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2.2 Media Effects Theories
- Identify the basic theories of media effects.
- Explain the uses of various media effects theories.
Early media studies focused on the use of mass media in propaganda and persuasion. However, journalists and researchers soon looked to behavioral sciences to help figure out the effect of mass media and communications on society. Scholars have developed many different approaches and theories to figure this out. You can refer to these theories as you research and consider the media’s effect on culture.
Widespread fear that mass-media messages could outweigh other stabilizing cultural influences, such as family and community, led to what is known as the direct effects model of media studies. This model assumed that audiences passively accepted media messages and would exhibit predictable reactions in response to those messages. For example, following the radio broadcast of War of the Worlds in 1938 (which was a fictional news report of an alien invasion), some people panicked and believed the story to be true.
Challenges to the Direct Effects Theory
The results of the People’s Choice Study challenged this model. Conducted in 1940, the study attempted to gauge the effects of political campaigns on voter choice. Researchers found that voters who consumed the most media had generally already decided for which candidate to vote, while undecided voters generally turned to family and community members to help them decide. The study thus discredited the direct effects model and influenced a host of other media theories (Hanson, 2009). These theories do not necessarily give an all-encompassing picture of media effects but rather work to illuminate a particular aspect of media influence.
Marshall McLuhan’s Influence on Media Studies
During the early 1960s, English professor Marshall McLuhan wrote two books that had an enormous effect on the history of media studies. Published in 1962 and 1964, respectively, the Gutenberg Galaxy and Understanding Media both traced the history of media technology and illustrated the ways these innovations had changed both individual behavior and the wider culture. Understanding Media introduced a phrase that McLuhan has become known for: “The medium is the message.” This notion represented a novel take on attitudes toward media—that the media themselves are instrumental in shaping human and cultural experience.
His bold statements about media gained McLuhan a great deal of attention as both his supporters and critics responded to his utopian views about the ways media could transform 20th-century life. McLuhan spoke of a media-inspired “global village” at a time when Cold War paranoia was at its peak and the Vietnam War was a hotly debated subject. Although 1960s-era utopians received these statements positively, social realists found them cause for scorn. Despite—or perhaps because of—these controversies, McLuhan became a pop culture icon, mentioned frequently in the television sketch-comedy program Laugh-In and appearing as himself in Woody Allen’s film Annie Hall .
The Internet and its accompanying cultural revolution have made McLuhan’s bold utopian visions seem like prophecies. Indeed, his work has received a great deal of attention in recent years. Analysis of McLuhan’s work has, interestingly, not changed very much since his works were published. His supporters point to the hopes and achievements of digital technology and the utopian state that such innovations promise. The current critique of McLuhan, however, is a bit more revealing of the state of modern media studies. Media scholars are much more numerous now than they were during the 1960s, and many of these scholars criticize McLuhan’s lack of methodology and theoretical framework.
Despite his lack of scholarly diligence, McLuhan had a great deal of influence on media studies. Professors at Fordham University have formed an association of McLuhan-influenced scholars. McLuhan’s other great achievement is the popularization of the concept of media studies. His work brought the idea of media effects into the public arena and created a new way for the public to consider the influence of media on culture (Stille, 2000).
In contrast to the extreme views of the direct effects model, the agenda-setting theory of media stated that mass media determine the issues that concern the public rather than the public’s views. Under this theory, the issues that receive the most attention from media become the issues that the public discusses, debates, and demands action on. This means that the media is determining what issues and stories the public thinks about. Therefore, when the media fails to address a particular issue, it becomes marginalized in the minds of the public (Hanson).
When critics claim that a particular media outlet has an agenda, they are drawing on this theory. Agendas can range from a perceived liberal bias in the news media to the propagation of cutthroat capitalist ethics in films. For example, the agenda-setting theory explains such phenomena as the rise of public opinion against smoking. Before the mass media began taking an antismoking stance, smoking was considered a personal health issue. By promoting antismoking sentiments through advertisements, public relations campaigns, and a variety of media outlets, the mass media moved smoking into the public arena, making it a public health issue rather than a personal health issue (Dearing & Rogers, 1996). More recently, coverage of natural disasters has been prominent in the news. However, as news coverage wanes, so does the general public’s interest.
Through a variety of antismoking campaigns, the health risks of smoking became a public agenda.
