable with each other.

2. Select and prepare the role-players by introducing a specific situation.

3. To help participants prepare, ask them to describe potential characters.

4. Realize that volunteers make better role-players.

5. Prepare the observers by giving them specific tasks (such as evaluation or feedback).

6. Guide the role-play enactment through its bumps (because it is not scripted)

7. Keep it short.

8. Discuss the enactment and prepare bulleted points of what was learned.

Role play is a versatile tool applicable to a variety of situations. With proper planning and implementation, role play can bring realism and insight into dilemmas and experiences. Feedback helps trainees how well they played their roles in applying managerial skills to each situation.

f. In-basket:

It is a simulation of the administrative tasks of a manager’s job. The exercise includes a variety of documents that may appear in the in-basket (in- tray) on a manager’s table. The participants read the materials and decide how to respond to them. Responses could include delegating tasks, scheduling meetings, writing replies or even completely ignoring the document.

g. Sensitivity Training:

This attempts to teach people about themselves, and, why and how they relate to, interact with, impact on and are impacted by others. This is accomplished by having trainees observe and analyse their actual behaviour in groups.

Goals of sensitivity training:

(i) Increased understanding, insight and self-awareness about one’s own behaviour and its impact on others.

(ii) Increase understanding and sensitivity about the behaviour of others.

(iii) Better understanding and awareness of group and intergroup processes.

(iv) Increased diagnostic skills in interpersonal and intergroup situations.

(v) Increased ability to transform learning into action.

(vi) Improvement in individual’s ability to analyse their own interpersonal behaviour.

h. Outdoor Training:

Sometimes referred to as wilderness or survival training, outdoor training has become a trend in many corporates. The primary focus is to teach trainees the importance of working together and to develop team spirit. Rafting, mountain climbing and surviving a week in a ‘Jungle’ are some of the programmes.

Outdoor training typically involves some major emotional and physical challenge. The purpose of such training is to see how employees react to the difficulties that nature presents to them. The programme is designed to know whether the employees face these changers alone or they ‘freak’ and whether they are successful in achieving their goal.

This type of training is helpful as today’s Business environment does not permit employees to stand alone. This emphasizes the importance of working closely with one another, building trusting relationships and succeeding as a member of a group.

i. Externship:

It refers to a company allowing employees to take a full-time operational role at another company. This helps employees Interested in gaining experience in a specific industry. The companies which sponsor externship promise to employ the externs after their assignments and employees who participate in the externship programme will remain committed to the company because they have had the opportunity to learn and grow professionally and have not had to disrupt their personal and professional lives with a job search.

Although externships give employees other employment options and some will leave, it is not only a good development strategy but also helps in recruitment. The externship programme signals to potential employees that the company is creative and flexible with its employees. As an extension, there are companies which exchange employees for mutual benefit.

j. Sabbatical:

It is a leave of absence from the company to renew or develop skills. It is similar to externship, a temporary assignment where the employees often receive full pay and benefits.

(i) Sabbaticals let employees get away from the day-to-day stresses of their jobs and acquire new skills and perspectives.

(ii) Sabbaticals allow employees more time for personal pursuits.

(iii) Sabbaticals are common in a variety of industries ranging from fast food industry to consulting firms.

(iv) Sabbaticals help in retention of key employees and recruitment of new ones.

(v) This programme helps recharge employees’ creativity in their jobs.

k. Behaviour Modeling:

It is an approach that demonstrates desired behaviour and gives trainees the chance to practise and role-play those behaviours and receive feedback. That is, it involves showing trainees the right (or model) way of doing something, letting each person practise the right way to do it and providing feedback regarding each trainee’s performance.

Steps in behaviour modeling:

(i) Modeling:

Participants view films, DVDs or videotapes in which a model manager is shown dealing with a problem effectively. The model shows specifically how to deal with the situation and demonstrates the learning points.

(ii) Role-Playing:

The trainees are given roles to play in a simulated situation. That is, trainees participate in extensive rehearsal of the behaviour demonstrated by the models.

(iii) Feedback and Reinforcement:

The trainer provides constructive feedback based on how the trainee performs in the role-playing situation. If trainees’ behaviour increasingly resembles that of the model, the trainer and other trainees provide social reinforces such as praise, approval, encouragement and attention.

(iv) Transfer of Training:

Finally, trainees are encouraged to apply their heir new skills when they are back on their jobs. Throughout the train­ing period emphasis is placed on transferring the training to the job.

Behaviour modeling has been found to be successful in helping managers interact with employees, handle discipline problems, introduce changes and increase productivity.

2. On-the-Job Development Training :

Some skills can be acquired just by listening, reading and observing. But there are many skills which can be acquired only through actual practice and experience. Managers develop skills effectively when presented with opportunities to perform under pressure and to learn from their mistakes. On-the-job development experiences are most powerful and commonly used.

For the on-the-job development programmes to be successful, the exercise must be well organized, intelligently supervised and challenging to the participants.

Methods of providing on-the-job experiences include the following:

a. Job Experiences:

These are the relationships, problems, demands, tasks and other features that employees face in their jobs.

(i) Most employee development occurs through job experiences.

(ii) The major assumption in using job experiences in employee development is that development is most likely to occur when there is a mismatch between the employee’s skill and past experiences and the skills required for the job.

(iii) To succeed in their jobs, the employees must improve their skills; they are forced to learn new skills, apply their skills and knowledge in a new way and master new experiences.

(iv) In this programme the executives are asked to identity key events that make a difference in their managerial styles and the lessons they learned from these.

(v) Some of the job demands helpful in development programmes are proving oneself with unfamiliar responsibilities, developing new directions to solve inherited problems, downsizing and recurring employees, unrest managing business diversity, job overload, handling external pressure, influencing without authority, adverse business conditions, lack of top management support, difficult boss etc.

(vi) Job experiences that are seen as positive stressors stimulate learning and those viewed as negative stressors create high level of harmful stress.

(vii) As obstacles and job demands related to creating change are most likely to lead to negative stress than other job demands, organizations should carefully analyse the negative consequences before placing employees in development programmes involving obstacles or creating change.

b. Job Enlargement:

It refers to adding challenges or new responsibilities to employees’ current jobs. Job enlargement could include special project assignments, changing roles within a work team or researching new ways to serve customers and clients. To enlarge the current job, employees are encouraged to join task forces which help them improve their leadership and organization skills.

c. Job Rotation:

It is the process of systematically moving an individual from one job to another over a period of time. The job assignments may be in various functional areas of the organization or movement may be amongst positions in a simple functional area or department.

(i) Assignments are based on an employee’s development needs.

(ii) Employees who rotate to new positions are required to document their experiences and learning, specifically emphasizing how the change helped them in developing their skills or better understand the business.

(iii) Each employee has a customized development plan and employees are assigned depending on the skills they need.

(iv) The length of time in each position varies depending on the skills and experience the employees need.

(v) While some return to their original jobs/ positions, others may move to other jobs/ departments.

(vi) Job rotation helps employees gain an overall appreciation of the organization’s goals, increase their understanding of different organizational functions, develop a network of contacts and improve problem-solving and decision-making skills.

(vii) Job rotation has been shown to be related to skill acquisition, salary hike and promotional chances.

(viii) Effective job rotation systems are linked to the organization’s training, development and career management systems.


(i) Job rotation may create a short-term perspective on problems and solutions.

(ii) Employee’s satisfaction and motivation may be adversely affected because developing specialties in a short period is difficult.

(iii) Employees don’t spend enough time in one position to receive a challenging assignment.

(iv) Productivity losses and work load increase may be experienced by the department which gives an employee for training as well as the department which accepts the employee due to training demands and loss of manpower.

The following aspects are suggested for effective job rotation system:

(i) Job rotation is used to develop skills as well as give employees experience needed for managerial positions.

(ii) Employees understand specific skills that will be developed by rotation.

(iii) Job rotation is used for all levels and types of employees.

(iv) Job rotation is linked with the career management process so employees know the development needs addressed by each job assignment.

(v) Benefits of rotation are maximized and costs are minimized through managing timing of rotations to reduce work load costs and helping employees understand job rotation’s role in their development plans.

(vi) All employees have equal opportunities for job rotation assignments regardless of their demographic group.

d. Transfers:

Transfer is the movement of an employee to a different job assignment in a different area of the organization. Transfers do not necessarily increase job responsibilities or compensation. They are mostly lateral move with similar responsibilities.

Though transfers to different jobs in new environments do help in employee development, many employees are reluctant to be transferred for obvious reasons-

(i) Transfer can be stressful not only because the employee’s work rule changes, but the spouse, if employed, must find new employment.

(ii) Transfers disrupt employees’ daily lives, interpersonal relationships and work habits.

(iii) People have to find new housing, shopping, healthcare and leisure facilities.

(iv) The employees may be placed far away from the emotional support of friends and family.

(v) They have to learn a new set of work norms and procedures and develop relationships with their new managers and peers.

(vi) They are expected to be as productive in their new jobs as they were in their old jobs even though they may not be familiar with the products, services, processes or customers.

(vii) Though transfers help employees to develop themselves with new opportunities, many feel transfers are demotivating. Sometimes they may feel it is a mild punishment. Because transfers can bring anxiety, many organizations find it difficult to make the employees accept transfer.

While unmarried employees, who are not active in social lives, accept transfers easily, married people hesitate. Among married employees, the spouse’s willingness is the most important influence on employees accepting transfers.

Research has identified the following employee characteristics which are associated with accepting transfers.

(i) High career ambitions,

(ii) A belief that one’s future with the organization is promising, and

(iii) A belief that accepting a transfer is necessary for success in the organization.

e. Action Learning:

This allows managers to work on real projects, analyzing and solving problems, usually in other departments. This gives manager time to work full time with others in the organization. At the end of the programme, the managers are expected to brief the management on the solutions. In some cases, action learning is combined with classroom instructions, discussion and conferences.

f. Assistant-to Positions:

Employees with managerial potential are encouraged to work under an experienced and successful manager, often in the different areas of the organization. Working as staff assistants, the individuals perform many duties under the watchful eye of a supportive manager. In this programme, the employees experience a wide variety of management activities and are groomed to assume duties of next higher level.

g. Committee Assignment:

(i) Committee assignments allow the employees to share in decision making, to learn by watching others and to investigate specific organizational problems.

(ii) Temporary committees often act as a taskforce to discuss a particular problem, ascertain alternative solutions and recommend particular solutions.

(iii) Temporary assignments are reported to be both interesting and rewarding to the employee’s development.

(iv) Appointment to permanent commit­tees increases the employee’s exposure to other members of the organization, broadens his or her understanding and provides an opportunity to grow and make suggestions under the scrutiny of other committee members.

h. Mentoring:

It is a process where a mentor, who happens to be an experienced, productive senior employee, helps develop a less experienced employee (the protege).

(i) Most mentoring relationships develop informally as a result of interests or values shared by the mentor or protege.

(ii) Generally, employees with certain personality characteristics such as emotional stability, adaptable behaviour and high needs for power and achievement are most likely to seek a mentor and be an attractive protest for a mentor.

(iii) Mentoring relationships can also be developed as a part of employee development programme to bring together successful senior employees with less experienced but ambitious employees.

(iv) Though many mentoring relationships develop informally, formalized mentoring programme ensures access to mentors for all employees. However, formal mentoring may not be able to serve the real purpose in a relationship that has been created artificially.

(v) Mentors are chosen based on interpersonal and technical skills. Some mentors need to be trained for effective mentoring.

Benefits of Mentoring Relationships:

(i) Both mentors and protégés can benefit from mentoring relationship.

(ii) Mentors provide career and psychological support to their proteges. Career support includes coaching, protection, sponsorship and providing challenging assignments, exposure and visibility. Psychological support includes serving as a friend and a role model, providing positive regards and acceptance and creating an outlet for the protege to tackle about anxieties and fears.

(iii) There will be higher rates of promotion, better salaries and greater organizational influence for the proteges.

(iv) Mentoring relationships provide opportunities for mentors to develop their interpersonal skills and increase their feelings of self- esteem and worth to the organization.

(v) Mentoring programs socialize new employees, increase skill transfer from training to the work setting and provide opportunities to gain exposure and skills needed to get into managerial positions.

Group Mentoring Program:

Due to lack of potential mentors and the belief that the quality of formal mentorships is poorer than informal mentorship, some organizations have group mentoring programs. In group mentoring programs, a successful senior employee is paired with a group of four to six less experienced proteges.

The mentor helps proteges understand the organization, guides them in analyzing their experiences and helps them in career directions. Each protege in the group may complete specific assignments or the group may work together on a problem/issue. The potential advantage is that proteges can learn from each other as well as from the mentor.

Noe et al (2008) identified the following characteristics of successful formal mentoring program:

(i) Mentor and protege participation is voluntary. Relationship can be ended at any time without fear of punishment.

(ii) The mentor-protege matching process does not limit the ability of informal relationships to develop. For example, a mentor pool can be established to allow protégés to choose from a variety of qualified mentors.

(iii) Mentors are chosen on the basis of their past record in developing employees, willingness to serve as a mentor, and evidence of positive coaching, communication, and listening skills.

(iv) The purpose of the program is clearly understood. Projects and activities that the mentor and protege are expected to complete are specified.

(v) The length of the program is specified. Mentor and protégé are encouraged to pursue the relationship beyond the formal period.

(vi) A minimum level of contact between the mentor and protege is specified.

(vii) Proteges are encouraged to contact one another to discuss problems and share success.

(viii) The mentor program is evaluated. Interviews with mentors and proteges give immediate feedback regarding specific areas of dissatisfaction. Surveys gather more detailed information regarding benefits received from participating in the program.

(ix) Employee development is rewarded, which signals managers that mentoring and other development activities are worth their time and effort.

i. Coaching:

It is a process where a coach, who could be a peer or manager working with the employee, motivates, helps, develops skills and provides reinforcement and feedback.

A coach plays three roles:

(i) One-to-one interaction as in the case of feedback.

(ii) Helping employees learn for themselves by identifying experts who are able to address the employees’ concerns.

(iii) Providing resources such as mentors, courses or job experiences that the employees themselves are unable to access.

Problems Encountered in Coaching:

(i) Managers’ reluctance to discuss performance issues even with a competent employee to avoid any possible confrontation.

(ii) Managers’ interest and ability in identifying performance problems rather than helping to solve them.

(iii) Managers’ assumption that the employee may interpret coaching as criticism.

(iv) Managers’ feeling that there is not enough time for coaching.

j. In-House Development Centres:

Many companies have in-house development centres, which usually combine classroom learning (lectures, seminars etc.), with other techniques such as in-basket exercises, role-playing etc. Some companies run courses ranging from entry-level programme in manufacturing and sales to strategic management and business development.

For some companies, their learning portals have become their in-house development centres. While large companies have their own institutes, small companies have learning portals on the web which not only facilitates coordinating all the company’s training efforts but also delivers web-based modules that cover topics from CRM to mentoring.

Employee Development Methods and Approaches – Formal Education Programmes, Assessment, Job Experiences and Interpersonal Relationship

There are several methods to develop employees. Organizations can employ a combination of various methods depending on the type of employees and the organizational context.