Quinn Dombrowski – Weapons of mass destruction – CC BY-SA 2.0.
Media scholars who specialize in agenda-setting research study the salience, or relative importance, of an issue and then attempt to understand what causes it to be important. The relative salience of an issue determines its place within the public agenda, which in turn influences public policy creation. Agenda-setting research traces public policy from its roots as an agenda through its promotion in the mass media and finally to its final form as a law or policy (Dearing & Rogers, 1996).
Uses and Gratifications Theory
Practitioners of the uses and gratifications theory study the ways the public consumes media. This theory states that consumers use the media to satisfy specific needs or desires. For example, you may enjoy watching a show like Dancing With the Stars while simultaneously tweeting about it on Twitter with your friends. Many people use the Internet to seek out entertainment, to find information, to communicate with like-minded individuals, or to pursue self-expression. Each of these uses gratifies a particular need, and the needs determine the way in which media is used. By examining factors of different groups’ media choices, researchers can determine the motivations behind media use (Papacharissi, 2009).
A typical uses and gratifications study explores the motives for media consumption and the consequences associated with use of that media. In the case of Dancing With the Stars and Twitter, you are using the Internet as a way to be entertained and to connect with your friends. Researchers have identified a number of common motives for media consumption. These include relaxation, social interaction, entertainment, arousal, escape, and a host of interpersonal and social needs. By examining the motives behind the consumption of a particular form of media, researchers can better understand both the reasons for that medium’s popularity and the roles that the medium fills in society. A study of the motives behind a given user’s interaction with Facebook, for example, could explain the role Facebook takes in society and the reasons for its appeal.
Uses and gratifications theories of media are often applied to contemporary media issues. The analysis of the relationship between media and violence that you read about in preceding sections exemplifies this. Researchers employed the uses and gratifications theory in this case to reveal a nuanced set of circumstances surrounding violent media consumption, as individuals with aggressive tendencies were drawn to violent media (Papacharissi, 2009).
Another commonly used media theory, symbolic interactionism , states that the self is derived from and develops through human interaction. This means the way you act toward someone or something is based on the meaning you have for a person or thing. To effectively communicate, people use symbols with shared cultural meanings. Symbols can be constructed from just about anything, including material goods, education, or even the way people talk. Consequentially, these symbols are instrumental in the development of the self.
This theory helps media researchers better understand the field because of the important role the media plays in creating and propagating shared symbols. Because of the media’s power, it can construct symbols on its own. By using symbolic interactionist theory, researchers can look at the ways media affects a society’s shared symbols and, in turn, the influence of those symbols on the individual (Jansson-Boyd, 2010).
One of the ways the media creates and uses cultural symbols to affect an individual’s sense of self is advertising. Advertisers work to give certain products a shared cultural meaning to make them desirable. For example, when you see someone driving a BMW, what do you think about that person? You may assume the person is successful or powerful because of the car he or she is driving. Ownership of luxury automobiles signifies membership in a certain socioeconomic class. Equally, technology company Apple has used advertising and public relations to attempt to become a symbol of innovation and nonconformity. Use of an Apple product, therefore, may have a symbolic meaning and may send a particular message about the product’s owner.
Media also propagate other noncommercial symbols. National and state flags, religious images, and celebrities gain shared symbolic meanings through their representation in the media.
Spiral of Silence
The spiral of silence theory, which states that those who hold a minority opinion silence themselves to prevent social isolation, explains the role of mass media in the formation and maintenance of dominant opinions. As minority opinions are silenced, the illusion of consensus grows, and so does social pressure to adopt the dominant position. This creates a self-propagating loop in which minority voices are reduced to a minimum and perceived popular opinion sides wholly with the majority opinion. For example, prior to and during World War II, many Germans opposed Adolf Hitler and his policies; however, they kept their opposition silent out of fear of isolation and stigma.
Because the media is one of the most important gauges of public opinion, this theory is often used to explain the interaction between media and public opinion. According to the spiral of silence theory, if the media propagates a particular opinion, then that opinion will effectively silence opposing opinions through an illusion of consensus. This theory relates especially to public polling and its use in the media (Papacharissi).