Noe et al (2008) identified four broad approaches, namely, formal education, assess­ment, job experiences and interpersonal rela­tionships.

Method # 1. Formal Education Programmes:

These are employee development programs that include short Courses offered by consultants or universities, executive MBA programmes and University programmes. These are off- site and on-site programmes designed specifically for company’s executives.

(i) These programmes involve lectures by business experts, business games, simulation, adventure learning and meeting with customers.

(ii) Many companies have development centres that offer development programmes including classroom, online training and job experiences.

(iii)These programmes provide experiences in areas, such as public relations, financial communication, electronic media and Internet Development.

(iv) Formal training is given in leadership and presentational skills.

(v) Participants are mentored by experienced communication leaders.

Method # 2. Assessment:

Assessment involves collecting information and providing feedback to employees about their behaviour, communication style or skills for further development.

(i) The employee’s peers, managers and customer, may provide information.

(ii) Assessment is most frequently used to identify employees with managerial potential and to measure current managers’ strengths and weaknesses.

(iii) Assessment is also used to identify managers with the potential to move into higher-level executive positions.

(iv) Companies vary in the methods and sources of information they use in developmental assessment. Companies with sophisticated development systems use psychological tests to measure employees’ interpersonal styles, personality types and communication styles.

(v) Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is a psychological test used for team building and leadership development that identifies employees’ preferences for energy, information gathering, decision making and lifestyle.

Method # 3. Job Experiences:

Most employee development occurs through job experience, that is, relationships, problems, demands, tasks or other features that employees face in their jobs.

(i) A major assumption of using job experiences for employee development is that development is most likely to occur when there is mismatch between the employee’s skills and past experiences and the skills required for the job.

(ii) To succeed in their jobs employees must stretch their skills, that is, they are forced to learn new skills, apply their skills and knowledge in a new way and master new experiences.

(iii) One concern in the use of demanding job experiences for employee development is whether they are viewed as positive or negative stresses, job experiences that are seen as positive stresses challenge employees to stimulate learning, job challenges viewed as negative stresses create high levels of harmful stress for employees exposed to them.

(iv) Job experiences are gained through job rotation, job enlargement, externship and sabbatical.

Method # 4. Interpersonal Relationship:

Employees can develop skills and increase their knowledge about the company, its customers, organizational politics, organizational behaviour etc., by interacting with more experienced members in the organization. Mentoring and coaching are two types of interpersonal relationships used to develop employees.

Related Articles:

  • Importance of Training and Development
  • Difference between Training and Development
  • Objectives of Employee Training
  • On the Job Training Methods

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Committee Management: Roles & Responsibilities for Successful Leadership

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Board Roles & Responsibilities

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Committee management benefits the function of the committee and the board as a whole. Well-managed committees are informed of meeting agendas well in advance so that they come prepared to the meeting, having read the previous meeting’s minutes, and are ready to discuss the agenda items. They also remain focused and on-task for the duration of the meeting. Providing committee members with the support and solutions they need to enable this preparedness level takes intentional planning and structure. 

Committee management can happen in a variety of ways. One of the most common solutions is a paper and electronic communication combo. Paper agendas are mailed out prior to the meeting, are available on-sight, and the committee is reminded of the time, date, and agenda via email. While this enhances communication, this approach also places a lot of burden on the committee member to keep track of pertinent information. Papers are frequently misplaced, and emails can also get lost in inboxes full of other information. 

Many boards and committees are attempting to take their committee management strategy fully digital, especially in the wake of COVID-19. However, this strategy can also be cumbersome and difficult to navigate. This is especially true if the information is housed in many digital sources like email, cloud services, etc. It can lead to unprepared committee members and unproductive meetings.

You’re not alone if you’re wondering how to set up a committee structure. Many existing board committees, executives, and administrators are looking for a solution to set their committees up for success and advance their mission. 

Board committees can be composed of all sorts of individuals, each with varying strengths and bandwidth for participation. Not every committee is a great fit for every board member. When determining a committee structure or assigning/volunteering for a committee, one should ask themselves what are typical board committees responsible for. 

Types Of Management Committee

What are the 4 types of committees? Although individual committees have many different names, there are four different types of board committees in general:

  • An ad hoc committee is usually temporary and created for a very specific purpose. For instance, decorating or bake sale committees are common examples of ad hoc committees. These are short-term opportunities, however, they are very common and still important.
  • A constitutional committee is meant to advise the board of directors on issues related to the policies and procedures of an organization, as well as other ‘constitutional’ issues otherwise known as governance. 
  • An advisory committee is comprised of individuals who bring their expertise on a specific topic and advise the board based on their experience.
  • A joint committee may include members of the community or members of a board in a different organization that have come together for a common purpose or to advance a relationship.

Although there may be many different names for types of board committees in corporate governance and types of committees in nonprofit organizations, all committees fall into one type from the above categories. Types of management committees could be constitutional or advisory, however, it is likely to vary from board to board. 

Management Committee Roles And Responsibilities

You might be wondering what the role of a committee in an organization is. Management committees are responsible for deciding how an organization is operated as a whole. This is also why management committee meetings are important. The actual meaning of the verbiage “management committee” varies somewhat. Management committees can often work directly with the staff or CEO of an organization. Sometimes, what we recognize as a Board of Directors is simply another name for a management committee. 

Management committee members and management committee roles and responsibilities are vast. It can be helpful to develop a document of working committee roles and responsibilities if they tend to evolve and shift over time. There are many different types of committee members. 

Looking at the roles and responsibilities of committee members pdf can also help get a better understanding of different roles and how to document them. Documenting the roles and responsibilities of committee members can provide clarity for everyone involved and gives the committee a quick point of reference when trying to assign tasks. This is especially true when a management committee doubles as a trustee board or a Board of Directors. If the management committee PDF is the golden standard for how a board should be governed, it may even be a legal requirement for these roles and responsibilities to be spelled out.

Common management committee roles and responsibilities may look like this: 

  • Organizing board responsibilities as a whole
  • Creating organizational reports to determine priority
  • Upholding the overall values of an organization and remaining focused on the mission
  • Managing other aspects of the board, such as board operations and other committee functions

Role And Responsibilities Of Committee Members

The role and responsibilities of committee members can vary by committee. It is usually dependent on the committee’s role within the organization. For example, the planning committee roles and responsibilities would likely be different from the budget committee’s roles and responsibilities. It can be beneficial to create a “Roles & Responsibilities of Committee Members” pdf to help keep everyone on track. 

In general, here are a few common roles of members in a meeting:

  • Read and understand the agenda. The agenda is what determines the course of a meeting and is often crafted with the intention of priority and what time allows.
  • Take action on agenda items. Committees are created to accomplish tasks. It is the responsibility of committee members to read the agenda, understand it, make motions, and then follow through with the resolutions of their actions. 
  • Appointing new committee members. It is common for committee members to serve “terms” and have a term limit. It’s important to always have new committee members in place to preserve the committee’s purpose.
  • Support the action and efforts of the committee overall. As previously stated, the committee exists for a reason. It is the responsibility of that committee to oversee and advance the organization’s overall mission.

A recurring question about committee membership is about the legal responsibilities of committee members. Every committee member and board must understand the local, state, and federal laws surrounding board responsibilities regarding their type of organization. In the case of all organizations, particularly those that maintain non-profit status, all tax filings must be completed fully and turned in on time. You may lose your status if you do not renew your organization’s tax-exempt status with an IRS Form 990 . For-profit boards should also understand the legal consequences associated with overpaying or underpaying staff, supporting political causes with organizational funds, and the misuse of organizational funds in general.

Management Committee Vs Executive Committee

What are the differences between a management committee and an executive committee? There can appear to be quite a bit of overlap between the two. In the simplest definition, the role of an executive committee meeting is to function in the absence of the full board. Sometimes it is not always possible for a full board to gather and make decisions as a consensus. Instead, a list of executive committee members is gathered to act on behalf of the board.

Each board can choose to do this differently, but a common executive committee structure is commonly composed of the following executive committee positions: 

  • Chairperson
  • Vice Chairperson

Executive committee member roles are unique – there is only one president, vice president, etc. The management committee reports to the executive committee, even if there is some overlap in membership. This is why having a management committee charter, and a list of executive members is so important. Having clearly defined expectations and responsibilities for the different committees is key to limiting confusion between board members, many of whom volunteer on top of having additional community responsibilities. 

Common nonprofit executive committee roles and responsibilities are about determining the CEO’s compensation, approving the organization’s budget, and acting in representation of the full board. The roles are also about upholding the organization’s mission and values. Executive committees also usually take care of legal compliance issues, for example, reviewing an organization’s audit or ensuring that all IRS paperwork is properly filed. 

Committee Management Software

Keeping track of various roles and responsibilities, multiple agendas, minutes, and other board paperwork can be difficult. We understand that the best board portals should keep your team connected and focused, all while being scalable and easy to use. 

Some of the functionalities of Boardable include the Agenda Builder , Meeting Scheduler , and Minutes Maker. Our AI-enabled tools can assist in the high-effort tasks of crafting agendas and recording minutes, saving valuable time. These tools are used heavily in many industries that Boardable serves, including government , healthcare , real estate , technology , and nonprofit .

Our goal at Boardable is to increase board and committee engagement by giving them the power and capacity to get more done. We offer easy-to-use tools, and our solution is ready to use right out of its digital box. We also offer a free plan for those who’d like a taste of what it’s like to save time, energy, and resources. 

Solutions for Board Members

We know that what happens after a meeting is also critical. Keep post-meeting momentum going with a centralized hub your team can access before, during, and after meetings to promote autonomy and collaboration.

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On the Job and Off the Job Training Methods of Executive Development

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Everything you need to know about the methods and techniques of executive development. Executive development is a systematic and continuous process through which the executives learn advanced knowledge and skills in managing.

The types of executive development  methods are categorized into on-the-job and off-the-job methods. The on-the-job methods include job rotation, coaching/under-study, and action learning.

The off-the-job methods include management games, which have the problem-solving and analytical capabilities, outside seminars in technical as well as interpersonal areas, role playing to expose the managers to realistic situations and develop their skills, behaviour modelling for exposing the managers to the right way of doing things, letting them practice those practices, and more importantly, giving feedback on their performance during the practice.

In the words of Michael Armstrong, “Executive development is eventually something that the executive has to attain himself. But he will do this much better if he is given encouragement, guidance and opportunity by his company”.


The methods and techniques of executive development can be studied under the following heads:- 1. On the Job Methods 2. Off the Job Methods.

Some of the on the job methods of executive development are:-

1. Coaching 2. Job Rotation 3. Under Study 4. Multiple Management 5. Selected Readings 6. Committee’s Assignments 7. Project Assignments 8. Position Rotation and 9. Selected Readings.

Some of the off the job methods of executive development are:-

1. Lectures 2. Case Studies 3. Conference Method 4. Group Discussion 5. Role Playing 6. In-Basket Method 7. Management Games 8. Programmed Instruction 9. Sensitivity Training 10. Professional Courses and 11. Executive Training.

Executive Development Methods – 2 Broad Categories: On the Job and Off the Job Methods

The types of executive development  methods are categorized into on-the-job and off-the-job methods. The on-the-job methods include job rotation, coaching/under-study, and action learning. Job rotation involves movement of the management trainees/managers from one department to another, in order to familiarize them to various facets/functions/departments of the organization.

It also helps to develop an in-depth knowledge about the various businesses and processes of the organization. In coaching/under­study, the junior manager is placed under the guidance of a senior manager who continuously coaches and provides counselling for developing the junior executives for assuming higher responsibilities.

Action learning involves the full-time involvement of managers who are assigned to work on specific projects or problems. This helps the managers develop the capability of undertaking and completing a project and also solving the problems, which enhances their managerial and leadership capabilities.

The off-the-job methods include management games, which have the problem- solving and analytical capabilities, outside seminars in technical as well as interpersonal areas, role playing to expose the managers to realistic situations and develop their skills, behaviour modelling for exposing the managers to the right way of doing things, letting them practice those practices, and more importantly, giving feedback on their performance during the practice.

There are several methods of executive development.

They can be broadly classified into two categories as follows:

Method # 1. On-the-Job:

On-the-job training methods or techniques are most suitable when the purpose is to improve on-the-job behaviour of the executives. Such training is economical and time-saving. The motivation to learn in such techniques is very high because training takes place not in an artificial place like a class room but in real job situation.

On-the-job methods or techniques are very useful for certain groups like scientific and technical executives. However, though they appear to be economical, they may turn out to be costly when wastages of all types under these training methods are taken into account.

The various methods or techniques of on-the-job training are briefly described below:

i. Coaching:

Coaching is a method of training under which the trainee is placed under a particular supervisor who, acting as a coach or teacher or instructor, teachers job skills and knowledge to the trainee. The couch or counsellor tells the trainee what he wants him to do, how it can be done and follows up when it is being done by the trainee and corrects any errors committed by the trainee.

Coaching method offers several advantages viz. – (i) It is learning by doing, (ii) It can be undertaken even during the routine work, when no particular development programme exists, (iii) Periodic feedback and evaluation can be undertaken in this method, (iv) It is very useful for training of new executives and for developing operative skills and knowledge, (v) It requires close interaction between the coach and the trainee.

Coaching method however suffers from certain disadvantages viz. – (i) It tends to encourage the existing styles and practices to continue, (ii) It requires the superior to be a good teacher and a guide which is difficult to find, (iii) The training environment in this method will not be free from the daily routine tension and worries, (iv) The trainee may not find sufficient time to learn and improve.

According to Stephen P. Robbins, coaching becomes effective only if the coach is a good communicator, a noble motivator and a patient listener. Coaching will work well – (a) if the coach provides a good model with whom the trainee can identify, (b) if both the trainee and coach can be open with each other, (c) if the coach accepts his responsibility fully, and (d) if the coach provides the trainee with recognition of his improvement and suitable rewards.

ii. Job Rotation:

Job rotation involves transfer of executives from one job to another, and from one department to another in a systematic and planned manner. The primary aim of job rotation is to broaden the knowledge skills and outlook of the executives. Job-rota­tion may continue for a period of six months to two years. In the words of W. E. Bennet, “Job-rotation is a process of horizontal movement that widens the manager’s experience horizon beyond the limited confines of his own”.

There are several advantages of job rotation technique viz. (i) It reduces monotony and boredom by providing variety of work (ii) It facilitates cooperation and coordination between various departments of the organisation, (iii) It provides a chance to the executives to move up to higher positions by developing their personalities, (iv) It enables the management to make use of the executives’ skills and knowledge to the fullest possible extent.

However, job-rotation method suffers from the following disad­vantages viz. –

(i) It is likely to create disturbance in the well-set up re­lations.

(ii) It would be difficult for the trainee to adjust himself frequently in the new positions to which he has been transferred,

(iii) It is likely to create jealousy and friction because of the game of musical chairs. Frequent transfers cause class distinction and misunderstanding and uneasy feelings among the executives,

(iv) Frequent transfers to dif­ferent geographical areas are likely to upset family and personal life of the executives who may not be able to put in best of their will and effort in their jobs,

(v) Job rotation is likely to discourage intelligent and efficient trainees who prefer specific place and specific responsibility in their chosen specialisation.

iii. Understudy:

According to Dale S. Beach, “An understudy is a person who is in training to assume at a future time, the full responsibility of the position currently held by his superior”. This technique prepares a person with as much competence as the supe­rior to his post which is likely to fall vacant due to promotion, transfer or retirement.