The media logic theory states that common media formats and styles serve as a means of perceiving the world. Today, the deep rooting of media in the cultural consciousness means that media consumers need engage for only a few moments with a particular television program to understand that it is a news show, a comedy, or a reality show. The pervasiveness of these formats means that our culture uses the style and content of these shows as ways to interpret reality. For example, think about a TV news program that frequently shows heated debates between opposing sides on public policy issues. This style of debate has become a template for handling disagreement to those who consistently watch this type of program.
Media logic affects institutions as well as individuals. The modern televangelist has evolved from the adoption of television-style promotion by religious figures, while the utilization of television in political campaigns has led candidates to consider their physical image as an important part of a campaign (Altheide & Snow, 1991).
The cultivation analysis theory states that heavy exposure to media causes individuals to develop an illusory perception of reality based on the most repetitive and consistent messages of a particular medium. This theory most commonly applies to analyses of television because of that medium’s uniquely pervasive, repetitive nature. Under this theory, someone who watches a great deal of television may form a picture of reality that does not correspond to actual life. Televised violent acts, whether those reported on news programs or portrayed on television dramas, for example, greatly outnumber violent acts that most people encounter in their daily lives. Thus, an individual who watches a great deal of television may come to view the world as more violent and dangerous than it actually is.
Cultivation analysis projects involve a number of different areas for research, such as the differences in perception between heavy and light users of media. To apply this theory, the media content that an individual normally watches must be analyzed for various types of messages. Then, researchers must consider the given media consumer’s cultural background of individuals to correctly determine other factors that are involved in his or her perception of reality. For example, the socially stabilizing influences of family and peer groups influence children’s television viewing and the way they process media messages. If an individual’s family or social life plays a major part in her life, the social messages that she receives from these groups may compete with the messages she receives from television.
- The now largely discredited direct effects model of media studies assumes that media audiences passively accept media messages and exhibit predictable reactions in response to those messages.
- Credible media theories generally do not give as much power to the media, such as the agenda-setting theory, or give a more active role to the media consumer, such as the uses and gratifications theory.
- Other theories focus on specific aspects of media influence, such as the spiral of silence theory’s focus on the power of the majority opinion or the symbolic interactionism theory’s exploration of shared cultural symbolism.
- Media logic and cultivation analysis theories deal with how media consumers’ perceptions of reality can be influenced by media messages.
Media theories have a variety of uses and applications. Research one of the following topics and its effect on culture. Examine the topic using at least two of the approaches discussed in this section. Then, write a one-page essay about the topic you’ve selected.
- Internet habits
- Television’s effect on attention span
- Advertising and self-image
- Racial stereotyping in film
- Many of the theories discussed in this section were developed decades ago. Identify how each of these theories can be used today? Do you think these theories are still relevant for modern mass media? Why?
David Altheide and Robert Snow, Media Worlds in the Postjournalism Era (New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1991), 9–11.
Dearing, James and Everett Rogers, Agenda-Setting (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1996), 4.
Hanson, Ralph. Mass Communication: Living in a Media World (Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2009), 80–81.
Hanson, Ralph. Mass Communication , 92.
Jansson-Boyd, Catherine. Consumer Psychology (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2010), 59–62.
Papacharissi, Zizi. “Uses and Gratifications,” 153–154.
Papacharissi, Zizi. “Uses and Gratifications,” in An Integrated Approach to Communication Theory and Research , ed. Don Stacks and Michael Salwen (New York: Routledge, 2009), 137.
Stille, Alexander. “Marshall McLuhan Is Back From the Dustbin of History; With the Internet, His Ideas Again Seem Ahead of Their Time,” New York Times , October 14, 2000, http://www.nytimes.com/2000/10/14/arts/marshall-mcluhan-back-dustbin-history-with-internet-his-ideas-again-seem-ahead.html .
Understanding Media and Culture Copyright © 2016 by University of Minnesota is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.
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The Six-Figure Travel Writer
How to analyze a magazine to ensure successful pitches.
You need to take it from a pile of glossy paper that you put on a pedestal or can’t imagine seeing your own humble words in to a framework of component parts that is built from the ground up every month.
Understanding the Structure of the Magazine Writes Your Pitches For You
There’s a saying that “there’s no such thing as writer’s block…” that ends differently depending on who you ask. I personally feel like it’s a lack of research; you’re not really prepared to write whatever you are laboring over producing.
Pitching is one of the areas where this is most apparent. If you’re having trouble coming up with ideas, it always boils down to one thing: you don’t have ideas. If you think you have ideas and are having trouble pitching, it’s because they’re ideas that don’t fit the publication you’re trying to pitch, or perhaps any publication.