The advantages of this method are several viz. (i) The trainee gets continuous guidance from his superior so as get full knowledge of the job. (ii) It helps the trainee to learn by doing his job and hence it is economical and time-saving, (iii) It helps to maintain close contact between the junior and his senior, (iv) It ensures continuity of management when the superior is promoted or transferred or leaves the job on retirement.

There are some disadvantages of understudy method viz. (i) It perpetuates the same old managerial practices, (ii) It demotivates other employees when a particular junior is trained in advance to take up higher position, (iii) The understudy may not have any freedom of thought and action when his senior is overbearing and predominant.

(iv) The subordinate staff are likely to ignore the understudy and treat him as an intruder without specific authority and responsibility. The success of this method depends upon the teaching skills and coop­eration from the superiors as well as the subordinates of the under­study.

iv. Multiple Management:

Under this method, a board consisting of young junior executives is constituted. It is called Junior Board of Executives System. It discusses the actual problems and different al­ternative solutions and makes its recommendations to the Board of Directors for its final consideration and approval.

The advantages of this method are as follows – (i) The young juniors get an opportunity to acquire knowledge of various aspects of business, (ii) The junior board helps to increase the productivity and human relations in the organisation, (iii) It is relatively an inexpensive method of training executives, (iv) It helps in developing a consider­able number of executives in a short period of time.

However, this method suffers from certain advantages – (i) There is no scope here for providing specific attention to the development needs of the executives, (ii) This method cannot be applied to the lower level executives, (iii) The discussions and recommendations of the junior board is likely to degenerate into academic debates.

v. Project Assignments:

Under this method, a group of trainee executives is assigned a particular project directly related to their func­tional area. The group known as project team or task force will study the problems and find suitable solutions to these problem. For example- accounts officers may be assigned the task of designing and de­veloping an effective budgetary control system. It is a flexible system of training because of its temporary nature of assignments.

vi. Committee Assignment:

A permanent committee consisting of trainee executives is formed. The trainee executives take part in the committee meetings and discuss about various viewpoints and alternative problem-solving methods. They also learn interpersonal skills.

vii. Selected Readings:

The management supplies various pro­fessional books and journals to the trainee executives so as to enable them to learn so many new things and add to their knowledge and skills a number of innovations in management.

Method # 2. Off-the-Job :

Since on-the-job methods or techniques of executive development have their own limitations, of-the-job techniques have been recommended to fill the gaps.

These techniques are described below:

i. Lectures:

Lecture method is the simplest of all the techniques. It is considered as the best method of presenting and explaining series of facts, concepts, principles, attitudes, problem-solving skills etc. and imparting knowledge to several persons at a time. It is used to introduce a subject to reduce anxiety about the upcoming training programmes or organisational changes, to present basic material providing a com­mon background and to illustrate the application of rules and regula­tions.

The advantages of lecture method are as follows:

(a) It can be used to teach to several persons at a time.

(b) It is a time-saving and economical method of imparting knowledge.

(c) It presents the overview and scope of the subject very clearly.

However, the lecture method suffers from the following disadvan­tages:

(a) It is a one-way communication, as there is no participation and feedback from the trainees,

(b) The trainees lose attention quickly as they are only passive listeners. The emphasis is on accumulation and memorization instead of on application of knowledge.

(c) The lectures become bore and unpalatable to the trainees when the lectures con­tain too much information,

(d) It requires lot of preparation and speak­ing skill for which the teacher executives generally lack time,

(e) The material to be presented will have to be geared to a common level of knowledge.

ii. Case-Study Method:

Under this method, a real or hypotheti­cal business problem is posed to the trainers and the trainees are asked to solve the problem in the most appropriate way. They are also guided by the trainers in such way that they can find out the best solution. This method was developed at Harvard Business School, USA.

A variant of case study method was developed at MIT, USA by Paul Pigors. It aims at developing the trainees in the areas of intellec­tual ability practical judgement and social awareness. In this method, only an outline of a situation rather than its full details is given to the trainees who are asked to find out information required and try to get the same from the trainer through questions.

The advantages of case study method are as follows – (i) It promotes analytical thinking and problem-solving skills among the train­ees. (ii) It encourages open mindedness. (iii) It enables the trainees to be aware of managerial concepts and processes and to apply them to specific situations, (iv) It also enables the trainees to be aware of obscurities, contradictions and uncertainties involved in business.

But this method suffers from the following disadvantages, viz. (i) It is time-consuming and expensive, (ii) It is likely to suppress the critical faculties of mediocre trainees, (iii) It is likely to degenerate into a dreary history suppressing analytical reasoning, (iv) it is likely to be indiscrimi­nately used as permanent precedents.

iii. Conferences:

A conference is a meeting of several persons to discuss problems of common interest. Each participant in the confer­ence contributes his own ideas towards the solution of problems. It is best suited when the problem has to be analysed and examined from different points of view.

The success of the conference depends upon several factors such as free and frank discussion among the partici­pants, absence of domination by a few participants, relevant discus­sion on the concerned problems efficiency of the leader of the confer­ence etc.

iv. Group Discussion:

It is a variant of lecture method. It is known as seminar or conference. Under this method, a critical discussion takes place among the participants on a paper containing a selected topic submitted by one of more trainees. The chairman of the group summa­rises the contents of paper and discussions follow afterwards.

Gener­ally the material to be discussed is distributed to the participants in advance. This method helps the executive-participants to learn from the experiences of each other and it has become quite popular.

v. Role Playing:

In this method, two or more trainees will be asked to assume the role of particular person before others. There will be interaction between the role players and the rest of the participants. Role playing primarily involves employer-employee relationships discussing a grievance procedure, conducting a post appraisal interview or disci­plining a subordinate etc.

Role-playing is a useful method of developing interpersonal or hu­man relations skills. If helps to bring about desired changes in the attitudes and behaviour of the participants. Trainees learn here by do­ing and by quick feedback. The degree of learning is high because the participants learn by observing and listening. Role playing involves a simulation a creating an environment which will be similar to real work situation.

vi. In-Basket Method:

This method is based on simulation. In this method, the trainee is provided with a basket as trey containing pa­pers and files relating to his functional area. He is required to care­fully study these papers and pass his own remarks or observations on the problem situation. The observations of different trainees are compared and conclusions are arrived afterwards. Then they are put down in the form of a report.

vii. Management Games:

This method is also based on simula­tion. Under this method, the trainees are divided into different groups or teams. Each group or team has to discus and arrive at decisions relating to such matters as production, pricing, research, advertising, etc. on the assumption that each group or team itself is the management or the firm.

The other groups act as competitors of the firm and react to the decisions. Thus each team’s immediate feedback to the decisions of others enables the management to know the relative performance of each team. The co-operation between the teams helps to promote great interaction among the participants and gives them the experience of cooperative efforts.

viii. Programmed Instruction:

This method provides some spe­cific skills or general knowledge which has been pre-arranged. Such information is broken into meaningful units, so that all the units con­stitute a logical and sequential package. Each package is built upon the earlier ones and knowledge is imparted to the trainees with the help of text books or teaching machines. The package is in the form of questions along with necessary information and the trainees have to answer immediately.

ix. Sensitivity Training:

This method is also knows as T-Group training or laboratory training. The aim of such training is to create self-awareness, develop inter-personal competence and sharpen team­work skills among the trainees, who are brought together in a free and open environment to discuss themselves and express their ideas, be­liefs and attitudes.

Executive Development Methods – On-the-Job and Off-the-Job Methods Used to Develop Executives for their Quantitative and Qualitative Performance

There are different on-the-job and off-the-job methods that are being used to develop executives for their quantitative and qualitative performance.

Some of the important methods are discussed below:

Executive Development Methods :

(A) On-the-Job Methods:

In this method, a supervisor or designated senior imparts job knowledge and skills to the trainees. It is a process of learning by doing. It facilitates inter-action, feedback, instant evaluation and correction required for improving performance of the trainee. Lack of time and coaching ability of the supervisor senior will hamper effectiveness of training.

ii. Delegation:

It is a powerful training tool, at all levels of management. Delegation of authority gives the juniors the confidence and zeal to take the right decision on time and to execute their duties and responsibilities effectively and efficiently. Ultimately, it helps to achieve end results.

iii. Under Study:

Under this method, the trainee is assigned as an assistant to the supervisor. The supervisor closely watches over the trainee while doing the assigned job and helps him to perform it better. It develops competent successors to senior executives under whom the trainee is assigned. It facilitates continuous guidance from the supervisor and develops practical exposure and leadership quality of the trainee.

iv. Position Rotation:

Job or position rotation means moving managers from one department to another. It gives them a broad understanding and exposure to various functions of the organization. It also enables them to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the company. It reduces monotony and boredom of doing the same work for a long time and improves collaborative work, broadens outlook and creates diversified skills of the executives.

v. Committees:

Being a member of a committee helps the managers to learn different disciplines from other members of the team. This enables them to have the relevant insights and get to know the kind of decisions to be made in different situations.

vi. Project Assignment:

A group of trainees are assigned to work on a project related to their functional area. The members work as a team in identifying and solving problems. It facilitates team work.

vii. Multiple Management:

Under this method, trainees from junior advisory boards provide solutions to the Board of Directors after a careful study about it. It helps in identifying managerial talent and collective decision-making. It provides knowledge and skills in various functional areas of the organization. It is not suitable for low level managers due to lack of commitment on the part of trainees.

viii. Selected Readings:

The trainees are asked to read and update their knowledge from specific books and journals. Most of the practicing managers prefer this method. It is convenient and cost effective.

(B) Off-the-Job Methods:

Large number of trainees can simultaneously take part in a presentation. It provides lots of job information and conceptual knowledge to large number of trainees, quickly. The effectiveness of their training relies on the trainer and the involvement of the trainees. However, it may not help a technical hands-on skills.

ii. Case Studies:

This method of executive development facilitates classroom group discussion to identify problems, its implications and to arrive at possible solutions. An actual situation given in a written form for critical analysis is called case study. It improves the analytical and decision-making skills of the executives. A good case is the vehicle by which a chunk of reality is brought into the classroom to be discussed to find the reasons for problems and evolve a suitable solution for it.

iii. Group Discussion:

Under this method, each trainee is asked to prepare and present a paper on a specific topic. After presentation the floor is opened for critical discussion and review. It enables the trainees to develop oratory and presentation skills but, it is time consuming.

iv. Conferences:

This method enables the trainees to hear experts delivering talks on specific topics and helps the participants interact and get their doubts clarified. It facilitates trainees to solve specific problems and is suitable for professionals in a specialized trade. Mutual problems form the subject of discussion in a conference. Participants share their ideas and expertise in attempting to arrive at improved solutions to deal with these problems. More trainees can participate at a time. Electronic and electrical gadgets can be used to make the teaching and learning process more interesting.

In this method, the trainees are assigned with different roles and asked to act out as if they are in reality. It helps in understanding the behavioural patterns of people and to develop better interpersonal relationships, negotiating and selling skills.

vi. Management Games:

It is a simulation technique that involves different teams each of which is given a hypothetical situation to work for a given period of time. It is a dynamic training exercise simulating a real business situation. In these games, participants are divided into various teams which are placed in competition with each other in resolving some problem information which is supplied to all teams.

vii. In-Basket Exercises:

This is another form of simulation, in which each trainee is given a short span of time to deal with several problems. The trainees handling the same problem will meet to know the logic behind the problems. It helps the trainees to develop situational judgment skills. This is another technique of simulation.

viii. Sensitivity Training:

This method is also called as T-group training, laboratory training, and executive action. This deals with the problem existing within the T-group in reality and is not simulated. This helps the participants in understanding themselves and others, the emotions involved and to know how they react in different situations.

ix. Programmed Instructions:

This training method is used to teach the trainees, behavioural and non-motor skills. The subject matter is prepared and arranged in a logical and sequential manner for the trainees to understand and follow better. The trainer monitors the trainees while they are working on the instructions. The advantage of this method is that the trainees get the immediate feedback from the trainer. The negatives of the method are that it is expensive and time consuming.

x. Professional Courses:

Managers and executives are encouraged to undergo professional courses in reputed business schools and universities to learn new concepts and enhance their knowledge for better performance. According to their area of specialization they may do a degree, diploma and certificate courses to update knowledge.

xi. Executive Training:

Professional institutions provide training on several areas at different times enabling the managers and executives to undergo any preferred training programme according to their own convenience at different times. They do conduct training on time management, soft-skills, team building, etc.

Executive Development Methods – 2 Important Techniques: On the Job Development and Off the Job Development

Method # 1. on the job development techniques:.

The main feature of all on-the-job techniques is to increase the ability of the executives to work while performing their duties. They aim at exposing the trainees to the real work situation. Generally, support is provided by immediate superior in the conduct of these development programs.

(a) On the Job Coaching:

In this method, the immediate superior guides the subordinate about various ways and methods and skills to do the job. Here, it is important to note that the superior only guides and does not teach, although he extends his assistance whenever needed. Periodic feedback and evaluation are also the part of the coaching activity. Merits of this method lie in the fact that it provides real and practical job experience to the trainee.

The objective of coaching is not only to teach the subordinate the necessary skills for doing his assignment but also to provide him with diversified knowledge so that he may grow and advance.

Coaching should be distinguished from counselling which involves discussion between a superior and his subordinate of areas concerned with the latter’s fears, emotions and aspirations. It reaches into very personal and delicate matters. In many cases, the superior has to play the role of both coach and counsellor.

The main advantage of on-the-job coaching is increased motivation for the trainee and minimisation of the problems of transferring learning from theory to practice. The danger in this method is the possible neglect by the guide or supervisor. Thus, as a development technique, it cannot stand alone.

It is primarily a device for ensuring that individuals grow within the boundaries set by their jobs and their organisational units. The man cannot develop much beyond the limits of his own boss’s abilities. Coaching works best when other techniques of development are used along with it.

(b) Understudy:

In case of understudy, an executive is developed to perform the work or fill the position of his superior. He is a trainee who at a future time will assume the duties and responsibilities of the position currently held by his immediate superior when the latter separates from the job because of transfer, promotion, resignation, retirement, etc.

Understudy technique is similar to on-the-job coaching with the difference that the department manager may pick one individual from his unit to become his understudy. He will then guide him to learn his job and grapple with the problems that confront the manager dally. An understudy can be developed to take over the superior’s job in a number of ways.

When the superior is handling his daily operating problems, he may discuss these with his understudy to get his ideas and give him experience of decision making. He may also assign the understudy to investigate and make written recommendations upon long-term problems. The understudy may even be asked to directly supervise a number of people at work. This will give him an opportunity to try out his leadership skills.

The major advantage of this method is that it ensures the ready supply of competent people whenever the vacancy arises due to promotion, transfer, retirement or resignation of the present occupant of the position. This method has built-in motivation because it is considered a step towards promotion of the trainee.