For new writers, I find the magazine-then-idea approach much easier than having an idea and trying to track down the magazine to shoehorn it into. When you’re new, you don’t know hundreds of magazines and what they’re looking for off the top of your head, and, more importantly, having your article idea come from reading the magazine and familiarizing yourself with its style and the type of articles it runs makes your idea much more likely to be successful.
When you break down a magazine properly, it’s next to impossible not to get article ideas—no matter how blocked you think you are. I dare you. Let’s try it!
Work the Steps, Reap the Benefits
Set aside at least an hour, if not two, the first time you do this exercise. When you are first rewiring your brain to look at a magazine as an editor does rather than as a reader, breaking down a magazine will take much longer.
Step 1: The Table of Contents Ignore the cover for now, flip through the first pages of advertisements, and find the table of contents:
- How is it organized?
- Is there an initial page just highlighting the features in the current issue followed by a page of departments? Vice versa?
- Is it strictly chronological or topical?
- Do they include headlines and subheads for each article or just features?
- How long are the heads and subheads?
- Do they follow a pattern?
All of these factors tell you how a magazine’s production staff believes readers approach the publication. Use this to shape the headlines and subheads in your own pitches.
Step 2: The Masthead If you’re using your own copy of the magazine, which I recommend you do so that you can circle things and write notes on articles, continue past the table of contents to the masthead, and rip it out. The masthead will guide us through the first level of analysis of the magazine: seeing which sections are written by freelancers.
Flip through the entire magazine without reading any articles and make a list on a separate sheet of paper or on the table of contents of all sections written in-house. If there is no byline listed on an article at all, the section is probably written in-house every month. If there is a byline listed, but it is the name of someone on the masthead , it might be open to freelancers and only written by a staff member some of the time.
When you cross reference the masthead with articles, note, in particular, which articles are written by contributing editors . These folks are also freelancers, but they contribute regularly to the publication. Articles written by contributing editors are often open to other freelancers, unless the column carries an image of the author, which means it’s penned by the same person every month.
Step 3: The Text Now that you know what sections are worth dreaming up ideas for and which are off-limits, start reading the issue cover to cover, and ask yourself:
- What is the flow of the language—especially in articles written by staff members?
- Do they trend more to short sentences or long?
- Third person or first?
- Colloquial phrases or exquisitely perfect grammar and syntax?
- Do they like a certain type or length of lede ?
Every time you reach a section that is open to freelancers, break the article down further, noting:
- how many interviewees are quoted in the piece
- if it features statistics and other data-based research, in-person or phone research
- if there is a certain rubric for how the article is presented, like Delta Sky’s “1 City/5 Ways” department
- at least three rough, basic article ideas from your own recent research or travels that could fit the section
Step 4: The Cover Once you’ve familiarized yourself with the entire magazine, go back to the cover.
Find each story mentioned on the cover and note where it is in the magazine and ask yourself:
- Do they primarily highlight features?
- Service-filled departments?
Use this same approach to anchor the focus of your pitches—and especially the headlines, which you should include in the subject line on your pitch.
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COMM 362, Design for Print Instructor: Ross Collins
Setting up a magazine
1. Function? What do you hope to accomplish?
2. Personality. What sort of image do you want to project?
3. Audience. Who do you want to attract?
4. Formula, "news mix." What to include?
5. Advertising: yes or no? How much?
6. Web site: yes or no? How will it be integrated into total publishing package?
7. When, and how often, will it appear?
8. Design and typography: format? Margins? Number of columns? Typefaces?
9. Editorial style. AP style? House style?
Analyzing a magazine
1. Format: miniature, pocket, basic, picture, Sunday supplement?
2. Margins: equal, progressive, size?
3. Grid: two-column, three-column, other?
4. Amount of space between columns (gutter): in picas.
5. Amount of space between lines of type (leading): in points.
6. Typefaces: body text, headline, subhead, standing head, other? How many fonts used?
7. Style of headlines: titles, or standard newspaper style?
8. Color: no, yes, where, how much? Spot or process?
9. Bleeds: no, yes, where?
10. Binding: saddle, side, perfect?
Overall critique: Does this magazines design detract from or harmonize with magazine's purpose?
Assignment : analyze five of your favorite magazines using the analysis list above.