This method is advantageous for the boss and the organisation also. It relieves the boss of some of his workload by delegating some portion of his work to the understudy. To the organisation, it ensures that it will not be placed at a serious disadvantage if the executive suddenly leaves his job. The understudy will be in a position to hold that position.

(c) Job or Position Rotation:

Job rotation consists of a systematic and co-ordinated effort to transfer an executive from one job to another at regular intervals to make him gain wide experience. The executive is given all the normal duties and responsibilities which go along with the job to which he is transferred.

This method broadens the outlook of the executive in as much as he comes to appreciate the problems faced by other functional managers, plants, departments, etc.

Job rotation serves to bring the feeling of superiority of one department over the others. When a number of executives have served in each other’s department, they can also understand the reasons why a certain function must be done in a particular way. Thus, inter-departmental cooperation will be enhanced. Job rotation injects new ideas into the different departments of the organisation.

Under, this system, an executive is not destined to end up in just one post but is equipped to step into any one of the several executive posts in various functional divisions. The trainee will learn the nature and significance of management principles by transferring learning from one job to another.

Here, again, the training takes place in a practical situation. This technique can stimulate a more co-operative attitude by exposing a man to the problems and viewpoints of others.

The system of job rotation is not free from drawbacks. Productive work may suffer due to disruption caused by changes and limitations of individuals to adjust to new job. So it is better to lengthen the interval of rotation and to rotate fewer personnel at a time.

The executive can’t gain specialised knowledge in one particular branch of work during a short span of time. Job rotation may undermine the morale and efficiency of the executives transferred as their family life may be disturbed and they may find it difficult to adjust at the new place.

(d) Project Assignment:

Under this method, a trainee may be assigned a project that is closely related to the objectives of his department. For instance, a trainee may be assigned to develop a system of cost control in the execution of an order. The trainee will study the problem, collect and analyse data and make recommendations upon it.

This project would also help in educating the trainee the importance of cost and to understand the organisational relationships between the accounting and other departments. Thus, the trainee acquires the knowledge of allied subjects also.

(e) Multiple Management or Junior Board :

This method involves the establishment of a junior Board of Directors in the company for the training of selected executives. The junior board is given the power to discuss any problem which the senior board (constituted by the shareholders) should discuss.

The greatest value of the junior board is the training of middle level executives. Who are in the que for promotion? Membership of the junior board becomes a pre-requisite to the membership of the senior board.

This method has the advantages of being relatively inexpensive, developing teamwork and group decision-making among managers, enabling the managers to see the problems from the organisational rather than departmental or functional point of view.

(f) Committee Assignment:

A committee is a group of executives appointed to investigate, take action, make recommendations regarding some matter relating to the organisation. The committee studies the problem or issue in accordance with the terms of reference. For example, a committee may be set up to analyse the feasibility of introducing a new product.

This committee may have persons from finance department, engineering department, research and development department, etc. The committee will study the question of feasibility of new product from all the angles and make recommendations. If the committee is in staff capacity, its recommendations may be turned down by the higher management. But if it is in line capacity, it would take action also on whatever it finds prudent.

A committee is an excellent means of training. The trainee is placed on a committee which is constituted to make recommendations on a particular problem. Through discussions and deliberations in committee meetings, the trainee becomes acquainted with the different view-points and acquires a wider perspective.

This method of training may speed up the development of executives provided the committee does not become a battle ground or is not dominated by a few individuals. In short, this method of training has all the advantages which could be availed through the method of multiple management or junior board.

Method # 2. Off the Job Development Techniques:

The focus in off-the-job methods of development is to improve general behavioural and decision-making skills of the executives. In contrast to the on-the- job methods, off-the-job methods do not contain such a heavy dose of reference to the particular job. They are relatively more general.

These methods are discussed below:

(a) Role Playing:

Role playing may be described as a technique of creating a life situation, usually one involving conflict between people, and then having persons in a group play the parts or roles of specific personalities. In industry, it is used primarily as a technique for modifying attitudes and interpersonal skills.

Typically, the situation is structured by setting forth the facts of the situation, the event that led upto present situation and other relevant information.

The individuals are then designated to play the roles of persons in the situation described. For instance, two trainees may play the roles of a superior and a subordinate to discuss the latter’s grievances.

The purpose of role playing is to aid trainees to understand certain problems and to enable observers to evaluate trainees’ role performance. Role playing is generally used for human relations and sales training. This technique makes trainees self- conscious and imaginative and analytical of their own behaviour.

(b) Sensitivity Training:

Sensitivity or T-group training is an important technique of “laboratory training”. The main objective of sensitivity training is the development of awareness and sensitivity to one’s own behavioural pattern through interactions with others. The sensitivity training program is absolutely unstructured.

The trainer initially explains the technique to the participants and informs them that the purpose is to increase their awareness about themselves and others and to know each other’s feelings and reactions in a group setting. He makes clear his own role which is to be helpful. He will neither act as a leader nor will there be any agenda.

Sensitivity training virtually establishes a situation in which the trainee learns himself.

Sensitivity training is so informal and unstructured as compared to role playing that the trainee gets no guidance or instruction whatsoever about how to proceed. The trainer is a moderator who provides feedback so that each trainee may know what others think about him.

(c) Conference Training:

A conference is a group meeting conducted according to an organised plan in which the participants seek to develop knowledge and understanding by obtaining a considerable amount of oral participation. It is an effective training device for persons in the positions of both conference member and conference leader.

As a member, a person can learn from others by comparing his opinions with those of others. He learns to respect the viewpoints of others and to realise that there is more than one workable approach to a problem. As a conference leader, a person can develop his skill to motivate people through his direction of discussion. He learns the effects of closely controlling and dominating the discussion as compared to adopting a more permissive type of direction.

The conference method overcomes certain disadvantages of the lecture method because here the participants play active role. They are not passive. Learning is facilitated through building upon the ideas contributed by the conference members.

In fact, people learn from each other. Interest of the participants tends to be high. The conference is ideally suited to learning about problems and issues and examining them from different angles. It is the best method for reducing dogmatism employed in supervisory and executive development programs.

The conference method is not free from drawbacks. The main drawback is that the progress at the conference is often slow because all those desiring to speak on a point are generally allowed to do so. Sometimes, irrelevant issues creep in and the main issue is lost in the process.

(d) Programmed Instruction:

Programmed instruction (sometimes packaged in a device called a teaching machine) was developed in the late 1950’s for both school and industrial applications. Cook and Mechner have defined programmed instruction as the application of the science of learning to the task of education and training.

The key features of programmed learning are:

(i) The trainees learn at their own pace;

(ii) The instructors are not a key part of the learning;

(iii) The material to be learnt is broken down into very small units or stages;

(iv) Each step logically builds upon those that have preceded it;

(v) The student is given immediate knowledge of results for each answer he gives; and

(vi) There is active participation by the learner at each step in the program.

The core feature of programmed instruction is participation by the trainee and immediate feedback to him. The programmed instruction includes elaborate teaching machines, films, sound tapes, programmed books, illustrations, printed material, and diagrams. Whatever may be the method of programmed instructions, it basically provides feedback to the learner whether his response is correct or not.

These days, programs have been devised which take into account individual differences in background. If a student is unable to give the right answer to a question or a series of questions, he will be directed along a different branch of the program to provide him with the fundamentals he has missed.

(e) Simulation Development Techniques:

The basic idea behind simulation is to construct a situation which closely represents the actual one. It provides an opportunity to conduct trial or test runs under conditions that are as close to reality as feasible.

Based on empirical data, a model is constructed and then subjected to the same influences and forces that occur in actual practice. While these simulation models are not mathematical as operations research models, they are quantitative representation of the situations being studied. They include physical similarities, behavioural characteristics and interactions that would normally be present under actual conditions.

There are three basic simulation techniques:

(i) Business Games,

(ii) In-Basket, and

(iii) Case Study.

(i) Business Games:

A business or management game has been described as a dynamic training exercise utilizing a model of business situation. It is essentially a group exercise in sequential decision-making under simulated organisational conditions.

(ii) “In-Basket” Training:

This technique emphasises the necessity for skills in decision-making and ability to differentiate the significant from the important. The trainee is presented with a situation where he must take over for a manager who is absent. He is provided with an in-basket full of materials with which he must deal.

These materials may be phone calls, meetings, complaints to handle, orders to make and other demands which supposedly duplicate the tasks he would face, if he were holding such a position. This may require a list of priorities.

After the session is completed, the trainer and the trainee meet to discuss and evaluate the trainee’s performance. Similar techniques may have men working together as a group. Same strong and weak points that are applicable for business games are applicable here also.

(iii) Case Study Method:

The typical case study used for training is a thorough description of some events that actually occurred in an organisation. Usually it involves some problem that has to be solved. The trainees read the case and present alternative solutions or lines of action. These suggestions may then be discussed where the individual is able to obtain information about how others viewed the case.

The case study method is one of reasoning and analysis of facts to find an answer. The trainee learns to face facts and appreciate other’s viewpoint. This method increases the learner’s power of observation and allows him to look from a broader angle. It discourages snap judgments. The success of this method depends largely upon the ability of the instructor.

A poorly conducted discussion may degenerate into a rambling session from which the participants derive no learning. It is a simple and interesting method. Actual incidents may be used. A well-chosen case may promote objective discussion but no basic change takes place in the behaviour and attitude of the trainee in the absence of emotional involvement.

Case studies are extensively used in teaching law, human resource management, human relations, marketing management and business policy in various educational institutions. Students learn that there is no single solution to a particular problem.

The answer of each trainee may differ. Case discussions will help them to appreciate each other’s thinking. That is why, case study is frequently used in supervisory and executive training in business.

Under this technique, the trainees are actively involved. They are encouraged to consider a variety of alternatives and to explore different approaches to solve the problem.

Related Articles:

  • Training of Employees: 3 Methods | Functions | Human Resource Management
  • Training and Development of Employees | Essay | Personnel Management
  • Executive Development: Concept, Characteristics, Objectives and Other Details
  • Training of Employees: Meaning, Importance and Methods

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  • Amu Mathebula
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What is an employment equity committee?

Did you know that employers with 50 or more employees will need to establish an Employment Equity & Training Committee?

The selection of an Employment Equity Committee is a critical step towards implementing the Act. The primary role of this committee is to ensure that the organisation is meeting its Employment Equity requirements by drafting the organisation’s EE plan and providing its effective implementation.

The Employment Equity Committee should comprise out of the following representatives:

Employer Representative

Employee Representative

Union Representative (where applicable)

What is the role of an Employment Equity Training committee?

The role of the training committee is to Consult on training priorities and needs and agree on interventions that address these priorities and needs. To represent, communicate with and gather feedback from employees and other stakeholders on skills development matters.

What are the functions of a Training Committee?

Consult on Skills Development issues.

Evaluate on Skills Development needs.

Implementation on monitoring of the Workplace Skills Plan.

Implementation on monitoring of the Employment Equity Plan.

What is the primary purpose of the Employment Equity Act?

The purpose of the Employment Equity Act is to promote equal opportunity and fair treatment in employment through the elimination of unfair discrimination.

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  2. Section 7.2: Different Methods of On-the-job Training

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    Committee Assignments: Committee assignments refer to the method in which the trainees are asked to solve an actual organizational problem. In committee assignments, trainees have to work together in a team and offer solution to the problem. This method of training helps the trainees to develop team spirit to achieve a common organizational goal.

  11. On-the-job training examples (With benefits and tips)

    Committee assignment Committee assignment training is when a superior asks a group of employees to form a committee and complete a task. Often, this task involves copious amounts of planning, research and problem-solving. Committee assignment training has several benefits, including bringing employees closer together, improving employees ...

  12. Employee Development Training and Methods

    Learn about employee development training, methods and approaches.A: Employee development training can be studied under the following heads:- 1. Off-the-Job Training 2. On-the-Job Training. ... Committee Assignment: (i) Committee assignments allow the employees to share in decision making, to learn by watching others and to investigate specific ...

  13. Committee Management: Roles & Responsibilities

    Committee management can happen in a variety of ways. One of the most common solutions is a paper and electronic communication combo. Paper agendas are mailed out prior to the meeting, are available on-sight, and the committee is reminded of the time, date, and agenda via email. While this enhances communication, this approach also places a lot ...

  14. On the Job and Off the Job Training Methods of Executive Development

    For example- accounts officers may be assigned the task of designing and de­veloping an effective budgetary control system. It is a flexible system of training because of its temporary nature of assignments. vi. Committee Assignment: A permanent committee consisting of trainee executives is formed.

  15. Committee Assignment Process in the U.S. Senate: Democratic and

    The rules of the Senate divide its standing and other committees into categories for purposes of assigning all Senators to committees. In particular, Rule XXV, paragraphs 2 and 3 establish the categories of committees, popularly called the "A," "B," and "C" committees. The "A" and "B" categories, are as follows:2.


    tool for helping committee members understand their assignment. At least one general committee orientation/training event, preferably prior to the budgeting cycle, should be offered each year for all committee members. During the year additional training can be provided for selected committees.

  17. Training Committee's And What You Need To Know

    The selection of an Employment Equity Committee is a critical step towards implementing the Act. The primary role of this committee is to ensure that the organisation is meeting its Employment Equity requirements by drafting the organisation's EE plan and providing its effective implementation.

  18. Rules Governing House Committee and Subcommittee Assignment Procedures

    21 The chairs for the Committees on Appropriations, Ethics, House Administration, and joint committees may also serve as subcommittee chairs (Democratic Caucus Rule 22(D)(1). Committee Chairs limited to one committee assignment. Committee Chairs that may receive an additional committee assignment.

  19. Rules Governing Senate Committee and Subcommittee Assignment Procedures

    A Senator may serve as chair of no more than one subcommittee on each committee of which he or she is a member. More specific limitations apply to chairs of "A" and "B" committees. An "A" committee chair may serve as the chair of one "A" subcommittee in total and one "B" subcommittee per "B" committee assignment.

  20. Moscow City Police

    The Moscow Police is the largest regional police force in Russia with 50,500 officers as of 2010, with primary responsibilities in law enforcement, the detection and investigation of crime, and protection of the public order in the Federal City of Moscow. It is part of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD) and also subordinate to Moscow City ...

  21. Moscow 2030: a Development Plan / Smart City of the Future

    1. To focus on humans and creating the conditions for a full-fledged, high-quality, and happy life for all categories of residents. Participation of residents. in city governance. 2. To develop conditions for active involvement of residents in social life and making decisions on citywide issues; open digital government. Artificial intelligence.


    Destination Management. Innovation, Education & Investments ». Innovation Projects. Investments Strategy. Tourism Startup Competitions. UN Tourism Challenges. Ethics, Culture & Social Responsibility ». Global Code of Ethics for Tourism. World Committee on Tourism Ethics.

  23. Vasily Pronin

    Vasily Prokhorovich Pronin ( Russian: Васи́лий Про́хорович Про́нин; 25 December 1905 - 12 October 1993) was a Soviet statesman and Chairman of the executive committee of the Moscow City Council of Laborers' Deputies (today's equivalent of mayor) between 14 April 1939 and 7 December 1944. [1]